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1.
Actual. SIDA. infectol ; 29(105): 6-16, 2021 mar. fig, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1349035

ABSTRACT

En diciembre de 2019 se identificó en Wuhan, China, un nuevo coronavirus denominado SARS-CoV-2, agente causal de la epidemia de neumonía atípica COVID-2019, que el 11 de marzo de 2020 fue declarada pandemia por la OMS.Hasta el 30 de septiembre de 2020, en Argentina fueron confirmados 751.001 casos y más de 16.937 muertes.La frecuencia y el impacto de las coinfecciones que afectan a los pacientes infectados por SARS-Cov-2 se ha estudiado junto con el avance de la pandemia. Entre las debidas a hongos se encuentran las fungemias por Candida sp, la aspergilosis invasora, las micosis sistémicas endémicas y la neumocistosis. Presentamos las distintas coinfecciones micosis-COVID-19 que fueron asistidas en nuestra institución entre abril y septiembre de 2020, y se realiza un análisis de las características de estas infecciones en pacientes con y sin sida. En este período se internaron 2837 pacientes, 2287 tuvieron diagnóstico confirmado de COVID-19. La coinfección de COVID-19 con micosis pulmonares o sistémicas fue menor al 1%.Dieciocho pacientes presentaron infecciones fúngicas pulmonares o sistémicas. Ocho padecieron candidemias, cinco criptococosis meningeas, dos histoplasmosis, dos aspergilosis invasoras agudas probables y una aspergilosis pulmonar crónica. La estadía prolongada en terapia intensiva facilitó las fungemias por Candida sp, los casos de histoplasmosis y criptococosis parecen relacionarse con la enfermedad avanzada por VIH y no con COVID-19. Los enfermos con un componente inflamatorio basal alto con neumonía grave por coronavirus se relacionan más con micosis invasoras que los enfermos VIH positivos con niveles bajos de LTCD4+


On December 2019 a new coronavirus (SARS-CoV2) result in atypical pneumonía epidemic, it was identified in Wuhan China and it was called COVID-19. Then on March 11 was declared pandemic by the WHO.Until September 30, 2020 in Argentina 751,001 cases and more than 16,937 deaths have been confirmed. The frequency and impact of co-infections affecting SARS-Cov2 infected patients has been studied with the advance of the pandemic. Among those due to fungi are Candida sp fungemias, invasive aspergillosis, endemic systemic mycoses, and pneumocystosis.We present the different mycosis-COVID-19 co-infections that were assisted in F. J. Muñiz Hospital between April and September of this year and review the characteristics of these infections in patients with and without AIDS is carried out.In this period, 2,837 patients were admitted in the Muñiz hospital, 2,287 had a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19.Co-infection of COVID-19 with pulmonary or systemic mycoses was less than 1%.Eighteen patients had pulmonary or systemic fungal infections. Eight suffered from candidemia, five meningeal cryptococcosis, two histoplasmosis, two probable acute invasive aspergillosis, and one chronic pulmonary aspergillosis.Prolonged stay in intensive care facilitated fungemia due to Candida sp. Histoplasmosis and cryptococcosis cases seem to be related to advanced HIV disease and not to COVID-19.Patients with a high baseline inflammatory component with severe coronavirus pneumonia are more associated with invasive mycoses than HIV-positive patients with low levels of LTCD4 +


Subject(s)
Humans , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/microbiology , Candidemia/microbiology , Coinfection , Lung Diseases, Fungal/microbiology
2.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 13(1): 5-10, ene. 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-999202

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary mycoses are invasive fungal infections that occur more and more frequently. The rising number of patients with immunodeficiencies, HIV infection, hematopoietic stem cell and solid organ transplant recipients, as well as the use of immunosuppressive therapies have increased the incidence of this disease. Diagnosis remains a challenge because the most accurate procedure is the isolation of the germ through culture of body fluids which have low sensitivity and a long development time (4-6 weeks). The diagnosis of pulmonary mycoses is based on the presence of risk factors, clinical and/or radiological symptoms suggestive of fungal infection and a positive microbiological test. Due to the fact that pulmonary mycoses are not usually considered in the differential diagnosis in the initial clinical evaluation of diseases and that the studies to establish the diagnosis are complex, they are diagnosed late when they have already become chronic with a high risk of morbidity and mortality


Las micosis pulmonares son infecciones invasivas que se presentan cada vez con mayor frecuencia en la población. El aumento del número de pacientes con inmunodeficiencias, infección por VIH, receptores de trasplante de células hematopoyéticas y órgano sólido, así como el uso de terapias inmunosupresoras ha incrementado la incidencia de esta enfermedad. El diagnóstico continúa siendo un reto debido a que el estándar de oro es el aislamiento del germen mediante cultivo de líquidos corporales los cuales tienen baja sensibilidad y un tiempo de desarrollo prolongado (4-6 semanas). El diagnóstico de las micosis pulmonares se basa en la presencia de factores de riesgo, cuadro clínico y/o radiológico sugestivo de infección fúngica y el estudio microbiológico positivo. Debido a que las micosis pulmonares habitualmente no se consideran dentro del diagnóstico diferencial en la evaluación clínica inicial de las enfermedades, asociado a la complejidad de estudios para establecer el diagnostico, las micosis pulmonares se diagnostican en forma tardía cuando ya existe enfermedad crónica, con alto riesgo de morbimortalidad


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Lung Diseases, Fungal/diagnosis , Risk Factors , Diagnosis, Differential , Lung Diseases, Fungal/physiopathology , Lung Diseases, Fungal/microbiology , Lung Diseases, Fungal/epidemiology
3.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(7): e6783, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951732

ABSTRACT

To avoid the abuse and misuse of antibiotics, procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) have been used as new approaches to identify different types of infection. Multiple databases were adopted to search relevant studies, and the articles that satisfied the inclusion criteria were included. Meta-analyses were conducted with Review Manager 5.0, and to estimate the quality of each article, risk of bias was assessed. Eight articles satisfied the inclusion criteria. The concentrations of both PCT and CRP in patients with bacterial infection were higher than those with non-bacterial infection. Both PCT and CRP levels in patients with G− bacterial infection were higher than in those with G+ bacterial infection and fungus infection. In the G+ bacterial infection group, a higher concentration of CRP was observed compared with fungus infection group, while the difference of PCT between G+ bacterial infection and fungus infection was not significant. Our study suggested that both PCT and CRP are helpful to a certain extent in detecting pneumonia caused by different types of infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Calcitonin/blood , Pneumonia, Bacterial/microbiology , Lung Diseases, Fungal/microbiology , Biomarkers/blood , Sensitivity and Specificity
4.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 115(6): 458-461, dic. 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-887414

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: Arthrographis kalrae es un hongo hialino de crecimiento lento que, en su desarrollo, forma artroconidios. Es un patógeno oportunista que causa infecciones en personas inmunocomprometidas e inmunocompetentes, y ha sido aislado muy raramente en muestras clínicas de seres humanos. Caso clínico: Se describe el caso de un paciente con inmunodeficiencia primaria y afectación pulmonar con evolución tórpida. Presentó compromiso de ambos pulmones a pesar del tratamiento antibiótico y antifúngico instaurado. Durante su seguimiento, se realizaron múltiples biopsias pulmonares y se aisló A. kalrae en el cultivo de tejido pulmonar. Recibió tratamiento con posaconazol, con buena respuesta y remisión de las lesiones. Conclusión: Este es el primer caso reportado de infección pulmonar por A. kalrae en un paciente pediátrico con enfermedad granulomatosa crónica en Argentina.


Background: Arthrographis kalrae is a hyaline fungus that grows forming arthroconidia. It is an opportunistic pathogen that causes infections in immunocompromised as in immunocompetent people and has been rarely isolated from human clinical samples. Case report: We describe the case of a male child with primary immunodeficiency who initially presented unilateral pneumonia and progressed to bilateral involvement despite antibiotic, antifungal treatment. A. kalrae was diagnosed by pulmonary biopsy. He received posaconazole with resolution of disease. Conclusions: This is the first case of A. kalrae pulmonary infection in a pediatric patient with chronic granulomatous disease in Argentina.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Ascomycota , Granulomatous Disease, Chronic/complications , Lung Diseases, Fungal/microbiology , Mycoses/complications , Lung Diseases, Fungal/drug therapy , Mycoses/microbiology , Mycoses/drug therapy
6.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 57(supl.19): 5-10, Sept. 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-762050

ABSTRACT

SUMMARYResearch on Paracoccidioides brasiliensis has centered in the yeast cell probably because of the lack of distinctive features in the mycelium. In 1942 and for the first time, lateral conidia were noticed in the fungus' hyphae. Later on, Brazilian, Venezuelan and Argentinean researchers described "aleurias" when the fungus was grown in natural substrates. In 1970 authors became interested in the conidia and were able to obtain them in large numbers and treat them as individual units. Their shape and size were defined and the presence of all the elements of a competent eukaryotic cell were demonstrated. Conidia exhibited thermal dimorphism and, additionally, when given intranasally to BALB/c male mice, they converted into yeasts in the lungs and produce progressive pulmonary lesions with further dissemination to other organs. Studies on the phagocyte-conidia interaction were revealing and showed that these versatile structures allow a better understanding of the host- P. brasiliensisinteractions.


RESUMOA investigação sobre Paracoccidioides brasiliensis tem-se centrado na célula de levedura, provavelmente devido à falta de características distintas no micélio. Em 1942 e, pela primeira vez, conídios laterais foram notados nos hifas dos fungos. Mais tarde, pesquisadores brasileiros, venezuelanos e argentinos descreveram "aleurias" quando o fungo foi cultivado em substratos naturais. Em 1970, os autores se interessaram pelos conídios e foram capazes de obtê-los em grande número e tratá-los como unidades individuais. A sua forma e tamanho foram definidos, e a presença de todos os elementos de uma célula eucariótica competente foram demonstrados. Conídios apresentam dimorfismo térmico e, além disso, quando administrados por via intranasal a camundongos BALB/c machos, são convertidos em leveduras nos pulmões e produzem lesões pulmonares progressivas com posterior disseminação para outros órgãos. Estudos sobre a interação de fagócitos-conídios foram reveladores e mostraram que estas estruturas versáteis permitem melhor compreensão das interacções entre hospedeiro e P. brasiliensis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Lung Diseases, Fungal/microbiology , Paracoccidioides/pathogenicity , Paracoccidioidomycosis/microbiology , Spores, Fungal/pathogenicity , Disease Models, Animal , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Paracoccidioides/physiology , Spores, Fungal/physiology
7.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 32(4): 472-475, ago. 2015. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-762648

ABSTRACT

We reported a case of non-invasive pulmonary infection by Scedosporium apiospermum in 67 years old female with bronchiectasis and caverns secondary to tuberculosis. Diagnosis was made with lung CT and bronchial lavage cultures. The patient was initially treated with itraconazole for six weeks without success and then voriconazole for 16 weeks, with good clinical response.


Reportamos el caso clínico de una infección pulmonar no invasora por Scedosporium apiospermum en una mujer de 67 años de edad, con bronquiectasias y cavernas pulmonares secundarias a una tuberculosis. El diagnóstico se realizó con la TAC pulmonar y cultivos de lavado bronquial. La paciente fue tratada inicialmente con itraconazol oral por seis semanas sin respuesta y luego voriconazol vía oral por 16 semanas, con una buena respuesta clínica.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Lung Diseases, Fungal/microbiology , Scedosporium/isolation & purification , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/microbiology , Lung Diseases, Fungal/drug therapy , Scedosporium/growth & development , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Triazoles/therapeutic use
8.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 30(6): 669-672, dic. 2013. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-701717

ABSTRACT

Treatment failure in community-acquired pneumonia is defined as a clinical condition with inadequate response to antimicrobial therapy. Resistant and unusual microorganisms and noninfectious causes are responsible for treatment failure. Coccidioides immitis is a fungus that causes pneumonia in the northern hemisphere, especially in the United States and northern Mexico. We report a case of pulmonary coccidioidomycosis imported from Mexico to Chile. After a comprehensive study, histopathology was able to establish Coccidiodes immitis as the causative agent, achieving clinical and radiological improvement with antifungal therapy.


La neumonía de evolución tórpida son aquellas en que no se logra una respuesta clínica adecuada con el uso de terapia antimicrobiana. Existen múltiples causas a esta falta de respuesta: resistencia antimicrobiana, microorganismos no cubiertos o infecciones por microorganismos atípicos. Coccidioides immitis es un hongo causante de neumonía en el hemisferio norte, especialmente en E.U.A y norte de México. No existen reportes de casos pulmonares importados en Chile. Presentamos el caso de una mujer adulta con una neumonía que no respondió al tratamiento antimicrobiano habitual. Una vez realizado un estudio exhaustivo, se logró establecer mediante el estudio histopatológico la existencia de una coccidiodomicosis como entidad causal, logrando una respuesta clínica y radiológica favorable al tratamiento antifúngico.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Coccidioidomycosis , Lung Diseases, Fungal , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Chile , Coccidioidomycosis/diagnosis , Coccidioidomycosis/drug therapy , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Community-Acquired Infections/drug therapy , Community-Acquired Infections/microbiology , Diagnosis, Differential , Lung Diseases, Fungal/diagnosis , Lung Diseases, Fungal/drug therapy , Lung Diseases, Fungal/microbiology , Mexico , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Travel , Treatment Failure
9.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 46(10): 839-843, 24/set. 2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-688562

ABSTRACT

Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a chronic systemic mycosis caused by the inhalation of the thermally dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis as well as the recently described P. lutzii. Because the primary infection occurs in the lungs, we investigated the differential involvement of the right and left lungs in experimental P. brasiliensis infection. Lungs were collected from C57BL/6 mice at 70 days after intravenous infection with 1×106 yeast cells of a virulent strain of P. brasiliensis (Pb18). The left lung, which in mice is smaller and has fewer lobes than the right lung, yielded increased fungal recovery associated with a predominant interleukin-4 response and diminished synthesis of interferon-γ and nitric oxide compared with the right lung. Our data indicate differential involvement of the right and left lungs during experimental PCM. This knowledge emphasizes the need for an accurate, standardized protocol for tissue collection during studies of experimental P. brasiliensis infection, since experiments using the same lungs favor the collection of comparable data among different mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Lung Diseases, Fungal/microbiology , Lung/microbiology , Paracoccidioides , Paracoccidioidomycosis/microbiology , Disease Models, Animal , Interferon-gamma/analysis , /analysis , /analysis , Nitric Oxide/analysis , Time Factors
10.
Neumol. pediátr ; 8(1): 34-38, 2013. ilus, mapas
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-701688

ABSTRACT

A 8-year-old girl, born and resident of Guárico state, was referred to our Department because of a history of recurrent pneumonia and a history of deceased sister by unspecified lung disease. At the age of 4 years she had suffered several episodes of pneumonia requiring hospitalization. These episodes were no-responsive to antibiotic therapy and treatment for tuberculosis. Subsequently, At the age of 8 years she was hospitalized again for an episode of left lower lobe pneumonia that did not improve. Studies were performed to rule out pulmonary pathology disease: Cystic Fibrosis was discarded and also Pulmonary Tuberculosis. Serology for HIV and Fungi were negative. Because serological studies were inconclusive, a videobronchoscopy plus Bronchoalveolar lavage and lung tissue biopsy were performed, which reported bronchitis and chronic granulomatous and caseous necrosis. Special stains were observed that suggest fungus infection. Primary immunodeficiency was suspected in the patient, because the presence of recurrent pneumonia of different etiologies. The presence of the granuloma observed by the videobronchoscopy. A positive culture for Histoplasma and Aspergillus fungi, and the result of the oxidative capacity test, where the deficiency was observed in the microbicidal activity of macrophages. They were strong evidence that corroborated the immunodeficiency called Chronic Granulomatous Disease.


Escolar femenino de 8 años de edad, natural y procedente del Estado Guárico, con antecedente de hospitalizaciones por neumonías recurrente desde los 4, recibió antibioticoterapia endovenosa y cumplió tratamiento antifímico en dos oportunidades, persistiendo con sintomatología respiratoria. A los 8 años precisó nueva hospitalización por diagnóstico de neumonía del lóbulo inferior izquierdo. Por no presentar mejoría y antecedente de hermana fallecida por patología pulmonar no precisada fue referida a nuestro centro. Se realizaron estudios por patología pulmonar crónica: se descartó Fibrosis Quística y Tuberculosis Pulmonar. Serología para HIV y Hongos Negativa. Por no ser concluyentes los estudios serológicos se realizó Videobroncoscopia más lavado y biopsia, la cual reportó bronquitis crónica granulomatosa y necrosis caseosa. Coloraciones especiales: hongos intracitoplasmáticos sugestivos de Histoplasma Sp. y en el cultivo presentó crecimiento de Aspergillus fumigatus. Ante la presencia de paciente con neumonía recurrente por diferentes etiologías se sospechó la presencia de Inmunodeficiencia Primaria, planteando en base al reporte de la videobroncoscopia de granuloma y la confirmación de Infección por Histoplasma y Aspergillus una Enfermedad Granulomatosa Crónica que fue documentada al medir la deficiencia en la actividad microbicida dependiente de oxigeno evaluada a través del Test de Capacidad Oxidativa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Granulomatous Disease, Chronic/complications , Granulomatous Disease, Chronic/diagnosis , Lung Diseases, Fungal/complications , Lung Diseases, Fungal/microbiology , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Aspergillus fumigatus/isolation & purification , Lung Diseases, Fungal/diagnosis , Lung Diseases, Fungal/drug therapy , Fatal Outcome , Pneumonia/etiology , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Radiography, Thoracic , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/complications , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
11.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 16(6): 531-539, Nov.-Dec. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-658923

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical features, management, and prognosis of pulmonary cryptococcosis in non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. METHOD: 24 cases of pulmonary cryptococcosis with accurate pathological diagnosis were retrospectively studied. RESULTS: 15 male patients and nine female patients were diagnosed at the first affiliated hospital of Sun Yat-sen University from November 1999 to November 2011. The mean age at the time of diagnosis was 44.2 ± 11.3 years (range: 24 to 65 years). Among these patients, 13 had other comorbidities. 15 were symptomatic and the other nine were asymptomatic. The most common presenting symptoms were cough, chest tightness, expectoration, and fever. None had concurrent cryptococcal meningitis. The most frequent radiologic abnormalities on chest computed tomography (CT) scans were solitary or multiple pulmonary nodules, and masses or consolidations, and most lesions were located in the lower lobes. All patients had biopsies for the accurate diagnosis. Among the 24 patients, nine patients underwent surgical resections (eight had pneumonectomy via thoracotomy and one had a pneumonectomy via thoracoscopy). Five of the patients who underwent surgery also received antifungal drug therapy (fluconazole) for one to three months after the surgery. The other 15 only received antifungal drug therapy (fluconazole or voriconazole) for three to six months (five patients are still on therapy). The follow-up observation of 19 patients who had already finished their treatments lasted from two to 11 years, and there was no relapse, dissemination, or death in any of these patients. CONCLUSION: Non-AIDS patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis have a good prognosis with appropriate management.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Cryptococcosis/diagnosis , Cryptococcus neoformans/isolation & purification , Lung Diseases, Fungal/diagnosis , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Combined Modality Therapy , Cryptococcosis/therapy , Fluconazole/therapeutic use , Lung Diseases, Fungal/microbiology , Lung Diseases, Fungal/therapy , Prognosis , Pyrimidines/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Thoracotomy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Triazoles/therapeutic use
12.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 140(5): 595-601, mayo 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-648585

ABSTRACT

Background: The frequency of pulmonary mycoses has increased in the past few years specially in immunocompromised patients. Aim: To determine the frequency of invasive fungal diseases by analyzing lung secretion samples. Material and Methods: Samples of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) tracheal aspiration (TA) and induced sputum (IS) were obtained from patients of five hospitals in the Valparaíso Region for the diagnosis of invasive or non-invasive fungal disease, and pneumocystis (PCP), in the period 2007-2010. Clinical data of patients was obtained reviewing medical records or interviewing attending physicians. The diagnosis considered the clinical condition of the patient (immunocompromised or prior lung damage), computed tomography imaging, direct microscopy and cultures. European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) criteria was used for the diagnosis of invasive fungal diseases. Results: Ninety respiratory samples were received and 39 fungal infections were diagnosed. Eleven were probably invasive, seven were non-invasive and 21 were PCP. All patients with probable invasive disease had neutropenia. Most patients with non-invasive infections had bronchiectasis. Aspergillus fumigatus was the main causing agent in both invasive and non-invasive fungal diseases. Patients with PCP were mostly adults with AIDS and children with leukemia. The total mortality rate of patients with invasive fungal disease was of 73%. No deaths were recorded among patients with non-invasive disease. Among patients with PCP, three of 11 HIV and six of 10 non HIV subjects died. Conclusions: Aspergillus fumigatus predominates both in invasive and non-invasive pulmonary mycoses. The former has a high mortality. PCP occurred mainly in adult patients with HIV-AIDS.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/classification , Chile/epidemiology , Immunocompromised Host , Lung Diseases, Fungal/microbiology , Lung , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/microbiology
13.
J. bras. pneumol ; 38(1): 125-132, jan.-fev. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-617036

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Relatar os casos de 6 pacientes com bola fúngica (BF) na cavidade pleural por Aspergillus fumigatus. MÉTODOS: Entre 1980 e 2009, foram diagnosticados 391 pacientes com BF aspergilar no Complexo Hospitalar Santa Casa de Porto Alegre (RS). O diagnóstico de BF na cavidade pleural foi definido com exames de imagem demonstrando derrame e espessamento pleural com nível líquido; exame micológico direto demonstrando hifas septadas, consistentes com Aspergillus sp.; e cultura positiva para A. fumigatus no espécime cirúrgico da cavidade pleural. RESULTADOS: Dos 391 pacientes estudados, 6 (2 por cento) preencheram os critérios diagnósticos estabelecidos. A média de idade desses 6 pacientes foi de 48 anos (variação, 29-66 anos), e 5 (83 por cento) eram do sexo masculino. As queixas mais frequentes dos pacientes foram tosse, expectoração e hemoptise. Quatro (67 por cento) dos pacientes tinham tuberculose curada. Todos os pacientes realizaram remoção cirúrgica da colonização fúngica, e houve infusão intrapleural com anfotericina B em 4; e 2 pacientes receberam tratamento antifúngico sistêmico v.o. Cinco pacientes melhoraram clinicamente, e um foi a óbito após a cirurgia. CONCLUSÕES: Em pacientes adultos com história de doença pulmonar cavitária ou fístula pleural, deve-se realizar uma investigação criteriosa levando em consideração a infecção fúngica, principalmente BF pulmonar. Portanto, a exploração laboratorial torna-se mais eficiente em relação aos recursos disponíveis para elucidação diagnóstica.


OBJECTIVE: To report the cases of 6 patients with fungus ball caused by Aspergillus fumigatus (aspergilloma) in the pleural cavity. METHODS: Between 1980 and 2009, 391 patients were diagnosed with aspergilloma at the Santa Casa Hospital Complex in Porto Alegre, Brazil. The diagnosis of aspergilloma in the pleural cavity was made through imaging tests revealing effusion and pleural thickening with air-fluid level; direct mycological examination revealing septate hyphae, consistent with Aspergillus sp.; and positive culture for A. fumigatus in the surgical specimen from the pleural cavity. RESULTS: Of the 391 patients studied, 6 (2 percent) met the established diagnostic criteria. The mean age of those 6 patients was 48 years (range, 29-66 years), and 5 (83 percent) were male. The most common complaints were cough, expectoration, and hemoptysis. Four patients (67 percent) had a history of tuberculosis that had been clinically cured. All of the patients were submitted to surgical removal of the aspergilloma, followed by intrapleural instillation of amphotericin B, in 4; and 2 received systemic antifungal treatment p.o. There was clinical improvement in 5 patients, and 1 died after the surgery. CONCLUSIONS: In adult patients with a history of cavitary lung disease or pleural fistula, a careful investigation should be carried out and fungal infection, especially aspergilloma, should be taken into consideration. In such cases, laboratory testing represents the most efficient use of the resources available to elucidate the diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aspergillosis , Aspergillus fumigatus/isolation & purification , Lung Diseases, Fungal , Pleural Cavity/microbiology , Aspergillosis/microbiology , Lung Diseases, Fungal/microbiology , Pleural Cavity , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
14.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 43(4): 268-272, dic. 2011. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-634703

ABSTRACT

Se presenta el primer caso humano de peniciliosis por Penicillium marneffei observado en la República Argentina. El paciente era un joven de 16 años, HIV-positivo, procedente de un área rural del sur de China. El paciente fue internado en el Hospital "F. J. Muñiz" por padecer una neumonía grave con insufciencia respiratoria aguda. El agente causal fue aislado de un lavado broncoalveolar y se lo observó en un citodiagnóstico de piel. La identifcación de P. marneffei fue confrmada por las características fenotípicas del aislamiento y la amplifcación del ADNr. El enfermo padecía una infección muy avanzada por HIV que condujo a la aparición simultánea de infecciones por citomegalovirus, Pneumocystis jirovecii y procesos bacterianos nosocomiales. Este complejo cuadro derivó en una evolución fatal.


The frst case observed in Argentina of AIDS-related human penicillosis is herein presented. The patient was a six- teen year-old young man coming from a rural area of southern China. He was admitted at the F. J. Muñiz Hospital of Buenos Aires city with severe pneumonia and adult respiratory distress. Penicillium marneffei was isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage fuid and was microscopically observed in a skin cytodiagnosis. P. marneffei identifcation was confrmed by rRNA amplifcation and its phenotypic characteristics. The patient suffered an advanced HIV infection and also presented several AIDS-related diseases due to CMV, nosocomial bacterial infections and Pneumocystis jirovecii which led to a fatal outcome.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Humans , Male , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Dermatomycoses/microbiology , HIV-1 , HIV-2 , Lung Diseases, Fungal/microbiology , Penicillium/isolation & purification , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/microbiology , China/ethnology , Cytomegalovirus Infections/complications , Diagnosis, Differential , DNA, Fungal/analysis , Dermatomycoses/epidemiology , Fatal Outcome , Histoplasmosis/diagnosis , Lung Diseases, Fungal/diagnosis , Lung Diseases, Fungal/epidemiology , Pneumocystis carinii , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Penicillium/classification , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis/complications , Ribotyping
16.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 43(5): 599-601, set.-out. 2010. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-564306

ABSTRACT

The type of pulmonary histoplasmosis presents limited lesions to the lungs, with symptoms that are clinically and radiological similar to chronic pulmonary tuberculosis. This paper describes the clinical features of four cases of pulmonary histoplasmosis. Aspects of diagnostic and clinical, epidemiological, laboratorial and imaging exams are discussed, in addition to the clinical status of the individuals five years after disease onset. The treatment of choice was oral medication, following which all the patients improved. It is important to understand the clinical status and the difficulties concerning the differential diagnosis of histoplasmosis, to assist the proper indication of cases, thus reducing potential confusion with other diseases.


A histoplasmose do tipo pulmonar apresenta lesões limitadas aos pulmões, cujos sintomas são clínica e radiologicamente similares à tuberculose pulmonar crônica. Esse trabalho descreve as características clínicas de quatro casos de histoplasmose. Os aspectos do diagnósticos clínicos, epidemiológicos, laboratoriais e exames de imagem são relacionados, além da situação clínica dos indivíduos, 5 após o início da doença. O tratamento de escolha foi atravésde medicação oral, aonde todos os pacientes evoluíram bem. É importante conhecer o quadro clínico e da dificuldade em diagnosticar a histoplasmose para ajudar a conduzir as boas indicações dos casos, reduzindo assim o malentendido com outras entidades patológicas.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Histoplasmosis/diagnosis , Lung Diseases, Fungal/diagnosis , Histoplasmosis/drug therapy , Lung Diseases, Fungal/drug therapy , Lung Diseases, Fungal/microbiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
17.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 70(2): 166-168, Apr. 2010. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-633737

ABSTRACT

La criptococosis pulmonar en pacientes inmunocompetentes es una entidad poco habitual y su presentación como masas de gran tamaño, con compromiso de la pared torácica y de los tejidos blandos vecinos, no la encontramos descriptas en nuestra revisión bibliográfica. La variedad gattii (serotipoB/C) está acotada geográficamente a regiones tropicales y subtropicales y parece afectar preferentemente a individuos inmunocompetentes. Presentamos el caso de un hombre de 51 años proveniente del noreste de la Argentina, fumador de 10 atados/año que consulta por aumento del volumen del hombro izquierdo e impotencia funcional por intenso dolor de seis meses de evolución. Mediante una biopsia percutánea de la masa, se diagnostica Cryptococcus neoformans, variedad gattii. El paciente recibe terapéutica antifúngica, mostrando una evolución favorable con disminución progresiva de la masa.


The pulmonary cryptococcosis in immunocompetent patients is unusual, and its presentation as large masses with involvement of the chest wall and the neighboring soft tissues has not been found in our bibliographic research. The variety gattii (serotype B/C) is limited geographically to tropical and subtropical regions and appears to affect particularly immunocompetent individuals. We describe the case of a 51-year-old man from the Northeast of Argentina, with a history of smoking 10 pack/year. He presented an increased volume of the left shoulder and reported that for the last six months he had been unable to move it due to the pain. A percutaneous biopsy of the mass provided a diagnosis of Cryptococcus neoformans, variety gattii. The patient was treated with antifungal therapy showing a favourable outcome with a progressive decrease of the mass.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Cryptococcosis/diagnosis , Cryptococcus neoformans/isolation & purification , Immunocompetence , Lung Diseases, Fungal/diagnosis , Cryptococcosis/microbiology , Lung Diseases, Fungal/microbiology , Shoulder
18.
J. bras. pneumol ; 36(1): 134-141, jan.-fev. 2010. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-539443

ABSTRACT

A zigomicose (mucormicose) é uma infecção rara, mas altamente invasiva, causada por fungos da ordem Mucorales (gêneros Rhizopus, Mucor, Rhizomucor, Absidia, Apophysomyces, Saksenaea, Cunninghamella, Cokeromyces e Syncephalastrum). Esse tipo de infecção é usualmente associado a doenças hematológicas, cetoacidose diabética e transplante de órgãos. A apresentação clínica mais frequente é a mucormicose rinocerebral, com ou sem envolvimento pulmonar. A zigomicose pulmonar ocorre mais frequentemente em pacientes com neutropenia profunda e prolongada e pode se apresentar como infiltrado lobar ou segmentar, nódulos isolados, lesões cavitárias, hemorragia ou infarto. As manifestações clínicas e radiológicas são na maioria dos casos indistinguíveis daquelas associadas com aspergilose invasiva. Este artigo descreve as características gerais da zigomicose pulmonar, com ênfase no diagnóstico laboratorial, e ilustra a morfologia de algumas lesões.


Zygomycosis (mucormycosis) is a rare but highly invasive infection caused by fungi belonging to the order Mucorales, which includes the genera Rhizopus, Mucor, Rhizomucor, Absidia, Apophysomyces, Saksenaea, Cunninghamella, Cokeromyces and Syncephalastrum. This type of infection is usually associated with hematologic diseases, diabetic ketoacidosis and organ transplantation. The most common form of presentation is rhinocerebral mucormycosis, with or without pulmonary involvement. Pulmonary zygomycosis is more common in patients with profound, prolonged neutropenia and can present as segmental or lobar infiltrates, isolated nodules, cavitary lesions, hemorrhage or infarction. The clinical and radiological manifestations are often indistinguishable from those associated with invasive aspergillosis. This article describes the general characteristics of pulmonary zygomycosis, emphasizing laboratory diagnosis, and illustrates the morphology of some lesions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lung Diseases, Fungal , Zygomycosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Diagnostic Techniques, Respiratory System/classification , Lung Diseases, Fungal/diagnosis , Lung Diseases, Fungal/microbiology , Lung Diseases, Fungal/therapy , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Zygomycosis/diagnosis , Zygomycosis/microbiology , Zygomycosis/therapy
19.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 51(6): 345-348, Oct.-Dec. 2009. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-539455

ABSTRACT

Aspergillus is a phagocyte opportunistic fungus that causes aspergillosis, an unusual disease in patients with AIDS. Six cases of fungal ball in patients with AIDS are reported here. In this group, all patients had hemoptysis and tuberculosis as the underlying lung disease. The diagnosis of pulmonary fungus ball was based on the clinical and radiographic feature, combined with serological and mycological evidence of Aspergillus fumigatus.


Os fungos filamentosos são oportunistas de fagócitos, motivo pelo qual aspergilose é incomum em pacientes com Aids. A apresentação clínica depende do estado imune, tamanho do inóculo fúngico e doença de base. São relatados neste trabalho seis casos de bola fúngica em pacientes com Aids. Neste grupo, todos tiveram tuberculose como doença de base e hemoptise foi o principal sintoma. O diagnóstico da bola fúngica foi através da apresentação clínica, achados radiológicos combinados com imunodifusão radial dupla, exame micológico direto e cultivo do material do trato respiratório, sendo A. fumigatus o agente isolado


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Aspergillosis/microbiology , Aspergillus fumigatus/isolation & purification , Lung Diseases, Fungal/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/microbiology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Lung Diseases, Fungal/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis
20.
J. bras. pneumol ; 35(11): 1136-1144, nov. 2009. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-533293

ABSTRACT

Criptococose é uma micose sistêmica causada por duas espécies do basidiomiceto encapsulado, Cryptococcus neoformans e C. gattii, que, respectivamente, causam infecção em indivíduos imunocomprometidos e em hospedeiros imunocompetentes, respectivamente. Pacientes com deficiência em células T são mais suscetíveis. A infecção se inicia por lesões pulmonares assintomáticas e a doença disseminada frequentemente cursa com meningoencefalite. A importância médica da criptococose aumentou significativamente em consequência da epidemia da AIDS e dos transplantes de órgãos.


Cryptococcosis is a systemic mycosis caused by two species of the encapsulated basidiomycetes, Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii, which, respectively, cause infection in immunocompromised individuals and in immunologically normal hosts. Patients with T-cell deficiencies are more susceptible to this infection. The spectrum of the disease ranges from asymptomatic pulmonary lesions to disseminated infection with meningoencephalitis. The medical relevance of cryptococcosis increased dramatically as a consequence of the AIDS epidemic and organ transplants.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cryptococcosis/diagnosis , Lung Diseases, Fungal/diagnosis , Cryptococcosis/drug therapy , Cryptococcosis/microbiology , Lung Diseases, Fungal/drug therapy , Lung Diseases, Fungal/microbiology
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