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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248717, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339344

ABSTRACT

Abstract The human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the most common cause of severe lower respiratory tract diseases in young children worldwide, leading to a high number of hospitalizations and significant expenditures for health systems. Neutrophils are massively recruited to the lung tissue of patients with acute respiratory diseases. At the infection site, they release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) that can capture and/or inactivate different types of microorganisms, including viruses. Evidence has shown that the accumulation of NETs results in direct cytotoxic effects on endothelial and epithelial cells. Neutrophils stimulated by the hRSV-F protein generate NETs that are able to capture hRSV particles, thus reducing their transmission. However, the massive production of NETs obstructs the airways and increases disease severity. Therefore, further knowledge about the effects of NETs during hRSV infections is essential for the development of new specific and effective treatments. This study evaluated the effects of NETs on the previous or posterior contact with hRSV-infected Hep-2 cells. Hep-2 cells were infected with different hRSV multiplicity of infection (MOI 0.5 or 1.0), either before or after incubation with NETs (0.5-16 μg/mL). Infected and untreated cells showed decreased cellular viability and intense staining with trypan blue, which was accompanied by the formation of many large syncytia. Previous contact between NETs and cells did not result in a protective effect. Cells in monolayers showed a reduced number and area of syncytia, but cell death was similar in infected and non-treated cells. The addition of NETs to infected tissues maintained a similar virus-induced cell death rate and an increased syncytial area, indicating cytotoxic and deleterious damages. Our results corroborate previously reported findings that NETs contribute to the immunopathology developed by patients infected with hRSV.


Resumo O vírus sincicial respiratório humano (hRSV) é a causa mais comum de doenças graves do trato respiratório inferior em crianças pequenas em todo o mundo, resultando em grande número de hospitalizações e gastos significativos para os sistemas de saúde. Neutrófilos são recrutados em massa para o tecido pulmonar de pacientes com doenças respiratórias agudas. No local da infecção, eles liberam armadilhas extracelulares de neutrófilos (NETs) que podem capturar e/ou inativar diferentes tipos de microrganismos, incluindo vírus. Evidências demonstraram que o acúmulo de NETs resulta em efeitos citotóxicos diretos nas células endoteliais e epiteliais. Os neutrófilos estimulados pela proteína F do vírus sincicial respiratório (hRSV-F) geram NETs que são capazes de capturar partículas virais, reduzindo assim sua transmissão. No entanto, a produção maciça de NETs obstrui as vias aéreas e aumenta a gravidade da doença. Assim, um maior conhecimento sobre os efeitos das NETs durante as infecções por hRSV é essencial para o desenvolvimento de novos tratamentos específicos e eficazes. Este estudo avaliou os efeitos das NETs no contato prévio ou posterior à infecção de células Hep-2 com hRSV. As células Hep-2 foram infectadas com diferentes quantidades de hRSV (multiplicidade de infecção ou MOI 0,5 ou 1,0), antes ou após a incubação com NETs (0,5-16 μg/mL). Células infectadas e não tratadas mostraram redução da viabilidade celular e intensa coloração com azul de tripano, que foi acompanhada pela formação de sincícios numerosos e grandes. O contato prévio entre as NETs e as células não resultou em efeito protetor. As células em monocamadas mostraram um número e área de sincícios reduzidos, mas a morte celular foi semelhante àquela apresentada por células infectadas e não tratadas. A adição de NETs aos tecidos infectados manteve taxa de morte celular e formação de sincícios semelhantes àqueles induzidos pelo vírus em células não tratadas, indicando danos citotóxicos e deletérios. Nossos resultados corroboram achados relatados anteriormente de que as NETs contribuem para a imunopatologia desenvolvida por pacientes infectados com hRSV.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Extracellular Traps , Epithelial Cells , Lung
2.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(6): e246-e254, dic. 2022. ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1398301

ABSTRACT

La ecografía pulmonar (EP) ha ganado terreno en el diagnóstico de la mayoría de las patologías respiratorias presentes desde el nacimiento. Es altamente sensible a las variaciones del contenidode aire y fluidos pulmonares, y constituye un verdadero densitómetro del parénquimapulmonar con una sensibilidad superior a la de los estudios radiológicos. Es no invasiva, rápida, fácil de realizar junto a la cama del paciente y, a diferencia de la radiología convencional, no presenta riesgos de radiación. Además, nosproporciona información dinámica en tiempo real en una variedad de entornos neonatales y, al igual que las evaluaciones del corazón y el cerebro, puede ser realizada por el neonatólogo. El objetivo de esta publicación es mostrarlos principales artefactos e imágenes que sepueden encontrar en la EP neonatal, así como los diferentes patrones de aireación, y destacar su utilidad en el estudio de los trastornosrespiratorios más frecuentes del neonato.


Lung ultrasound (LU) has gained ground in the diagnosis of most respiratory conditions present since birth. It is highly sensitive to variations in air content and pulmonary fluids and functions as a true densitometer of the lung parenchyma with a sensitivity superior to that of radiological studies. A LU is a non-invasive, fast and easy tool that can be used at the patient's bedside and, unlike conventional radiology, does not pose risks of radiation. In addition, a LU provides real-time dynamic information in a variety of neonatal settings and, like heart and brain examinations, can be performed by the neonatologist. The objective of this article is to describe the main artifacts and images that can be found in the neonatal LU, as well as the different aeration patterns, and to highlight their usefulness in the study of the most frequent respiratory disorders of neonates.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pneumonia , Neonatology , Thorax , Ultrasonography , Lung/diagnostic imaging
3.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-7, 01/jan./2022. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1411521

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: analisar o perfil epidemiológico dos casos de neoplasia do sistema respiratório que foram diagnosticados e tratados nos anos de 2017 a 2019 e comparar com os casos ocorridos durante a pandemia da COVID-19 no Brasil. Método: estudo transversal com dados de neoplasia maligna da traqueia, dos brônquios e dos pulmões fornecidos pelo Departamento de Informática do Sistema Único de Saúde. Os casos foram coletados e analisados conforme a modalidade terapêutica e o sexo, por meio da incidência anual para cada região brasileira, comparando-se o período da pandemia e os anos de 2017, 2018 e 2019. Resultados: durante a pandemia, nos casos de neoplasias do sistema respiratório, que acometeram o sexo masculino, foram observadas reduções da realização de procedimentos terapêuticos em todas as regiões brasileiras, notando-se, principalmente, diminuições de 68,22%, 19,58% e 57,24% dos casos tratados com cirurgias, quimioterapia e radioterapia na Região Nordeste. Nos casos de neoplasias que acometeram o sexo feminino, foram detectados aumentos de cirurgias e reduções de radioterapia em todas as regiões federativas, notando-se, principalmente, um aumento de 64,03% e uma redução de 59,73%, respectivamente, dos casos tratados com cirurgia no Centro-Oeste e com radioterapia no Sudeste. Conclusão: o remanejamento dos tratamentos está correlacionado aos aumentos e às reduções dos casos tratados de neoplasias do sistema respiratório. Nesse contexto, os serviços de saúde devem adotar medidas para reduzir a exposição e a contaminação dos indivíduos com a COVID-19, de modo que os tratamentos oncológicos não sejam afetados, e evitar desfechos graves.


Objective: to analyze the epidemiological profile of cases of neoplasms of the respiratory system, which were diagnosed and treated in the years 2017 to 2019, and to compare with the cases that occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil. Method: a cross-sectional study with data on the malignant neoplasm of the trachea, bronchi, and lungs provided by the Department of Informatics of the Unified Health System. The cases were collected and analyzed according to the therapeutic modality and sex through the annual incidence for each Brazilian region, comparing the period of the pandemic and the years 2017, 2018, and 2019. Results: during the pandemic, cases of respiratory system neoplasms that affected males and reductions in the performance of therapeutic procedures were observed in all Brazilian regions, noting mainly, decreases of 68.22%, 19.58%, and 57.24% of cases treated with surgeries, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy in the Northeast region. In the cases of neoplasms that affected females, increases in surgeries and reductions in radiotherapy were detected in all federative regions, noting, mainly, an increase of 64.03% and a reduction of 59.73%, respectively, of the cases treated with surgery in the Midwest and with radiotherapy in the Southeast. Conclusion: the relocation of treatments is correlated with increases and decreases in cases of treated respiratory system neoplasms. In this context, health services must adopt measures to reduce the exposure and contamination of individuals with COVID-19 so that cancer treatments are not affected and avoid serious outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Neoplasms , Radiotherapy , Respiratory System , Thoracic Surgery , Bronchi , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pandemics , International Cooperation , Lung , Neoplasms
4.
Rev. colomb. neumol ; 34(2): 80-85, July-Dec. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1412783

ABSTRACT

El adenocarcinoma primario de pulmón con células en anillo de sello representa una variante rara y muy agresiva de cáncer de pulmón. El carcinoma de células en anillo de sello es un tipo particular de adenocarcinoma secretor de mucina, que se deposita intracitoplasmáticamente y desplaza el núcleo hacia la periferia de la célula. El origen pulmonar de este subtipo tumoral es raro y el hallazgo de reordenamiento de ALK es una asociación común. Presentamos dos casos de adenocarcinomas mucinosos primarios de pulmón con células en anillo de sello y reordenamiento de ALK. Todos los pacientes con cáncer de pulmón deben contar con estudios histopatológicos, inmunohistoquímicos y de biología molecular con los que se puedan obtener las principales características del tumor, que permitan ofrecer la mejor opción terapéutica para el paciente.


Primary adenocarcinoma of the lung with signet-ring cells represents a rare and highly aggressive variant of lung cancer. Signet­ring cell carcinoma is a particular type of mucin­secreting adenocarcinoma, which is deposited intracytoplasmatically and displaces the nucleus towards the periphery of the cell. The pulmonary origin of this tumor subtype is rare, and the finding of ALK rearrangement is a common association. We present two cases of primary mucinous adenocarcinomas of the lung with signet-ring cells and ALK rearrangement. All patients with lung cancer must have histopathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular biology studies with which the main features of the tumor can be obtained, which allow the clinician to offer the best possible treatment for the patient.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adenocarcinoma , Lung , Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell
5.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 42(supl.2): 9-13, oct. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403608

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus has generated globally more than 110.7 million infections and 2.4 million deaths. The severity of this infection can range from asymptomatic, mild to severe. To know the possible associations between the presence of the virus and histopathological alterations found in tissues of fatal cases of COVID-19, the presence of the virus in the lung tissue of a patient with a clinical history of SARS-CoV-2 infection was evaluated. Lung tissue was histologically processed for immunohistochemical detection of SARS- CoV-2. In the histopathological study, morphological changes associated with pneumonitis of viral origin were observed. Likewise, the location of the SARS-CoV-2 virus was observed mainly in the cytoplasm of the cells of the inflammatory infiltrate.


La pandemia de COVID-19 causada por el virus SARS-CoV-2 ha generado más de 110,7 millones de infecciones y 2,4 millones de muertes a nivel mundial. Esta infección puede ser asintomática y sus manifestaciones clínicas pueden variar entre leves y graves. Para conocer las posibles asociaciones entre la presencia del virus y las alteraciones histopatológicas encontradas en los tejidos de casos fatales de COVID-19, se evaluó la presencia del virus en el tejido pulmonar de un paciente con antecedentes clínicos de infección por SARS-CoV-2. La muestra se procesó para la detección inmunohistoquímica del virus. En el estudio histopatológico, se observaron cambios morfológicos asociados con neumonitis de origen viral. Asimismo, el virus se localizó principalmente en el citoplasma de las células del infiltrado inflamatorio.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung , Immunohistochemistry , Antigens, Viral
6.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(5): e218-e222, oct. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1395823

ABSTRACT

La tuberculosis es una de las principales causas infecciosas de muerte en el mundo y es endémica en Argentina. La mayoría de los casos de tuberculosis son de localización pulmonar; el tuberculoma una complicación infrecuente. Se describe un caso clínico de presentación pulmonar atípica de tuberculosis. Se trata de una niña de 15 meses, previamente sana, derivada a neumología por fiebre, mal progreso de peso e imagen persistente por 2 meses en la radiografía de tórax a pesar de haber recibido antibioticoterapia. Antecedente de contacto estrecho con persona sintomática respiratoria. Se internó para estudio, mostró una PPD de 13 mm y una masa voluminosa heterogénea en el lóbulo superior izquierdo en la tomografía computada de tórax. Se realizaron tres lavados gástricos y toracoscopia exploratoria con biopsia pulmonar con rescate de Mycobacterium tuberculosis en cultivos. Se diagnosticó tuberculoma pulmonar y realizó tratamiento estándar con fármacos antituberculosos con evolución favorable.


Tuberculosis is one of the main causes of death due to infection around the world. Although tuberculosis frequently involves lung parenchyma, tuberculoma is a rare complication. We describe an atypical pulmonary presentation of tuberculosis. A 15-month-old girl, previously healthy, was referred to the pulmonology department due to fever, poor weight gain, and a 2-months persistent lung image on chest x-ray despite antibiotic therapy. She had been in frequent contact with a respiratory symptomatic subject. She was admitted to the hospital with a TST of 13 mm and a heterogeneous bulky mass in the left upper lobe at chest computed tomography. Three gastric lavages were done and the patient underwent exploratory thoracoscopy and lung biopsy, with positive cultures for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculoma was confirmed, and the patient received standard anti- tuberculosis therapy with a favorable evolution.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant , Tuberculoma/pathology , Tuberculosis, Lymph Node , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/complications , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Lung/pathology , Anti-Bacterial Agents
7.
Rev. Soc. Argent. Diabetes ; 56(suple. 2): 63-66, may. - ago. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1396880

ABSTRACT

Las pacientes embarazadas con diabetes mellitus (DM) pregestacional y complicaciones micro y macroangiopáticas tienen mayor riesgo de empeoramiento de las mismas y de presentar otros trastornos asociados al embarazo. La progresión de la retinopatía diabética ocurre durante el embarazo y el posparto. La nefropatía se asocia con un mayor riesgo de preeclampsia, parto prematuro, restricción del crecimiento fetal y mortalidad perinatal. Cuando hay enfermedad de arterias coronarias o gastroparesia se observa un aumento de la morbilidad materna y fetal. El parto prematuro es una condición prevalente en pacientes con DM. La maduración pulmonar fetal con corticosteroides fue extensamente estudiada, con numerosas pruebas controladas, hasta convertirse en una de las más importantes terapias prenatales basadas en evidencias para reducir la mortalidad perinatal y el síndrome de dificultad respiratoria, la hemorragia intraventricular y la enterocolitis necrosante en los niños prematuros. Sin embargo, en dicha evidencia no se han incluido a embarazadas con DM, por lo cual no se conocen resultados perinatales en este grupo de pacientes.


Pregnant patients with pregestational diabetes mellitus (DM) and micro and macroangiopathic complications have a higher risk of their worsening and of presenting other pregnancyassociated disorders. The progression of diabetic retinopathy occurs during pregnancy and postpartum. Nephropathy is associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia, preterm delivery, fetal growth restriction, and perinatal mortality. When there is coronary artery disease or gastroparesis, an increase in maternal and fetal morbidity is observed Preterm delivery is a prevalent condition in diabetic patients. Corticosteroid fetal lung maturation has been extensively studied, with numerous controlled trials, to become one of the most important evidence-based prenatal therapies to reduce perinatal mortality and decrease respiratory distress syndrome, intraventricular hemorrhage, and necrotizing enterocolitis, in premature infants. Nevertheless, this evidence did not include patients with DM, for this reason perinatal results are not known in this group of patients.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Infant, Premature , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Pregnant Women , Perinatal Mortality , Lung
9.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 88(2): 204-211, Mar.-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374713

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: General anesthesia causes pulmonary atelectasis within few minutes of induction. This can have significant impact on postoperative outcome of cancer patients undergoing prolonged reconstructive surgeries. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of sonographically detected perioperative atelectasis on the need for postoperative oxygen supplementation, bronchodilator therapy and assisted chest physiotherapy in patients undergoing free flap surgeries for head and neck carcinoma. Methods: Twenty eight head and neck cancer patients underwent bilateral pulmonary ultrasonographic assessments before and after lung surgery. Lung ultrasound scores, serum lactate, and PaO2/FiO2 ratio were measured both at the beginning and at end of the surgery. Patients were scanned in the supine position and the number of single and confluent B lines was noted. These values were correlated with the need for oxygen therapy, requirement of bronchodilators and total weaning time to predict the postoperative outcome. Other factors affecting weaning were also studied. Results: Among twenty eight patients, seven had mean lung ultrasound score of ≥10.5 which correlated with prolonged weaning time (144.56±33.5min vs. 66.7±15.7min; p = 0.005). The change in lung ultrasound score significantly correlated with change in PaO2/FiO2 ratio (r = −0.56, p = 0.03). Elevated total leukocyte count >8200 ΜL and serum lactate >2.1 mmoL/L also predicted prolonged postoperative mechanical ventilation. Conclusion: This preliminary study detected significant levels of perioperative atelectasis using point of care lung ultrasonography in head and neck cancer patients undergoing long duration surgical reconstructions. Higher lung ultrasound scores highlighted the need for frequent bronchodilator nebulizations as well as assisted chest physiotherapy and were associated with delayed weaning. We propose more frequent point of care lung ultrasonographic evaluations and use of recruitment maneuvers to reduce the impact of perioperative pulmonary atelectasis.


Resumo Introdução: A anestesia geral causa atelectasia pulmonar poucos minutos após sua indução. Isso pode ter um impacto significativo no resultado pós-operatório de pacientes com câncer submetidos a cirurgias reconstrutivas prolongadas. Objetivo: Avaliar o impacto das atelectasias perioperatórias detectadas por ultrassonografia na necessidade de suplementação pós-operatória de oxigênio, terapia broncodilatadora e fisioterapia respiratória assistida em pacientes com carcinoma de cabeça e pescoço submetidos a cirurgias com uso de retalho livre. Método: Foram submetidos a avaliações ultrassonográficas pulmonares bilaterais antes e após a cirurgia 28 pacientes com câncer de cabeça e pescoço. Os escores de ultrassonografia pulmonar, lactato sérico, razão PaO2/FiO2 foram medidos no início e no fim da cirurgia. Os pacientes foram avaliados na posição supina e o número de linhas B confluentes e únicas foi observado. Esses valores foram correlacionados com a necessidade de oxigenoterapia, necessidade de broncodilatadores e tempo total de desmame para predizer o resultado pós-operatório. Outros fatores que afetam o desmame também foram estudados. Resultados: Entre os 28 pacientes, sete apresentaram escore médio de ultrassonografia pulmonar ≥ 10,5, que se correlacionou com o tempo de desmame prolongado (144,56 ± 33,5 minutos vs. 66,7 ± 15,7 minutos; p = 0,005). A mudança no escore de ultrassonografia pulmonar correlacionou-se significantemente com a mudança na razão PaO2/FiO2 (r = −0,56, p = 0,03). A contagem total elevada de leucócitos > 8200 uLe o nível de lactato sérico >2,1 mmoL/L também previram ventilação mecânica pós-operatória prolongada. Conclusão: Este estudo preliminar detectou um nível significante de atelectasia perioperatória com ultrassonografia pulmonar no local de atendimento em pacientes com câncer de cabeça e pescoço submetidos a reconstruções cirúrgicas de longa duração. Escores mais altos de ultrassonografia pulmonar enfatizaram a necessidade de nebulizações broncodilatadoras frequentes e fisioterapia respiratória assistida e foram associados a desmame tardio. Propomos avaliações ultrassonográficas pulmonares mais frequentes no local de atendimento e o uso de manobras de recrutamento para reduzir o impacto das atelectasias pulmonares perioperatórias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pulmonary Atelectasis/etiology , Pulmonary Atelectasis/therapy , Pulmonary Atelectasis/diagnostic imaging , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Free Tissue Flaps , Head and Neck Neoplasms/surgery , Head and Neck Neoplasms/complications , Head and Neck Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Postoperative Complications , Bronchodilator Agents , Ultrasonography/adverse effects , Lactates , Lung
10.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 38(1): 33-36, mar. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388170

ABSTRACT

Resumen El Paraquat es un herbicida ampliamente utilizado para el control de las malezas en Chile. Su ingesta determina una alta probabilidad de mortalidad dado su inherente toxicidad mediante la producción de radicales libres, que afectan a múltiples órganos, principalmente los pulmones; a esto se suma la falta de un tratamiento efectivo. Se presenta el caso clínico de un hombre de 18 años que en un intento suicida consume 50 mL de paraquat (200 g/L), con desenlace fatal. La presentación clínica depende la cantidad de Paraquat ingerida y los hallazgos radiológicos descritos varían según la temporalidad del cuadro e, inclusive, podrían determinar el pronóstico.


Paraquat is an herbicide widely used for weed control in Chile. Its intake determines a high probability of mortality because of its inherent toxicity through the production of free radicals. Multiple organs are affected, mainly the lungs; to this is added the lack of effective treatment. We present the clinical case of an 18-year-old man who in a suicidal attempt swallows 50 mL of paraquat (200 g/L), with a fatal outcome. The clinical presentation depends on the amount of Paraquat ingested. Radiological findings described vary according to the temporality of the condition and could even determine the prognosis


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Paraquat/poisoning , Pulmonary Fibrosis/diagnostic imaging , Herbicides/poisoning , Pulmonary Fibrosis/chemically induced , Radiography, Thoracic , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Fatal Outcome , Lung/diagnostic imaging
11.
Arq. Asma, Alerg. Imunol ; 6(1): 91-99, jan.mar.2022. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1400112

ABSTRACT

O aumento da prevalência de doenças respiratórias crônicas coincide com o da exposição aos poluentes atmosféricos pelo crescente processo de industrialização, aumento do tráfego veicular e migração da população para áreas urbanas. A poluição do ar é uma mistura complexa de poluentes e outros compostos químicos tóxicos e não tóxicos, e o efeito na saúde pode derivar dessa mistura e da interação com parâmetros meteorológicos. Apesar disso, busca-se estabelecer o papel de um poluente específico em separado e consideram-se os parâmetros meteorológicos como fatores de confusão. Há evidências de que a exposição aos poluentes contribui para maior morbidade e mortalidade por doenças respiratórias, especialmente nas crianças, mesmo em concentrações dentro dos padrões estabelecidos pela legislação. Identificar os efeitos dos poluentes no sistema respiratório, isoladamente e em associação, é um desafio, e os estudos têm limitações devido à variabilidade de resposta individual, a presença de doenças pré-existentes, aos fatores socioeconômicos, às exposições a poluentes intradomiciliares, ocupacionais e ao tabaco. A maioria das evidências sobre o efeito dos poluentes no sistema respiratório de crianças deriva de estudos que incluem desfechos de função pulmonar. Entretanto, esses estudos têm diferenças quanto ao desenho, ao método de avaliação de exposição aos poluentes, às medidas de função pulmonar, às covariáveis consideradas como capazes de alterar a resposta aos poluentes e aos tipos de modelos utilizados na análise dos dados. Considerar todas essas diferenças é fundamental na interpretação e comparação dos resultados dessas pesquisas com os dados já existentes na literatura.


The increase in the prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases coincides with that of exposure to air pollutants due to the growing industrialization process, increased vehicular traffic and population migration to urban areas. Air pollution is a complex mixture of pollutants and other toxic and non-toxic chemical compounds and its effect on health can derive from this mixture and the interaction with meteorological parameters. Despite this, it seeks to establish the role of a specific pollutant separately and considers the meteorological parameters as confounding factors. There is evidence that exposure to pollutants contributes to greater morbidity and mortality from respiratory diseases, especially in children, even at concentrations within the standards established by legislation. Identifying the effects of pollutants on the respiratory system, alone and in association, is a challenge and studies have limitations due to the variability of individual response, the presence of pre-existing diseases, socioeconomic factors, exposure to indoor, occupational and environmental pollutants as well tobacco. Most of the evidence on the effect of pollutants on the respiratory system of children comes from studies that include lung function outcomes. However, these studies differ in terms of design, method of assessing exposure to pollutants, measures of lung function, covariates considered capable of altering the response to pollutants, and types of models used in data analysis. Considering all these differences is fundamental in interpreting and comparing the results of these researches with data already existing in the literature.


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Tobacco , Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Environmental Pollutants , Respiratory System , Prevalence , Toxic Substances , Lung
12.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 27(3): 1157-1170, mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364677

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to analyze the role of period, geographic and socio demographic factors in cancer-related mortality by prostate, breast, cervix, colon, lung and esophagus cancer in Brazilians capitals (2000-2015). Ecological study using data of Brazilian Mortality Information. Multilevel Poisson models were used to estimate the adjusted risk of cancer mortality. Mortality rate levels were higher in males for colon, lung and esophageal cancers. Mortality rates were highest in the older. Our results showed an increased risk of colon cancer mortality in both sexes from 2000 to 2015, which was also evidenced for breast and lung cancers in women. In both genders, the highest mortality risk for lung and esophageal cancers was observed in Southern capitals. Midwestern, Southern and Southeastern capitals showed the highest mortality risk for colon cancer both for males and females. Colon cancer mortality rate increased for both genders, while breast and lung cancers mortality increased only for women. The North region showed the lowest mortality rate for breast, cervical, colon and esophageal cancers. The Midwest and Northeast regions showed the highest mortality rates for prostate cancer.


Resumo Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar o papel de fatores temporais, geográficos e sociodemográficos na mortalidade por câncer de próstata, mama, colo do útero, cólon, pulmão e esôfago nas capitais brasileiras (2000-2015). Estudo ecológico utilizando informações brasileiras de mortalidade. Modelos de Poisson multinível foram usados ​​para estimar o risco ajustado de mortalidade por câncer. Os níveis de mortalidade foram maiores em homens para câncer de cólon, pulmão e esôfago. As taxas de mortalidade foram mais altas nos idosos. Nossos resultados mostraram risco aumentado de mortalidade por câncer de cólon em ambos os sexos de 2000 a 2015, o que também foi evidenciado para câncer de mama e de pulmão em mulheres. Em ambos os sexos, o maior risco de mortalidade para câncer de pulmão e esôfago foi observado nas capitais do Sul. As capitais do Centro-Oeste, Sul e Sudeste apresentaram o maior risco de mortalidade por câncer de cólon tanto para homens quanto para mulheres. A taxa de mortalidade por câncer de cólon aumentou para ambos os sexos, enquanto a mortalidade por câncer de mama e de pulmão aumentou apenas para as mulheres. A região Norte apresentou a menor taxa de mortalidade por câncer de mama, colo do útero, cólon e esôfago. As regiões Centro-Oeste e Nordeste apresentaram as maiores taxas de mortalidade por câncer de próstata.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Prostate , Cervix Uteri , Colon , Esophagus , Multilevel Analysis , Lung
14.
Rev. bras. ativ. fís. saúde ; 27: 1-6, fev. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1363719

ABSTRACT

We aimed to report a successful clinical case of a short-term cardiopulmonary rehabilitation after hospital discharge due to COVID-19. Exploratory descriptive case study with a 58-year-old male, former smoker, and in need of supplemental oxygen after COVID-19 infection, admitted to a car-diopulmonary rehabilitation program of six weeks in a school clinic in the Federal District, Brasília, Brazil. Chest expansion, aerobic capacity, physical function, and quality of life were evaluated before and after the program using, respectively, thoracic cirtometry, 6-Minute Walk Test, 1-Minute Sit-To-Stand Test, and Short Form Health Survey. At the end of the cardiopulmonary rehabilitation, the patient presented increased chest expansion, increased walked distance with decreased percep-tion of exertion, increased repetitions in the 1-minute sit-to-stand-test, and increased quality of life. Moreover, he was completely weaned from supplemental oxygen. A short-term duration cardiopul-monary rehabilitation protocol can contribute to improvement in aerobic and functional capacity, and in quality of life after COVID-19


O objetivo deste estudo foi relatar um caso clínico bem-sucedido de reabilitação cardiopulmonar de curta duração após alta hospitalar pós COVID-19. Trata-se de um estudo de caso exploratório descritivo com um homem de 58 anos, ex-tabagista e com necessidade de suplementação de oxigênio após infecção por CO-VID-19, admitido em um programa de reabilitação cardiopulmonar de seis semanas em uma clínica escola do Distrito Federal ­ Brasília, Brasil. A expansão torácica, capacidade aeróbia, função física e qualidade de vida foram avaliadas antes e após o programa por meio de cirtometria torácica, teste de caminhada de 6 minutos, teste de sentar e levantar de 1 minuto e Short Form Health Survey, respectivamente. Ao final da reabilitação cardiopulmonar, o paciente apresentou aumento da expansão torácica, aumento da distância percorrida com diminuição da percepção de esforço, aumento das repetições no teste de sentar e levantar de 1 minuto e aumento da qualidade de vida. Além disso, o desmame completo do oxigênio suplementar também foi alcançado. Um protocolo de reabilitação cardiopulmonar, ainda que de curta duração, pode contribuir para a melhora da capacidade aeróbica, funcional e da qualidade de vida após a COVID-19


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Rehabilitation , Exercise , COVID-19 , Lung
15.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 68(2): 183-190, Feb. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365348

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to ascertain the long-term respiratory effects of COVID-19 pneumonia through pulmonary function tests in follow-ups at 1 and 6 months. METHODS: Our study was conducted between August 1, 2020 and April 30, 2021. At 1 month after discharge, follow-up evaluations, PFTs, and lung imaging were performed on patients aged above 18 years who had been diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia. In the 6th month, the PFTs were repeated for those with pulmonary dysfunction. RESULTS: A total of 219 patients (mean age, 49±11.9 years) were included. Pathological PFT results were noted in the 1st month for 80 patients and in the 6th month for 46 (7 had obstructive disorder, 15 had restrictive disorder, and 28 had small airway obstruction) patients. A significant difference was found between abnormal PFT results and patient-described dyspnea in the 1st month of follow-up. The 6-month PFT values (especially those for forced vital capacity) were statistically significantly lower in the patients for whom imaging did not indicate complete radiological improvement at the 1-month follow-up. No statistically significant difference was found between the severity of the first computed tomography findings or clinical condition on emergency admission and pulmonary dysfunction (Pearson's chi-square test, P=0.904; Fisher's exact test, P=0.727). CONCLUSION: It is important that patients with COVID-19 pneumonia be followed up for at least 1 month after discharge to be monitored for potential long-term lung damage. PFTs should be administered to those in whom ongoing dyspnea, which started with COVID-19, and/or full recovery were not identified in pulmonary imaging.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Respiratory Function Tests , Vital Capacity , Follow-Up Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Middle Aged
17.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 44(1): 74-82, Jan. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365665

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To compare the perinatal outcomes of fetuses with isolated congenital diaphragmatic hernia after fetal endoscopic tracheal occlusion (FETO) and antenatal expectant management. Data sources In this rapid review, searches were conducted in the MEDLINE, PMC, EMBASE and CENTRAL databases between August 10th and September 4th, 2020. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs or cluster-RCTs published in English in the past ten years were included. Study selection We retrieved 203 publications; 180 studies were screened by abstract. Full-text selection was performed for eight studies, and 1 single center RCTmet the inclusion criteria (41 randomized women; 20 in the FETO group, and 21 in the control group). Data collection Data collection was performed independently, by both authors, in two steps (title and abstract and full-text reading). Data synthesis There were no cases of maternal mortality. The mean gestational age at delivery was of 35.6±2.4 weeks in the intervention group, and of 37.4±1.9 weeks among the controls (p<0.01). Survival until 6 months of age was reported in 50% of the intervention group, and in 5.8% of the controls (p<0.01; relative risk: 10.5; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 1.5-74.7). Severe postnatal pulmonary hypertension was found in 50% of the infants in the intervention group, and in 85.7% of controls (p=0.02; relative risk: 0.6; 95%CI: 0.4-0.9). An analysis of the study indicated some concerns of risk of bias. The quality of evidence was considered moderate to low. Conclusion Current evidence is limited but suggests that FETO may be an effective intervention to improve perinatal outcomes.


Resumo Objetivo Comparar os resultados perinatais de fetos com hérnia diafragmática congênita após oclusão traqueal endoscópica fetal (OTEF) e conduta expectante pré-natal. Fontes dos dados Nesta revisão rápida, pesquisas foram conduzidas nas bases de dados MEDLINE, PMC, EMBASE e CENTRAL entre 10 de agosto de 2020 e 4 de setembro de 2020. Ensaios clínicos randomizados (ECRs), quase-ECRs e ECRs em cluster publicados em inglês nos últimos dez anos foram incluídos. Seleção dos estudos Foram recuperadas 203 publicações; 180 destas foram triadas pelo resumo. Fez-se a leitura do texto completo de 8 estudos, e 1 ECR cumpriu os critérios de inclusão (41 mulheres aleatorizadas; 20 no grupo OTEF e 21 no grupo de controle). Coleta de dados A coleta de dados realizada independentemente pelos dois autores, em duas etapas (título e resumo, e leitura do texto completo). Síntese dos dados Não houve casos de mortematerna. A idade gestacionalmédia no parto foi de 35,6±2,4 semanas no grupo de intervenção, e de 37,4±1,9 semanas entre os controles (p<0,01). A sobrevida até 6 meses de idade foi relatada em 50% do grupo de intervenção, e em 5,8% dos controles (p<0,01; risco relativo: 10,5; intervalo de confiança de 95% [IC95%]: 1,5-74,7). Hipertensão pulmonar grave ocorreu em 50% dos lactentes do grupo de intervenção, e em 85,7% dos controles (p = 0.02; risco relativo: 0,6; IC95%: 0,4-0,9). Uma análise do estudo indicou algumas preocupações quanto ao risco de viés. A qualidade da evidência foi considerada de moderada a baixa. Conclusão As evidências atuais são limitadas,mas sugeremque a OTEF pode ser uma intervenção eficaz para melhorar resultados perinatais.


Subject(s)
Fetal Diseases/surgery , Fetoscopy/methods , Hernias, Diaphragmatic, Congenital/surgery , Hernias, Diaphragmatic, Congenital/diagnostic imaging , Prognosis , Survival , Ultrasonography, Prenatal/methods , Fetal Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Hypertension, Pulmonary/prevention & control , Lung/abnormalities , Lung Diseases/prevention & control
18.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(4): 1134-1146, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405239

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The postmortem diagnosis of death by drowning is one of the most difficult issues in forensic pathology. We investigated possible evidence differentiating saltwater drowning from freshwater drowning by histopathological changes in brain, heart, lungs, liver, and kidneys tissues. A cross section descriptive study was carried out on eighteen 12-week-old male Wistar rats; they were divided equally into 3 groups. Group 1: control group; Group 2: death by drowning in freshwater; Group 3: death by drowning in saltwater. Immediately after death, all tested organs were removed and fixed for histopathological examination. The brain of freshwater group depicted degenerated neurocytes with dystrophic changes in the form of shrunken cell, pyknotic nuclei and deeply eosinophilic cytoplasm. The heart showed clear evidence of myocyte injuries in saltwater drowning compared to the control and freshwater groups. The kidneys of rats drown in saltwater revealed more glomerular destruction with no differences in tubulo-interstitial changes in comparison with those drown in freshwater. In the lungs, the changes in freshwater were restricted to the alveoli, and the bronchial changes were more distinctive in saltwater. No disturbed liver architecture was seen in both test groups, however hydropic degeneration, congested vessels, and sinusoids were more distinct in saltwater group. In conclusion, diagnostic differentiation between fresh and saltwater drowning was reliable in rats' lungs and heart with minimal differentiation in liver, kidneys, and brain. Further studies of drowning with different staining techniques will help to clarify the potential role of histopathological changes in body organs as indicator of drowning.


RESUMEN: El diagnóstico post mortem de muerte por ahogamiento es uno de los temas más difíciles de la patología forense. Investigamos la posible evidencia que diferencia el ahogamiento en agua salada del ahogamiento en agua dulce por cambios histopatológicos en los tejidos del cerebro, el corazón, los pulmones, el hígado y los riñones. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal en dieciocho ratas Wistar macho de 12 semanas de edad; se dividieron por igual en 3 grupos. Grupo 1: grupo control; Grupo 2: muerte por ahogamiento en agua dulce; Grupo 3: muerte por ahogamiento en agua salada. Inmediatamente después de la muerte, se extirparon todos los órganos analizados y se fijaron para el examen histopatológico. El cerebro del grupo de agua dulce mostró neurocitos degenerados con cambios distróficos en forma de células encogidas, núcleos picnóticos y citoplasma profundamente eosinofílico. El corazón mostró una clara evidencia de lesiones de miocitos en los ahogamientos en agua salada en comparación con los grupos de control y de agua dulce. Los riñones de ratas ahogadas en agua salada revelaron una mayor destrucción glomerular sin diferencias en los cambios túbulo-intersticiales en comparación con las ahogadas en agua dulce. En los pulmones, los cambios en agua dulce se restringieron a los alvéolos y los cambios bronquiales fueron más distintivos en agua salada. No se observó una arquitectura hepática alterada en ambos grupos de prueba, sin embargo, la degeneración hidrópica, los vasos congestionados y los sinusoides fueron más distintos en el grupo de agua salada. En conclusión, la diferenciación diagnóstica entre ahogamiento en agua dulce y salada fue confiable en los pulmones y el corazón de las ratas con una diferenciación mínima en el hígado, los riñones y el cerebro. Estudios adicionales de ahogamiento con diferentes técnicas de tinción ayudarán a aclarar el papel potencial de los cambios histopatológicos en los órganos del cuerpo como indicador de ahogamiento.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Saline Waters , Drowning/pathology , Fresh Water , Brain/pathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Rats, Wistar , Forensic Medicine , Kidney/pathology , Liver/pathology , Lung/pathology
19.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396828

ABSTRACT

Objective: To verify D-dimer values to predict disease severity, degree of lung involvement and mortality in patients with COVID-19. Method: The D-dimer levels of 200 confirmed COVID-19 patients were prospectively measured in the Emergency Department of Razi Hospital of Ahvaz on the admission day, and its relations with the illness severity, computed tomography (CT) score, and mortality were assessed. Results: D-dimer level > 1.04 µg/mL and ≤ 1.12 µg/mL could indicate severe illness and high grade of pulmonary involvement but low risk of death. The mortality rate in the patients with D-dimer level > 1.12 µg/mL (was significantly higher than its rate in those with D-dimer level ≤ 1.12 µg/mL (17.2% x 1.5%; P:0.02). An independent positive correlation was found between D-dimer and Chest CT score as well as the disease severity (OR: 1.84; 95%CI:1.38 - 2.45; P:0.0001). Conclusion: D-dimer level > 1.12 µg/mL on the early stage of COVID-19 infection may independently predict the severe illness, high grade of pulmonary involvement, and high risk of death, indicating its beneficial role in timely management of critical patients.


Objetivo: Verificar os valores do D-dímero para predizer a gravidade da doença, o grau de envolvimento pulmonar e a mortalidade em pacientes com COVID-19. Método: Os níveis de dímero D de 200 pacientes confirmados com COVID-19 foram medidos, prospectivamente, no Departamento de Emergência do Hospital Razi de Ahvaz, no dia da admissão, e suas relações com a gravidade da doença, escore de tomografia computadorizada (CT) e mortalidade foram avaliadas. Resultados: Os níveis do D-dímero > 1,04 µg/mL e ≤ 1,12 µg/mL podem indicar doença grave e alto grau de envolvimento pulmonar, mas baixo risco de morte. A taxa de mortalidade nos pacientes com valor de D-dímero > 1,12 µg/mL foi significativamente maior do naqueles com nível de D-dímero ≤ 1,12 µg/mL (17,2% x 1,5%; P:0,02). Foi encontrada uma correlação positiva independente entre o D-dímero e o escore de CT de tórax e a gravidade da doença (OR: 1,84; IC 95%:1,38 - 2,45; P:0,0001). Conclusão: O nível do D-dímero > 1,12 µg/mL no estágio inicial da infecção por COVID-19 pode prever independentemente a doença grave, alto grau de envolvimento pulmonar e alto risco de morte, indicando seu papel benéfico no manejo oportuno de pacientes críticos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Mortality , COVID-19 , Lung
20.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(2): 525-529, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364338

ABSTRACT

Resumo A doença de coronavírus 2019 (COVID-19) foi relatada em quase todos os países do mundo desde dezembro de 2019. A infecção por SARS-CoV-2 é frequentemente assintomática ou com sintomas leves, mas também pode levar à hipóxia, um estado hiperinflamatório e coagulopatia. Os parâmetros de coagulação anormais estão associados a complicações trombóticas, incluindo embolia pulmonar na COVID-19, mas pouco se sabe sobre os mecanismos. A semelhança dos sintomas iniciais de ambas as doenças também pode ser confusa, portanto, os médicos devem estar cientes do potencial para condições concomitantes. Apresentamos aqui um caso que não apresentava opacidades em vidro fosco nos pulmões, mas apresentava embolia pulmonar e derrame pleural em associação com infecção por COVID-19.


Abstract Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been reported in almost every country in the world since December 2019. Infection with SARS-CoV-2 is often asymptomatic or with mild symptoms, but it may also lead to hypoxia, a hyperinflammatory state, and coagulopathy. The abnormal coagulation parameters are associated with thrombotic complications, including pulmonary embolism in COVID-19, but little is known about the mechanisms. The similarity of initial symptoms of both diseases can also be confusing, therefore the physicians should be aware of the potential for concurrent conditions. Herein, we present a case who did not have ground-glass opacities in the lungs, yet presented with pulmonary embolism and pleural effusions in association with COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Lung
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