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2.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1779-1785, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134511

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The Bactrian camel, which is native to China and Mongolia, is large in size and is an even-toed ungulate species. The double humps on the Bactrian camel back differentiate it from the dromedary camel, which has a single hump. This species has adapted to unsuitable conditions (lack of food and water) in the Gobi Desert and is advanced in unique anatomical and physiological characteristics during a prolonged evolution period. Several studies have been conducted on the anatomical features of the Bactrian camel, but none have given attention to the alveolar capillaries of the Bactrian camel lung. Therefore, the current study aims to explore the architecture of the alveolar capillary in the Bactrian camel lung and further explain the mechanism of blood flow in its lung. The current study extracted and examined the architecture of the alveolar capillary in the lung of the Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) and further explained the mechanism of blood flow by performing lung casting and replica scanning electron microscopy methods. The reports showed that the resources of the alveolar-capillary originated from the capillaries of the subpleural space or interlobular septulum, sometimes originating from the precapillary arterioles or directly from the terminal arterioles. The alveolar capillaries anastomosed and formed a single layer of dense, basket-like network surrounding the alveolus. The mash diameter of the alveolar-capillary network was larger than that of the capillary, and the appearance of the mash was oval and elliptical. Many of the collapsed alveolar-capillary networks were found in the alveolar microvascular architecture in the lung of the Bactrian camel. The study found that, due to many collapsed alveoli in the Bactrian camel lung, the disproportional pressure between the pulmonary alveoli induced less imbalance of blood flow in the alveolar capillary, which affected the gas exchange efficiency. Therefore, the function of the anastomosing capillary branch was likely to regulate the blood flow between the alveolar-capillary network.


RESUMEN: El camello bactriano, es originario de China y Mongolia, es de gran tamaño y es una especie de ungulado de dedos pares. Las dobles jorobas del lomo del camello bactriano lo diferencian del dromedario, que tiene una sola joroba. Esta especie se ha adaptado a condiciones inadecuadas (falta de alimento y agua) en el desierto de Gobi y ha avanzado en características anatómicas y fisiológicas únicas durante un período de evolución prolongado. Se han realizado varios estudios sobre las características anatómicas del camello bactriano, pero ninguno ha prestado atención a los capilares alveolares del pulmón de este animal. Por lo tanto, el presente estudio tuvo como objetivo principal explorar la arquitectura del capilar alveolar en el pulmón del camello bactriano y explicar el mecanismo del flujo sanguíneo. A partir de nuestro trabajo se examinó la arquitectura del capilar alveolar en el pulmón del camello bactriano (Camelus bactrianus) mediante la realización de métodos de microscopía electrónica de barrido y escaneo pulmonar. Los informes mostraron que los recursos del alvéolo-capilar se originaban en los capilares del espacio subpleural o del tabique interlobulillar y a veces se originaban en las arteriolas precapilares o directamente en las arteriolas terminales. Los capilares alveolares se anastomosaban y formaban una densa red de capa única en forma de cesta que rodeaba el alvéolo. El diámetro del macerado de la red alveolar-capilar era mayor que el del capilar y el aspecto del macerado era ovalado y elíptico. Muchas de las redes alvéolo-capilares colapsadas se encontraron en la arquitectura microvascular alveolar en el pulmón del camello bactriano. El estudio encontró que, muchos alvéolos colapsados en el pulmón del camello bactriano, la presión desproporcionada entre los alvéolos pulmonares inducía un menor desequilibrio del flujo sanguíneo en el capilar alveolar, lo que afectaba la eficiencia del intercambio de gases. Por lo tanto, la función de la rama capilar anastomosante probablemente regularía el flujo sanguíneo entre la red alveolar-capilar.


Subject(s)
Animals , Pulmonary Alveoli/blood supply , Pulmonary Alveoli/ultrastructure , Capillaries/anatomy & histology , Capillaries/ultrastructure , Camelus/anatomy & histology , Lung/blood supply , Lung/ultrastructure , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
3.
J. bras. pneumol ; 46(2): e20180299, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090803

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo A morte cerebral (MC) desencadeia alterações hemodinâmicas e inflamatórias importantes, comprometendo a viabilidade dos órgãos empregados em transplantes. Para compreender melhor as alterações microcirculatórias nos pulmões de doadores com MC, o presente estudo investigou a microcirculação pulmonar em um modelo de roedor com MC via microscopia intravital. Métodos Ratos Wistar machos foram anestesiados e ventilados mecanicamente. Eles foram submetidos a trepanação e a MC induzida por meio do aumento da pressão intracraniana. Os ratos do grupo Sham (SH), utilizado como controle, foram submetidos apenas à trepanação. Em ambos os grupos, foram monitorados o O2 expiratório e o CO2, e, após 3 horas, foi realizada a toracotomia e criada uma janela para observar a superfície pulmonar usando o sistema de microscopia intravital. As expressões pulmonares das moléculas de adesão intercelular (ICAM)-1 e da óxido nítrico-sintase endotelial (eNOS) foram avaliadas por imuno-histoquímica, e as citocinas foram medidas em amostras pulmonares. Resultados Três horas após os procedimentos cirúrgicos, a perfusão pulmonar foi de 73% no grupo SH. Por outro lado, os animais com MC apresentaram uma importante diminuição na perfusão do órgão para 28% (p = 0,036). O comprometimento microcirculatório pulmonar após a indução de MC foi associado a um aumento do número de leucócitos recrutados para o tecido pulmonar, além de uma redução na expressão de eNOS e um aumento na expressão de ICAM-1 nas células endoteliais do pulmão. Os ratos com MC apresentaram valores mais elevados de O2 expiratório e valores mais baixos de CO2 em comparação com os animais SH após 3 horas de monitorização. Conclusões Os dados apresentados demonstraram que a MC desencadeia uma importante hipoperfusão e inflamação nos pulmões, comprometendo a microcirculação pulmonar do doador.


ABSTRACT Objective Brain death (BD) triggers important hemodynamic and inflammatory alterations, compromising the viability of organs suitable for transplantation. To better understand the microcirculatory alterations in donor lungs caused by BD. The present study investigated the pulmonary microcirculation in a rodent model of BD via intravital microscopy. Methods Male Wistar rats were anaesthetized and mechanically ventilated. They were trepanned and BD was induced through the increase in intracranial pressure. As control group, sham-operated (SH) rats were trepanned only. In both groups, expiratory O2 and CO2 were monitored and after three hours, a thoracotomy was performed, and a window was created to observe the lung surface using an epi-fluorescence intravital microscopy. Lung expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) was evaluated by immunohistochemistry, and cytokines were measured in lung samples. Results Three hours after the surgical procedures, pulmonary perfusion was 73% in the SH group. On the other hand, BD animals showed an important decrease in organ perfusion to 28% (p = 0.036). Lung microcirculatory compromise after BD induction was associated with an augmentation of the number of leukocytes recruited to lung tissue, and with a reduction in eNOS expression and an increase in ICAM-1 expression on lung endothelial cells. BD rats showed higher values of expiratory O2 and lower values of CO2 in comparison with SH animals after three hours of monitoring. Conclusion Data presented showed that BD triggers an important hypoperfusion and inflammation in the lungs, compromising the donor pulmonary microcirculation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Tissue Donors , Brain Death/physiopathology , Endothelial Cells , Lung/blood supply , Microcirculation/physiology , Rats, Wistar , Microvessels , Models, Theoretical
5.
Clinics ; 75: e1373, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055875

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a unique form of pulmonary hypertension (PH) that arises from obstruction of the pulmonary vessels by recanalized thromboembolic material. CTEPH has a wide range of radiologic presentations. Commonly, it presents as main pulmonary artery enlargement, peripheral vascular obstructions, bronchial artery dilations, and mosaic attenuation patterns. Nevertheless, other uncommon presentations have been described, such as lung cavities. These lesions may be solely related to chronic lung parenchyma ischemia but may also be a consequence of concomitant chronic infectious conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the different etiologies that cause lung cavities in CTEPH patients. METHODS: A retrospective data analysis of the medical records of CTEPH patients in a single reference PH center that contained or mentioned lung cavities was conducted between 2013 and 2016. RESULTS: Seven CTEPH patients with lung cavities were identified. The cavities had different sizes, locations, and wall thicknesses. In two patients, the cavities were attributed to pulmonary infarction; in 5 patients, an infectious etiology was identified. CONCLUSION: Despite the possibility of being solely associated with chronic lung parenchyma ischemia, most cases of lung cavities in CTEPH patients were associated with chronic granulomatous diseases, reinforcing the need for active investigation of infectious agents in this setting.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Thromboembolism/etiology , Granulomatous Disease, Chronic/pathology , Hypertension, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/therapy , Angiography/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Chronic Disease , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Perfusion Imaging , Hypertension, Pulmonary/etiology , Hypertension, Pulmonary/therapy , Lung/blood supply , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
6.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 38(2): 87-95, ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042601

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: Antecedentes: La presión media arterial pulmonar (PMAP) es una variable hemodinámica indispensable para el diagnóstico, clasificación y pronóstico de la Hipertensión Pulmonar (HP). Su cuantificación se realiza en forma invasiva por cateterismo cardíaco derecho (CCD) y no invasivamente por ecocardiografía Doppler. Masuyama propuso su medición mediante el gradiente transvalvular pulmonar diastólico derivado de la velocidad máxima inicial de la regurgitación pulmonar (∆RPi2) correspondiendo cercanamente a la medición invasiva. Objetivos: Revalidar 3 métodos ecocardiográficos que estiman la PMAP y valorar la utilidad del método de Chemla en el Test de Reactividad Vascular Pulmonar (TRVP). Métodos: Estudio prospectivo, observacional, doble ciego divido en dos etapas. A) o I) 30 pacientes se realizó ecocardiografía Doppler diagnóstica en nuestro centro. Se midieron regurgitación tricuspídea (RT) y tiempo de aceleración pulmonar (TAP) para derivar las siguientes ecuaciones: 1) 0.61xPSAP+1.95 (Chemla) 2) Gradiente presión media RT (∆PmRT) +PAD (presión-aurícula derecha) (Aduen) y 3) 79-0.45xTAP o 90-0.60xTAP, según sea el valor del TAP. B) o II) 10 pacientes enrolados para realizar el TRVP comparando la medición ecocardiográfica (Chemla) con CCD. Resultados: En la primera parte del estudio se encontró alta correlación entre las 3 ecuaciones: ChemlaAduen, R2=0.91; Chemla-Kitabatake, R2=0.87; Aduen-Kitabatake, R2=0,91. En la segunda parte comparando la PMAP-Chemla y Cateterismo derecho (CD) obtuvimos alta correlación: en tiempo 0, 30 min y recuperación:(R2=0.87, 0.99, 0.98, respectivamente). Ambas partes del estudio mostraron límites de concordancia satisfactoria con valor medio de la diferencia entre los métodos cercano a 1 en el t30 y tR del TRVP. Conclusión: los métodos dependientes de la medición de la RT son efectivos y confiables para estimar la PMAP. El método de Chemla es útil en el TRVP.


ABSTRACTS: Background: Mean Pulmonary arterial pressure (PMAP)is an indispensable hemodynamic variable for the diagnosis, classification and prognosis of Pulmonary Hypertension (PH). Its quantification is performed invasively by cardiac catheterization and non-invasively by Doppler echocardiography. Masuyama proposed its measurement by the transvalvular diastolic pulmonary gradient derived from the initial maximum velocity of pulmonary regurgitation(ΔPRi2) corresponding closely to the invasive measurement. Objectives: to compare 3 known echocardiographic methods to estimate MPAP and demonstrate the usefulness of the Chemla method in the Pulmonary Vascular Reactivity Test (PVRT). Methods: prospective, observational, double-blind study divided into two stages. A) 30 patients underwent diagnostic Doppler echocardiography. Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) and pulmonary acceleration time (PAT) were measured to derive the equations: 1) 0.61xSPAP + 1.95 (Chemla) 2) Gradient mean pressure TR (ΔPmTR) + RAP (right atrium pressure) (Aduen).3) 79-0.45xPAT o 90-0.60xPAT depending on the value of PAT. B) 10 patients enrolled to PVRT comparing the echocardiographic measurement (Chemla) with right catheterization. Results: in the first part of the study a high correlation between the 3 equations was found : ChemlaAduen, R2 = 0.91; Chemla-Kitabatake, R2=0.87; Aduen-Kitabatake, R2=0.91. In the second part comparing the MPAP-Chemla and RHC we obtained a high correlation in time 0, 30 min and recovery: (R2=0.87,0,99,0.98, respectively). Both parts of the study showed satisfactory limits concordance with mean value of the difference between the methods close to 1 in the t30 and tR of the TRVP. Conclusion: the methods dependent on the measurement of the TR are effective and reliable for estimating MPAP. The Chemla method is useful in the PVRT.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Artery/physiology , Pulmonary Artery/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Circulation/physiology , Hypertension, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Vascular Resistance , Blood Flow Velocity , Cardiac Catheterization , Echocardiography, Doppler/methods , Linear Models , Double-Blind Method , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Prospective Studies , Arterial Pressure/physiology , Acceleration , Hypertension, Pulmonary/physiopathology , Lung/physiology , Lung/blood supply
7.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(8): e201900805, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038124

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose To investigate the effect of sevoflurane preconditioning on ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced pulmonary/hepatic injury Methods Fifty-one Wistar rats were randomly grouped into sham, I/R, and sevoflurane groups. After reperfusion, the structural change of the lung was measured by Smith score, the wet and dry weights (W/D) were determined, malondialdehyde (MDA) myeloperoxidase (MPO) content was determined colorimetrically and by fluorescence, respectively, and matrix metalloprotein-9 (MMP-9) mRNA was quantified by RT-PCR. Biopsy and morphological analyses were performed on liver tissue, activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were determined, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) level was determined. Results The sham group showed no changes in tissue structure. Structural lesions in the sevoflurane and I/R groups were mild and severe, respectively. Smith score, W/D, MDA, MPO, and MMP mRNA showed the same trend, and were increased in the I/R group and recovered in the sevoflurane group, compared with the sham group (both P<0.05). AST and ALT were significantly increased compared to the sham group (AST: 655±52.06 vs . 29±9.30 U/L; ALT: 693±75.56 vs . 37±6.71 U/L; P<0.05). In the sevoflurane group, AST and ALT levels were significantly decreased (464±47.71 and 516±78.84 U/L; P<0.001). TNF-α presented similar results. Conclusion The protection of lung and liver by sevoflurane may be mediated by inhibited leukocyte recruitment and MMP-9 secretion.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Anesthetics, Inhalation/therapeutic use , Ischemic Preconditioning/methods , Liver/blood supply , Lung/blood supply , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , Peroxidase/analysis , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Disease Models, Animal , Sevoflurane/therapeutic use , Ischemia/prevention & control , Liver/drug effects , Liver/pathology , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Malondialdehyde/analysis
8.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 17(4): eAO4288, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012012

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the feasibility and impact of ex vivo lung perfusion with hyperoncotic solution (Steen Solution™) in the utilization of these organs in Brazil. Methods: In this prospective study, we subjected five lungs considered to be high risk for transplantation to 4 hours of ex vivo lung perfusion, with evaluation of oxygenation capacity. High-risk donor lungs were defined by specific criteria, including inflammatory infiltrates, pulmonary edema and partial pressure of arterial oxygen less than 300mmHg (inspired oxygen fraction of 100%). Results: During reperfusion, the mean partial pressure of arterial oxygen (inspired oxygen fraction of 100%) of the lungs did not change significantly (p=0.315). In the first hour, the mean partial pressure of arterial oxygen was 302.7mmHg (±127.66mmHg); in the second hour, 214.2mmHg (±94.12mmHg); in the third hour, 214.4mmHg (±99.70mmHg); and in the fourth hour, 217.7mmHg (±73.93mmHg). Plasma levels of lactate and glucose remained stable during perfusion, with no statistical difference between the moments studied (p=0.216). Conclusion: Ex vivo lung perfusion was reproduced in our center and ensured the preservation of lungs during the study period, which was 4 hours. The technique did not provide enough improvement for indicating organs for transplantation; therefore, it did not impact on use of these organs.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a exequibilidade e o impacto da perfusão pulmonar ex vivo com solução hiperoncótica (Steen Solution™) na taxa de utilização desses órgãos no Brasil. Métodos: Neste estudo prospectivo, submetemos cinco pulmões considerados de alto risco para o transplante a 4 horas de perfusão pulmonar ex vivo, com avaliação da capacidade de oxigenação pulmonar. Os pulmões de doadores de alto risco foram definidos por critérios específicos, incluindo infiltrado inflamatório, edema pulmonar e pressão parcial de oxigênio arterial inferior a 300mmHg (fração inspirada de oxigênio de 100%). Resultados: Durante a reperfusão, a pressão parcial de oxigênio arterial (fração inspirada de oxigênio de 100%) média dos pulmões não sofreu alteração significativa (p=0,315). Na primeira hora, a pressão parcial de oxigênio arterial média foi de 302,7mmHg (±127,66mmHg); na segunda, 214,2mmHg (±94,12mmHg); na terceira, 214,4mmHg (±99,70mmHg); e na quarta, 217,7mmHg (±73,93mmHg). Os níveis plasmáticos de lactato e glicose se mantiveram estáveis ao longo da perfusão, sem diferença estatística na comparação entre os momentos estudados (p=0,216). Conclusão: A perfusão pulmonar ex vivo foi reproduzida em nosso centro e garantiu a preservação de pulmões durante o período de estudo, que foi de 4 horas. A técnica não promoveu melhora suficiente para indicação do órgão para o transplante e, portanto, não impactou na taxa de utilização desses órgãos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Organ Preservation/methods , Perfusion/methods , Tissue Donors , Lung Transplantation/methods , Brazil , Lung Compliance , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Donor Selection , Lung/blood supply , Middle Aged
9.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(10): 879-888, Oct. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973464

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the vascular ventilatory response in different stages of lung development and to compare them to the neonates with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) in a rabbit model. Methods: New Zealand rabbits were divided into 8 groups (n=5): E25, E27, E30, and CDH. All groups were ventilated on a FlexiVent (Scireq, Montreal, QC, Canada), compounding the other 4 groups. The CDH surgery was performed at E25 and the harvest at E30. Dynamic compliance (CRS), dynamic elastance (ERS) and dynamic resistance (RRS) were measured every 4 min/24 min. Median wall thickness (MWT) and airspace were measured. ANOVA Bonferroni tests were used to perform statistical analysis. Significance was considered when p<0.05. Results: CRS was higher in E30 compared to all other groups (p<0.05). CRS and RRS of CDH and E27 were similar and were higher in E25 (p<0.05). MWT was decreased according to the gestational age, was increased in E27V and E30V (p<0.05) and decreased in CDHV (p<0.05), airspace was decreased in E25 and increased in all ventilated groups (p<0.05). Conclusions: The ventilation response of congenital diaphragmatic hernia is like the pseudoglandular stage of the lung development. These findings add information about the physiology of pulmonary ventilation in CDH.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Respiratory Mechanics/physiology , Hernias, Diaphragmatic, Congenital/physiopathology , Lung/growth & development , Respiratory Function Tests , Diaphragm/surgery , Total Lung Capacity , Airway Resistance , Disease Models, Animal , Hernias, Diaphragmatic, Congenital/etiology , Lung/physiopathology , Lung/blood supply , Animals, Newborn
10.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 64(4): 361-367, Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-956455

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: This study aims at investigating the expressions of TOLL-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9)/ tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) in pulmonary blood vessels with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and their relationships with pulmonary vascular remodelling (PVR). METHODS: 60 para-tumour tissues were divided into the COPD group and the control group (n=30); the inflammations, pulmonary artery wall area/total artery area (WA%), and wall thickness/vascular outer diameter (WT%) were compared. The expressions of TLR-4, MMP-9/TIMP-1, and PCNA in pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells were detected, and their relationships with PVR were then analysed. RESULTS: The inflammations (1.6±0.8), WA% (44.0±6.4), and WT% (27.3±3.3) in the COPD group were higher than in the control group (0.3±0.5, 26.1±2.8, 15.6±1.8), and the expressions of TLR-4 (31.4±147) and MMP-9/TIMP-1 (2.2±2.6) were increased compared to the control group (4.7±4.5, 1.9±12). Correlation analysis: TLR-4 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 were positively correlated with the inflammations (r=0.18, P<0.01), WA% (r=0.68, P<0.01), and WT% (r=0.73, P<0.01), as well as positively correlated with the expression of PCNA (r=0.44, P<0.01); the upregulation of TLR-4 was positively correlated with the expressions of MMP-9 and TIMP-1. CONCLUSIONS: The upregulation of TLR-4 in the pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells of COPD patients could promote the inflammations and the MMP-9 expression, thus causing abnormal degradation of extracellular matrix, so it played an important role in the process of PVR.


RESUMO OBJETIVO: Este estudo tem como objetivo investigar as expressões de TOLL-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) e metaloproteinase 9 da matriz (MMP-9)/inibidor de tecido da metaloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) em vasos sanguíneos pulmonares com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica (DPOC) e suas relações com o remodelamento vascular pulmonar (PVR). MÉTODOS: Sessenta tecidos paratumorais foram divididos em grupo COPD e o grupo controle (n = 30). Foram comparadas as inflamações, área da parede da artéria pulmonar/área da artéria total (WA%) e espessura da parede/diâmetro externo vascular (WT%). As expressões de TLR-4, MMP-9/TIMP-1 e PCNA em células de músculo liso vascular pulmonar foram detectadas, e suas relações com PVR foram então analisadas. RESULTADOS: As inflamações (1,6 ± 0,8), WA% (44,0 ± 6,4) e WT% (27,3 ± 3,3) no grupo COPD foram maiores que no grupo controle (0,3 ± 0,5; 26,1 ± 2,8; 15,6 ± 1,8). E as expressões de TLR-4 (31,4 ± 14,7) e MMP-9/TIMP-1 (2,2 ± 2,6) foram aumentadas em relação ao grupo controle (4,7 ± 4,5, 1,9 ± 1,2). Na análise de correlação, TLR-4 e MMP-9/TIMP-1 foram positivamente correlacionadas com as inflamações (r = 0,18; P <0,01), WA% (r = 0,68; P <0,01) e WT% (r = 0,73; P <0,01), bem como correlacionadas positivamente com a expressão de PCNA (r = 0,44; P <0,01). A elevação da TLR-4 foi correlacionada positivamente com as expressões de MMP-9 e TIMP-1. CONCLUSÕES: A regulação positiva do TLR-4 nas células do músculo liso arterial pulmonar de pacientes com DPOC poderia promover as inflamações e a expressão de MMP-9, causando assim uma degradação anormal da matriz extracelular, por isso desempenhou um papel importante no processo de PVR.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Pulmonary Artery/metabolism , Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/metabolism , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Vascular Remodeling , Reference Values , Immunohistochemistry , Case-Control Studies , Vital Capacity/physiology , Forced Expiratory Volume/physiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/physiopathology , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle/metabolism , Hematoxylin , Lung/blood supply , Middle Aged
11.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 33(2): 115-121, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-958394

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the ability of ischemic postconditioning, atorvastatin and both associated to prevent or minimize reperfusion injury in the lung of rats subjected to ischemia and reperfusion by abdominal aortic clamping. Methods: We used 41 Wistar norvegic rats, which were distributed into 5 groups: ischemia and reperfusion (I/R), ischemic postcondictioning (IPC), postconditioning + atorvastatin (IPC+A), atorvastatin (A) and SHAM. It was performed a medium laparotomy, dissection and isolation of the infra-renal abdominal aorta; except for the SHAM group, all the others were submitted to the aortic clamping for 70 minutes (ischemia) and posterior clamp removal (reperfusion, 70 minutes). In the IPC and IPC+A groups, postconditioning was performed between the ischemia and reperfusion phases by four cycles of reperfusion and ischemia lasting 30 seconds each. In the IPC+A and A groups, preceding the surgical procedure, administration of 3.4 mg/day of atorvastatin was performed for seven days by gavage. After the surgical procedure, the right caudal lobe was removed from the lung for histological study, using tissue injury score ranging from grade 1 (normal tissue) to grade 4 (intense lesion). Results: The mean lung injury was 3.6 in the I/R group, 1.6 in the IPC group, 1.2 in the IPC+A group, 1.2 in the A group, and 1 in the SHAM group (P<0.01). Conclusion: Ischemic postconditioning and atorvastatin were able to minimize lung reperfusion injury, alone or in combination.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Ischemic Postconditioning/methods , Atorvastatin/therapeutic use , Lung/blood supply , Aorta, Abdominal , Time Factors , Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Combined Modality Therapy , Ischemia/pathology , Ischemia/prevention & control , Lung/pathology
12.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(1): 1-13, Jan. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886254

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the effect of dexmedetomidine (Dex) in a rat ex vivo lung model of ischemia-reperfusion injury. Methods: An IL-2 ex vivo lung perfusion system was used to establish a rat ex vivo lung model of ischemia-reperfusion injury. Drugs were added to the perfusion solution for reperfusion. Lung injury was assessed by histopathological changes, airway pressure (Res), lung compliance (Compl), perfusion flow (Flow), pulmonary venous oxygen partial pressure (PaO2), and lung wet/dry (W/D) weight ratio. The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) were measured, respectively. Results: The introduction of Dex attenuated the post-ischemia-reperfusion lung damage and MDA level, improved lung histology, W/D ratio, lung injury scores and SOD activity. Decreased mRNA and protein levels of GRP78 and CHOP compared with the IR group were observed after Dex treatment. The effect of Dex was dosage-dependence and a high dose of Dex (10 nM) was shown to confer the strongest protective effect against lung damage (P<0.05). Yohimbine, an α2 receptor antagonist, significantly reversed the protective effect of Dex in lung tissues (P<0.05). Conclusion: Dex reduced ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat ex vivo lungs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Dexmedetomidine/pharmacology , Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Agonists/pharmacology , Ischemia/prevention & control , Lung/blood supply , Reference Values , Superoxide Dismutase/analysis , Time Factors , Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Blotting, Western , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins/analysis , Disease Models, Animal , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Heat-Shock Proteins/analysis , Lung/pathology , Malondialdehyde/analysis
13.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(11): e7169, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951729

ABSTRACT

Neonatal asphyxia occurs due to reduction in oxygen supply to vital organs in the newborn. Rapid restoration of oxygen to the lungs after a long period of asphyxia can cause lung injury and decline of respiratory function, which result from the activity of molecules that induce vascular changes in the lung such as nitric oxide (NO) and vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF). In this study, we evaluated the pulmonary and vascular morphometry of rats submitted to the model of neonatal asphyxia and mechanical ventilation, their expression of pulmonary VEGF, VEGF receptors (VEGFR-1/VEGFR-2), and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS). Neonate Sprague-Dawley rats (CEUA #043/2011) were divided into four groups (n=8 each): control (C), control submitted to ventilation (CV), hypoxia (H), and hypoxia submitted to ventilation (HV). The fetuses were harvested at 21.5 days of gestation. The morphometric variables measured were body weight (BW), total lung weight (TLW), left lung weight (LLW), and TLW/BW ratio. Pulmonary vascular measurements, VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2, VEGF, and eNOS immunohistochemistry were performed. The morphometric analysis showed decreased TLW and TLW/BW ratio in HV compared to C and H (P<0.005). Immunohistochemistry showed increased VEGFR-2/VEGF and decreased VEGFR-1 expression in H (P<0.05) and lower eNOS expression in H and HV. Median wall thickness was increased in H, and the expression of VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2, VEGF, and eNOS was altered, especially in neonates undergoing H and HV. These data suggested the occurrence of arteriolar wall changes mediated by NO and VEGF signaling in neonatal hypoxia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Asphyxia Neonatorum/therapy , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1/analysis , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2/analysis , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/analysis , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/analysis , Lung/pathology , Arterioles/pathology , Reference Values , Asphyxia Neonatorum/physiopathology , Asphyxia Neonatorum/pathology , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Disease Models, Animal , Lung/physiopathology , Lung/blood supply
14.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 33(4): 308-315, dic. 2017. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042620

ABSTRACT

La adaptación al medio extrauterino incluye un aumento considerable de la PaO2, que induce especialmente cambios estructurales y vasoactivos en la circulación pulmonar, que llevarán a una circulación previamente pobremente irrigada, a recibir ∼100% del gasto cardíaco del recién nacido, permitiendo el normal intercambio gaseoso. La regulación local de la circulación arterial pulmonar neonatal basal, es mantenida por un delicado equilibrio entre agentes vasoconstrictores y vasodilatadores. Este equilibrio, permite mantener la circulación pulmonar como un territorio de gran flujo sanguíneo y baja resistencia. La acción de los vasoconstrictores permite la formación de las interacciones entre actina y la cadena liviana de la miosina, esta es inducida en la célula muscular lisa principalmente por dos vías: a) dependiente de calcio, que consiste en aumentar el calcio intracelular, facilitando finalmente la unión de actina y miosina, y b) independiente de calcio, la cual a través de consecutivas fosforilaciones logra sensibilizar a las proteínas involucradas promoviendo la unión de actina y miosina. Estas acciones son mediadas por agonistas generados principalmente en el endotelio pulmonar, como endotelina-1 y tromboxano, o por agonistas provenientes de otros tipos celulares como la serotonina. Los agentes vasodilatadores regulan la respuesta vasoconstrictora, principalmente inhibiendo la señalización que induce la vasocontricción independiente de calcio, a través de la activación de proteínas quinasas que inhibirán la función de la ROCK quinasa, uno de los últimos efectores de la vasocontricción antes de la formación de la unión de actina y miosina. Esta revisión describe estos mecanismos de primordial importancia en las primeras horas de nuestra vida como individuos independientes.


The extrauterine-milieu adaptation includes a considerable increase in PaO2, that specifically induces structural and vasoactive changes at pulmonary circulation. Such changes transform a poor irrigated circulation into a circulation that receive ∼100% of neonatal cardiac output, supporting the normal alveolar-capillary gas exchange. Local regulation of basal neonatal pulmonary circulation is maintaining by a delicate equilibrium between vasoconstrictor and vasodilator agents. This equilibrium, allows to maintain the pulmonary circulation as an hemodynamic system with a high blood flow and a low vascular resistance. Vasocontrictors action allows actin and light-chain myosin interaction. Two main pathways induced this effect in smooth muscle cell: a) a calcium dependent pathway, that increases intracellular calcium, facilitating actin - myosin binding, and b) the independent calcium pathway, which achieves through consecutive phosphorylation reactions sensitize the proteins involved, promoting the binding of actin and light-chain myosin. These actions are mediated by agonists produced mainly in the pulmonary endothelium, such as endothelin-1 and thromboxane, or by agonists from other cell types such as serotonin. Vasodilator agents regulate the vasoconstrictor response, mainly by inhibiting signals that induce calcium-independent vasoconstriction, through activation of protein kinases, which in turn will inhibit the function of ROCK kinase, one of the last effectors of vasoconstriction before formation of the actin and light-chain myosin binding. This review will focus on describing these mechanisms of primal importance in the first hours of our lives as independent individuals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn/physiology , Pulmonary Circulation/physiology , Lung/blood supply , Vascular Resistance , Vasoconstriction/physiology , Vasoconstrictor Agents/antagonists & inhibitors , Vasodilation/physiology , Vasodilator Agents/antagonists & inhibitors , Adaptation, Physiological , Serotonin/physiology , Thromboxanes/physiology , Calcium , Endothelin-1/physiology
16.
Acta cir. bras ; 31(12): 807-812, Dec. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-837655

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To investigate the role of bradykinin in a rat lung transplantation (LTx) model and preliminarily discuss the relationship between bradykinin and CD26/DPP-4. METHODS: Rats were randomly divided into four groups: Control (CON), Sham, low potassium dextranglucose (LPD), and AB192 (n=15/group). Orthotopic single LTx was performed in the LPD and AB192 groups. The donor lungs were flush-perfused and preserved with low potassium dextranglucose (LPD) or LPD+CD26/DPP-4 catalytic inhibitor (AB192). LTx was performed after 18 h cold ischemia time and harvested two days post-LTx. Blood gas analysis (PO2), wet/dry weight ratio (W/D), myeloperoxidase activity (MPO), and lipid peroxidation (MDA) were analyzed at 48 hr after transplantation. Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis was performed in the same sample and validated by Western-Blot. RESULTS: Compared to the LPD group, the AB192 group showed higher PO2, lower W/D ratio, and decreased MPO and MDA. IHC studies showed strong bradykinin β2 receptor (B2R) staining in the LPD group, especially in inflammatory cells, alveolar macrophages, and respiratory epithelial cells. Expression of B2R by Western-Blot was significantly different between the AB192 and LPD groups. CONCLUSION: Bradykinin may be a competitive substrate of DPP-4, and decreased bradykinin levels may enhance protective effects against ischemia/reperfusion injury during LTx.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Bradykinin/physiology , Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Lung Transplantation , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4/physiology , Primary Graft Dysfunction/pathology , Lung/blood supply , Immunohistochemistry , Lipid Peroxidation , Reperfusion Injury/physiopathology , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Random Allocation , Blotting, Western , Disease Models, Animal , Primary Graft Dysfunction/physiopathology , Bradykinin B2 Receptor Antagonists/metabolism , Lung/drug effects
17.
Clinics ; 71(7): 392-398, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787436

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the role of multidetector computed tomography angiography in diagnosing patients with pulmonary sequestration. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the computed tomography studies and clinical materials of 43 patients who had undergone preoperative multidetector computed tomography angiography in our hospital and had pathologically proven pulmonary sequestration. Each examination of pulmonary sequestration was reviewed for type, location, parenchymal changes, arterial supply and venous drainage on two-dimensional and three-dimensional computed tomography images. RESULTS: Multidetector computed tomography successfully detected all pulmonary sequestrations in the 43 patients (100%). This included 40 patients (93.0%) with intralobar sequestration and 3 patients (7.0%) with extralobar sequestration. The locations of pulmonary sequestration were left lower lobe (28 cases, 70% of intralobar sequestrations), right lower lobe (12 cases, 30% of intralobar sequestrations) and costodiaphragmatic sulcus (3 cases). Cases of sequestered lung presented as mass lesions (37.2%), cystic lesions (32.6%), pneumonic lesions (16.3%), cavitary lesions (9.3%) and bronchiectasis (4.6%). The angioarchitecture of pulmonary sequestration, including feeding arteries from the thoracic aorta (86.1%), celiac truck (9.3%), abdominal aorta (2.3%) and left gastric artery (2.3%) and venous drainage into inferior pulmonary veins (86.0%) and the azygos vein system (14.0%), was visualized on multidetector computed tomography. Finally, the multidetector computed tomography angiography results of the sequestered lungs and angioarchitectures were surgically confirmed in all the patients. CONCLUSIONS: As a noninvasive modality, multidetector computed tomography angiography is helpful for making diagnostic decisions regarding pulmonary sequestration with high confidence and for visualizing the related parenchymal characteristics, arterial supply, and venous drainage features to help plan surgical strategies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Bronchopulmonary Sequestration/diagnostic imaging , Computed Tomography Angiography/methods , Multidetector Computed Tomography/methods , Aorta, Abdominal/abnormalities , Aorta, Abdominal/diagnostic imaging , Aorta, Thoracic/abnormalities , Aorta, Thoracic/diagnostic imaging , Bronchopulmonary Sequestration/pathology , Celiac Artery/abnormalities , Celiac Artery/diagnostic imaging , Gastroepiploic Artery/abnormalities , Gastroepiploic Artery/diagnostic imaging , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Lung/blood supply , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies
18.
Acta cir. bras ; 31(5): 333-337, May 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-783795

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of an intraperitoneal solution of methylene blue (MB), lidocaine and pentoxyphylline (PTX) on intestinal ischemic and reperfusion injury METHODS: Superior mesenteric artery was isolated and clamped in 36 adult male Sprague Dawley rats. After 60 minutes, clamp was removed and a group received intraperitoneally UNITO solution (PTX 25mg/kg + lidocaine 5mg/kg + MB 2mg/kg), while the other group was treated with warm 0.9% NaCl solution. Rats were euthanized 45 min after drug administration. Lung and bowel were collected for histological evaluation (using Park's score) and determination of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. RESULTS: Control samples showed lymphoplasmocytic infiltrate and crypt necrosis of villi. MPO and MDA measurements shown no differences between treated and control groups. CONCLUSION: The combination of lidocaine, methylene blue and pentoxyphylline administered intraperitoneally at the studied dose, did not decreased histological lesion scores and biochemical markers levels in intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Pentoxifylline/therapeutic use , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Intestines/blood supply , Lidocaine/therapeutic use , Methylene Blue/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Pentoxifylline/administration & dosage , Random Allocation , Peroxidase/metabolism , Models, Animal , Drug Combinations , Drug Synergism , Inflammation/prevention & control , Inflammation/drug therapy , Infusions, Parenteral , Intestines/enzymology , Lidocaine/administration & dosage , Lung/blood supply , Lung/metabolism , Malondialdehyde/metabolism , Methylene Blue/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage
19.
J. bras. pneumol ; 42(2): 95-98, Mar.-Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-780886

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the use of ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) clinically to prepare donor lungs for transplantation. Methods: A prospective study involving EVLP for the reconditioning of extended-criteria donor lungs, the criteria for which include aspects such as a PaO2/FiO2 ratio < 300 mmHg. Between February of 2013 and February of 2014, the lungs of five donors were submitted to EVLP for up to 4 h each. During EVLP, respiratory mechanics were continuously evaluated. Once every hour during the procedure, samples of the perfusate were collected and the function of the lungs was evaluated. Results: The mean PaO2 of the recovered lungs was 262.9 ± 119.7 mmHg at baseline, compared with 357.0 ± 108.5 mmHg after 3 h of EVLP. The mean oxygenation capacity of the lungs improved slightly over the first 3 h of EVLP-246.1 ± 35.1, 257.9 ± 48.9, and 288.8 ± 120.5 mmHg after 1, 2, and 3 h, respectively-without significant differences among the time points (p = 0.508). The mean static compliance was 63.0 ± 18.7 mmHg, 75.6 ± 25.4 mmHg, and 70.4 ± 28.0 mmHg after 1, 2, and 3 h, respectively, with a significant improvement from hour 1 to hour 2 (p = 0.029) but not from hour 2 to hour 3 (p = 0.059). Pulmonary vascular resistance remained stable during EVLP, with no differences among time points (p = 0.284). Conclusions: Although the lungs evaluated remained under physiological conditions, the EVLP protocol did not effectively improve lung function, thus precluding transplantation.


Objetivo: Avaliar o emprego da técnica de perfusão pulmonar ex vivo (PPEV) clinicamente com a finalidade de transplante. Métodos: Estudo prospectivo envolvendo o recondicionamento de pulmões limítrofes, definidos por critérios específicos, tais como relação PaO2/FiO2 < 300 mmHg, com um sistema de PPEV. Entre fevereiro de 2013 e fevereiro de 2014, os pulmões de cinco doadores foram submetidos à PPEV por até 4 h. Durante a PPEV, a mecânica pulmonar foi avaliada continuamente. Amostras do perfusato foram colhidas a cada hora, assim como foi realizada a avaliação funcional dos órgãos. Resultados: A média de PaO2 dos pulmões captados foi de 262,9 ± 119,7 mmHg, sendo que, ao final da terceira hora de perfusão, essa foi de 357,0 ±108,5 mmHg. A capacidade de oxigenação dos pulmões apresentou discreta melhora durante a PPEV nas primeiras 3 h (246,1 ± 35,1; 257,9 ± 48,9; e 288,8 ± 120,5 mmHg, respectivamente), sem diferenças significativas entre os momentos (p = 0,508). As médias de complacência estática foram de, respectivamente, 63.0 ± 18,7; 75,6 ± 25,4; e 70,4 ± 28,0 mmHg após 1, 2 e 3 h, com melhora significativa entre a hora 1 e 2 (p = 0,029), mas não entre a hora 2 e 3 (p = 0,059). A resistência vascular pulmonar permaneceu estável durante a PPEV, sem diferenças entre os momentos (p = 0,284). Conclusões: Os pulmões avaliados permaneceram em condições fisiológicas de preservação; no entanto, o protocolo não foi efetivo para promover a melhora na função pulmonar, inviabilizando o transplante.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Lung Transplantation/methods , Lung/blood supply , Organ Preservation/methods , Perfusion/methods , Tissue Donors , Analysis of Variance , Brazil , Lung/pathology , Lung/physiology , Partial Pressure , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Respiratory Mechanics , Statistics, Nonparametric , Time Factors
20.
J. bras. pneumol ; 42(1): 9-14, Jan.-Feb. 2016. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-776473

ABSTRACT

Objective : To investigate the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and pentoxifylline in a model of remote organ injury after hind-limb ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in rats, the lungs being the remote organ system. Methods : Thirty-five male Wistar rats were assigned to one of five conditions (n = 7/group), as follows: sham operation (control group); hind-limb ischemia, induced by clamping the left femoral artery, for 2 h, followed by 24 h of reperfusion (I/R group); and hind-limb ischemia, as above, followed by intraperitoneal injection (prior to reperfusion) of 150 mg/kg of NAC (I/R+NAC group), 40 mg/kg of pentoxifylline (I/R+PTX group), or both (I/R+NAC+PTX group). At the end of the trial, lung tissues were removed for histological analysis and assessment of oxidative stress. Results : In comparison with the rats in the other groups, those in the I/R group showed lower superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione levels, together with higher malondialdehyde levels and lung injury scores (p < 0.05 for all). Interstitial inflammatory cell infiltration of the lungs was also markedly greater in the I/R group than in the other groups. In addition, I/R group rats showed various signs of interstitial edema and hemorrhage. In the I/R+NAC, I/R+PTX, and I/R+NAC+PTX groups, superoxide dismutase activity, glutathione levels, malondialdehyde levels, and lung injury scores were preserved (p < 0.05 for all). The differences between the administration of NAC or pentoxifylline alone and the administration of the two together were not significant for any of those parameters (p > 0.05 for all). Conclusions : Our results suggest that NAC and pentoxifylline both protect lung tissue from the effects of skeletal muscle I/R. However, their combined use does not appear to increase the level of that protection.


Objetivo : Investigar os efeitos da N-acetilcisteína (NAC) e pentoxifilina em um modelo de lesão pulmonar remota após isquemia/reperfusão (I/R) de membro posterior em ratos. Métodos : Trinta e cinco ratos Wistar machos foram divididos em cinco grupos (n = 7/grupo), cada qual submetido ao seguinte: operação simulada (grupo controle); isquemia de membro posterior, induzida por pinçamento da artéria femoral esquerda por 2 h, seguida por de 24 h de reperfusão (grupo I/R); e isquemia de membro posterior, como descrito acima, seguida de injeção intraperitoneal (antes da reperfusão) de 150 mg/kg de NAC (grupo I/R+NAC), 40 mg/kg de pentoxifilina (grupo I/R+PTX) ou ambas (grupo I/R+NAC+PTX). Ao final do experimento, tecidos pulmonares foram removidos para análise histológica e avaliação do estresse oxidativo. Resultados : Comparados aos ratos dos outros grupos, os do grupo I/R apresentaram menor atividade de superóxido dismutase e menores níveis de glutationa, além de maiores níveis de malondialdeído e maiores escores de lesão pulmonar (p < 0,05 para todos). Infiltração celular inflamatória intersticial dos pulmões também foi bem maior no grupo I/R do que nos outros grupos. Além disso, os ratos do grupo I/R apresentaram vários sinais de edema intersticial e hemorragia. Nos grupos I/R+NAC, I/R+PTX e I/R+NAC+PTX, a atividade de superóxido dismutase, níveis de glutationa, níveis de malondialdeído e escores de lesão pulmonar foram preservados (p < 0,05 para todos). As diferenças entre a administração de NAC ou pentoxifilina isoladamente e a das duas combinadas não foi significativa para nenhum desses parâmetros (p > 0,05 para todos). Conclusões : Nossos resultados sugerem que tanto NAC quanto pentoxifilina protegem o tecido pulmonar dos efeitos de I/R de músculo esquelético. Entretanto, seu uso combinado não parece aumentar o nível dessa proteção.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Acetylcysteine/pharmacology , Free Radical Scavengers/pharmacology , Ischemia/prevention & control , Lung Injury/prevention & control , Lung/blood supply , Pentoxifylline/pharmacology , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Acetylcysteine/therapeutic use , Disease Models, Animal , Free Radical Scavengers/therapeutic use , Glutathione/analysis , Hindlimb/blood supply , Lung Injury/pathology , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Oxidative Stress , Pentoxifylline/therapeutic use , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Superoxide Dismutase/analysis , Time Factors
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