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Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 779-789, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927568


Neurocritical care (NCC) is not only generally guided by principles of general intensive care, but also directed by specific goals and methods. This review summarizes the common pulmonary diseases and pathophysiology affecting NCC patients and the progress made in strategies of respiratory support in NCC. This review highlights the possible interactions and pathways that have been revealed between neurological injuries and respiratory diseases, including the catecholamine pathway, systemic inflammatory reactions, adrenergic hypersensitivity, and dopaminergic signaling. Pulmonary complications of neurocritical patients include pneumonia, neurological pulmonary edema, and respiratory distress. Specific aspects of respiratory management include prioritizing the protection of the brain, and the goal of respiratory management is to avoid inappropriate blood gas composition levels and intracranial hypertension. Compared with the traditional mode of protective mechanical ventilation with low tidal volume (Vt), high positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), and recruitment maneuvers, low PEEP might yield a potential benefit in closing and protecting the lung tissue. Multimodal neuromonitoring can ensure the safety of respiratory maneuvers in clinical and scientific practice. Future studies are required to develop guidelines for respiratory management in NCC.

Humans , Lung , Lung Diseases/etiology , Positive-Pressure Respiration/methods , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Tidal Volume
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 37(3): 233-240, sept. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388152


Resumen La leptospirosis es una de las zoonosis endémicas más importantes en el mundo con un aumento de la incidencia en los últimos años. En el personal militar podría ser catalogada como una enfermedad ocupacional dado sus actividades específicas en áreas rurales. Su presentación clínica es variable siendo en la mayoría de los casos una enfermedad febril autolimitada. De acuerdo con diversos factores dependientes del patógeno y del hospedero pueden presentarse manifestaciones severas de la enfermedad dentro de la cual destaca el compromiso pulmonar con una alta tasa de mortalidad. Existe evidencia del uso de esteroide sistémico como parte del tratamiento de esta complicación. Presentamos el caso de un paciente joven, militar, que debuta con síndrome de hemorragia alveolar difusa secundario a leptospirosis y presenta una excelente respuesta al tratamiento con altas dosis de metilprednisolona, con una discusión del proceso diagnóstico y aspectos fisiopatológicos de esta condición.

Leptospirosis is one of the most important endemic zoonoses in the world with an increase in incidence in recent years. In military personnel it could be classified as an occupational disease given their specific activities in rural areas. Its clinical presentation is variable being in most cases a self-limited febrile disease. According to various factors dependent on the pathogen and the host, severe manifestations of the disease may occur within which the pulmonary involvement with a high mortality rate stands out. There is evidence of systemic steroid use as part of the treatment of this complication. We present a case of a young, military patient who debuts with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage syndrome secondary to leptospirosis and presents an excellent response to treatment with high doses of methylprednisolone, with a discussion of the diagnostic process and pathophysiological aspects of this condition.

Humans , Male , Young Adult , Pulmonary Alveoli/pathology , Hemorrhage/etiology , Leptospirosis/complications , Lung Diseases/etiology , Steroids/therapeutic use , Weil Disease , Zoonoses , Tropical Zone , Leptospirosis/diagnosis , Leptospirosis/drug therapy , Military Personnel , Occupational Diseases
Adv Rheumatol ; 60: 54, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152730


Abstract Background: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease characterized by fibrosis of skin and lung as well as involvement of kidney, gastrointestinal system and heart. Aetiology and exact mechanism of disease is poorly understood. The association between antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and other diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, diffuse panbronchiolitis, pulmoner alveolar proteinosis and psoriasis have been reported. A small number of studies have examined the role of AMPs on autoimmune diseases which has not been studied in scleroderma yet. We aimed to investigate AMP serum levels and their association with disease characteristics of SSc. Methods: Forty-two patients (40 female, mean age 42 years) and 38 healthy subjects (32 female, mean age 38 years) were enrolled. For SSc patients, the following data were recorded: disease subset (limited/diffuse), autoantibodies (antinuclear, anti-centromere (ACA), and anti-SCL-70), blood tests, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP), modified Rodnan skin score, presence and history of digital ulcers, kidney, gastrointestinal disease and lung involvement assessed by computed tomography and pulmonary function tests. Association between serum AMPs and disease characteristics were analysed. Results: Twenty-nine of the patients had diffuse (69%) and 13 of the patients had limited (31%) systemic sclerosis. Average disease duration was 5.5 years. Pulmonary involvement was detected in 20 patients (47.6%). Serum concentration of alpha defensin was higher than healthy subjects (563 ± 415 vs 377 ± 269 ng/mL, p = 0.02). However, no difference was observed for beta-1 and beta-2 defensins in SSc patients and healthy controls. In sub-group analysis patients with interstitial lung disease had higher levels of alpha defensin than those without lung involvement (684 ± 473 vs 430 ± 299 ng/ml, p = 0.04). There was also correlation between alfa defensin serum concentrations and CRP (r = 0.34). Conclusions: Alpha defensin levels are increased in scleroderma patients and correlated with lung involvement indicating a role in the pathogenesis of disease. Trial registration: This study is not a clinical trial study.(AU)

Humans , Scleroderma, Systemic/pathology , Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides/blood , alpha-Defensins/blood , beta-Defensins/blood , Lung Diseases/etiology
J. bras. pneumol ; 46(2): e20190024, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056631


ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the CT findings of multiple cavitary lung lesions that allow the differentiation between benign and malignant etiologies. Methods: We reviewed CT scans, including patients with two or more cavitary lung lesions. We evaluated the number of cavitary lesions, their location, cavity wall thickness, and additional findings, correlating the variables with the diagnosis of a benign or malignant lesion. Results: We reviewed the chest CT scans of 102 patients, 58 (56.9%) of whom were male. The average age was 50.5 ± 18.0 years. Benign and malignant lesions were diagnosed in 74 (72.6%) and 28 (27.4%) of the patients, respectively. On the CT scans, the mean number of cavities was 3, the mean wall thickness of the largest lesions was 6.0 mm, and the mean diameter of the largest lesions was 27.0 mm. The lesions were predominantly in the upper lobes, especially on the right (in 43.1%). In our comparison of the variables studied, a diagnosis of malignancy was not found to correlate significantly with the wall thickness of the largest cavity, lymph node enlargement, emphysema, consolidation, bronchiectasis, or bronchial obstruction. The presence of centrilobular nodules correlated significantly with the absence of malignant disease (p < 0.05). In contrast, a greater number of cavities correlated significantly with malignancy (p < 0.026). Conclusions: A larger number of cavitary lung lesions and the absence of centrilobular nodules may be characteristic of a malignant etiology. However, on the basis of our evaluation of the lesions in our sample, we cannot state that wall thickness is a good indicator of a benign or malignant etiology.

RESUMO Objetivo: Determinar os achados tomográficos de lesões escavadas pulmonares múltiplas que contribuem para a diferenciação entre etiologia benigna e maligna. Métodos: Foram revisados exames de TC, sendo incluídos pacientes com duas ou mais lesões pulmonares escavadas. Avaliaram-se a quantidade de lesões escavadas, sua localização, espessura parietal das lesões e achados adicionais, correlacionando as variáveis com a presença de diagnóstico de benignidade ou de malignidade. Resultados: Foram revisadas TCs de tórax de 102 pacientes, sendo 58 (56,9%) desses do sexo masculino. A média de idade foi de 50,5 ± 18,0 anos. Lesões benignas e malignas foram diagnosticadas em 74 pacientes (72,6%) e em 28 (27,4%), respectivamente. Quanto aos achados tomográficos, a média do número de cavidades foi 3, a da espessura média da parede da maior lesão foi de 6,0 mm, e a do diâmetro da maior lesão foi de 27,0 mm. Houve predomínio das lesões em lobos superiores, especialmente no direito (43,1%). Após a comparação das variáveis estudadas, a espessura parietal da maior escavação, assim como a presença de linfonodomegalia, enfisema, consolidação, bronquiectasias e obstrução brônquica, não apresentaram diferenças estatisticamente significativas para o diagnóstico de malignidade. A presença de nódulos centrolobulares correlacionou-se significativamente com a ausência de doença maligna (p < 0,05). Observou-se também que um número maior de cavidades se correlacionou significativamente com malignidade (p < 0,026). Conclusões: Um maior número de lesões pulmonares escavadas e a ausência de nódulos centrolobulares podem ser características relacionadas à etiologia maligna. Por outro lado, a espessura parietal não permitiu a diferenciação entre etiologia benigna e maligna das lesões em nossa amostra.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Lung Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Tuberculosis/etiology , Tuberculosis/diagnostic imaging , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Diagnosis, Differential , Immune Tolerance , Lung Diseases/etiology , Lung Neoplasms/etiology , Lung Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging
Rev. chil. radiol ; 25(1): 26-34, mar. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003747


Resumen:La granulomatosis con poliangeítis (GPA) es una vasculitis sistémica de pequeño vaso, que afecta más frecuentemente el tracto respiratorio y el riñón. Sus criterios diagnósticos se basan en la clínica, exámenes de laboratorio, imágenes e histología. El 90% son ANCA (anticuerpos anticitoplasma de neutrófilos) positivos. La histología muestra inflamación granulomatosa, necrosis y vasculitis. Los exámenes de imagen son de vital importancia en su estudio inicial y seguimiento, correspondiendo principalmente a técnicas tomográficas. La tomografía Computada (TC) es el método de elección para la evaluación de vía aérea superior y pulmón, con alta sensibilidad en afectación de cavidades nasal/paranasales, árbol bronquial y pulmón. La Resonancia Magnética está indicada en compromiso del sistema nervioso central y corazón. El PET/CT presenta alta sensibilidad en enfermedad tóraco-abdominal, es de utilidad en detectar lesiones no visibles con otras técnicas, y en control de tratamiento. El compromiso renal, de alta ocurrencia en GPA, presenta escasa traducción en las imágenes y es frecuentemente indetectable con imágenes, aunque el PET/CT puede ser positivo en casos de glomerulonefritis acentuada. La radiología simple no debe ser utilizada en el estudio de GPA dado su bajo rendimiento diagnóstico. El tratamiento se basa en terapia corticoidea e inmunosupresora. Las recaídas son frecuentes, por lo que estos pacientes requieren seguimiento a largo plazo.

Abstract:Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a systemic type of vasculitis that affects small vessels, most commonly involving the respiratory tract and kidneys. Diagnosis is based on clinical criteria, laboratory tests, imaging and histology. Ninety percent are ANCA (anti-neutrophilic cytoplasmic antibodies) positive. Histology demonstrates granulomatous inflammation, necrosis and vasculitis. Imaging studies are vital for the initial work-up and follow-up. Computed Tomography (CT) is the method of choice for evaluation of the upper airway and lungs, because of its high sensitivity detecting anomalies of paranasal sinuses, bronchial tree and lungs. Magnetic Resonance is indicated for evaluation of the central nervous system and heart. PET/CT has high sensitivity for thoracic and abdominal disease, is useful at detecting lesions not seen with other imaging techniques, and for follow-up. Renal involvement, very frequent on GPA, is usually undetectable at imaging, but may be seen at PET/CT in cases of marked glomerulonephritis. Plain X-rays should not be used for evaluation of GPA because of their low diagnostic performance. Treatment is based on corticosteroid and immunosuppressive therapy. Relapses are frequent, so these patients require long-term follow-up.

Humans , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis/diagnostic imaging , Positron-Emission Tomography , Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis/complications , Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis/pathology , Kidney Diseases/etiology , Lung Diseases/etiology
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 88(4): 261-267, oct.-dic. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124147


Resumen Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia, tipo y predictores de complicaciones pleuropulmonares en los primeros 30 días de postoperatorio de pacientes intervenidos de cirugía cardiovascular sin apoyo de circulación extracorpórea. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio de cohorte retrospectivo durante el periodo comprendido del 1 de enero de 2013 al 31 de diciembre 2014. Incluyó a todos los pacientes portadores de cardiopatías congénitas intervenidos de cirugía cardiaca con abordaje esternal o torácico, sin soporte de circulación extracorpórea con ingreso registrado a Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos del Hospital de Pediatría del Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, IMSS. Se cuantificó la frecuencia de eventos de las complicaciones pleuropulmonares y se realizó un análisis multivariado de regresión logística para identificar los factores de riesgo asociados a complicaciones pleuropulmonares, calculándose odds ratio (OR) e intervalos de confianza al 95% (IC 95%). Resultados: Se incluyeron un total de 139 pacientes, en los cuales la frecuencia de complicaciones pleuropulmonares fue del 42.4% (n = 59), y los tipos más frecuentes fueron atelectasia (28 eventos), neumonía asociada a ventilador (24 eventos), neumotórax (20 eventos), pudiéndose encontrar más de una complicación por paciente. Los predictores más significativos de complicaciones pleuropulmonares fueron las cardiopatías congénitas cianógenas (OR = 3.58; IC 95%: 1.10-7.50; p = 0.001), el abordaje por toracotomía (OR = 1.46; IC 95%: 1.18-1.12; p = 0.008) y el evento quirúrgico realizado de urgencia (OR = 3.46; IC 95%: 1.51-7.95; p = 0.002). Conclusiones: La principal complicación pleuropulmonar fue la atelectasia lo cual concuerda con lo reportado en la literatura internacional. Los pacientes que presenten alguno de los predictores identificados en el presente estudio deben ser monitorizados de manera especial para prevenir, detectar y/o tratar oportunamente las complicaciones pleuropulmonares tras cirugía cardiaca.

Abstract Objective: To determine the frequency and type of pleuropulmonary complications and their predictors in the first thirty postoperative days of patients undergoing surgery without cardiopulmonary bypass. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was carried out between January 2013 and December 2014. It included all patients with congenital heart disease who underwent cardiac surgery using a sternal or thoracic approach, without cardiopulmonary bypass with a registered admission to a Neonatal or Paediatric Intensive Care. The frequency of events of pleuropulmonary complications and logistic regression analysis was performed, and the adjusted odds ratio (OR) and confidence intervals at 95% (95% CI) were calculated. Results: A total of 139 patients were included. The frequency of pleuropulmonary complications was 42.4% (N = 59), and the most frequent types were atelectasis (28 events), ventilator-associated pneumonia (24 events), pneumothorax (20 events), with more than one complication per patient occasionally being found. Significant risk factors were cyanogenic congenital heart disease (OR = 3.58, 95% CI: 1.10-7.50, P =.001), thoracotomy approach (OR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.18-1.12, P = .008), and an emergency surgical event (OR = 3.46, 95% CI: 1.51-7.95, P = .002). Conclusions: The main pleuropulmonary complication was atelectasis, which is consistent with that reported in the international literature. Patients with any of the predictors identified in the present study should be closely monitored in order to prevent, detect and/or treat pleuropulmonary complications in a timely manner after cardiac surgery.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Pleural Diseases/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/methods , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Pleural Diseases/etiology , Pleural Diseases/physiopathology , Postoperative Complications/physiopathology , Pulmonary Atelectasis/etiology , Pulmonary Atelectasis/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Logistic Models , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Heart Defects, Congenital/surgery , Lung Diseases/etiology , Lung Diseases/physiopathology
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 33(3): 250-257, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-958414


Abstract Objective: To compare the effects of extended- versus short-time noninvasive positive pressure ventilation on pulmonary function, tissue perfusion, and clinical outcomes in the early postoperative period following coronary artery bypass surgery in patients with preserved left ventricular function. Methods: Patients were randomized into two groups according to noninvasive positive pressure ventilation intensity: short-time noninvasive positive pressure ventilation n=20 (S-NPPV) and extended-time noninvasive positive pressure ventilation n=21 (E-NPPV). S-NPPV was applied for 60 minutes during immediate postoperative period and 10 minutes, twice daily, from postoperative days 1-5. E-NPPV was performed for at least six hours during immediate postoperative period and 60 minutes, twice daily, from postoperative days 1-5. As a primary outcome, tissue perfusion was determined by central venous oxygen saturation and blood lactate level measured after anesthetic induction, immediately after extubation and following noninvasive positive pressure ventilation protocols. As a secondary outcome, pulmonary function tests were performed preoperatively and in the postoperative days 1, 3, and 5; clinical outcomes were recorded. Results: Significant drop in blood lactate levels and an improvement in central venous oxygen saturation values in the E-NPPV group were observed when compared with S-NPPV group after study protocol (P<0.01). The E-NPPV group presented higher preservation of postoperative pulmonary function as well as lower incidence of respiratory events and shorter postoperative hospital stay (P<0.05). Conclusion: Prophylactic E-NPPV administered in the early postoperative period of coronary artery bypass surgery resulted in greater improvements in tissue perfusion, pulmonary function and clinical outcomes than S-NPPV, in patients with preserved left ventricular function. Trial Registration: Brazilian Registry of Clinical trial - RBR7sqj78 -

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Coronary Artery Bypass/methods , Positive-Pressure Respiration/methods , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods , Lung Diseases/prevention & control , Oxygen/blood , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Postoperative Complications/blood , Time Factors , Vital Capacity , Forced Expiratory Volume , Coronary Artery Bypass/adverse effects , Risk Factors , Analysis of Variance , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Lactic Acid/blood , Length of Stay , Lung Diseases/etiology , Lung Diseases/blood
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(5): e6486, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889082


Spirometry has been used as the main strategy for assessing ventilatory changes related to occupational exposure to particulate matter (OEPM). However, in some cases, as one of its limitations, it may not be sensitive enough to show abnormalities before extensive damage, as seen in restrictive lung diseases. Therefore, we hypothesized that cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) may be better than spirometry to detect early ventilatory impairment caused by OEPM. We selected 135 male workers with at least one year of exposure. After collection of self-reported socioeconomic status, educational level, and cardiovascular risk data, participants underwent spirometry, CPET, body composition assessment (bioelectrical impedance), and triaxial accelerometry (for level of physical activity in daily life). CPET was performed using a ramp protocol on a treadmill. Metabolic, cardiovascular, ventilatory, and submaximal relationships were measured. We compared 52 exposed to 83 non-exposed workers. Multiple linear regressions were developed using spirometry and CPET variables as outcomes and OEPM as the main predictor, and adjusted by the main covariates. Our results showed that OEPM was associated with significant reductions in peak minute ventilation, peak tidal volume, and breathing reserve index. Exposed participants presented shallower slope of ΔVT/ΔlnV̇E (breathing pattern), i.e., increased tachypneic breathing pattern. The OEPM explained 7.4% of the ΔVT/ΔlnV̇E variability. We found no significant influence of spirometric indices after multiple linear regressions. We conclude that CPET might be a more sensitive feature of assessing early pulmonary impairment related to OEPM. Our cross-sectional results suggested that CPET is a promising tool for the screening of asymptomatic male workers.

Humans , Adult , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Cardiorespiratory Fitness/physiology , Lung Diseases/etiology , Spirometry , Pulmonary Gas Exchange , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Exercise Test/methods , Lung Diseases/diagnosis , Lung Diseases/physiopathology
J. bras. pneumol ; 43(6): 451-455, Nov.-Dec. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893874


ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze HRCT findings in patients with Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) type B, in order to determine the frequency of HRCT patterns and their distribution in the lung parenchyma, as well as the most common clinical characteristics. Methods: We studied 13 patients (3 males and 10 females) aged 5 to 56 years. HRCT images were independently evaluated by two observers, and disagreements were resolved by consensus. The inclusion criteria were presence of abnormal HRCT findings and diagnosis of NPD type B confirmed by histopathological examination of a bone marrow, lung, or liver biopsy specimen. Results: The most common clinical findings were hepatosplenomegaly and mild to moderate dyspnea. The most common HRCT patterns were smooth interlobular septal thickening and ground-glass opacities, which were both present in all patients. Intralobular lines were present in 12 patients (92.3%). A crazy-paving pattern was observed in 5 patients (38.4%), and areas of air trapping were identified in only 1 case (7.6%). Pulmonary involvement was bilateral in all cases, with the most affected area being the lower lung zone. Conclusions: Smooth interlobular septal thickening, with or without associated ground-glass opacities, in patients with hepatosplenomegaly is the most common finding in NPD type B.

RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar os achados de TCAR em pacientes com doença de Niemann-Pick (DNP) tipo B a fim de avaliar a frequência dos padrões tomográficos e sua distribuição no parênquima pulmonar, além das características clínicas mais frequentes. Métodos: Foram estudados 13 pacientes (3 do sexo masculino e 10 do sexo feminino) com idades variando de 5 a 56 anos. As imagens de TCAR foram avaliadas por dois observadores de forma independente, e os casos discordantes foram resolvidos por consenso. Os critérios de inclusão foram presença de anormalidades na TCAR e diagnóstico confirmado de DNP tipo B por exame anatomopatológico através de biópsias de medula óssea, pulmão ou fígado. Resultados: Os achados clínicos mais comuns foram hepatoesplenomegalia e dispneia leve a moderada. Os padrões tomográficos mais frequentes foram espessamento liso de septos interlobulares e opacidades em vidro fosco, presentes em todos os pacientes. Linhas intralobulares estiveram presentes em 12 pacientes (92,3%). O padrão de pavimentação em mosaico foi observado em 5 pacientes (38,4%). Áreas de aprisionamento aéreo foram identificadas em 1 dos casos (7,6%). O comprometimento pulmonar foi bilateral em todos os casos, sendo o terço inferior dos pulmões a região mais envolvida. Conclusões: O achado de espessamento liso de septos interlobulares, com ou sem opacidades em vidro fosco associadas, em pacientes com hepatoesplenomegalia é o achado mais frequente na DNP tipo B.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Niemann-Pick Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Lung Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Niemann-Pick Diseases/complications , Retrospective Studies , Lung Diseases/etiology
J. bras. pneumol ; 43(4): 320-321, July-Aug. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893853


ABSTRACT We describe the case of a 33-year-old man, a chronic user of powder cocaine, who presented with dyspnea, fever, night sweats, and significant weight loss. Chest HRCT revealed centrilobular nodules, giving an initial impression of miliary tuberculosis. Therefore, he was started on an empirical, four-drug antituberculosis treatment regimen. Four weeks later, despite the tuberculosis treatment, he continued to have the same symptoms. We then performed transbronchial lung biopsy. Histopathological analysis of the biopsy sample revealed birefringent foreign body granuloma. A corroborative history of cocaine snorting, the presence of centrilobular nodules, and the foreign body-related histopathological findings led to a diagnosis of pulmonary foreign body granulomatosis. This report underscores the fact that pulmonary foreign body granulomatosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of clinical profiles resembling tuberculosis.

RESUMO Descrevemos o caso de um homem de 33 anos de idade, usuário crônico de cocaína em pó, que apresentava dispneia, febre, sudorese noturna e perda de peso significativa. A TCAR de tórax revelou nódulos centrolobulares, dando uma impressão inicial de tuberculose miliar. Por isso, o paciente passou a receber tratamento empírico com quatro tuberculostáticos. Quatro semanas depois, apesar do tratamento antituberculose, o paciente continuou a apresentar os mesmos sintomas. Foi então realizada a biópsia pulmonar transbrônquica. A análise histopatológica da amostra obtida revelou granuloma de corpo estranho birrefringente. A história de uso de cocaína por inalação, a presença de nódulos centrolobulares e os achados histopatológicos de corpos estranhos confirmaram o diagnóstico de granulomatose pulmonar de corpo estranho. Este relato destaca o fato de que a granulomatose pulmonar de corpo estranho deve ser incluída no diagnóstico diferencial de perfis clínicos que se assemelham a tuberculose.

Humans , Male , Adult , Granuloma, Foreign-Body/etiology , Cocaine-Related Disorders/complications , Lung Diseases/etiology , Granuloma, Foreign-Body/diagnosis , Fatal Outcome , Lung Diseases/diagnosis
MedicalExpress (São Paulo, Online) ; 4(2)Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-841478


OBJECTIVES: To evaluate serum levels of C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rates in patients with untreated newly diagnosed dermatomyositis or polymyositis and their correlation with clinical and laboratory parameters. METHODS: A cross-sectional study including 48 consecutive patients with untreated newly diagnosed dermatomyositis and polymyositis reviewed between 2002 and 2015 was conducted. Fifty healthy subjects were enrolled as controls. RESULTS: Patients with dermatomyositis and polymyositis had higher levels of C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate than healthy controls, but these values were not associated with clinical or laboratory parameters of disease activity either for dermatomyositis or for polymyositis. Additionally, erythrocyte sedimentation rate values correlated with pulmonary involvement as evidenced through computer tomography imaging (OR 1.15; 95%CI 1.01-1.31) only in patients with polymyositis. CONCLUSIONS: Although elevated, C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate are not sensitive parameters for measuring clinical and laboratory activity of dermatomyositis nor for polymiositis. However, erythrocyte sedimentation rate may be a valid parameter for screening pulmonary involvement, particularly in patients with polymyositis.

OBJETIVOS: Avaliar os níveis séricos da proteína C reativa (PCR) e da velocidade de hemossedimentação (VHS) em pacientes recém-diagnosticados com dermatomiosite (DM) e polimiosite (PM), sem tratamento prévio, correlacionando-os com parâmetros clínico-laboratoriais. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal que incluiu 48 pacientes consecutivos com DM e PM (critérios de Bohan e Peter) recém-diagnosticados, sem tratamento medicamentoso, no período de 2002 a 2015. Foram incluídos 50 indivíduos saudáveis como grupo controle. RESULTADOS: Os pacientes apresentaram níveis mais elevados de VHS e PCR comparativamente aos controles saudáveis. Estes valores, porém, não se correlacionaram com os parâmetros clínicos e laboratoriais da atividade da doença (DM e PM). Somente em pacientes com PM a VHS apresentou relação com acometimento pulmonar na tomografia computadorizada [OR 1,15 (IC 95% 1,01-1,31)]. CONCLUSÕES: Apesar de aumentadas, a PCR e a VHS não são parâmetros sensíveis para a mensuração da atividade clínica e laboratorial de DM e PM., No entanto, a VHS pode ter validade no rastreio do acometimento pulmonar, particularmente em pacientes com PM.

Humans , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Polymyositis , Dermatomyositis , Blood Sedimentation , Cross-Sectional Studies , Lung Diseases/etiology
J. bras. pneumol ; 43(2): 140-149, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-841276


ABSTRACT Diffuse cystic lung diseases are characterized by cysts in more than one lung lobe, the cysts originating from various mechanisms, including the expansion of the distal airspaces due to airway obstruction, necrosis of the airway walls, and parenchymal destruction. The progression of these diseases is variable. One essential tool in the evaluation of these diseases is HRCT, because it improves the characterization of pulmonary cysts (including their distribution, size, and length) and the evaluation of the regularity of the cyst wall, as well as the identification of associated pulmonary and extrapulmonary lesions. When combined with clinical and laboratory findings, HRCT is often sufficient for the etiological definition of diffuse lung cysts, avoiding the need for lung biopsy. The differential diagnoses of diffuse cystic lung diseases are myriad, including neoplastic, inflammatory, and infectious etiologies. Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis, lymphangioleiomyomatosis, lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia, and follicular bronchiolitis are the most common diseases that produce this CT pattern. However, new diseases have been included as potential determinants of this pattern.

RESUMO As doenças pulmonares císticas difusas se caracterizam pela presença de cistos envolvendo mais de um lobo pulmonar, que se originam por diversos mecanismos, incluindo dilatação dos espaços aéreos distais por obstrução, necrose das paredes das vias aéreas e destruição do parênquima. Essas doenças apresentam evolução variável. A TCAR é fundamental na avaliação dessas doenças uma vez que permite uma melhor caracterização dos cistos pulmonares, incluindo sua distribuição, tamanho, extensão e regularidade das paredes, assim como a determinação de outras lesões pulmonares e extrapulmonares associadas. Frequentemente a TCAR é suficiente para a definição etiológica dos cistos pulmonares difusos, associada a achados clínicos e laboratoriais, sem a necessidade de realização de biópsia pulmonar. O diagnóstico diferencial das doenças pulmonares císticas difusas é extenso, incluindo etiologias neoplásicas, inflamatórias e infecciosas, sendo as mais frequentes determinantes desse padrão tomográfico a histiocitose pulmonar de células de Langerhans, a linfangioleiomiomatose, a pneumonia intersticial linfocitária e a bronquiolite folicular. Novas etiologias foram incluídas como potenciais determinantes desse padrão.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Lung Diseases/complications , Diagnosis, Differential , Lung Diseases/classification , Lung Diseases/diagnosis , Lung Diseases/etiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 36(4): 504-508, dic. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-950915


La osificación pulmonar es un hallazgo poco usual, generalmente asintomático, que se reporta como incidental en biopsias de pulmón. Asimismo, la hemosiderosis pulmonar idiopática es una causa poco frecuente de infiltración pulmonar. Se presenta el caso de un hombre de 64 años con síntomas respiratorios crónicos, en quien se detectaron estas dos condiciones en el estudio histopatológico.

Pulmonary ossification is a rare and usually asymptomatic finding reported as incidental in lung biopsies. Similarly, idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis is a rare cause of pulmonary infiltrates. We report the case of a 64-year old man with chronic respiratory symptoms in whom these two histopathological findings converged

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ossification, Heterotopic/pathology , Hemosiderosis/pathology , Lung Diseases/pathology , Thoracoscopy , Radionuclide Imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Ossification, Heterotopic/etiology , Ossification, Heterotopic/diagnostic imaging , Hemosiderosis/complications , Lung Diseases/etiology , Lung Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Hypoxia/etiology
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 114(5): e366-e369, oct. 2016. ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-838285


La púrpura de Schonlein-Henoch (PSH) es la vasculitis más frecuente en los niños. Los procesos vasculíticos pueden afectar el pulmón. Si bien la hemorragia alveolar difusa puede considerarse una de las manifestaciones de la PSH, no es un cuadro frecuente. En este artículo presentamos el caso de una niña de 10 años con nefritis por PSH que sufrió hemorragia pulmonar. La paciente recibió un tratamiento satisfactorio con metilprednisolona intravenosa. La revisión de las publicaciones reveló que la edad temprana puede influir de manera positiva en el pronóstico, y que los inmunosupresores y el tratamiento complementario son fundamentales.

Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP) is the most common vasculitis in children. Vasculitic processes can involve the lung. Although diffuse alveolar hemorrhage may be seen as one of the manifestation of HSP, it is not a frequent presentation. Here we reported the case of a 10-year-old girl with HSP nephritis who developed pulmonary hemorrhage. The patient was treated successfully with intravenous methylprednisolone. A review of the literature revealed that young age may be a good prognostic sign and that immunosuppressive drugs and supportive management are essential in the treatment.

Humans , Female , Child , IgA Vasculitis/complications , Hemorrhage/etiology , Lung Diseases/etiology
In. Pastore, Alberto Carlos; Samesima, Nelson; Tobias, Nancy Maria Martins de Oliveira; Pereira Filho, Horacio Gomes. Eletrocardiografia atual: curso do serviço de eletrocardiografia do InCor. São Paulo, Atheneu, 3º; 2016. p.289-302.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-833696
J. bras. pneumol ; 41(4): 331-342, July-Aug. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-759326


AbstractObjective: To determine whether simple diagnostic methods can yield relevant disease information in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).Methods: Patients with RA were randomly selected for inclusion in a cross-sectional study involving clinical evaluation of pulmonary function, including pulse oximetry (determination of SpO2, at rest), chest X-ray, and spirometry.Results: A total of 246 RA patients underwent complete assessments. Half of the patients in our sample reported a history of smoking. Spirometry was abnormal in 30% of the patients; the chest X-ray was abnormal in 45%; and the SpO2 was abnormal in 13%. Normal chest X-ray, spirometry, and SpO2 were observed simultaneously in only 41% of the RA patients. A history of smoking was associated with abnormal spirometry findings, including evidence of obstructive or restrictive lung disease, and with abnormal chest X-ray findings, as well as with an interstitial pattern on the chest X-ray. Comparing the patients in whom all test results were normal (n = 101) with those in whom abnormal test results were obtained (n = 145), we found a statistically significant difference between the two groups, in terms of age and smoking status. Notably, there were signs of airway disease in nearly half of the patients with minimal or no history of tobacco smoke exposure.Conclusions: Pulmonary involvement in RA can be identified through the use of a combination of diagnostic methods that are simple, safe, and inexpensive. Our results lead us to suggest that RA patients with signs of lung involvement should be screened for lung abnormalities, even if presenting with no respiratory symptoms.

ResumoObjetivo: Determinar se métodos diagnósticos de baixa complexidade podem fornecer informações relevantes sobre doença pulmonar em pacientes com artrite reumatoide (AR).Métodos: Pacientes com AR foram selecionados aleatoriamente para um estudo transversal envolvendo avaliação clínica pulmonar, oximetria de pulso (SpO2) em repouso, radiografia de tórax e espirometria.Resultados: Um total de 246 pacientes foi submetido à avaliação completa. Metade dos pacientes na amostra relatou história de tabagismo. A proporção de pacientes com resultados anormais na espirometria, radiografia de tórax e SpO2 foi de, respectivamente, 30%, 45% e 13%. Resultados normais em radiografia de tórax, espirometria e SpO2 foram observados simultaneamente em apenas 41% dos pacientes com AR. História de tabagismo foi associada a achados espirométricos anormais, de doença pulmonar obstrutiva e de doença pulmonar restritiva, assim como radiografia de tórax anormal e com padrão intersticial. Na comparação dos pacientes com exames normais (n = 101) com aqueles com exames com alguma alteração (n = 145), houve uma diferença estatisticamente significante entre os dois grupos em relação a idade e história de tabagismo. Interessantemente, sinais de doença de vias aéreas foram observados em quase metade dos pacientes com relato de baixa exposição ao tabagismo ou de nunca ter sido fumante.Conclusões: O comprometimento pulmonar na AR pode ser identificado através de uma combinação de métodos diagnósticos simples, seguros e de baixo custo. Nossos resultados sugerem que pacientes com AR e sinais de acometimento pulmonar devem ser avaliados quanto a possíveis anormalidades pulmonares, mesmo na ausência de sintomas respiratórios.

Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/complications , Lung Diseases/etiology , Lung Diseases , Age Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dyspnea/etiology , Dyspnea , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Oximetry , Prevalence , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Sex Factors , Spirometry , Smoking/epidemiology
Rev. salud pública ; 17(3): 365-378, mayo-jun. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-765670


Objetivo Averiguar ¿Cuál de los dos factores es más nocivo? ¿Cuál es la magnitud de su efecto? y ¿Qué pasa cuando alguien se expone a ambos factores a la vez? Métodos Estudio ecológico que evalúa la asociación epidemiológica (riesgo relativo) entre la contaminación atmosférica y el tabaquismo con la función pulmonar, evaluada mediante espirometría funcional en 489 adultos. Se comparan dos ambientes con diferentes niveles de contaminación, 30 y 60 µg/m³ de material particulado respirable (PM10) y grupos de fumadores contra no fumadores. Resultados La función pulmonar está disminuida (VEF1<80 %) en los fumadores en mayor proporción que en los no fumadores, con un exceso de riesgo de 52 % (RR. 1,52 IC95 % 1,11-2,07). Las personas expuestas a un mayor nivel de contaminación ambiental presentan una mayor proporción de disfunción pulmonar con un exceso de riesgo de 64 % (RR. 1,64 IC95 % 1,19-2,25). Cuando los sujetos se exponen a ambos factores, es decir fuman y además se encuentran en ambientes contaminados, el exceso de riesgo es del 129 % (RR 2,29 IC95 % 1,45-3,61). Conclusiones Las personas que respiran ambientes contaminados presentan disfunción pulmonar en una magnitud similar o superior a la que presentan los fumadores, es decir, podríamos afirmar que en relación con los efectos, respirar aire contaminado equivale a estar fumando, solo que en contra de la voluntad.(AU)

Objective We want to determine: ¿Which of the two factors is more harmful? ¿What is the magnitude of its effect? and ¿What happens when someone is exposed to both factors at once?. Methods An ecological study that evaluates the epidemiological association (relative risk) between air pollution and smoking with lung functions as assessed by functional spirometry in 489 adults. We compare two environments with different pollution levels 30 and 60 g/m³ of particulate matter (PM10) and groups of smokers against nonsmokers. Results Lung function is impaired (FEV1 <80 %) in smokers at higher rates than the non-smokers, with an excess risk of 52 % (RR. 1.52 CI 95 % 1.11 -2.07). People exposed to higher levels of pollution have a higher proportion of pulmonary dysfunction than those exposed to less polluted environments with an excess risk of 64 % (RR. 1,64 CI 95% 1.19-2.25). When subjects are exposed to both factors, that is smokers who also live in contaminated environments, the excess of risk reaches 129 % (RR 2.29 CI 95 % 1.45-3.61). Conclusions People who breathe in polluted environments have impaired lung function in a similar magnitude or greater than smokers. Therefore, we could say that breathing contaminated air is equivalent to smoking, but sadly it occurs against the affected party's will.(AU)

Humans , Tobacco/adverse effects , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Lung Diseases/etiology , Spirometry/instrumentation , Ecological Studies
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-86396


The bronchoarterial (BA) ratio measured with computed tomography is widely used in human medicine to diagnose bronchial dilation or collapse. Although use of the BA ratio in veterinary medicine has been recently studied, this has not been evaluated in brachycephalic dogs predisposed to bronchial diseases including bronchial collapse. The purpose of this study was to establish BA ratios for brachycephalic dogs and compare the values with those of non-brachycephalic dogs. Twenty-three brachycephalic dogs and 15 non-brachycephalic dogs without clinical pulmonary disease were evaluated. The BA ratio of the lobar bronchi in the left and right cranial as well as the right middle, left, and right caudal lung lobes was measured. No significant difference in mean BA ratio was observed between lung lobes or the individual animals (p = 0.148). The mean BA ratio was 1.08 +/- 0.10 (99% CI = 0.98~1.18) for brachycephalic dogs and 1.51 +/- 0.05 (99% CI = 1.46~1.56) for the non-brachycephalic group. There was a significant difference between the mean BA ratios of the brachycephalic and non-brachycephalic groups (p = 0.00). Defining the normal limit of the BA ratio for brachycephalic breeds may be helpful for diagnosing bronchial disease in brachycephalic dogs.

Animals , Bronchial Arteries/anatomy & histology , Craniosynostoses/pathology , Dog Diseases/pathology , Dogs , Female , Lung Diseases/etiology , Male , Reference Values , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/veterinary
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 29(4): 513-520, Oct-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-741741


Introdução: Cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio é um procedimento seguro realizado em todo o mundo com taxas baixas de mortalidade e morbidade na população geral. Objetivo: Estudar fatores de risco para mortalidade de pacientes submetidos à revascularização miocárdica com circulação extracorpórea. Métodos: Foram estudados retrospectivamente e de forma consecutiva 1.628 pacientes submetidos à revascularização com circulação extracorpórea no período de dezembro de 1999 a fevereiro de 2012. A análise de dados foi efetuada por meio dos testes t de Student não pareado, Mann-Whitney e exato de Fisher para dados categóricos. Regressão logística, Odds Ratio e IC95% foram utilizados para definição de fatores de risco para mortalidade. Resultados: Do total de 1.628 pacientes submetidos à cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio com circulação extracorpórea, 141 (8,7%) foram a óbito. Após regressão logística, foram identificados como fatores de risco para mortalidade as variáveis diálise (OR=7,61; IC 95% 3,58-16,20), lesão neurológica tipo I (OR = 4,42; IC 95% 2,48-7,81), uso de BIA (OR=3,38; IC 95% 1,98-5,79), tempo de CEC (OR = 3,09; IC 95% 2,04-4,68), creatinina pico - admissão > 0,4 mg/dL (OR=2,67; IC 95% 1,79-4,00), idade > 65 anos (OR=2,31; IC 95% 1,55-3,44) e tempo entre admissão hospitalar e procedimento cirúrgico (OR = 1,53; IC 95% 1,03-2,27). Conclusão: Diálise, lesão neurológica tipo I, uso de balão intra- aórtico, tempo de circulação extracorpórea (> 115 minutos), creatinina pico-admissão > 0,4 mg/dL, idade > 65 anos e tempo entre admissão hospitalar e procedimento cirúrgico foram considerados como fatores de risco para mortalidade em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio com circulação extracorpórea. .

Introduction: Coronary artery bypass grafting is a safe procedure performed worldwide with low rates of mortality and morbidity in general population. Objective: To investigate risk factors for mortality of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. Methods: A total of 1,628 consecutive patients undergoing on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting were retrospectively studied from December 1999 to February 2012. Data analysis involved paired Student t test, Mann-Whitney test and Fisher’s exact test for the categorical data. Logistic regression, Odds Ratio and 95%CI were used for definition of risk factors for mortality. Results: Of a total of 1,628 patients undergoing on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting, 141 (8.7%) died. The following risk factors for mortality were identified after logistic regression: dialysis (OR=7.61; 95%CI 3.58-16.20), neurologic dysfunction type I (OR=4.42; 95%CI 2.48-7.81), use of IABP (OR=3.38; 95%CI 1.98-5.79), cardiopulmonary bypass time (OR=3.09; 95%CI 2.04-4.68), serum creatinine on admission and peak values > 0.4mg/dL (OR=2.67; 95%CI 1.79-4.00), age > 65 years (OR=2.31; 95%CI 1.55-3.44), and time between hospital admission and and surgical procedure (OR=1.53; 95%CI 1.03-2.27). Conclusion: Dialysis, type I neurologic dysfunction, use of IABP, cardiopulmonary bypass time (> 115 minutes), serum creatinine on admission and peak values>0.4mg/dL, age > 65 years and time between hospital admission and surgical procedure were considered as risk factors for mortality in patients undergoing on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. .

Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Coronary Artery Bypass/mortality , Age Factors , Brazil , Creatinine/blood , Epidemiologic Methods , Intraoperative Complications/etiology , Intraoperative Complications/mortality , Kidney Diseases/complications , Length of Stay , Lung Diseases/etiology , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Postoperative Complications/mortality , Sex Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome