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1.
Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires; Comisión Nacional de Evaluación de Tecnologías de Salud; Marzo 2021. 30 p. (Informe de Evaluación de Tecnologías Sanitarias N°10, 10).
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, ARGMSAL | ID: biblio-1151681

ABSTRACT

El presente informe es producto del trabajo colaborativo de la Comisión Nacional de Evaluación de Tecnologías de Salud (CONETEC), dependiente del Ministerio de Salud de la Nación y creada por RM N° 623/2018. La CONETEC realiza evaluaciones y emite recomendaciones a la autoridad sanitaria sobre la incorporación, forma de uso, financiamiento y políticas de cobertura de las tecnologías sanitarias desde una perspectiva global del sistema de salud argentino. En sus evaluaciones y recomendaciones, la CONETEC tiene en cuenta criterios de calidad, seguridad, efectividad, eficiencia y equidad, evaluados bajo dimensiones éticas, médicas, económicas y sociales. Sus resultados son consensuados mediante discusiones públicas y ponderados a través de un marco de valor explícito, con la participación de todos los actores involucrados en el proceso de toma de decisiones en salud. Los informes y recomendaciones de esta comisión surgen de este proceso público, transparente y colaborativo, siendo de libre consulta y acceso para toda la sociedad.


Subject(s)
Nivolumab , Lung Neoplasms , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/epidemiology
2.
Rev. medica electron ; 43(1): 2942-2953,
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156786

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La COVID 19 es una enfermedad pandémica producida por el virus SARS-CoV-2, tiene dentro de los grupos vulnerables al cáncer de pulmón por presentar una inmunodepresión adquirida por los tratamientos oncoespecíficos administrados y esto conlleva a una mayor exposición a complicaciones si se contrae esta terrible infección que azota al mundo en la actualidad. El objetivo fue exponer los riesgos y complicaciones que tienen los pacientes con cáncer de pulmón que reciben tratamientos oncoespecíficos si se infectan con el SARS-COV-2. Se realizó una revisión sistemática de los principales artículos publicados en inglés y en español por autores cubanos y extranjeros en revistas de alto impacto a nivel mundial, información reportada por la Organización Mundial de la Salud, la red de Infomed y el Ministerio de Salud Pública de Cuba. Se concluyó que los pacientes con cáncer de pulmón no presentan un riesgo superior a la población general para contraer la COVID 19, sí existe cierta evidencia de que estos pacientes puedan sufrir una infección más grave si la adquieren (AU).


SUMMARY COVID-19 is a pandemic disease produced by SARS-CoV-2 virus; the group of patients with lung cancer is vulnerable to this disease because of presenting an acquired immune depression due to administered oncospecific treatments, leading to higher exposition to complications if the patient gets this terrible disease striking worldwide nowadays. The objective of this review was exposing the risk and complications affronted by patients suffering lung cancer with oncospecific treatment if they get infected by SARS-CoV-2. The authors carried out a systematic review of the main articles published in Spanish and English by Cuban and foreign authors in high impact journals around the world, information reported by the World Health Organization, INFOMED and the Ministry of Public Health of Cuba. It was concluded that patients with lung cancer are not at a higher risk of catching COVID-19 than general population; it does exist certain evidence of that these patients could suffer a more serious infection if they get the disease (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Risk Factors , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Immune System/physiopathology , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Database , Drug Therapy , Immunotherapy , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879054

ABSTRACT

This study is to observe whether platycodin D has the guiding role in treatment of mouse lung cancer with doxorubicin and explore its guiding mechanism. In vitro, platycodin D and doxorubicin(alone or in combination) were added into Lewis lung cancer(LLC) cells to detect the cell proliferation and doxorubicin uptake. Cell morphological changes were analyzed by cell holographic analysis system; cell gap junctional intercellular communication(GJIC) was tested by fluorescent yellow tracer; lyso-tracker red was used to examine lysosomal function; LC-3 B(Light chain 3 beta)and P62(heat shock 90-like protein)staining were used to test auto-phagy and autophagic degradation respectively; and P-glycoprotein(P-gp) expression was examined by Western blot. In vivo, lung solid tumor was formed in mouse LLC cells via intravenous injection. Platycodin D and doxorubicin(alone or in combination) were used to treat tumor-bearing mice for four weeks, and then the tumor size was examined, mouse survival time was recorded, doxorubicin uptake in lung tissues was tested, and lung tissues were stained for observation by HE(hematoxylin-eosin) and immunohistochemistry. The results showed that platycodin D at the experimental concentration had no effect on LLC cell proliferation but decreased LLC cell volume, promoted the cells to uptake doxorubicin and enhanced the inhibitory action of doxorubicin on cell proliferation. Platycodin D could promote GJIC and lysosomal function, increase autophagy and autophagic degradation and suppress P-gp expression. Platycodin D at the experimental dose in this study had no effect on LLC lung solid tumors in mice, increased doxorubicin uptake in lung tissues and enhanced the therapeutic efficacy of doxorubicin on lung solid tumors. Platycodin D could improve the extracellular matrix deposition in lung solid tumors, decreased the lung mucin 5 AC secretion and pulmonary vessel permeability. In summary, platycodin D had the guiding role in treating mouse lung cancer with doxorubicin, and its guiding mechanism may be associated with the promotion of cell communication, lysosomal function, and improvement of extracellular environment.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Line, Tumor , Doxorubicin , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Mice , Saponins , Triterpenes
4.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(2): e9017, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1142574

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-cancer effect of melittin on growth, migration, invasion, and apoptosis of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. This study also explored the potential anti-cancer mechanism of melittin in NSCLC cells. The results demonstrated that melittin suppressed growth, migration, and invasion, and induced apoptosis of NSCLC cells in vitro. Melittin increased pro-apoptotic caspase-3 and Apaf-1 gene expression. Melittin inhibited tumor growth factor (TGF)-β expression and phosphorylated ERK/total ERK (pERK/tERK) in NSCLC cells. However, TGF-β overexpression (pTGF-β) abolished melittin-decreased TGF-β expression and pERK/tERK in NSCLC cells. Treatment with melittin suppressed tumor growth and prolonged mouse survival during the 120-day observation in vivo. Treatment with melittin increased TUNEL-positive cells and decreased expression levels of TGF-β and ERK in tumor tissue compared to the control group. In conclusion, the findings of this study indicated that melittin inhibited growth, migration, and invasion, and induced apoptosis of NSCLC cells through down-regulation of TGF-β-mediated ERK signaling pathway, suggesting melittin may be a promising anti-cancer agent for NSCLC therapy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Apoptosis , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Melitten/pharmacology , Down-Regulation , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Cell Movement , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Caspase 3 , Apoptotic Protease-Activating Factor 1 , Neoplasm Invasiveness
5.
Clinics ; 76: e2251, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153972

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. However, factors associated with the survival of patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who received only hospice care are largely unclear. In this study, we aimed to determine the prognostic factors correlated with survival in patients with advanced NSCLC who had undergone hospice care only. METHODS: A total of 102 patients with recurrent stage III/IV NSCLC after traditional treatment failure were investigated. Survival was measured from the date of enrollment to December 2019 or the time of death. Tumor tissues were collected, and DNA sequencing was performed to identify somatic mutations. Data on clinical factors of patients were collected and analyzed by univariate and multivariate analyses. Overall survival analysis was conducted using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: The 6-month, 1-year, and 2-year overall survival rates of the 102 patients with metastatic NSCLC were 17.65%, 3.92%, and 0.98%, respectively. The median overall survival of the 102 patients was 3.15 months. Tumor location in the peripheral lung, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor history, low tumor mutation load, adenocarcinoma, and poor performance status score were associated with prolonged survival compared with tumor location in the central lung, no EGFR inhibitor history, high tumor mutation load, squamous cell carcinoma, and good performance status score (p=0.045, p=0.003, p=0.045, p=0.021, and p=0.0003, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: EGFR inhibitor treatment history and tumor mutation load are risk factors for the overall survival of patients with stage III/IV NSCLC who have undergone only hospice care. These results provide a critical clinical basis for further study of nontraditional anti-tumor responses induced by EGFR inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , ErbB Receptors/genetics , Mutation , Neoplasm Staging
6.
Rev. colomb. cancerol ; 24(2): 88-91, abr.-jun. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144325

ABSTRACT

Resumen El carcinoma de célula pequeña (CPCP) o microcítico de pulmón es un subtipo de cáncer de pulmón que típicamente se ha asociado al tabaquismo y que se caracteriza por su agresividad y mal pronóstico a corto plazo. Como entidad, puede metastatizar en cualquier órgano, siendo las metástasis pancreáticas raras y la mayoría de las veces asintomáticas. Por ello, la presencia de una pancreatitis neoplásica, como en el caso presentado, es excepcional, y aún más cuando presenta refractariedad al tratamiento médico convencional y responde al tratamiento citotóxico sistémico. Por todo ello, se expone esta experiencia clínica y se debate la presencia de esta rara entidad y su manejo.


Abstract Small-cell lung carcinoma is a subtype of neoplasm that has been typically associated with smoking; it is characterized by its aggressiveness and poor prognosis in the short term. As an entity, it can metastasize in any organ, but pancreatic metastases are rare and most of the time asymptomatic. Therefore, the presence of neoplastic pancreatitis as in our case is exceptional; even more when it presents refractoriness to conventional medical treatment, responding instead to systemic cytotoxic treatment. Therefore, we expose our clinical experience and discuss the presence of this rare entity and its management.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pancreatic Neoplasms/secondary , Pancreatitis/etiology , Small Cell Lung Carcinoma/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Pancreatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Pancreatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Tobacco Use Disorder/complications , Acute Disease , Cisplatin/therapeutic use , Etoposide/therapeutic use , Small Cell Lung Carcinoma/drug therapy , Small Cell Lung Carcinoma/diagnostic imaging , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878803

ABSTRACT

In the current study, schisandrin B(SchB)-loaded F127 modified lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles(SchB-F-LPNs) were developed to improve the inhibition of breast cancer lung metastasis. Modified nanoprecipitation method was used to prepare SchB-F-LPNs. The nanoparticles were spherical in shape with shell-core structure by TEM observation. SchB-F-LPNs showed a mean particle size of(234.60±6.11) nm with zeta potential of(-5.88±0.49) mV. XRD results indicated that SchB existed in the nanoparticles in an amorphous state. The apparent permeability coefficient through porcine mucus of F-LPNs was 1.43-fold of that of LPNs as shown in the in vitro mucus penetration study. The pharmacokinetics study showed that the C_(max) of SchB was(369.06±146.94) μg·L~(-1),(1 121.34±91.65) μg·L~(-1) and(2 951.91±360.53) μg·L~(-1) respectively in SchB suspensions group, SchB-LPNs group and SchB-F-LPNs group after oral administration in rats. With SchB suspensions as the reference formulation, the relative bioavailability of SchB-F-LPNs was 568.60%. SchB-F-LPNs inhibited the morphological change during transforming growth factor-β1(TGF-β1)-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition. In addition, SchB-F-LPNs significantly decreased the number of metastatic pulmonary nodules in 4 T1 tumor-bearing mice, suggesting that SchB-F-LPNs may inhibit the metastasis of breast cancer. These results reveal the promising potential of SchB-F-LPNs in treatment of breast cancer lung metastasis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cyclooctanes , Lignans , Lipids , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Mice , Nanoparticles , Polycyclic Compounds , Polyethylenes , Polymers , Polypropylenes , Rats , Swine
8.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2987-2997, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877884

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer is a malignant tumor characterized by a rapid proliferation rate, less survivability, high mortality, and metastatic potential. This review focuses on updated research about the clinical application of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) as an adjuvant therapy to lung cancer treatment and the mechanisms of TCM effect on lung cancer in vitro and in vivo. We summarized the recent 5 years of different research progress on clinical applications and antitumor mechanisms of TCM in the treatment of lung cancer. As a potent adjuvant therapy, TCM could enhance conventional treatments (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and epidermal growth factor receptors [EGFRs] tyrosine kinase inhibitors [TKIs]) effects as well as provide synergistic effects, enhance chemotherapy drugs chemosensitivity, reverse drug resistance, reduce adverse reactions and toxicity, relieve patients' pain and improve quality of life (QOL). After treating with TCM, lung cancer cells will induce apoptosis and/or autophagy, suppress metastasis, impact immune reaction, and therapeutic effect of EGFR-TKIs. Therefore, TCM is a promisingly potent adjuvant therapy in the treatment of lung cancer and its multiple mechanisms are worthy of an in-depth study.


Subject(s)
Combined Modality Therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Protein Kinase Inhibitors , Quality of Life
9.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2444-2455, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877859

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the research of immune checkpoint inhibitors has made a great breakthrough in lung cancer treatment. Currently, a variety of immune checkpoint inhibitors have been applied into clinical practice, including antibodies targeting the programmed cell death-1, programmed cell death-ligand 1, and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4, and so on. However, not all patients can benefit from the treatment. Abnormal antigen presentation, functional gene mutation, tumor microenvironment, and other factors can lead to primary or secondary resistance. In this paper, we reviewed the molecular mechanism of immune checkpoint inhibitor resistance and various combination strategies to overcome resistance, in order to expand the beneficial population and enable precision medicine.


Subject(s)
B7-H1 Antigen , CTLA-4 Antigen , Drug Resistance , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors , Immunotherapy , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Tumor Microenvironment
10.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2466-2475, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877853

ABSTRACT

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are widely used in lung cancer therapy due to their effectiveness and minimal side effects. However, only a few lung cancer patients benefit from ICI therapy, driving the need to develop alternative biomarkers. Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) molecules expressed in tumor cells and immune cells play a key role in the immune checkpoint pathway. Therefore, PD-L1 expression is a prognostic biomarker in evaluating the effectiveness of programmed death-1 (PD-1)/PD-L1 inhibitors. Nevertheless, adverse predictive outcomes suggest that other factors are implicated in the response. In this review, we present a detailed introduction of existing biomarkers concerning tumor abnormality and host immunity. PD-L1 expression, tumor mutation burden, neoantigens, specific gene mutations, circulating tumor DNA, human leukocyte antigen class I, tumor microenvironment, peripheral inflammatory cells, and microbiome are discussed in detail. To sum up, this review provides information on the current application and future prospects of ICI biomarkers.


Subject(s)
B7-H1 Antigen , Biomarkers, Tumor , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Tumor Microenvironment
11.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 807-816, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877492

ABSTRACT

Anlotinib hydrochloride is the only anti-angiogenic, multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, which has been approved for non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer in China. In order to provide guidance for clinical practitioners to use anlotinib hydrochloride safely and efficiently, the Chinese Association for Clinical Oncologists, the Expert Committee of Vascular Targeted Therapy of Chinese Society of Clincal Oncology and the Cancer Targeted Therapy Professional Committee of China Anti-Cancer Association co-organized experts and integrated multiple evidences of Anlotinib Hydrochloride, from both clinical trial, post-marketed clinical data and the associated experiences of experts accumulated in clinical practice, etc. The present consensus covers the clinical data of anlotinib hydrochloride applied in advanced non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer, and the safety management recommendations.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , China , Consensus , Humans , Indoles/therapeutic use , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Quinolines/therapeutic use
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(6): e8694, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1132522

ABSTRACT

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors. Ethanol extract of Antrodia cinnamomea (EEA) has been widely studied for its health benefits including anticancer effects. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of EEA on HNSCC. Cell proliferation, transwell, and wound healing assays were performed. The impact of EEA on tumor growth was investigated using a xenograft model. Expressions of migration-related proteins (MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2) and apoptosis-related proteins (cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved PARP) were determined using western blot analysis. The results indicated that EEA significantly inhibited the capacities of proliferation, invasion, and migration of HNSCC cells in a dose-dependent manner. Cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved PARP expressions were increased in cells treated with an increasing concentration of EEA, which suggested that EEA induced apoptosis of HNSCC. MMP-2 and MMP-9 were downregulated when cells were administered EEA, while TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 were not affected, which uncovered the mechanisms mediating the EEA-induced inhibition on cell invasion and migration. The animal experiment also suggested that EEA inhibited tumor growth. Our study confirmed the inhibitive effects of EEA on cell proliferation, invasion, and migration of HNSCC in vitro and in vivo, providing the basis for further study of the application of EEA as an effective candidate for cancer treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Rabbits , Biological Products/pharmacology , Ethanol/pharmacology , Antrodia/chemistry , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Time Factors , Blotting, Western , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Ethanol/isolation & purification , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Mice, Inbred BALB C
13.
Clinics ; 75: e1777, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133470

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the molecular testing and treatment patterns in a retrospective cohort of newly diagnosed treatment-naïve patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: This is an observational retrospective cohort study conducted across 10 cancer centers in Brazil. Treatment-naïve patients with locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC were enrolled from January to December 2014. The following data were collected from the medical records of patients from diagnosis until the last record (death, loss to follow-up, or the end of the maximum follow-up period): demographics; medical history; smoking status; disease characteristics; previous treatments; and molecular testing patterns and results. The overall survival (OS) was also estimated. Results: A total of 391 patients from 8 different Brazilian states were included, with a median age of 64.1 years (23.7-98.7), with most patients being males (60.1%). The smoking status of 74.2% of patients was a 'former' or 'current smoker'. Stage IV NSCLC at diagnosis was observed in 82.4% of patients, with 269 of them (68.8%) presenting adenocarcinoma (ADC). Among the stage IV ADC patients, 54.0% were referred for molecular testing. Among the patients with an available epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status, 31 (24.0%) were EGFR-positive. The first-line treatment was a platinum-based chemotherapy for 98 patients (25.1%), while non-platinum-based regimens were used in 54 patients (13.8%). OS data were available for 370 patients, with a median OS of 10.8 months. Never smokers had a significantly higher median OS versus current or former smokers (14.6 versus 9.1 months; log-rank p=0.003). Among the patients for whom molecular testing data were available, those with EGFR-positive results had a longer median OS (34.6 versus 12.8 months; log-rank p=0.003). Conclusion: Our findings provide relevant information for prescribers and policy decision-makers by highlighting the unmet needs of patients and the importance of molecular testing in newly diagnosed locally advanced or metastatic lung adenocarcinoma. We also highlight the respective EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment when the result is positive and the areas in which further efforts are required to grant access to effective treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Brazil , Retrospective Studies , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Protein Kinase Inhibitors , Mutation
14.
Rev. bras. cancerol ; 66(1)20200129.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049323

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Three vanadium complexes with orotic and glutamic acids, in their anion forms, were prepared and their in vitro cytotoxicity toward human lung fibroblasts (MRC-5), human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) and human colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) are reported. Objective: Describe the synthesis and characterization of new vanadium complexes with orotic and glutamic acids, and test its antitumor activity against HepG2 and Caco-2. Method: The complexes were formulated as VO (oro), VO (α-glu) and VO (γ-glu) based on chemical, thermogravimetric analyses and infrared spectra. Results: Resazurin assay demonstrates its cytotoxicity against the HepG2 and Caco-2 cell lines with the IC50 ranging from 7.90 to 44.56 µmol.L-1. The cytotoxicity profiles indicate that the tumoral lines show more activity than the cells MRC-5, with selectivity indexes ranging from 1.58 to 8.96. Conclusion: The three complexes had better in vitro activity than cisplatin for both normal and cancer cell lines. The IC50 values are two to six times better for the cancer cell ines and five to seven times better for the normal cell lines. This study indicates that the complexes obtained are promising candidates for antitumor drugs.


Introdução: Foram preparados três complexos de vanádio com ácidos orótico e glutâmico, em suas formas aniônicas, e foi testada sua citotoxicidade in vitro para fibroblastos pulmonares humanos (MRC-5), carcinoma hepatocelular humano (HepG2) e adenocarcinoma colorretal humano (Caco-2). Objetivo: Descrever a síntese e caracterização de novos complexos de vanádio com ácidos orótico e glutâmico e testar sua atividade antitumoral contra HepG2 e Caco-2. Método: Os complexos foram formulados como VO (oro), VO (α-glu) e VO (γ-glu) com base em análises químicas, termogravimétricas e espectros no infravermelho. Resultados: O ensaio de resazurina demonstrou sua citotoxicidade contra as linhagens celulares HepG2 e Caco-2 com o IC50 variando de 7,90 a 44,56 µmol.L-1. Os perfis de citotoxicidade indicam que as linhas tumorais apresentam maior atividade que as células MRC-5, com índices de seletividade variando de 1,58 a 8,96. Conclusão: Os três complexos tiveram melhor atividade in vitro do que a cisplatina, tanto para linhagens celulares normais como cancerosas. Os valores de IC50 são de duas a seis vezes melhores para as linhagens celulares cancerosas e de cinco a sete vezes melhores para as linhagens celulares normais. Este estudo indica que os complexos obtidos são promissores candidatos a fármacos antitumorais.


Introducción: Tres complejos de vanadio con ácidos orótico y glutámico, en sus formas aniónicas, fueram preparados. Su citotoxicidad in vitro hacia los fibroblastos pulmonares humanos (MRC-5), el carcinoma hepatocelular humano (HepG2) y el adenocarcinoma colorrectal humano (Caco-2) son reportados. Objetivo: Los principales objetivos de este trabajo son describir la síntesis y caracterización de nuevos complejos de vanadio con ácidos orótico y glutámico y probar su actividad antitumoral contra el HepG2 y el Caco-2. Método: Los complejos fueron formulados como VO (oro), VO (α-glu) y VO (γ-glu) basados en análisis químicos, termogravimétricos y espectros infrarrojos. El ensayo de resazurina demuestra su citotoxicidad contra las líneas celulares HepG2 y Caco-2 con el IC50 que van de 7,90 a 44,56 µmol.L-1. Los perfiles de citotoxicidad indican que las líneas tumorales presentan mayor actividad que los MRC-5, con índices de selectividad que van de 1,58 a 8,96. Conclusión: Los tres complejos tuvieron mejor actividad in vitro que el cisplatino, tanto para líneas celulares normales como para líneas celulares cancerosas. Los valores del IC50 son de dos a seis veces mejores para las líneas celulares de cáncer y de cinco a siete veces mejores para las líneas celulares normales. Este estudio indica que los complejos obtenidos son candidatos prometedores para fármacos antitumorales.


Subject(s)
Humans , Orotic Acid/pharmacology , Vanadium Compounds/pharmacology , Glutamic Acid/pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor/drug effects , In Vitro Techniques , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/drug therapy , Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts/drug effects , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology
15.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 137(6): 505-511, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094519

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the fourth most common cancer in Brazil. In the 2000s, better understanding of molecular pathways led to development of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted treatments that have improved outcomes. However, these treatments are unavailable in most Brazilian public healthcare services (Sistema Único de Saúde, SUS). OBJECTIVE: To assess the potential number of years of life not saved, the budget impact of the treatment and strategies to improve access. DESIGN AND SETTING: Pharmacoeconomic study assessing the potential societal and economic impact of adopting EGFR-targeted therapy within SUS. METHODS: We estimated the number of cases eligible for treatment, using epidemiological data from the National Cancer Institute. We used data from a single meta-analysis and from the Lung Cancer Mutation Consortium (LCMC) study as the basis for assessing differences in patients' survival between use of targeted therapy and use of chemotherapy. The costs of targeted treatment were based on the national reference and were compared with the amount reimbursed for chemotherapy through SUS. RESULTS: There was no life-year gain with EGFR-targeted therapy in the single meta-analysis (hazard ratio, HR, 1.01). The LCMC showed that 1,556 potential life-years were not saved annually. We estimated that the annual budget impact was 125 million Brazilian reais (BRL) with erlotinib, 48 million BRL with gefitinib and 52 million BRL with afatinib. Their incremental costs over chemotherapy per life-year saved were 80,329 BRL, 31,011 BRL and 33,225 BRL, respectively. A drug acquisition discount may decrease the budget impact by 30% (with a 20% discount). A fixed cost of 1,000 BRL may decrease the budget impact by 95%. CONCLUSION: Reducing drug acquisition costs may improve access to EGFR-targeted therapy for lung cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Health Care Costs , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/economics , ErbB Receptors/economics , Lung Neoplasms/economics , Quinazolines/economics , Quinazolines/therapeutic use , Brazil , Budgets , Survival Analysis , Cost-Benefit Analysis/economics , Risk Sharing, Financial/methods , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Molecular Targeted Therapy/economics , ErbB Receptors/therapeutic use , Health Services Accessibility/economics , Lung Neoplasms/mortality , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy
16.
Rev. medica electron ; 41(2): 410-422, mar.-abr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1004277

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: las metástasis cerebrales cuando aparecen en el curso de un cáncer de pulmón reportan una precaria supervivencia al paciente, los tratamientos incluyen la cirugía o radiocirurgía. La radioterapia holocraneal constituye el estándar cuando los tratamientos locales no son posibles. Se han reportado respuestas del cerebro a la quimioterapia a un nivel comparable al de la enfermedad extra craneal, por lo que la terapia sistémica es una opción razonable para los pacientes sin síntomas neurológicos, o con síntomas relativamente controlados. Objetivo: evaluar la supervivencia de los pacientes según esquemas de tratamientos recibidos. Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo en pacientes con diagnóstico cito-histológico de cáncer de pulmón y metástasis cerebral, atendidos en la consulta externa del Centro Oncológico Provincial de Matanzas, en el período comprendido desde enero del 2013 a diciembre del 2016. Para obtener los datos de los tratamientos realizados, determinar fecha de fallecimiento o de última noticia del paciente se utilizaron las historias clínicas de los enfermos y las bases de datos del Servicio de Radioterapia del Centro. Resultados: el 86,5% de los pacientes recibieron tratamiento con quimioterapia de primera línea, el 76% radioterapia al cerebro y el 61,5% con nimotuzumab. Conclusiones: la aplicación de la quimioterapia, la radioterapia holocraneal y la inmunoterapia tuvieron un valor significativo, proporcionando un aumento de la supervivencia de los pacientes estudiados.


ABSTRACT Introduction: brain metastasis report a precarious survival when they appear during the course of a lung cancer. The treatments include surgery or radiosurgery. Whole brain radiotherapy is the standard treatment when the local ones are not possible. There are reports of brain answer to chemotherapy at the level of extra brain diseases; therefore, systemic therapy is a reasonable option for the patients without neurological symptoms, or with relatively controlled symptoms. Objective: to assess the patients´ survival according to the schemes of the received treatments. Materials and methods: a retrospective descriptive study was carried out in patients with cytohistological diagnosis of lung cancer and brain metastasis, who attended the external consultation of the Provincial Oncological Center of Matanzas in the period from January 2013 to December 2016. The clinical records and databases of the Radiotherapy Service of the Center were used to obtain the data of the treatments carried out, the patients' date of dead or of the last information about them. Results: 86.5 % of the patients received treatment with front-line chemotherapy, 76 % brain radiotherapy, and 61.5 % with Nimotuzumab. Conclusions: the application of chemotherapy, whole brain radiotherapy and immunotherapy achieved great improvement, increasing the survival of the studied patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Lung Neoplasms/mortality , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Neoplasm Metastasis/diagnosis , Neoplasm Metastasis/drug therapy , Neoplasm Metastasis/radiotherapy , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prospective Studies
17.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2019. 113 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1015182

ABSTRACT

O câncer de pulmão é o tipo de câncer que apresenta o maior índice de mortalidade em todo o mundo. As alterações genéticas mais frequentes em câncer de pulmão são as mutações pontuais no oncogene que codifica a GTPase KRAS. Apesar destas mutações estarem diretamente ligadas à oncogênese, terapias que visam inibir diretamente a proteína Ras falharam em ensaios clínicos. Uma das propriedades mais importantes na oncogênese é a aquisição de capacidade metastática tumoral. Desta forma, o objetivo deste projeto é identificar alvos terapêuticos que inibam as metástases tumorais induzidas pelo oncogene KRAS no pulmão. Com base em relatos recentes mostrando que a forma oncogênica de KRAS promove, não só a iniciação tumoral, mas também promove a aquisição de um fenótipo metastático, a hipótese deste projeto é que (1) a capacidade mestastática tumoral induzida por KRAS no pulmão é potencializada pela quinase IKKß; e (2) que a inibição desta quinase reduzirá a capacidade invasiva celular e metastática tumoral. Esta hipótese foi formulada com base em estudos anteriores, os quais demonstraram que o principal substrato da IKKß, o fator de transcrição NF-κB, é ativado por KRAS em tumores pulmonares in situ de forma dependente da IKKß, que o NF-κB é capaz de promover metástase em diferentes modelos tumorais, e que a inibição da atividade da IKKß com um inibidor farmacológico em um modelo animal de câncer de pulmão induzido por KRAS, diminui o crescimento tumoral e a progressão tumoral para graus histológicos mais avançados. Nosso objetivo era avaliar se a inibição de IKKß é capaz de afetar a migração e invasão de células portadoras de mutação em KRAS in vitro e se a inibição de IKKß é capaz de afetar a capacidade metatática dessas células in vivo. Primeiramente, avaliamos a expressão de enzimas relacionadas ao fenótipo metastático, as metaloproteinases de matriz 2 e 9 (MMP-2 e MMP-9) e, também uma molécula intimamente relacionada ao processo de adesão mediado por integrinas, FAK (quinase de adesão focal), frente a inibição de IKKß através de um inibidor farmacológico altamente especifico (Composto A) e frente a inibição genética de IKKß por interferência de RNA (siRNA) em células A549 e H358. Avaliamos também a atividade das MMPs frente inibição genética de KRAS (siKRAS) e IKKß (siIKKß) e vimos que IKKß parece modular a expressão ou atividade de MMP-9 e reduz a expressão de FAK. Já a expressão de MMP-2 não apresentou alteração. Posteriormente avaliamos migração na célula A549 e invasão nas células A549 e H358 com inibição de IKKß, por ensaios Transwell, e observamos uma redução da migração e invasão celular in vitro. Em seguida, fomos gerar linhagens celulares paraa expressar luciferase, as linhagens A549 pLUC e H358 pLUC. Os clones A549 pLUC B4 e H358 pLUC F1 com inibição de KRAS e IKKß por interferência de RNA, foram injetados pela veia da cauda nesses camundongos e as metástases foram monitoradas por imageamento in vivo. Houve metástases em 20% dos animais com siIKKß na região anatômica da boca. Os animais que receberam siControle e siKRAS não apresentaram nenhuma metástase visível no equipamento, mas foi observado micrometástases nas análises histológicas dos pulmões. O resultado do experimento de metástase in vivo é inesperado, não só pelo fato de ocorrer no grupo experimental siIKKß, mas também pelo local anatômico do tumor, sendo necessária uma maior investigação do papel de IKKß nesse processo, podendo ser um resultado aleatório. Quando avaliamos em conjunto, nossos resultados sugerem que a quinase IKKß desempenha um papel importante no fenótipo migratório e invasivo de células pulmonares portadoras de KRAS oncogênica, contribuindo para a capacidade metastática


Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. The most frequent genetic changes found in lung cancer are driver mutations in the KRAS proto-oncogene. Even though KRAS mutations have been causally linked to the oncogenic process, therapies targeted to oncogenic RAS have failed in clinical trials. One of the main characteristics in oncogenesis is the ability of tumors to acquire metastatic capability. The objective of this project is to identify therapeutic targets that reduce KRASinduced lung cancer metastasis. Based on previous reports that oncogenic KRAS, drives not only tumor initiation, but also promotes a metastatic phenotype, the hypothesis of this project is that (1) the acquisition of metastatic ability induced by KRAS in the lung is potentiated by the IKK kinase; and (2) that IKKß inhibition will reduce KRAS-induced cell invasive properties and KRAS-induced tumor metastasis. This hypothesis has been formulated on the basis of previous studies showing that the main IKKß substrate, the transcription factor NF-κB, is activated by KRAS in lung tumors in situ in an IKKß-dependent manner, that NF-κB is known to promote metastasis in different tumor models, and that pharmacological IKKß inhibition in a KRAS-induced lung cancer mouse model reduces tumor growth and progression to higher histological tumor grades. Our goal was evaluate how inhibition of IKKß affects migration and invasion of KRAS-positive lung cells in vitro and whether inhibition of IKKß is capable of affecting the metatactic capacity of these cells in vivo. First, we evaluated the expression of enzymes involved in the metastatic phenotype, matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 (MMP-2 and MMP-9) and also a molecule involved in the integrinmediated adhesion, FAK (focal adhesion kinase), we targeted IKKß by a highly specific IKK inhibitor (Compound A) or with RNA interference in A549 and H358 cells. We also used colorimetric Matrix Biotrak Activity Assay System to measure the activity of MMPs with RNA interference for KRAS (siKRAS) and IKKß (IKKß) and we have seen that IKKß appears to modulate the expression or activity of MMP-9 and decreases the expression of FAK. The expression of MMP-2 did not change. Then we evaluated migration in A549 cell and invasion in A549 and H358 cells with inhibition of IKK by RNA interference or with Compound A treatment in Transwell assays, and observed a significantly reduced cell migration and invasion in vitro. We then generated cell lines to express luciferase, the A549 pLUC and H358 pLUC lines. A549 pLUC B4 and H358 pLUC F1 cells with RNA interference for KRAS and IKKß were injected in the tail vein in nude (balb/c) mice and metastases were monitored by in vivo imaging. There were metastases in 20% of IKKß animals in the anatomical region of the mouth. Animals that received siControl and siKRAS had no visible metastasis in the live imaging, but micrometastases were observed in the histological analyzes of the lungs. The result of this experiment is unexpected, not only due to the fact that it occurs in the IKKß experimental group, but also due to the anatomical site of the tumor, and a further investigation of the role of IKKß in this process, can be a random result. When evaluated together, our results suggest that the IKKß kinase plays an important role in the migratory and invasive phenotype of in KRAS positive lung cancer cells, contributing to metastatic capacity


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Mice , I-kappa B Kinase/analysis , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasm Metastasis , In Vitro Techniques , Blotting, Western/instrumentation , ras Proteins/classification , Protein Kinase Inhibitors
18.
Biol. Res ; 52: 24, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011426

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To analyze the relative expression of PELI3 and its mechanistic involvement in the non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: PELI3 expression in NSCLC tissue samples was determined by the immunohistochemistry. The transcripts abundance of PELI3 was measured with real-time PCR. The protein intensity was analyzed by western blot. The overall survival in respect to PELI3 or miR-365a-5p expression was plotted by the Kaplan-Meier's analysis. Cell growth was determined by colony formation assay. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay. The migration and invasion were evaluated by wound healing and transwell assay respectively. The regulatory effect of miR-365a-5p on PELI3 was interrogated with luciferase reporter assay. The direct binding between miR-365a-5p and PELI3 was analyzed by pulldown assay. RESULTS: PELI3 was aberrantly up-regulated in NSCLC both in vivo and in vitro. High level of PELI3 associated with poor prognosis. PELI3-deficiency significantly inhibited cell viability, colony formation, migration and invasion. We further identified that miR-365a-5p negatively regulated PELI3 in this disease. Ectopic expression of miR-365a-5p in both A549 and H1299 phenocopied PELI3-deficiency. Meanwhile, PELI3-silencing significantly abolished the pro-tumoral effect elicited by miR-365a-5p inhibition. CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlighted the importance of dysregulated miR-365a-5p-PELI3 signaling axis in NSCLC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Down-Regulation/physiology , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/metabolism , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Lung Neoplasms/metabolism , Tetrazolium Salts , Thiazoles , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , MicroRNAs/therapeutic use , Cell Line, Tumor , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Coloring Agents , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology
19.
Biol. Res ; 52: 22, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011424

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tumor microenvironment (TME) plays a vital role in determining the outcomes of radiotherapy. As an important component of TME, vascular endothelial cells are involved in the perivascular resistance niche (PVRN), which is formed by inflammation or cytokine production induced by ionizing radiation (IR). Protein kinase CK2 is a constitutively active serine/threonine kinase which plays a vital role in cell proliferation and inflammation. In this study, we investigated the potential role of CK2 in PVRN after IR exposure. RESULT: Specific CK2 inhibitors, Quinalizarin and CX-4945, were employed to effectively suppressed the kinase activity of CK2 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) without affecting their viability. Results showing that conditioned medium from IR-exposed HUVECs increased cell viability of A549 and H460 cells, and the pretreatment of CK2 inhibitors slowed down such increment. The secretion of IL-8 and IL-6 in HUVECs was induced after exposure with IR, but significantly inhibited by the addition of CK2 inhibitors. Furthermore, IR exposure elevated the nuclear phosphorylated factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 expression in HUVECs, which was a master factor regulating cytokine production. But when pretreated with CK2 inhibitors, such elevation was significantly suppressed. CONCLUSION: This study indicated that protein kinase CK2 is involved in the key process of the IR induced perivascular resistant niche, namely cytokine production, by endothelial cells, which finally led to radioresistance of non-small cell lung cancer cells. Thus, the inhibition of CK2 may be a promising way to improve the outcomes of radiation in nonsmall cell lung cancer cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/radiotherapy , Endothelial Cells/radiation effects , Casein Kinase II/antagonists & inhibitors , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Endothelium, Vascular/cytology , Blotting, Western , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Anthraquinones/pharmacology , Naphthyridines/pharmacology
20.
Biol. Res ; 52: 4, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011407

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hematoporphyrin derivative (HPD) has a sensibilization effect in lung adenocarcinoma. This study was conducted to identify the target genes of HPD in lung adenocarcinoma. METHODS: RNA sequencing was performed using the lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 after no treatment or treatment with X-ray or X-ray + HPD. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened using Mfuzz package by noise-robust soft clustering analysis. Enrichment analysis was carried out using "BioCloud" online tool. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and module analyses were performed using Cytoscape software. Using WebGestalt tool and integrated transcription factor platform (ITFP), microRNA target and transcription factor (TF) target pairs were separately predicted. An integrated regulatory network was visualized with Cytoscape software. RESULTS: A total of 815 DEGs in the gene set G1 (continuously dysregulated genes along with changes in processing conditions [untreated-treated with X-ray-X-ray + treated with HPD]) and 464 DEGs in the gene set G2 (significantly dysregulated between X-ray + HPD-treated group and untreated/X-ray-treated group) were screened. The significant module identified from the PPI network for gene set G1 showed that ribosomal protein L3 (RPL3) gene could interact with heat shock protein 90 kDa alpha, class A member 1 (HSP90AA1). TFs AAA domain containing 2 (ATAD2) and protein inhibitor of activated STAT 1 (PIAS1) were separately predicted for the genes in gene set G1 and G2, respectively. In the integrated network for gene set G2, ubiquitin-specific peptidase 25 (USP25) was targeted by miR-200b, miR-200c, and miR-429. CONCLUSION: RPL3, HSP90AA1, ATAD2, and PIAS1 as well as USP25, which is targeted by miR-200b, miR-200c, and miR-429, may be the potential targets of HPD in lung adenocarcinoma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hematoporphyrin Derivative/pharmacology , Gene Regulatory Networks/genetics , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Ribosomal Proteins/drug effects , Ribosomal Proteins/genetics , Transcription Factors , Cluster Analysis , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Sequence Analysis, RNA , HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins/drug effects , HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins/genetics , Small Ubiquitin-Related Modifier Proteins/drug effects , Small Ubiquitin-Related Modifier Proteins/genetics , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , DNA-Binding Proteins/drug effects , DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , Protein Inhibitors of Activated STAT/drug effects , Protein Inhibitors of Activated STAT/genetics , Flow Cytometry , ATPases Associated with Diverse Cellular Activities/drug effects , ATPases Associated with Diverse Cellular Activities/genetics , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/drug therapy , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/radiotherapy , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/radiotherapy
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