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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(6): 1837-1845, dic. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528786

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The potential anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic activity of polyphenolic extracts of blueberry and grape was evaluated in a mouse model of lung damage induced by subcutaneous administration of bleomycin. The results of testing the polyphenolic extracts on two different systemic administration variants of bleomycin (intraperitoneal and subcutaneous) were compared. It was found that regardless of the method of bleomycin administration, indirect cross-acute and subacute damage to the pulmonary system was observed. Both patterns exhibited the same prevalence and severity. The administration of polyphenolic extracts of blueberry and grape to mice resulted in a significant decrease in theseverity of acute and subacute patterns of lung damage, suggesting their protective properties for the microcirculatory bed and a pronounced anti-inflammatory effect.


La potencial actividad antiinflamatoria y antifibrótica de los extractos polifenólicos de arándano y uva se evaluó en un modelo de daño pulmonar en ratón inducido por la administración subcutánea de bleomicina. Se compararon los resultados de las pruebas de los extractos polifenólicos en dos variantes diferentes de administración sistémica de bleomicina (intraperitoneal y subcutánea). Se encontró que, independientemente del método de administración de bleomicina, se observaba daño indirecto cruzado, agudo y subagudo al sistema pulmonar. Ambos patrones exhibieron la misma prevalencia y gravedad. La administración de extractos polifenólicos de arándano y uva a ratones dio como resultado una disminución significativa en la gravedad de los patrones agudos y subagudos de daño pulmonar, lo que sugiere sus propiedades protectoras del lecho micro- circulatorio y un efecto antiinflamatorio pronunciado.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Bleomycin/toxicity , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Lung Injury/chemically induced , Lung Injury/drug therapy , Polyphenols/administration & dosage , Blueberry Plants/chemistry , Vitis/chemistry , Disease Models, Animal , Lung Injury/pathology , Lung/drug effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage
3.
Femina ; 51(8): 480-485, 20230830. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1512457

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Analisar o uso dos contraceptivos hormonais em mulheres com asma e a escolha desses métodos contraceptivos para essa população, com avaliação de eventuais repercussões sobre novos episódios de asma e sibilos. Métodos: Foram selecionados estudos longitudinais, ensaios clínicos, revisões sistemáticas e metanálises. As plataformas consultadas foram PubMed, Embase, Cochrane e SciELO, com a utilização dos descritores: "contracepção", "contracepção hormonal", "sistema intrauterino liberador de levonorgestrel" e "asma". Resultados: Dois grandes estudos demonstraram que o uso de contraceptivos hormonais esteve associado à redução do risco de novos episódios de asma. Uma revisão sistemática concluiu que os resultados para o uso de contraceptivos hormonais para mulheres com asma foram mistos, com aumento ou redução dos seguintes riscos: novo episódio de asma e aumento da frequência das crises e dos sibilos. O uso da contracepção hormonal em pacientes obesas portadoras de asma é controverso. Conclusão: Os resultados para o uso de contraceptivos hormonais em mulheres com asma são inconsistentes, com relatos de aumento ou de redução do risco de novos episódios. O uso do método contraceptivo deve ser discutido individualmente, levando-se em consideração outros fatores de risco associados e o desejo da mulher. A paciente deverá ser orientada se houver piora dos sintomas clínicos de asma na vigência do uso de qualquer método contraceptivo hormonal.


Objective: To analyze the use of hormonal contraceptives in women with asthma and the choice of this contraceptive method for this population, evaluating possible repercussions on new episodes of asthma and wheezing. Methods: Longitudinal studies, clinical trials, systematic reviews and meta-analyses were selected. Platforms consulted: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, SciELO, using the descriptors: "contraception", "hormonal contraception", "levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system" and "asthma". Results: Two large studies demonstrated that the use of hormonal contraceptives was associated with a reduced risk of new episodes of asthma. A systematic review concluded that the results for the use of hormonal contraceptives for women with asthma were mixed, with increased or decrease in the following risks: new asthma episodes, increased frequency and wheezing. The use of hormonal contraception in obese patients with asthma is controversial. Conclusion: The results for the use of hormonal contraceptives in women with asthma are inconsistent, with reports of increased or reduced risk of new episodes. The use of the contraceptive method should be discussed individually, taking into account other associated risk factors and the woman's desire. The patient will be advised if there is a worsening of the clinical symptoms of asthma while using any hormonal contraceptive method.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Asthma/complications , Contraceptive Agents, Hormonal/adverse effects , Contraceptive Agents, Hormonal/therapeutic use , Progesterone/adverse effects , Signs and Symptoms, Respiratory , Chest Pain/diagnosis , Menarche , Respiratory Sounds/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cohort Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Cough/diagnosis , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Estrogens , Systematic Review , Lung/physiopathology
4.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(3): e202202714, jun. 2023. ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1436134

ABSTRACT

El sarcoma sinovial pleuropulmonar (SSPP) es un tumor primario de pulmón, maligno, infrecuente en pediatría (prevalencia 0,1-0,5 %) que afecta predominantemente a adolescentes y adultos jóvenes. Se ha descrito una sobrevida global cercana al 30 % a los 5 años. Se reporta el caso de un paciente de 12 años de edad, previamente sano, que presentó tos, dolor torácico y disnea de comienzo súbito, como manifestación inicial de neumotórax izquierdo, el que persistió a los 4 días y requirió resección quirúrgica de lesión bullosa pulmonar. Se realizó diagnóstico histológico de sarcoma sinovial pleuropulmonar confirmado por estudio molecular, que evidenció la translocación cromosómica entre el cromosoma X y el 18: t(X;18) (p11.2;q11.2) de la pieza quirúrgica extirpada. Ante pacientes con neumotórax persistente o recidivante, es importante descartar causas secundarias, entre ellas, sarcoma sinovial pleuropulmonar. Su ominoso pronóstico determina la necesidad de arribar a un diagnóstico temprano e implementar un tratamiento agresivo


Pleuropulmonary synovial sarcoma (PPSS) is a primary malignancy of the lung, uncommon in pediatrics (prevalence: 0.1­0.5%) that predominantly affects adolescents and young adults. Overall survival has been reported to be close to 30% at 5 years. Here we report the case of a previously healthy 12-year-old male patient who presented with cough, chest pain, and dyspnea of sudden onset as initial manifestation of left pneumothorax, which persisted after 4 days and required surgical resection of pulmonary bullous lesion. A histological diagnosis of pleuropulmonary synovial sarcoma was made and confirmed by molecular study, which showed chromosomal translocation between chromosomes X and 18: t(X;18) (p11.2;q11.2) in the surgical specimen removed. In patients with persistent or recurrent pneumothorax, it is important to rule out secondary causes, including pleuropulmonary synovial sarcoma. Such poor prognosis determines the need for early diagnosis and aggressive treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Pneumothorax/complications , Pneumothorax/etiology , Sarcoma, Synovial/complications , Sarcoma, Synovial/diagnosis , Sarcoma, Synovial/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Cough , Lung/pathology
5.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 539-547, abr. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440313

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: A great deal of attention of air pollution on respiratory health is increasing, particularly in relation to haze days. It is that exposure to cigarette smoke augments the toxicity of common air contaminants, thereby increasing the complexity of respiratory diseases. Although there are various mechanisms involved to respiratory diseases caused or worsen by cigarette smoking, in which the role of AQPs in the lung with regard to fluid homeostasis still remains elusive. In this paper, we copied the rat models based on smoke generator, and investigated the morphological changes of mucosa and related functions depending on the balance of lining liquid of alveoli via AQPs expression. Compared with normal group, weak labelling of AQP1 and AQP5 protein abundance were clearly detected in the corresponding part of smoke exposure groups compared with normal group. Hence, it is suggested that the contribution of AQPs in the lung is diminished, thereby causing perturbed balancing between resorptive and secretory fluid homeostasis under cigarette smoking.


Cada vez se presta más atención a la contaminación del aire en la salud respiratoria, particularmente, en relación con los días de neblina. En consecuencia la exposición al humo del cigarrillo aumenta la toxicidad de los contaminantes comunes del aire, lo que además aumenta la complejidad de las enfermedades respiratorias. Aunque existen varios mecanismos involucrados en las enfermedades respiratorias causadas o empeoradas por el tabaquismo, en las que el papel de las AQP en el pulmón respecto a la homeostasis de líquidos sigue siendo difícil de alcanzar. En este artículo, copiamos los modelos de rata basados en el generador de humo e investigamos los cambios morfológicos de la mucosa y las funciones relacionadas según el equilibrio del líquido de revestimiento de los alvéolos a través de la expresión de AQP. En comparación con el grupo normal, se detectó claramente un etiquetado débil de la abundancia de proteínas AQP1 y AQP5 en la parte correspondiente de los grupos de exposición al humo en comparación con el grupo control. Por lo tanto, se sugiere que la contribución de las AQP en el pulmón está disminuida, provocando así un equilibrio perturbado entre la homeostasis del líquido secretor y de reabsorción bajo el hábito de fumar cigarrillos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Respiratory System/pathology , Cigarette Smoking/adverse effects , Respiratory System/drug effects , Body Fluids/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Microscopy, Electron , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Aquaporins/metabolism , Homeostasis , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology
6.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 88(2): 116-120, abr. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1441418

ABSTRACT

La menopausia provoca cambios hormonales y alteraciones sistémicas. La menopausia normal sucede entre los 45-55 años y la menopausia temprana (MT) se desarrolla antes de los 45 años. Revisar la evidencia que señala posibles asociaciones entre la MT y la función pulmonar, analizando específicamente aquellos componentes que se encuentran alterados. Se eligieron estudios transversales y revisiones sistemáticas, en inglés, portugués y español. La búsqueda se realizó de marzo a noviembre de2022, en PubMed y Scopus, aemás de búsquedas manuales. La calidad metodológica fue analizada utilizando la escala Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology para los estudios observacionales, y el Ameasurement Tool to Assess Systematic Review para las revisiones. Se encontraron 698 estudios, 12 seleccionados para calificación metodológica, cinco excluidos. Al final del análisis metodológico, se obtuvieron seis estudios transversales y una revisión sistemática, llevados a cabo en Reino Unido, Europa y Asia. Hay una tendencia para asociación de la MT a un patrón ventilatorio restrictivo. Sin embargo la evidencia sigue siendo escasa y se sugiere la realización de nuevos estudios.


Menopause causes hormonal changes and systemic alterations. Normal menopause is when this event occurs between the ages of 45 and 55, and early menopause (EM) when it develops earlier than 45 years. To review the evidence that indicates possible associations between EM and lung function, specifically analyzing those components that are altered. Cross-sectional and systematic reviews studies, published from 2000-2022, in English, Portuguese and Spanish were selected from March to November 2022, in PubMed and Scopus and through manual searches. Methodological quality was assessed using the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology scale for observational studies, and the Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Review for reviews. 698 studies were found, 12 were selected for methodological quality review and 5 were excluded. At the end of methodological analysis, 6 cross-sectional studies and 1 systematic review were obtained, carried out in United Kingdom, Europe and Asia. There is a tendency for EM to be associated with restrictive ventilatory pattern. However, the evidence is scarce and further studies are suggested.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Menopause, Premature , Lung/physiology , Aging
7.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(1): 45-50, feb. 2023.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430521

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a neurotransmitter related to vasculogenesis during organ development. The vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) is also required for vascular patterning during lung morphogenesis. CGRP is primarily found in organs and initially appears in pulmonary neuroendocrine cells during the early embryonic stage of lung development. However, the relationship between CGRP and VEGF-A during lung formation remains unclear. This study investigates CGRP and VEGF-A mRNA expressions in the embryonic, pseudoglandular, canalicular, saccular, and alveolar stages of lung development from embryonic day 12.5 (E12.5) to postnatal day 5 (P5) through quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and in situ hybridization. Further, we analyzed the expression of CGRP via immunohistochemistry. The VEGF-A mRNA was mainly scattered across the whole lung body from E12.5. CGRP was found to be expressed in a few epithelial cells of the canalicular and the respiratory bronchiole of the lung from E12.5 to P5. An antisense probe for CGRP mRNA was strongly detected in the lung from E14.5 to E17.5. Endogenous CGRP may regulate the development of the embryonic alveoli from E14.5 to E17.5 in a temporal manner.


El péptido relacionado con el gen de la calcitonina (CGRP) es un neurotransmisor vinculado con la vasculogénesis durante el desarrollo de órganos. El factor de crecimiento endotelial vascular A (VEGF-A) también se requiere para el patrón vascular durante la morfogénesis pulmonar. El CGRP se encuentra principalmente en los órganos y aparece inicialmente en las células neuroendocrinas pulmonares durante la etapa embrionaria temprana del desarrollo pulmonar. Sin embargo, la relación entre CGRP y VEGF-A durante la formación de los pulmones sigue sin estar clara. Este estudio investiga las expresiones de ARNm de CGRP y VEGF-A en las etapas embrionaria, pseudoglandular, canalicular, sacular y alveolar del desarrollo pulmonar desde el día embrionario 12,5 (E12,5) hasta el día postnatal 5 (P5) a través de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa cuantitativa en tiempo real. (qRT-PCR) e hibridación in situ. Además, analizamos la expresión de CGRP mediante inmunohistoquímica. El ARNm de VEGF-A se dispersó principalmente por todo parénquima pulmonar desde E12,5. Se encontró que CGRP se expresaba en unas pocas células epiteliales de los bronquiolos canaliculares y respiratorios del pulmón desde E12,5 a P5. Se detectó fuertemente una sonda antisentido para ARNm de CGRP en el pulmón de E14,5 a E17,5. El CGRP endógeno puede regular el desarrollo de los alvéolos embrionarios de E14,5 a E17,5 de manera temporal.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide/metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism , Lung/growth & development , Lung/embryology , Immunohistochemistry , In Situ Hybridization , Neurotransmitter Agents , Neovascularization, Physiologic
8.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(1): 156-163, feb. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430525

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The results of numerous medical and kinesiological studies indicate the existence of differences in pulmonary function in relation to age, body height, and the relationship between certain parameters of body composition. The aim of this study was to determine the state of morphological characteristics and pulmonary function of naval saboteurs and ground Special Forces of the Armed Forces of Montenegro. The sample of participants included 30 naval saboteurs aged 30.3±6 years and 30 members of the ground special forces aged 25.6±5 years. The sample of measuring instruments included 4 indicators each for the evaluation of longitudinal dimensionality, transversal dimensionality, mass and body volume, subcutaneous fat, body composition, and pulmonary function. The central and dispersion parameters of the variables were calculated. The specificities of body composition of the naval saboteurs and members of the ground Special Forces of the AF of Montenegro were determined, while the parameters of lung volume and capacity and the parameters of airway flow indicated an excellent state of their respiratory function. Furthermore, it was determined that the studied members of the armed forces had no individual health risks in the sense of the onset of obesity or obstructive ventilatory defects. The results obtained indicate the need for further studies which would predominantly focus on the impact of individual morphological measurements and parameters of body composition on pulmonary function. This would provide important data both for the armed forces in the sense of improving the training system and the realization of specific tasks, as well as for kinesiology as a science from the aspect of determining certain regularities in the functioning of the human body in specific living and working conditions in the armed forces.


Los resultados de numerosos estudios médicos y kinesiológicos indican la existencia de diferencias en la función pulmonar en relación con la edad, la altura corporal y la relación entre determinados parámetros de la composición corporal. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el estado de las características morfológicas y la función pulmonar de los saboteadores navales y de las Fuerzas Especiales terrestres de las Fuerzas Armadas de Montenegro. La muestra de participantes incluyó a 30 saboteadores navales de 30,3±6 años de edad y 30 miembros de las fuerzas especiales terrestres de 25,6±5 años. La muestra de instrumentos de medición incluyó 4 indicadores cada uno para la evaluación de dimensionalidad longitudinal, dimensionalidad transversal, masa y volumen corporal, grasa subcutánea, composición corporal y función pulmonar. Se calcularon los parámetros centrales y de dispersión de las variables. Se determinaron las especificidades de la composición corporal de los saboteadores navales y miembros de las Fuerzas Especiales terrestres de la FA de Montenegro, mientras que los parámetros de volumen y capacidad pulmonar y los parámetros de flujo de las vías respiratorias indicaron un excelente estado de su función respiratoria. Además, se determinó que los miembros de las fuerzas armadas estudiados no tenían riesgos individuales de salud en el sentido de la obesidad o defectos ventilatorios obstructivos. Los resultados obtenidos indican la necesidad de más estudios que se centren predominantemente en el impacto de las medidas morfológicas individuales y los parámetros de composición corporal en la función pulmonar. Esto proporcionaría datos importantes tanto para las fuerzas armadas en el sentido de mejorar el sistema de entrenamiento y la realización de tareas específicas, como para la kinesiología como ciencia desde el aspecto de determinar ciertas regularidades en el funcionamiento del cuerpo humano en situaciones específicas de vida. y condiciones de trabajo en las fuerzas armadas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Lung/anatomy & histology , Lung/physiology , Military Personnel , Respiratory Function Tests , Cross-Sectional Studies , Montenegro
9.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(1): 65-72, feb. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430530

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Respiration and water-liquid transportation are controlled by many factors in the lung. The aim of this study was to explore the structure and proteins expression in lungs of Phrynocephalus vlangalii by means of gross anatomy, light microscope observation, scanning electron microscope and immunohistochemistry. Results show that there were many alveoli in the lung and the walls of alveoli and capillaries were very thin. The inner surface of the lung was divided into many cystic chambers by reticular diaphragm, and the network of pulmonary capillaries was dense. Immunohistochemistry showed that AQP1 was mainly expressed in the epithelium of interstitial bronchi, parabronchiole endothelium, capillary endothelium and alveolar epithelial cells. VIP positive nerve fibers are mainly distributed in trachea, bronchial smooth muscle layer, the walls of pulmonary vessels and bronchial vessels and around submucosal glands. CECR2 is distributed in peripheral capillaries and small. Investigations of structure and proteins biology could be relevant with the adaptive strategy to drought and hypoxia environment in Phrynocephalus vlangalii.


La respiración y el transporte de agua y líquido están controlados en el pulmón por muchos factores. El objetivo de este estudio fue explorar la estructura y la expresión de proteínas en los pulmones de Phrynocephalus vlangalii por medio de la anatomía macroscópica, observación con microscopio óptico, microscopio electrónico de barrido e inmunohistoquímica. Los resultados muestran que había muchos alvéolos en el pulmón y que las paredes de los alvéolos y de los capilares eran muy delgadas. La superficie interna del pulmón estaba dividida en cámaras quísticas por el diafragma reticular y se observó una densa red de capilares pulmonares. La inmunohistoquímica mostró que AQP1 se expresaba principalmente en el epitelio de los bronquios intersticiales, el endotelio parabronquial, el endotelio capilar y las células epiteliales alveolares. Las fibras nerviosas VIP positivas se distribuyen principalmente en la tráquea, la capa de músculo liso bronquial, las paredes de los vasos pulmonares y los vasos bronquiales y alrededor de las glándulas submucosas. CECR2 se distribuye en pequeño capilares periféricos. Las investigaciones de la biología de la estructura y las proteínas podrían ser relevantes con la estrategia de adaptación al entorno de sequía e hipoxia en Phrynocephalus vlangalii.


Subject(s)
Animals , Adaptation, Physiological , Lizards/anatomy & histology , Lung/anatomy & histology , Immunohistochemistry , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Lung/ultrastructure
11.
Alerta (San Salvador) ; 6(1): 43-60, ene. 30, 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | BISSAL, LILACS | ID: biblio-1413692

ABSTRACT

El COVID-19 es una nueva enfermedad que requería resultados prontos provenientes de la investigación. Un abordaje para la comprensión de su fisiopatología es conocer el daño a nivel histopatológico que genera en los pulmones de los afectados. Objetivo. Proveer un resumen riguroso de la evidencia disponible sobre los hallazgos histopatológicos pulmonares en pacientes con COVID-19. Se desarrolló una revisión sistemática con metaanálisis de proporciones. Se incluyeron estudios primarios de cualquier diseño que tuvieran datos primarios de hallazgos histopatológicos de pulmones en pacientes COVID-19. Se excluyeron revisiones y guías. Las fuentes de información fueron el repositorio centralizado Living OVerview of Evidence, PubMed/Medline, LitCovid, la base de datos COVID-19 de la Organización Mundial de la Salud, y medRxiv hasta el 3 de abril 2021. La evaluación del riesgo de sesgos se realizó utilizando las herramientas del Instituto Joanna Briggs para series de casos y reportes de casos. Se extrajo cada dato de hallazgo pulmonar histopatológico. Se calcularon las frecuencias encontradas y los datos de los hallazgos más frecuentes fueron resumidas en metaanálisis usando el método de efectos aleatorios de Der Simmonian-Liard. Se midió la heterogeneidad. Los criterios de inclusión fueron cumplidos por 69 artículos sumando 594 sujetos. Presentaron bajo riesgo de sesgos 35 artículos. El metaanálisis de proporciones mostro daño alveolar difuso en 0,62 (IC 95 % 0,51-0,72), I2 59 % (p < 0,01), en su fase temprana (85,14 %). Conclusión. El daño alveolar difuso temprano fue el hallazgo histopatológico más frecuente en muestras pulmonares de pacientes con COVID-19


COVID-19 is a new disease that required prompt results from research. An approach to understanding its pathophysiology is to know the damage at the histopathological level that it generates in the lungs of those affected. Aim. To provide a rigorous summary of the available evidence on pulmonary histopathological findings in patients with COVID-19. A systematic review with meta-analysis of proportions was developed. Primary studies of any design that had primary data on lung histopathology findings in COVID-19 patients were included. Reviews and guidelines were excluded. The sources of information were the Living OVerview of Evidence centralized repository, PubMed/Medline, LitCovid, the World Health Organization COVID-19 database, and medRxiv up to April 3, 2021. The risk of bias assessment was performed using the Joanna Briggs Institute tools for case series and case reports. Each histopathological pulmonary finding data was extracted. The frequencies found were calculated and the data of the most frequent findings were summarized in meta-analyses using the Der Simmonian-Liard random effects method. Heterogeneity was measured. The inclusion criteria were met by 69 articles totaling 594 subjects. Thirty-five articles presented low risk of bias. The meta-analysis of proportions showed diffuse alveolar damage in 0.62 (95% CI 0.51-0.72), I2 59% (p < 0.01), in its early phase (85.14%). Conclution. Early diffuse alveolar damage was the most frequent histopathological finding in lung samples from patients with COVID-19


Subject(s)
Disease , COVID-19 , Lung , Methods , Patients , Risk
12.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 18(1): 9-11, 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1442600

ABSTRACT

El proceso de respiración y el intercambio gaseoso requiere la interacción de variadas fuerzas en los distintos tejidos y órganos involucrados. La tensión superficial a nivel alveolar provocaría colapso de dichas estructuras de no ser por las características del surfactante que lo recubre. Revisaremos en este articulo la fisiología involucrada en su estructura física, producción y efectos pulmonares.


The process of breathing and gas exchange requires the interaction of various forces in the different tissues and organs involved. The surface tension at the alveolus would cause collapse of these structures without of the surfactant that covers it. We will review in this article the physiology involved in its physical structure, production, and pulmonary effects.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pulmonary Surfactants/metabolism , Lung/physiology , Phospholipids/analysis , Pulmonary Surfactants/chemistry , Proteins/analysis , Lipids/analysis
13.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 530-538, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984754

ABSTRACT

Surgical operation is one of the significant parts of the comprehensive therapeutic methods of lung cancer. In the history of the development of lung cancer operation, scholars and predecessors at home and abroad have gradually established the current status of lung cancer operation and the framework of comprehensive treatment after continuous understanding of local anatomy of lung, continuous innovation of surgical equipment and continuous reform of surgical methods. In the continuous development and improvement of lung cancer surgical diagnosis and treatment procedures, a set of standardized diagnosis and treatment process of lung cancer screening, early diagnosis and treatment, standardized surgery process, rapid perioperative recovery, postoperative adjuvant treatment and follow-up has been formed. The achievements of lung cancer operation are achieved by scholars standing on the shoulders of giants. In the process of pioneering and innovating, we should go back and review the road that our predecessors have taken, and draw energy from it to continue to create new brilliance in lung cancer operation. In this paper, the evolution history of lung cancer surgery is summarized in order to improve the clinician's understanding of the history of lung cancer surgery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lung Neoplasms/surgery , Early Detection of Cancer , Lung
14.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 471-481, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984746

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effects of lncRNA DRAIC on proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion of lung adenocarcinoma cells and its mechanism. Methods: Reverse transcription-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used to detect the expression of DRAIC in lung cancer tissues and corresponding adjacent normal tissues of 40 patients with lung adenocarcinoma who underwent surgery in Tangshan People's Hospital from 2019 to 2020. Lung adenocarcinoma cells A549 and H1299 were cultured in vitro and divided into si-NC group, si-DRAIC group, miR-NC group, let-7i-5p mimics group, si-DRAIC+ inhibitor-NC group, and si-DRAIC+ let-7i-5p inhibitor group. CCK-8 method and clone formation experiment were used to detect cell proliferation. Flow cytometry was used to detect cell apoptosis. Transwell array was used to detect the cell migration and invasion. Western blot was used to detect the protein expressions of Caspase-3, Caspase-9, Bcl-2 and Bax. The double luciferase reporter gene experiment was used to verify the regulatory relationship between DRAIC and let-7i-5p. Independent sample t test was used for comparison between two groups, one-way ANOVA was used for comparison between multiple groups, and Pearson correlation analysis was used for correlation analysis. Results: Compared with adjacent tissues, the expression level of DRAIC in lung adenocarcinoma tissues increased (P<0.05), but the expression level of let-7i-5p decreased (P<0.05). The expression levels of DRAIC and let-7i-5p in lung adenocarcinoma tissues were negatively correlated (r=-0.737, P<0.05). The absorbance value of A549 and H1299 cells in the si-DRAIC group at 48, 72 and 96 hours were lower than those in the si-NC group (P<0.05), the number of clones formed [(91.00±6.08 vs. 136.67±6.51); (50.67±1.53 vs. 76.67±4.51)], the number of migration [(606.67±31.34 vs. 960.00±33.06); (483.33±45.96 vs. 741.67±29.67)], the number of invasion [(185.00±8.19 vs. 447.33±22.05); (365.00±33.87 vs. 688.00±32.97)] were lower than those in the si-NC group (P<0.05). However, the apoptosis rates of cells [(13.43±2.79)% vs. (4.53±0.42)%; (23.77±1.04)% vs. (6.60±1.42)%] were higher than those in the si-NC group (P<0.05). The protein expressions of Caspase-3, Caspase-9 and Bax in si-DRAIC group were higher than those in si-NC group, and the protein expression of Bcl-2 was lower than that in si-NC group (P<0.05). DRAIC is located in the cytoplasm. DRAIC targeted and negatively regulated the expression of let-7i-5p. The absorbance values of A549 and H1299 cells in the let-7i-5p mimics group at 48, 72 and 96 hours were lower than those in the miR-NC group (P<0.05), the number of clones formed [(131.33±14.47 vs. 171.33±6.11); (59.33±4.93 vs. 80.33±7.09)], the number of migration [(137.67±3.06 vs. 579.33±82.03); (425.00±11.14 vs. 669.33±21.13)], the number of invasion [(54.00±4.36 vs. 112.67±11.59); (80.00±4.58 vs. 333.33±16.80)] were lower than those in the miR-NC group (P<0.05). However, the apoptosis rates of cells [(14.57±1.10)% vs. (6.97±1.11)%; (23.97±0.42)% vs. (7.07±1.21)%] were higher than those in the miR-NC group (P<0.05). The protein expressions of Caspase-3, Caspase-9 and Bax in let-7i-5p mimics group were higher than those in miR-NC group, and the protein expression of Bcl-2 was lower than that in miR-NC group (P<0.05). The absorbance values of A549 and H1299 cells in the si-DRAIC+ let-7i-5p inhibitor group at 48, 72 and 96 hours were higher than those in the si-DRAIC+ inhibitor-NC group (P<0.05), the number of clones formed [(82.00±5.29 vs. 59.00±5.57); (77.67±4.93 vs. 41.33±7.57)], the number of migration [(774.33±35.81 vs. 455.67±19.04); (569.67±18.72 vs. 433.67±16.77)], the number of invasion [(670.33±17.21 vs. 451.00±17.52); (263.67±3.06 vs. 182.33±11.93)] were higher than those in the si-DRAIC+ inhibitor-NC group (P<0.05). However, the apoptosis rates of cells [(7.73±0.45)% vs. (19.13±1.50)%; (8.00±0.53)% vs. (28.40±0.53)%] were lower than those in the si-NC group (P<0.05). The protein expressions of Caspase-3, Caspase-9 and Bax in si-DRAIC+ let-7i-5p inhibitor group were higher than those in si-DRAIC+ inhibitor-NC group, and the protein expression of Bcl-2 was lower than that in si-DRAIC+ inhibitor-NC group (P<0.05). Conclusion: DRAIC is highly expressed in lung adenocarcinoma, and DRAIC promotes the proliferation, migration and invasion of lung adenocarcinoma cells and inhibits apoptosis by targeting let-7i-5p.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adenocarcinoma/genetics , Apoptosis/genetics , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism , Caspase 3/metabolism , Caspase 9/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/genetics , Lung/metabolism , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics
15.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 455-463, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984744

ABSTRACT

CT screening has markedly reduced the lung cancer mortality in high-risk population and increased the detection of early-stage pulmonary neoplasms, including multiple pulmonary nodules, especially those with a ground-glass appearance on CT. Multiple primary lung cancer (MPLC) constitutes a specific subtype of lung cancer with indolent biological behaviors, which is predominantly early-stage adenocarcinoma. Although MPLC progresses slowly with rare lymphatic metastasis, existence of synchronous lesions and distributed location of these nodules still pose difficulty for the management of such patients. One single operation is usually insufficient to eradicate all neoplastic lesions, whereas repeated surgical procedures bring about another dilemma: whether clinical benefits of surgical treatment outweigh loss of pulmonary function following multiple operations. Therefore, despite the anxiety for treatment among MPLC patients, whether and how to treat the patient should be assessed meticulously. Currently there is a heated discussion upon the timing of clinical intervention, operation mode and the application of local therapy in MPLC. Based on clinical experience of our multiple disciplinary team, we have summarized and commented on the evaluation, surgical treatment, non-surgical local treatment, targeted therapy and immunotherapy of MPLC in this article to provide further insight into this field.


Subject(s)
Humans , Multiple Pulmonary Nodules/surgery , Lung Neoplasms/surgery , Adenocarcinoma/surgery , Lung/pathology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
16.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 57-65, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984181

ABSTRACT

Lung is the largest organ of the respiratory system. During hypoxia, pulmonary cells undergo rapid damage changes and activate the self-rescue pathways, thus leading to complex biomacromolecule modification. Death from mechanical asphyxia refers to death due to acute respiratory disorder caused by mechanical violence. Because of the absence of characteristic signs in corpse, the accurate identification of mechanical asphyxia has always been the difficulty in forensic pathology. This paper reviews the biomacromolecule changes under the pulmonary hypoxia condition and discusses the possibility of application of these changes to accurate identification of death from mechanical asphyxia, aiming to provide new ideas for related research.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asphyxia/pathology , Cause of Death , Hypoxia/pathology , Lung/pathology , Forensic Pathology
17.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 78-82, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971182

ABSTRACT

Lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) accounts for approximately 30% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases and is the second most common histological type of lung cancer. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive NSCLC accounts for only 2%-5% of all NSCLC cases, and is almost exclusively detected in patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Thus, ALK testing is not routinely performed in the LSCC population, and the efficacy of such treatment for ALK-rearranged LSCC remains unknown. Echinoderm microtubule associated protein like 4 (EML4)-ALK (V1) and TP53 co-mutations were identified by next generation sequencing (NGS) in this patient with advanced LSCC. On December 3, 2020, Ensatinib was taken orally and the efficacy was evaluated as partial response (PR). The progression-free survival (PFS) was 19 months. When the disease progressed, the medication was changed to Loratinib. To our knowledge, Enshatinib created the longest PFS of ALK-mutant LSCC patients treated with targeted therapy since literature review. Herein, we described one case treated by Enshatinib involving a patient with both EML4-ALK and TP53 positive LSCC, and the relevant literatures were reviewed for discussing the treatment of this rare disease.
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Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase/metabolism , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/genetics , Mutation , Cytoskeletal Proteins/genetics , Lung/pathology , Oncogene Proteins, Fusion/genetics , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/genetics
18.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 148-150, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971171

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a huge impact on the global medical, political and economic fields. Since the beginning of the COVID-19 epidemic, our understanding of the impact of COVID-19 has grown exponentially. Recently, the COVID-19 epidemic has changed rapidly in China, and there has been controversy over how to carry out surgical operations for patients with lung neoplastic lesions. Some studies have shown that lung cancer patients undergoing surgery are more likely to experience respiratory failure and perioperative death after contracting COVID-19 than the general population, however, delays in cancer treatment are also associated with increased mortality among these patients. In particular, the novel coronavirus Omikron variant has a higher transmissibility and may escape the immunity obtained through the previous novel coronavirus infection and vaccination. In order to minimize the risk of novel coronavirus infection in surgical patients, it is necessary to develop new treatment guidelines, expert consensus and preventive measures. However, the current rapid change of the epidemic situation has led to insufficient time and evidence to develop guidelines and consensus. Therefore, thoracic surgeons need to evaluate specific patient populations at higher risk of severe complications before surgery and weigh the benefit of surgical treatment against the risk of novel coronavirus infection. We try to give some recommendations on lung surgery during the current domestic epidemic situation based on the guidelines and consensus of oncology and thoracic surgery organizations in different regions on lung surgery.
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Subject(s)
Humans , Lung Neoplasms/complications , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Multiple Pulmonary Nodules , Pandemics/prevention & control , Lung
19.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1923-1928, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980979

ABSTRACT

The burden of chronic airway diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), continues to increase, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Post-tuberculosis lung disease (PTLD) is characterized by chronic lung changes after the "cure" of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), which may be associated with the pathogenesis of COPD. However, data on its prevalence, clinical manifestations, computed tomography features, patterns of lung function impairment, and influencing factors are limited. The pathogenic mechanisms underlying PTLD remain to be elucidated. This review summarizes the recent advances in PTLD and TB-associated COPD. Research is urgently needed both for the prevention and management of PTLD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/complications , Asthma , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Lung
20.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1278-1290, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980923

ABSTRACT

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic progressive lung disease characterized by progressive lung fibrogenesis and histological features of usual interstitial pneumonia. IPF has a poor prognosis and presents a spectrum of disease courses ranging from slow evolving disease to rapid deterioration; thus, a differential diagnosis remains challenging. Several biomarkers have been identified to achieve a differential diagnosis; however, comprehensive reviews are lacking. This review summarizes over 100 biomarkers which can be divided into six categories according to their functions: differentially expressed biomarkers in the IPF compared to healthy controls; biomarkers distinguishing IPF from other types of interstitial lung disease; biomarkers differentiating acute exacerbation of IPF from stable disease; biomarkers predicting disease progression; biomarkers related to disease severity; and biomarkers related to treatment. Specimen used for the diagnosis of IPF included serum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, lung tissue, and sputum. IPF-specific biomarkers are of great clinical value for the differential diagnosis of IPF. Currently, the physiological measurements used to evaluate the occurrence of acute exacerbation, disease progression, and disease severity have limitations. Combining physiological measurements with biomarkers may increase the accuracy and sensitivity of diagnosis and disease evaluation of IPF. Most biomarkers described in this review are not routinely used in clinical practice. Future large-scale multicenter studies are required to design and validate suitable biomarker panels that have diagnostic utility for IPF.


Subject(s)
Humans , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/diagnosis , Biomarkers , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Lung , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Disease Progression , Prognosis
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