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1.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(1): 75-87, Jan-Abr. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362684

ABSTRACT

O cigarro eletrônico surgiu como uma tentativa para minimizar a dependência ao uso de tabaco, entretanto, engloba controvérsias e dúvidas acerca das reais implicações para o organismo humano. Diante disso, o presente estudo tem como objetivo realizar uma revisão da literatura a fim de relacionar o uso de cigarro eletrônico com suas consequências para os humanos. Os estudos analisados relatam experimentos in vitro e in vivo em camundongos, demonstrando menor concentração de poluentes e nocividades no cigarro eletrônico comparado ao convencional, porém, seu potencial efeito maléfico está relacionado à composição do e-líquido, à maneira do uso e à variedade de aromas presentes nos produtos. Além disso, foram verificadas lesões celulares, hiperreatividade das vias aéreas, liberação de citocinas ­ IL-8, IL-10 e TNF, redução da ação antimicrobiana de queratinócitos e potencial apoptose nas células alveolares. Foi observado também um aumento em até cinco vezes da concentração de carboxihemoglobina em comparação ao cigarro comum e um aumento na auto renovação de células de adenocarcinoma pulmonar de células não pequenas, devido à expressão de SOX2. Observa-se também que em casos de DPOC, o cigarro eletrônico não apresenta agravamentos na fisiologia respiratória, contrapondo outras ocorrências como asma, pneumonia, câncer de pulmão e doenças infecciosas que podem ser ocasionadas ou exacerbadas pelo seu uso. Contudo, pelo curto prazo de observação de seus efeitos, não é possível determinar com precisão a segurança dos cigarros eletrônicos, dessa forma, faz-se necessário que mais pesquisas longitudinais sejam desenvolvidas, auxiliando, assim, na construção de evidências sobre a segurança dos cigarros eletrônicos e na regulamentação futura do produto.


Electronic cigarettes emerged as an attempt to minimize tobacco dependence. However, its use is surrounded by controversies and doubts about the real implications for the human organism. Therefore, this study aims at performing a review of the most recent literature to corelate the use of e-cigarettes with their consequences for the human body. The analyzed studies relate in vitro and in vivo experiments on mice, demonstrating lower concentration of pollutants and harmfulness in the electronic cigarette than in conventional cigarettes. However, its potential harmful effect is related to the composition of the e-liquid, in its use and in the variety of aromas in the products. In addition, cellular lesions, airway hyperreactivity, release of IL-8, IL-10 and TNF cytokines could be observed, as well as reduced keratinocyte antimicrobial action and potential apoptosis in alveolar cells. An increase of up to five-fold the concentration of carboxyhemoglobin in comparison to ordinary cigarettes and an increase in self-renewal of non-small pulmonary adenocarcinoma cells due to the expression of SOX2 have also been related. It could also be observed that in COPD cases, e-cigarettes do not present worsening in respiratory physiology, which contrasts with other occurrences such as asthma, pneumonia, lung cancer, and infectious diseases that can be caused or exacerbated by its use. However, due to the short term of observation of the effects, the safety of e-cigarettes could not be accurately determined, thus, the need for further longitudinal research is necessary, which could be used to help build evidence about the safety of e-cigarettes and also to create future regulation of the product.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Rats , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems/instrumentation , Lung Diseases , Pneumonia/complications , Asthma/complications , Tobacco Use Disorder/complications , Smoking , Disease , Lung Injury , Tobacco Use , Vaping , Smokers , E-Cigarette Vapor/adverse effects , Lung Neoplasms
2.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 33(3): 461-468, jul.-set. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347304

ABSTRACT

RESUMO A respiração espontânea pode ser prejudicial para pacientes com pulmões previamente lesados, especialmente na vigência de síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo. Mais ainda, a incapacidade de assumir a respiração totalmente espontânea durante a ventilação mecânica e a necessidade de voltar à ventilação mecânica controlada se associam com mortalidade mais alta. Existe uma lacuna no conhecimento em relação aos parâmetros que poderiam ser úteis para predizer o risco de lesão pulmonar autoinflingida pelo paciente e detecção da incapacidade de assumir a respiração espontânea. Relata-se o caso de um paciente com lesão pulmonar autoinflingida e as correspondentes variáveis, básicas e avançadas, de monitoramento da mecânica do sistema respiratório, além dos resultados fisiológicos e clínicos relacionados à respiração espontânea durante ventilação mecânica. O paciente era um homem caucasiano com 33 anos de idade e história clínica de AIDS, que apresentou síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo e necessitou ser submetido à ventilação mecânica invasiva após falha do suporte ventilatório não invasivo. Durante os períodos de ventilação controlada, adotou-se estratégia de ventilação protetora, e o paciente mostrou evidente melhora, tanto do ponto de vista clínico quanto radiográfico. Contudo, durante cada período de respiração espontânea sob ventilação com pressão de suporte, apesar dos parâmetros iniciais adequados, das regulagens rigorosamente estabelecidas e do estrito monitoramento, o paciente desenvolveu hipoxemia progressiva e piora da mecânica do sistema respiratório, com deterioração radiográfica claramente correlacionada (lesão pulmonar autoinflingida pelo paciente). Após falha de três tentativas de respiração espontânea, o paciente faleceu por hipoxemia refratária no 29° dia. Neste caso, as variáveis básicas e avançadas convencionais não foram suficientes para identificar a aptidão para respirar espontaneamente ou predizer o risco de desenvolver lesão pulmonar autoinflingida pelo paciente durante a ventilação de suporte parcial.


ABSTRACT Spontaneous breathing can be deleterious in patients with previously injured lungs, especially in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Moreover, the failure to assume spontaneous breathing during mechanical ventilation and the need to switch back to controlled mechanical ventilation are associated with higher mortality. There is a gap of knowledge regarding which parameters might be useful to predict the risk of patient self-inflicted lung injury and to detect the inability to assume spontaneous breathing. We report a case of patient self-inflicted lung injury, the corresponding basic and advanced monitoring of the respiratory system mechanics and physiological and clinical results related to spontaneous breathing. The patient was a 33-year-old Caucasian man with a medical history of AIDS who developed acute respiratory distress syndrome and needed invasive mechanical ventilation after noninvasive ventilatory support failure. During the controlled ventilation periods, a protective ventilation strategy was adopted, and the patient showed clear clinical and radiographic improvement. However, during each spontaneous breathing period under pressure support ventilation, despite adequate initial parameters and a strictly adjusted ventilatory setting and monitoring, the patient developed progressive hypoxemia and worsening of respiratory system mechanics with a clearly correlated radiographic deterioration (patient self-inflicted lung injury). After failing three spontaneous breathing assumption trials, he died on day 29 due to refractory hypoxemia. Conventional basic and advanced monitoring variables in this case were not sufficient to identify the aptitude to breathe spontaneously or to predict the risk and development of patient self-inflicted lung injury during partial support ventilation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/therapy , Lung Injury , Respiration , Respiration, Artificial , Lung
3.
Prensa méd. argent ; 107(2): 97-104, 20210000. fig, tab
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1361373

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: Evaluar la frecuencia y gravedad de la hemorragia parenquimatosa pulmonar tras la biopsia pulmonar con aguja transtorácica coaxial, según factores de procedimiento, aún no descritos en la literatura. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar si la elección de la tecnología de biopsia coaxial, el posicionamiento del paciente y la dignidad de la lesión son tres nuevas variables que influyen en el riesgo de hemorragia parenquimatosa tras biopsias coaxiales de pulmón. Métodos: Se revisaron retrospectivamente los registros de 117 pacientes que se sometieron a biopsias con aguja transtorácica del pulmón entre enero de 2018 y abril de 2020. El resultado primario fue la hemorragia pulmonar. Se ha utilizado un sistema de clasificación para clasificar la hemorragia parenquimatosa pulmonar: Grado 0 - Grado 3. Se evaluaron tres variables novedosas relacionadas con el paciente, la técnica y la lesión como predictores de hemorragia pulmonar: tecnología de biopsia coaxial, posición del paciente y dignidad de la lesión. Resultados: De los 117 pacientes, 18 (15,4%) pacientes con tecnología de biopsia coaxial de corte, versus 29 (24,8%) pacientes con tecnología coaxial de núcleo completo mostraron hemorragia significativa en las exploraciones de control posteriores a la biopsia. (IC del 95% 0,06-0,33, p <0,0001). No hubo diferencias significativas en la hemorragia pulmonar entre el diagnóstico histológico benigno y maligno (IC 95% 0,84-4,44, p = 0,1199) y la posición del paciente en decúbito prono o supino (IC 95%: 0,57-2,57, p = 0,6232). Conclusiones: La incidencia y gravedad de la hemorragia pulmonar depende de la tecnología de biopsia coaxial utilizada; siendo mayor en pacientes sometidos a una biopsia con tecnología full-core y menor después del uso de tecnología de corte. En este estudio de pronóstico no se estableció una correlación significativa entre la hemorragia pulmonar parenquimatosa y la posición del paciente o la dignidad de la lesión


Objectives: To evaluate the frequency and severity of pulmonary parenchymal hemorrhage after coaxial transthoracic needle biopsy of the lung, according to procedural factors, not yet described in literature. The aim of this study was to determine whether the choice of the coaxial biopsy technology, patient positioning and the lesion dignity are three new variables influencing the risk of parenchymal hemorrhage after coaxial biopsies of the lung. Methods: Records from 117 patients who underwent transthoracic needle biopsies of the lung between January 2018 and April 2020 have been retrospectively reviewed. The primary outcome was pulmonary hemorrhage. A grading system has been used to classify pulmonary parenchymal hemorrhage: Grade 0 ­ Grade 3. Three novel patient, technique and lesion-related variables were evaluated as predictors of pulmonary hemorrhage: coaxial biopsy technology, patient positioning and lesion dignity. Results: Out of the 117 patients, 18 (15,4%) patients with cutting coaxial biopsy technology, versus 29 (24,8%) patients with full core coaxial technology showed significant hemorrhage on the post-biopsy control scans. (95% CI 0,06-0,33, p<0,0001). No significant difference in pulmonary hemorrhage between benign and malignant histological diagnosis (95% CI 0,84-4,44, p=0,1199) and prone or supine patient positioning (95% CI: 0,57-2,57, p= 0,6232) was found. Conclusions: The incidence and severity of pulmonary hemorrhage depends on the coaxial biopsy technology used; being higher in patients undergoing a biopsy with full-core technology and lower after the use of cutting technology. No significant correlation between parenchymal pulmonary hemorrhage and patient positioning or lesion dignity was established in this prognostic study.


Subject(s)
Humans , Prognosis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Lung Injury/therapy , Image-Guided Biopsy/methods , Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Supine Position
6.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2021342, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350167

ABSTRACT

Paraquat is a potent herbicide widely used in the Indian agriculture industry. Human fatality due to paraquat poisoning is not uncommon in this country. The primary effect of paraquat is on the lungs, and the resultant pulmonary damage leads to the patient's demise. There is a high mortality rate in paraquat poisoning as the treatment is usually supportive with no known antidote. There are limited human studies that have observed the histopathological changes in lungs in paraquat poisoning. The authors have discussed the time-related histopathological changes in lungs in paraquat poisoning on autopsy subjects. The role of anticoagulants and fibrinolytic agents in the treatment of this poisoning has also been discussed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Paraquat/poisoning , Lung Injury/pathology , Lung/pathology , Autopsy , Acute Toxicity
7.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 9(1): 1-8, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362820

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: mapear os possíveis desfechos de longo prazo da COVID-19 no mundo. Métodos: em acordo com as recomendações do Joanna Briggs Institute, foi realizada uma revisão sistemática de escopo de estudos experimentais e observacionais com busca nas bases de dados PubMed e Scopus, complementada por busca manual. Resultados: de 5.325 registros, 121 atenderam aos critérios de elegibilidade, os quais incluíram 1.638 recuperados da COVID-19. Foram identificados 52 potenciais desfechos de longo prazo da COVID-19, principalmente disfunção olfatória (n=605), disfunção gustativa (n=372), dispneia (n=233) e lesões pulmonares (n=225). Entre os cuidados de longo prazo, destacam-se início de terapia medicamentosa, terapia de substituição renal e amputação. Conclusão: foram mapeados 52 possíveis desfechos de longo prazo da COVID-19 e recomendações de continuação de cuidados, que variaram de manifestações leves a graves com duração menor ou igual a um mês e maior que um mês.


Objective: to map these possible long-term outcomes of COVID-19 worldwide. Methods: In accordance with the recommendations of the Joanna Briggs Institute, a systematic scoping review of experimental and observational studies was carried out with a search in PubMed and Scopus databases, complemented by manual search. Results: Of 5,325 records, 121 met eligibility criteria, which included 1,638 recovered from COVID-19. Fifty-two (52) potential long-term outcomes of COVID-19 were identified, mainly olfactory dysfunction (n=605), taste dysfunction (n=372), dyspnea (n=233) and lung injuries (n=225). Long-term care included initiation of drug therapy, renal replacement therapy and amputation. Conclusion: Fifty-two (52) possible long-term outcomes of COVID-19 and recommendations for continued care were mapped, ranging from mild to severe manifestations lasting less than or equal to one month and greater than one month.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Taste Disorders , Long-Term Care , Renal Replacement Therapy , PubMed , Minors , Dyspnea , Lung Injury , Olfaction Disorders
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880665

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To analyze the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with radiation-induced rat lung injury, and to reveal the protective mechanism for mild hypothermia in the radiation-induced lung injury in rats at the transcriptome level.@*METHODS@#A total of 10 male SD rats aged 6-8 weeks were randomly divided into 2 groups to establish a rat model of radiation-induced lung injury, and one group was treated with mild hypothermia. RNA was extracted from left lung tissue of each group, and sequenced by BGISEQ-500 platform. Significance analysis of DEGs was carried out by edgeR software. Gene ontology (GO) function enrichment analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis were used to analyze the gene function. Then 5 key DEGs were verified by real-time reverse transcription PCR (real-time RT-PCR).@*RESULTS@#There were 2 790 DEGs (false discovery rate<0.001, |log@*CONCLUSIONS@#The DEGs and pathways related to mild hypothermia protection against radiation-induced lung injury in rats are obtained, which provides an experimental basis for the protection of mild hypothermia against radiation-induced lung injury.


Subject(s)
Animals , Gene Expression Profiling , Hypothermia , Lung Injury , Male , RNA-Seq , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Transcriptome
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877666

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the protective effect of electroacupuncture (EA) at Neiguan (PC 6) on pulmonary function during one-lung ventilation (OLV) in patients with lobectomy, and explore its action mechanism.@*METHODS@#Sixty patients with lobectomy were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group, 30 cases in each one. The patients in the control group were treated with general anesthesia, and OLV was given when surgery began; when the surgery finished, air was removed from the thoracic cavity and two-lung ventilation was performed. On the basis of the treatment in the control group, the patients in the observation group were treated with EA (disperse-dense wave, 2 Hz/100 Hz of frequency) at Neiguan (PC 6) 30 min before anesthesia induction until the end of the surgery. The pulmonary function indexes [arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO@*RESULTS@#Compared with T@*CONCLUSION@#EA at Neiguan (PC 6) has protective effects on lung injury induced by OLV after lobectomy, and its mechanism may be related to the improvement of oxidative stress and inflammatory response.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, General , Electroacupuncture , Humans , Lung , Lung Injury , One-Lung Ventilation
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888290

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary barotrauma is a kind of disease caused by the injury of lung tissue or blood vessel when the gas pressure of lung is too high or too lower than the external pressure of the body, which causes the air to enter the blood vessel and adjacent tissue. It could be happened in the escape of the divers with the light diving equipment or the sailors from submarine. Generally, the decompression chamber was used to treating the disease, and the minimum air pressure of 0.5 MPa recompression therapeutic schedule was used to selecting. In November 2019, a patient with pulmonary barotrauma combined with cerebral arterial gas embolism caused by improper underwater escape with light diving equipment was admitted to the General Hospital of Eastern War Zone. He was treated with 0.12 MPa oxygen inhalation recompression scheme in the oxygen chamber pressurized with air. 7 days later, the patient recovered and discharged.


Subject(s)
Barotrauma/complications , Decompression Sickness/complications , Diving/adverse effects , Embolism, Air/etiology , Humans , Lung Injury , Male
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922249

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the role of the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1)-proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 phosphorylation (pPyk2)-matrix metalloproteinases 9 (MMP9) pathway in hyperoxia-induced lung injury in neonatal rats.@*METHODS@#A total of 16 neonatal rats were randomly placed in chambers containing room air (air group) or 95% medical oxygen (hyperoxia group) immediately after birth, with 8 rats in each group. All of the rats were sacrificed on day 8 of life. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to observe the pathological changes of lung tissue. ELISA was used to measure the levels of soluble LRP1 (sLRP1) and MMP9 in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Western blot was used to measure the protein expression levels of LRP1, MMP9, Pyk2, and pPyk2 in lung tissue. RT-PCR was used to measure the mRNA expression levels of LRP1 and MMP9 in lung tissue.@*RESULTS@#The hyperoxia group had significantly higher levels of sLRP1 and MMP9 in serum and BALF than the air group (@*CONCLUSIONS@#The activation of the LRP1-pPyk2-MMP9 pathway is enhanced in hyperoxia-induced lung injury in neonatal rats, which may be involved in the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Newborn , Hyperoxia/complications , Lung , Lung Injury/etiology , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/genetics , Rats
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922248

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the role of adrenomedullin (ADM) in hyperoxia-induced lung injury by examining the effect of ADM on the expression of calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR), receptor activity-modifying protein 2 (RAMP2), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and protein kinase B (PKB) in human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMECs) under different experimental conditions.@*METHODS@#HPMECs were randomly divided into an air group and a hyperoxia group (@*RESULTS@#Compared with the air group, the hyperoxia group had significant increases in the mRNA and protein expression levels of ADM, CRLR, RAMP2, ERK1/2, and PKB (@*CONCLUSIONS@#ERK1/2 and PKB may be the downstream targets of the ADM signaling pathway. ADM mediates the ERK/PKB signaling pathway by regulating CRLR/RAMP2 and participates in the protection of hyperoxia-induced lung injury.


Subject(s)
Adrenomedullin/genetics , Endothelial Cells , Humans , Hyperoxia/complications , Lung Injury , Receptor Activity-Modifying Proteins
13.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 49: Pub. 1838, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1363604

ABSTRACT

Respiratory diseases are one of the major health issues described in intensive pig production, causing important economic losses. However, there is little information on the prevalence, etiology and clinical-pathological presentation of these diseases in wild boars. For this reason, this work investigated the presence in captive wild boars of pneumonic lesions and bacterial pathogens commonly detected and associated with respiratory diseases in domestic pigs. A total of 226 captive wild boar lungs from two farms were examined in a slaughterhouse in Southern Brazil. The pneumonic lesions were classified as cranioventral, dorsocaudal, and disseminated, and the quantification of lesions was calculated. From the total of 226 lungs, 121 were collected for laboratory examination. Lungs with macroscopic lesions suggestive of pneumonia were collected for histological, bacteriological and molecular analysis. The molecular analysis was performed to detect the presence of Actinobacillus (A.) pleuropneumoniae, Glaesserella (G.) parasuis, Mycoplasma (M.) hyopneumoniae, Mycoplasma (M.) hyorhinis and Streptococcus (S.) suis serotype 2. The percentages of histological lesions and bacterial agents and their association were calculated. Cranioventral consolidation (75.2%) was the most prevalent macroscopic lung lesion, followed by disseminated (21.5%) and dorsocaudal (3.3%) distribution. Microscopically, chronic lesions were the most prevalent, representing 70.2% of the lungs. Moreover, BALT hyperplasia was present in 86.5% of the lungs, suppurative bronchopneumonia in 65.7%, and alveoli infiltrate in 46.8%. Six bacterial pathogens commonly described as agents of pig pneumonia were identified by bacterial or molecular methods: Pasteurella (P.) multocida, S. suis, M. hyopneumoniae, A. pleuropneumoniae, G. parasuis and M. hyorhinis. Twenty-eight different combinations of pathogens were identified in 84 samples (69.4%). The most common combinations were: M. hyopneumoniae and A. pleuropneumoniae (13.1%), M. hyopneumoniae, G. parasuis and M. hyorhinis (10.7%), and M. hyopneumoniae, A. pleuropneumoniae and G. parasuis (8.3%). Additionally, M. hyopneumoniae was the most frequent pathogen detected in this study, representing 58.7% of the samples. The detection of M. hyopneumoniae and M. hyorhinis by PCR was associated with the presence of BALT hyperplasia (P < 0.05) and there was also an association between the detection of M. hyopneumoniae by PCR and suppurative bronchopneumonia (P < 0.05). In addition, a significant association (P < 0.05) between the detection of M. hyopneumoniae and A. pleuropneumoniae by PCR and the histological classification (acute, subacute or chronic lesions) was observed. The results of this study were similar to those observed in slaughtered domestic pigs, although, the detection of opportunist pathogens was less frequent than that usually described in pig pneumonia. The high prevalence of pneumonia in captive wild boars at slaughter and the similar characteristics of pneumonia in captive wild boars and domestic pigs suggest that the close phylogenetic relationship between pigs and wild boars could influence the susceptibility of both species to the colonization of the same pathogens, indicating that captive wild boars raised in confined conditions could be predisposed to respiratory diseases, similar to domestic pigs.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Respiratory Tract Diseases/veterinary , Sus scrofa/physiology , Pneumonia of Swine, Mycoplasmal/diagnosis , Pneumonia of Swine, Mycoplasmal/etiology , Lung Injury/veterinary , Lung/pathology
14.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(4): 512-520, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1137306

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Ischemia-associated mortality caused by aortic cross-clamps, as in ruptured abdominal aorta aneurysm surgeries, and reperfusion following their removal represent some of the main emergency conditions in cardiovascular surgery. The purpose of our study was to examine the potential protective effect of tea grape against aortic occlusion-induced lung injury using biochemical, histopathological, immunohistochemical, and quantitative analyses. Methods: Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into four groups: control (healthy), glycerol + ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) (sham), I/R, and I/R + tea grape. Results: Following aortic occlusion, we observed apoptotic pneumocytes, thickening in the alveolar wall, edematous areas in interstitial regions, and vascular congestion. We also observed an increase in pulmonary malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and decrease in pulmonary glutathione (GSH). However, tea grape reduced apoptotic pneumocytes, edema, vascular congestion, and MDA levels, while increased GSH levels in lung tissue. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that tea grape is effective against aortic occlusion-induced lung injury by reducing oxidative stress and apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Vitis , Lung Injury/etiology , Lung Injury/prevention & control , Aorta, Abdominal/surgery , Tea , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Lung
15.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 36(2): 115-121, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138543

ABSTRACT

Ha habido mucha discusión sobre los efectos dañinos para la salud producidos por los cigarrillos electrónicos o vapeadores y su utilidad como ayuda para dejar de fumar. Cada vez aparecen más publicaciones con efectos deletéreos sobre la salud. Esta discusión se ha acentuado en los últimos años, por el importante aumento del uso de los vapeadores en todo el mundo, especialmente entre los adolescentes y adultos jóvenes. En septiembre de 2019 el Centro de Control y Prevención de Enfermedades (CDC) de los EE. UU. alertó sobre un importante número de casos de enfermedad pulmonar asociada al uso de cigarrillo electrónico (EVALI: e-cigarette or vaping associated lung injury). Epidemiológicamente se consideró un brote que al 17 de enero, 2020 ha presentado 2.668 pacientes hospitalizados, con 57 fallecidos. Durante la semana del 15 de septiembre 2019 ocurrió el 'peak' de hospitalizaciones por EVALI. La mayoría eran varones jóvenes. El 82% usó productos con Tetrahidrocanabinoides (THC) y el 14% productos con nicotina. En el lavado bronquio-alveolar de 51 casos de EVALI se encontró la presencia de acetato de Vitamina E, producto utilizado como espesante para la elaboración de productos de 'vapeo' que contienen THC, lo que lo hace un posible factor causal, pero no se puede descartar el papel de otros compuestos tóxicos. Las principales sociedades científicas del mundo y la OMS han advertido de los riesgos a largo plazo del uso de los cigarrillos electrónicos y recomiendan su control y regulación.


There has been a lot of discussion about the harmful health effects caused by electronic cigarettes or vapers and their usefulness as a smoking cessation aid. More and more publications appear with deleterious effects on health. This discussion has been straightened in recent years, due to the significant increase in the use of vapers worldwide, especially among adolescents and young adults. In September 2019, the US Center for Disease Control and Prevention warned of a significant number of cases of lung disease associated with the use of electronic cigarettes (EVALI: e-cigarette or vaping associated lung injury). Epidemiologically it was considered an outbreak that as of January 17, 2020 presented 2668 hospitalized patients, with 57 deaths. During the week of September 15, 2019 the peak of hospitalizations for EVALI occurred. The majority were young men. 82% of them used products with Tetrahydrocanabinoids (THC) and 14% products with nicotine. In the bronchoalveolar lavage of 51 cases of EVALI, the presence of Vitamin E acetate was found, a product used as a thickener for the elaboration of vaping products containing THC, which makes it a possible causal factor, but it cannot be ruled out the contribution of other toxic compounds. The world's leading scientific societies and World Health Organization have warned of the long-term risks of using electronic cigarettes and recommend their control and regulation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lung Injury/etiology , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Vaping/adverse effects , Dronabinol , Vitamin E/analysis , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/chemistry , Lung Injury/pathology , Lung Injury/epidemiology , Lung Injury/diagnostic imaging
17.
Rev. argent. reumatolg. (En línea) ; 31(1): 25-29, ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1125869

ABSTRACT

Las lesiones pulmonares cavitadas en pacientes con Lupus Eritematoso Sistémico (LES) han sido descriptas en asociación con neumonitis por citomegalovirus, o secundarias a infecciones fúngicas. Haciendo una revisión en la literatura, se han descripto 13 casos de pacientes con estas lesiones. Presentamos cuatro pacientes con diagnóstico de LES, que durante la evolución de su enfermedad desarrollan cavidades pulmonares.


Cavitary lung lesions in patients with SLE have been described in association with cytomegalovirus pneumonitis, or secondary to fungal infections. Making a review in the literature, 13 cases of patients with these lesions have been described. We present four patients diagnosed with SLE, whom developed lung cavities during the evolution of the disease.


Subject(s)
Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Pneumonia , Diagnosis , Lung Injury , Lung
18.
Rev. argent. reumatolg. (En línea) ; 31(1): 25-29, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1123752

ABSTRACT

Las lesiones pulmonares cavitadas en pacientes con Lupus Eritematoso Sistémico (LES) han sido descriptas en asociación con neumonitis por citomegalovirus, o secundarias a infecciones fúngicas. Haciendo una revisión en la literatura, se han descripto 13 casos de pacientes con estas lesiones. Presentamos cuatro pacientes con diagnóstico de LES, que durante la evolución de su enfermedad desarrollan cavidades pulmonares.


Cavitary lung lesions in patients with SLE have been described in association with cytomegalovirus pneumonitis, or secondary to fungal infections. Making a review in the literature, 13 cases of patients with these lesions have been described. We present four patients diagnosed with SLE, whom developed lung cavities during the evolution of the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Pneumonia , Lung Injury , Lung
19.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(2): e8917, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055492

ABSTRACT

This study investigates the effect of the overexpression of the placental growth factor (PGF) and hyperoxia on lung development and determines whether anti-PGF antibody ameliorates hyperoxia-mediated impairment of lung development in newborn rats. After exposure to normoxic conditions for seven days, newborn rats subjected to normoxia were intraperitoneally or intratracheally injected with physiological saline, adenovirus-negative control (Ad-NC), or adenovirus-PGF (Ad-PGF) to create the Normoxia, Normoxia+Ad-NC, and Normoxia+Ad-PGF groups, respectively. Newborn rats subjected to hyperoxia were intraperitoneally injected with physiological saline or anti-PGF antibodies to create the Hyperoxia and Hyperoxia+anti-PGF groups, respectively. Our results revealed significant augmentation in the levels of PGF and its receptor Flt-1 in the lung tissues of newborn rats belonging to the Normoxia+Ad-PGF or Hyperoxia groups. PGF overexpression in these groups caused lung injury in newborn rats, while anti-PGF antibody treatment significantly cured the hyperoxia-induced lung injury. Moreover, PGF overexpression significantly increased TNF-α and Il-6 levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of the Normoxia+Ad-PGF and Hyperoxia groups. However, their levels were significantly reduced in the BAL fluid of the Hyperoxia+anti-PGF group. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that PGF overexpression and hyperoxia treatment significantly increased the expression of the angiogenesis marker, CD34. However, its expression was significantly decreased upon administration of anti-PGF antibodies (compared to the control group under hyperoxia). In conclusion, PGF overexpression impairs lung development in newborn rats while its inhibition using an anti-PGF antibody ameliorates the same. These results provided new insights for the clinical management of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in premature infants.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Autoantibodies/metabolism , Hyperoxia/metabolism , Lung Injury/metabolism , Placenta Growth Factor/metabolism , Antibodies, Monoclonal/metabolism , Autoantibodies/immunology , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Hyperoxia/complications , Hyperoxia/diagnostic imaging , Disease Models, Animal , Lung Injury/pathology , Lung Injury/diagnostic imaging , Placenta Growth Factor/immunology , Animals, Newborn , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880769

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To elucidate the pathogenic role of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) in pulmonary hyper-permeability and inflammation induced by lung-protective mechanical ventilation (LPMV) in rabbits.@*METHODS@#Thirty-two healthy Japanese white rabbits were randomized into 4 groups for treatment with vehicle or bestatin (a leukotriene A4 hydrolase inhibitor that inhibits LTB4 production) administered intragastrically at the daily dose of 8 mg/kg for 5 days, followed by sham operation (group S and group BS, respectively, in which the rabbits were anesthetized only) or LPMV (group PM and group BPM, respectively, in which the rabbits received ventilation with 50% oxygen at a tidal volume of 8 mL/kg for 5 h). The concentrations of LTB4 and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in the lung tissues were analyzed by ELISA. cAMP content, protein kinase A (PKA) protein expression and the Rap1-GTP protein to total Rap1 protein ratio were determined to assess the activities of cAMP/PKA and Rap1 signaling pathways. The lung injury was evaluated by assessing lung permeability index, lung wet/dry weight ratio, polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), pulmonary myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and lung histological scores.@*RESULTS@#None of the examined parameters differed significantly between group S and group BS. All the parameters with the exception of lung histological score increased significantly in group PM and group BPM as compared to those in group S (@*CONCLUSIONS@#LPMV can induce LTB4 overproduction to down-regulate cAMP/PKA and Rap1 signaling pathways in the lungs of rabbits, which results in lung hyper-permeability and inflammation. Bestatin can inhibit LTB4 production in the lungs to protect against LPMV-induced lung hyper-permeability and inflammation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Leukotriene B4 , Lung , Lung Injury/prevention & control , Neutrophils , Rabbits , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects
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