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1.
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(4): 441-445, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1447632

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Morphine is an analgesic agent used for cancer pain management. There have been recent concerns that the immunosuppressant properties of morphine can also promote cancer metastasis. Morphine is an agonist for toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) that has a dual role in cancer development. The promotor or inhibitor role of morphine in cancer progression remains controversial. We investigated the effects of morphine on migration and metastasis of melanoma cells through TLR4 activation. Methods Mouse melanoma cells (B16F10) were treated with only morphine (0, 0.1, 1, and 10 μM) or in combination with a TLR4 inhibitor (morphine10 μM +CLI-095 1μM) for either 12 or 24 hours. Migration of cells was analyzed by transwell migration assays. Twenty C57BL/6 male mice were inoculated with B16F10 cells via the left ventricle of the heart and then randomly divided into two groups (n = 10 each) that received either morphine (10 mg.kg−1, sub-q) or PBS injection for 21 days (control group). Animals were euthanized and their lungs removed for evaluation of metastatic nodules. Results Morphine (0.1, 1, and 10 μM) increased cell migration after 12 hours (p < 0.001) and after 24 hours of treatment with morphine (10 μM) (p < 0.001). Treatment with CLI-095 suppressed migration compared to cells treated with morphine alone (p < 0.001). Metastatic nodules in the morphine-treated group (64 nodules) were significantly higher than in the control group (40 nodules) (p < 0.05). Conclusion Morphine increases the migration and metastasis of mouse melanoma cells by activating TLR4.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/secondary , Melanoma/pathology , Morphinum/pharmacology , Toll-Like Receptor 4
2.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 307-309, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986034

ABSTRACT

Malignant mesothelioma is a highly malignant disease that most often occurs in the pleural cavity, followed by the peritoneum and pericardium. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) accounts for 10%-15% of all mesothelioma. The most important risk factor for MPM is exposure to asbestos. MPM has no specific clinical symptoms, imaging and histopathology are critical for the diagnosis. There are currently no generally accepted guidelines for curative treatment of MPM. The patient mainly presented with abdominal pain, abdominal distension and discomfort. Due to extensive omentum metastasis, no further surgical treatment was performed. Pemetrexed combined with cisplatin chemotherapy was given for 2 cycles, and the patient is still alive.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mesothelioma, Malignant/drug therapy , Mesothelioma/diagnosis , Pemetrexed/therapeutic use , Cisplatin/therapeutic use , Peritoneal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Pleural Neoplasms , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy
3.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 66-77, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971181

ABSTRACT

Immunotherapy has significantly improved clinical outcomes of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), however, along with the popularization of immunotherapy, immune resistance has become an unavoidable problem. Immunotherapy can induce extensive cellular and molecular alterations in the tumor microenvironment. Considering the mechanisms of immune resistance are not yet fully understood and the efficacy of standard chemotherapy regimens is limited, more effective coping strategies based on resistance mechanisms are urgently needed. In this review, we intend to summarize the known mechanisms of immune resistance and feasible strategies, so as to provide a foundation for clinicians to develop more individualized and precise regimens and finally improve patients' prognosis.
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Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Prognosis , Immunotherapy , Tumor Microenvironment
4.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 103-106, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970141

ABSTRACT

Pathological diagnosis of lung cancer keep updating and developing, in order to meet the clinical needs in the era of precision medicine. It mainly involves the advances of histological subtype classification, molecular testing for targeted therapy, biomarkers detection for immunotherapy and the pathological evaluation for neoadjuvant therapy. Nowadays, pathological diagnosis of lung cancer present a multidisciplinary model including clinical medicine, radiology and pathology. It is gradually moving towards standardization with expection to provide better guidance for clinical treatment and prognosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Prognosis , Immunotherapy
5.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 182-187, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969823

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the clinical and chest computed tomography (CT) features and the outcome of immune checkpoint inhibitor-related pneumonitis (CIP). Methods: Clinical and chest CT data of 38 CIP patients with malignant tumors from the Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences between August 2017 and April 2021 were retrospectively reviewed, and the outcomes of pneumonitis were followed up. Results: The median time from the administration of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) to the onset of CIP was 72.5 days in 38 patients with CIP, and 22 patients developed CIP within 3 months after the administration of ICIs. The median occurrence time of CIP in 24 lung cancer patients was 54.5 days, earlier than 119.0 days of non-lung cancer patients (P=0.138), with no significant statistical difference. 34 patients (89.5%) were accompanied by symptoms when CIP occurred. The common clinical symptoms were cough (29 cases) and dyspnea (27 cases). The distribution of CIP on chest CT was asymmetric in 31 cases and symmetrical in 7 cases. Among the 24 lung cancer patients, inflammation was mainly distributed ipsilateral to the primary lung cancer site in 16 cases and diffusely distributed throughout the lung in 8 cases. Ground glass opacities (37 cases) and consolidation (30 cases) were the common imaging manifestations, and organizing pneumonia (OP) pattern (15 cases) was the most common pattern. In 30 CIP patients who were followed up for longer than one month, 17 cases had complete absorption (complete absorption group), and 13 cases had partial absorption or kept stable (incomplete absorption group). The median occurrence time of CIP in the complete absorption group was 55 days, shorter than 128 days of the incomplete absorption group (P=0.022). Compared with the incomplete absorption group, there were less consolidation(P=0.010) and CIP were all classified as hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) pattern (P=0.004) in the complete absorption group. Conclusions: CIP often occurs within 3 months after ICIs treatment, and the clinical and CT findings are lack of specificity. Radiologic features may have a profound value in predicting the outcome of CIP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
6.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 1-30, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969801

ABSTRACT

Primary lung cancer is the most common malignant disease and the leading cause of cancer death in China, with an estimated 828 thousand incident cases and 657 thousand deaths in 2016. Due to the absence of effective early screening methods, most patients with lung cancer are in stage Ⅳ when diagnosed. Multi-disciplinary treatment based on systemic therapy is the treatment principle for patients with stage Ⅳ lung cancer, chemotherapy is the cornerstone of stage Ⅳ lung cancer, but its efficacy is unsatisfactory. In recent years, with the rapid development of molecular targeted therapy and immunotherapy, the treatment concept has continuously changed and treatment outcome for patients has also been greatly improved. In order to update the progress in the treatment of stage Ⅳ lung cancer worldwide timely, and further improve the level of standardized diagnosis and treatment of stage Ⅳ lung cancer in China, Chinese Association for Clinical Oncologists and Medical Oncology Branch of Chinese International Exchange and Promotion Association for Medical and Healthcare organized experts to compose "Clinical Practice Guideline for Stage Ⅳ Primary Lung Cancer in China (2023 edition)" .


Subject(s)
Humans , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Immunotherapy , Molecular Targeted Therapy , China/epidemiology , Medical Oncology
7.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 429-438, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982175

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Studies have shown that the incidence and severity of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients with lung cancer are higher than those in healthy people. At present, the main anti-tumor treatments for lung cancer include surgery, immunotherapy, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, targeted therapy and anti-angiogenesis therapy. While the effects of different anti-tumor treatments on the occurrence and severity of COVID-19 pneumonia are not uniform. Therefore, we aimed to describe clinical characteristics and antitumor therapy of patients with lung cancer and COVID-19 pneumonia, and examined risk factors for severity in this population.@*METHODS@#From December 1, 2022 to February 15, 2023, a retrospective study was conducted in 217 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 and pathologically confirmed lung cancer in the Jinling Hospital. We collected data about patients' clinical features, antitumor treatment regimen within 6 months, and the diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19. Risk factors for occurrence and severity of COVID-19 pneumonia were identified by univariable and multivariable Logistic regression models.@*RESULTS@#(1) Among the 217 patients included, 51 (23.5%) developed COVID-19 pneumonia, of which 42 (82.4%) were classified as medium and 9 (17.6%) were classified as severe; (2) Univariate and multivariate analysis revealed overweight (OR=2.405, 95%CI: 1.095-5.286) and intrapulmonary focal radiotherapy (OR=2.977, 95%CI: 1.071-8.274) are risk factors for increasing occurrence of COVID-19 pneumonia, while other therapies are not; (3) Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) history (OR=7.600, 95%CI: 1.430-40.387) was more likely to develop severe pneumonia and anti-tumor therapies such as intrapulmonary focal radiotherapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy and immunotherapy did not increase severity.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Intrapulmonary focal radiation therapy within 6 months increased the incidence of COVID-19 pneumonia, but did not increase the severity. However, there was no safety concern for chemotherapy, targeted therapy, surgery and immunotherapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19 , Retrospective Studies , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Incidence , Pneumonia/etiology
8.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 400-406, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982172

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer is one of the most lethal malignancies in the world, with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounting for approximately 80%-85% of all pathological types. Approximately 30%-55% of NSCLC patients develop brain metastases. It has been reported that 5%-6% of patients with brain metastases harbor anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion. ALK-positive NSCLC patients have shown significant therapeutic benefits after treatment with ALK inhibitors. Over the past decade, ALK inhibitors have rapidly evolved and now exist in three generations: first-generation drugs such as Crizotinib; second-generation drugs including Alectinib, Brigatinib, Ceritinib, and Ensartinib; and third-generation drugs like Lorlatinib. These drugs have exhibited varying efficacy in treating brain metastases in ALK-positive NSCLC patients. However, the numerous options available for ALK inhibition present a challenge for clinical decision-making. Therefore, this review aims to provide clinical guidance by summarizing the efficacy and safety of ALK inhibitors in treating NSCLC brain metastases.
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Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Brain Neoplasms/drug therapy , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Crizotinib
9.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 445-451, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984742

ABSTRACT

Objective: To observe the present situation, efficacy and safety of immunotherapy in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Methods: The data of 39 patients with MPM in two centers from 2016 to 2021 were collected and the efficacy and safety were evaluated. According to the application of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), these patients, whose median clinical follow-up amounting to 18.97 months, were divided into immunotherapy group (19 cases) and control group (20 cases). Kaplan-Meier method and Log-rank test were used for the survival analysis. Results: The objective response rate (ORR) and the disease control rate (DCR) in the immunotherapy group is 21.05% and 79.0% respectively, compared with 10.0% and 55.0% in the control group; and the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). The median overall survival (OS) in the immunotherapy group was significantly longer than that in the control group (14.53 months vs 7.07 months, P=0.015), but there was no significant difference in the median progression free survival (PFS) between two groups (4.80 months vs 2.03 months, P=0.062). Single factor survival analysis showed that the nature of pleural effusion, pathological subtype and the efficacy of immunotherapy were related to both PFS and OS of the patients with MPM (P<0.05). The incidence of adverse reactions in immunotherapy group was 89.5% (17 out of 19 cases), and the most common adverse event was hematological toxicity (9 cases), followed by nausea and vomiting (7 cases), fatigue (6 cases) and skin damage (6 cases). Five patients had immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) related adverse reactions with grade 1-2. Conclusions: Patients with MPM have begun to receive immunotherapy in more than 2-line mainly combined chemotherapy in the real world, and the median treatment line is 2-line. Either combined with chemotherapy or anti-angiogenesis therapy, ICI inhibitors have significant efficacy, controllable adverse events and good clinical value.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mesothelioma, Malignant/drug therapy , Mesothelioma/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Immunotherapy/adverse effects
10.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1523-1531, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980918

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer has the highest risk of brain metastasis (BM) among all solid carcinomas. The emergence of BM has a significant impact on the selection of oncologic treatment for patients. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are the most promising treatment option for patients without druggable mutations and have been shown to improve survival in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) BM in clinical trials with good safety. Moreover, ICI has shown certain effects in NSCLC BM, and the overall intracranial efficacy is comparable to extracranial efficacy. However, a proportion of patients showed discordant responses in primary and metastatic lesions, suggesting that multiple mechanisms may exist underlying ICI activity in BM. According to studies pertaining to tumor immune microenvironments, ICIs may be capable of provoking immunity in situ . Meanwhile, systematic immune cells activated by ICIs can migrate into the central nervous system and exert antitumor effects. This review summarizes the present evidence for ICI treatment efficacy in NSCLC BM and proposes the possible mechanisms of ICI treatment for NSCLC BMs based on existing evidence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Brain Neoplasms/drug therapy , Carcinoma , Tumor Microenvironment
11.
In. Graña, Andrea; Calvelo, Estela; Fagúndez, Yohana. Abordaje integral del paciente con cáncer: atención desde la medicina y especialidades. Montevideo, Cuadrado, 2022. p.192-195.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1418018
12.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 303-310, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928813

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The expression of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) as a biomarker for immunotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is routinely detected in clinical pathology department. However, the spatial heterogeneity of PD-L1 expression in intrapulmonary tumors and extrapulmonary metastases is still a challenge for the clinical testing. This study aims to explore the differences of PD-L1 expression in test samples obtaining from different sites of NSCLC. This study may contribute to the detection strategy of PD-L1 in patients with advanced lung cancer.@*METHODS@#One hundred and thirty-one cases of consecutively detected PD-L1 (22c3 assay, Dako) staining in metastatic NSCLC and 972 cases of non-paired intrapulmonary NSCLC were collected. The discrepancies of tumor proportion score (TPS) of PD-L1 expression in intrapulmonary samples and extrapulmonary metastatic samples of different sites were compared.@*RESULTS@#The positive expression rate of PD-L1 in extrapulmonary metastatic NSCLC (TPS ≥ 1%) was 61.83%, and the TPS was significantly higher than that in intrapulmonary tumors (P=0.03). The PD-L1 scores of the specimens obtained from different sites were significantly different (P=0.007). The positive rates of PD-L1 in liver and adrenal metastases were 85.71% and 77.78% respectively, and their TPS were significantly higher than that of the intrapulmonary samples (P<0.05). The positive rates of PD-L1 in lymph node, bone, brain, soft tissue, and pleural metastases was 40.00%-66.67%, with no significant differences compared to intrapulmonary tumors. The analysis of histological subtype and sample type showed that the PD-L1 score of extrapulmonary samples of adenocarcinoma subtype or surgical specimen was significantly higher than that of intrapulmonary tumors. The analysis of clinicopathological parameters showed that the PD-L1 positive expression or high expression were significantly correlated with male patients, smoking history, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) wild type.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The expression of PD-L1 in metastatic NSCLC is generally higher than that in intrapulmonary tumor, and the positive rate of PD-L1 expression was discrepant in different sites of specimen. The differences of PD-L1 score between extrapulmonary metastatic samples and intrapulmonary samples may be associated with different metastatic sites, histological subtype, and specimen type.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , B7-H1 Antigen/metabolism , Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Immunohistochemistry , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy
13.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 291-294, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928811

ABSTRACT

Vascular damage is followed by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression at high levels, which is an important mechanism for cerebral radiation necrosis (CRN) development. Antiangiogenic agents (Bevacizumab) alleviates brain edema symptoms caused by CRN through inhibiting VEGF and acting on vascular tissue around the brain necrosis area. Many studies have confirmed that Bevacizumab effectively relieves symptoms caused by brain necrosis, improves patients' performance status and brain necrosis imaging. Considering that the efficacy of antiangiogenic therapy is mainly related to the duration of drug action, low-dose antiangiogenic agents can achieve favorable efficacy. Prevention is the best treatment. The occurrence of CRN is associated with tumor-related factors and treatment-related factors. By controlling these factors, CRN can be effectively prevented.
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Subject(s)
Humans , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/pharmacology , Bevacizumab/therapeutic use , Brain/metabolism , Consensus , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Necrosis/etiology , Radiation Injuries/etiology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism
14.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 259-265, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928807

ABSTRACT

Patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) usually present with poor prognosis and short survival period, and there has been a lack of effective treatment options for a long time. Chemotherapy has limited improvement in the clinical outcome of advanced patients (the median survival is less than one year), and it is difficult to find suitable targets for targeted therapy. Recent in-depth research on immunotherapy has changed the treatment pattern of MPM. Especially, the dual immunotherapy regimen significantly improved the survival outcome of patients across subgroups and prolonged the survival time of MPM patients. Therefore, it has been approved for unresectable MPM as first-line treatment for patients. The exploration of other mono or combo immunotherapy regimens in the first and second-line settings of MPM is also underway. How to identify the best beneficial population of each regimen through predictive biomarkers is also a hot spot for researchers. This article will focus on the most up-to-date progress of MPM epidemiology, histological characteristics, pathogenesis, treatment patterns and the advances of immunotherapy in the disease.
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Subject(s)
Humans , Combined Modality Therapy , Immunotherapy , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Mesothelioma/drug therapy , Mesothelioma, Malignant , Pleural Neoplasms/drug therapy
15.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 214-218, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928800

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer is one of the malignant tumors with the highest morbidity and mortality in the world. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one of the most important pathological types of lung cancer. The prognosis of advanced NSCLC is poor and medical treatment is still the main treatment option. Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are the kind of potentially new anti-tumor drugs, consisting of monoclonal antibodies conjugated to the cytotoxic payloads via the synthetic linkers. They have a broad application prospect in solid tumors such as lung cancer. This article focuses on the mechanism of action and research progress of ADCs in advanced NSCLC.
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Subject(s)
Humans , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Immunoconjugates/therapeutic use , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy
16.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 137-146, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928791

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The literature recommends that reduced dosage of CPT-11 should be applied in patients with UGT1A1 homozygous mutations, but the impact of UGT1A1 heterozygous mutations on the adverse reactions of CPT-11 is still not fully clear.@*METHODS@#A total of 107 patients with UGT1A1 heterozygous mutation or wild-type, who were treated with CPT-11 from January 2018 to September 2021 in Peking University Third Hospital, were retrospectively enrolled. The adverse reaction spectra of patients with UGT1A1*6 and UGT1A1*28 mutations were analyzed. Adverse reactions were evaluated according to National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (NCI-CTCAE) 5.0. The efficacy was evaluated according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) 1.1. The genotypes of UGT1A1*6 and UGT1A1*28 were detected by digital fluorescence molecular hybridization.@*RESULTS@#There were 43 patients with UGT1A1*6 heterozygous mutation, 26 patients with UGT1A1*28 heterozygous mutation, 8 patients with UGT1A1*6 and UGT1A1*28 double heterozygous mutations, 61 patients with heterozygous mutation at any gene locus of UGT1A1*6 and UGT1A1*28. Logistic regression analysis showed that the presence or absence of vomiting (P=0.013) and mucositis (P=0.005) was significantly correlated with heterozygous mutation of UGT1A1*28, and the severity of vomiting (P<0.001) and neutropenia (P=0.021) were significantly correlated with heterozygous mutation of UGT1A1*6. In colorectal cancer, UGT1A1*6 was significantly correlated to diarrhea (P=0.005), and the other adverse reactions spectrum was similar to that of the whole patient cohort, and efficacy and prognosis were similar between patients with different genotypes and patients treated with reduced CPT-11 dosage or not.@*CONCLUSIONS@#In clinical use, heterozygous mutations of UGT1A1*6 and UGT1A1*28 are related to the risk and severity of vomiting, diarrhea, neutropenia and mucositis in patients with Pan-tumor and colorectal cancer post CPT-11 therpy. In colorectal cancer, UGT1A1*6 is significantly related to diarrhea post CPT-11 use, efficacy and prognosis is not affected by various genotypes or CPT-11 dosage reduction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Camptothecin/therapeutic use , Glucuronosyltransferase/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Mutation , Polymorphism, Genetic , Retrospective Studies
17.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 130-136, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928790

ABSTRACT

Surgery is the standard treatment for resectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapy have been widely used for preventing recurrence and metastasis. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have brought long-term survival benefits in advanced NSCLC and showed higher downstage rates and pathological remission in the neoadjuvant setting. Predictive biomarkers are of great significance to identify the beneficiaries of neoadjuvant ICIs. At present, the biomarkers are still inconclusive. We summarized the clinical trials of neoadjuvant immune checkpoint inhibitors that have been disclosed so far, and reviewed the progress of the biomarkers associated with those trials.
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Subject(s)
Humans , Biomarkers , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoadjuvant Therapy
18.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 102-110, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928786

ABSTRACT

Programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors and PD-1 inhibitors plus chemotherapy combination regimens have been widely used in the first-line treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer(NSCLC), but patients with low PD-L1 expression have limited objective response and survival benefits. Existing treatment regimens are still difficult to fully meet the clinical needs of patients in the real world. Therefore, researchers are still exploring novel superactive treatment options to further improve the efficacy and survival prognosis of different sub-groups in NSCLC. Dual immunotherapy [such as the combination of PD-1 and cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) inhibitors] has shown considerable long-term survival benefits in a variety of tumors and has also shown broad clinical prospects in NSCLC. In addition to exploring different emerging combination options, how to accurately identify the optimal-benefit groups through predictive biomarkers and how to effectively manage the safety of combination immunotherapy through multidisciplinary collaboration are also the focus of dual immunotherapy. This article reviews the mechanism of action, research progress, predictive biomarkers and future exploration directions of dual immunotherapy.
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Subject(s)
Humans , B7-H1 Antigen/metabolism , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Immunotherapy , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Prognosis
19.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 92-101, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928785

ABSTRACT

The emergence of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has dramatically changed the therapeutic outlook for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Preoperative neoadjuvant immunotherapy has been paid more and more attention as an effective and safe treatment. Neoadjuvant immune therapy, however, the relevant research started late, relatively few research results and mainly focused on the small sample size of phase I and II studies, treatment itself exists many places it is not clear, also in benefit population screening, the respect such as the choice of treatment and curative effect prediction has not yet reached broad consensus. This paper reviews the important studies and recent achievements related to neoadjuvant immunotherapy, aiming to comprehensively discuss the procedures and existing problems of this kind of therapy from three aspects of beneficiary groups, treatment cycle and efficacy prediction.
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Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors , Immunotherapy/methods , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoadjuvant Therapy
20.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 66-70, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928781

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Primary lung squamous carcinoma that produces alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is rare and only four related cases have been reported so far. The specific reasons for elevated serum level of AFP and effective treatment regimens for AFP-producing lung squamous carcinoma are not clear. This paper reports the diagnosis and treatment of AFP-producing lung squamous carcinoma so as to provide some references for similar cases in clinical practice.@*METHODS@#The diagnosis and treatment of an AFP-producing lung squamous carcinoma patient admitted to the Shandong Cancer Hospital on October 23, 2020 was retrospectively analyzed, and literatures were reviewed.@*RESULTS@#A 52-year-old male patient was diagnosed as T4N3M0 stage, IIIc right upper lobe lung squamous cell carcinoma with mediastinal lymph node metastasis and multiple metastases in the lung. The main tumor marker was abnormally increased serum AFP. After the rapid progression of two lines chemotherapy, the patient was given anlotinib combined with carrizumab as third-line treatment. The efficacy evaluation reached to partial response (PR) and stable disease (SD) after 2 and 4 cycles of treatment, respectively. The treatment regimen was replaced with albumin paclitaxel plus carrizumab due to gastrointestinal bleeding after the fifth cycle. The patient's condition was under continuous control.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The AFP-producing lung squamous carcinoma patient had a good response to anlotinib and immunotherapy in the case report, which may provide some guidances for the clinical practice and the research on AFP-producing lung squamous carcinoma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/drug therapy , Lung , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , alpha-Fetoproteins
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