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1.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200238, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135258

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Paracoccidioides spp. causes paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), an important and frequent systemic mycosis that occurs in Latin America. The infectious process begins with contact between the fungus and lung cells, and the molecular pattern of this interaction is currently poorly understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate the gene expression in many biological processes, including in the infections. OBJECTIVE This study aimed to analyse the expression of miRNAs in lung cells as response to infection by Paracoccidioides spp. METHODS A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) based screening was employed to verify differentially expressed miRNAs in human lung cells infected with three different species; Paracoccidioides lutzii, Paracoccidioides americana, and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Furthermore, the in silico predictions of target genes and pathways for miRNAs were obtained. FINDINGS The results showed that miRNAs identified in the lung cells were different according to the species studied. However, based on the predicted targets, the potential signaling pathways regulated by miRNAs are common and related to adhesion, actin cytoskeleton rearrangement, apoptosis, and immune response mediated by T cells and TGF-β. MAIN CONCLUSIONS In summary, this study showed the miRNAs pattern of epithelial cells in response to infection by Paracoccidioides species and the potential role of these molecules in the regulation of key pathogenesis mechanisms of PCM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Paracoccidioides/pathogenicity , Paracoccidioidomycosis , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Latin America , Lung/cytology
3.
Acta cir. bras ; 32(5): 359-368, May 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-837709

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the changes of caveolin-1 in lung fibroblasts in newborn Wistar rats when exposed to hyperoxic conditions, as well as lung fibroblasts cell cycle. Methods: One hundred newborn Wistar rats were randomly divided (50 rats/group) into experimental and control groups, exposed to hyperoxic conditions or normal air, respectively. The fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) in the experimental group was 90%, whereas this value was 21% in the control group. Lung fibroblasts were collected on days 3, 7, and 14 of the experiment. Caveolin-1 expression dynamics in lung fibroblasts was assayed in each group by immunofluorescence and Western blot analyses. Flow cytometry (FCM) was used to assess the proportions of lung fibroblasts at different stages of the cell cycle. Results: On day 3, no significant difference in caveolin-1 expression was observed between the hyperoxic and control groups; however, on days 7 and 14, caveolin-1 expression was significantly lower in the hyperoxic group than in the control (P<0.05). No apparent differences were observed in caveolin-1 expression in the control group at the different time points. Using FCM analysis, we showed that the proportion of lung fibroblasts in G0/G1 phase in the hyperoxic group decreased compared to that of the control group on day 7, while the proportion of S-phase cells increased (P<0.05). These differences were more significant when the groups were compared on day 14 (P<0.01). Conclusion: After seven days the exposure to hyperoxic conditions, lung fibroblasts proliferated and caveolin-1 expression decreased.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cell Proliferation , Caveolin 1/metabolism , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Lung Diseases/metabolism , Oxygen/pharmacology , Random Allocation , Cell Cycle , Cells, Cultured , Chronic Disease , Rats, Wistar , Hyperoxia , Models, Animal , Caveolin 1/pharmacology , Fibroblasts/cytology , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Lung/cytology , Lung/drug effects , Lung Diseases/classification , Lung Diseases/chemically induced , Animals, Newborn
4.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(7): e5974, 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951702

ABSTRACT

microRNA (miR)-142-3p is implicated in malignancy and has been identified as a biomarker for aggressive and recurrent lung adenocarcinomas. This study aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effect of miR-142-3p on apoptosis and inflammation induced by bleomycin in MLE-12 cells. MLE-12 cells were first transfected either with miR-142-3p mimic or miR-142-3p inhibitor and then the cells were exposed to 50 μg/mL of bleomycin. Thereafter, cell viability, apoptosis and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines were assessed using CCK-8, flow cytometry, RT-PCR and western blot analyses. Cox-2, PI3K, AKT and mTOR expressions were detected by western blotting after bleomycin was administered together with NS-398 (an inhibitor of Cox-2). As a result, cell viability was significantly decreased, as well as apoptosis and the expression of IL-1 and TNF-α were remarkably increased after 50 and 100 μg/mL of bleomycin administration. miR-142-3p overexpression alleviated bleomycin-induced apoptosis and overproduction of these two pro-inflammatory cytokines, while miR-142-3p suppression exhibited completely opposite results. Up-regulation of Cox-2 and inactivation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR were found in bleomycin-pretreated cells, while these abnormal regulations were partially abolished by miR-142-3p overexpression and NS-398. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that miR-142-3p overexpression protected bleomycin-induced injury in lung epithelial MLE-12 cells, possibly via regulating Cox-2 expression and PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. These findings provide evidence that miR-142-3p may be a therapeutic strategy for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bleomycin/pharmacology , Down-Regulation/drug effects , Apoptosis/drug effects , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Cyclooxygenase 2/metabolism , Lung/cytology , Transfection , Cell Line , Lung/drug effects , Lung/metabolism
5.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 36(5): 447-452, tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-787582

ABSTRACT

A citologia é um importante exame complementar utilizado para a detecção de alterações no perfil celular do trato respiratório e auxílio no diagnóstico de doenças. No entanto, como os primeiros meses de vida compõem o período de adaptação à vida extrauterina resultando em possíveis alterações das populações celulares, é essencial a padronização das características comuns aos animais sadios, possibilitando a identificação e análise de qualquer mudança no quadro esperado. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi caracterizar o perfil celular por citologia do lavado bronco alveolar obtido semanalmente por broncoscopia de dez bezerros durante os três primeiros meses de vida. A análise estatística foi realizada utilizando-se o software Minitab® 15.0, empregando-se o teste T pareado para as amostras paramétricas e Mann-Whitney para as amostras não paramétricas, considerando nivel de significância P≤0,05. Os resultados obtidos apontaram que o perfil celular do lavado bronco alveolar de bezerros hígidos durante os primeiros 90 dias de vida apresentou predomínio de macrófagos, com média geral de 63,17%, seguido de 33,69% de neutrófilos. Porém observou-se diminuição significativa na porcentagem de macrófagos (P=0,04) e aumento de neutrófilos (P=0,05) ao longo dos momentos, comprovada pela forte correlação negativa entre as porcentagens de macrófagos e neutrófilos ao longo dos momentos. Não houve diferença entre as porcentagens de células gigantes, células epiteliais, linfócitos, eosinófilos e basófilos durante o experimento. Apesar dos resultados serem influenciados por fatores ambientais e de manejo, os resultados dessa pesquisa fornecem subsídios para a identificação de alterações críticas que descaracterizem o perfil celular de bezerros acometidos por doenças respiratórias.


Cytology is an important supplementary test used for the detection of changes in the mobile profile of the respiratory tract and aid in the diagnosis of diseases. However, as the first few months of life make up the period of adjustment to extrauterine life resulting in possible changes in cellular populations, it is essential to the standardization of the characteristics common to healthy animals, enabling the identification and analysis of any change in the expected frame. The objective of this research was to characterize the cellular profile by cytology of bronchoalveolar lavage obtained weekly for bronchoscopy of ten calves during the first three months of life. Statistical analysis was performed using the Minitab® 15.0 software, using the paired T test for parametric samples, and Mann-Whitney for nonparametric samples, considering significance level as P≤0,05. The results obtained showed that the profile of bronchoalveolar lavage of healthy calves during the first 90 days of life showed a predominance of macrophages, with medium average of 63.17%, followed by 33.69% neutrophils. However it was observed significant decrease in percentage of macrophages (P=0.04) and increased neutrophils (P=0,05) over the times, proven by the strong negative correlation between percentages of macrophages and neutrophils along the times. There was no difference between the percentages of giant cells, epithelial cells, lymphocytes, eosinophils and basophils during the experiment. Although the results are influenced by environmental factors and management, the results of this research provide subsidies for the identification of critical changes in cell profile of calves affected by respiratory diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Macrophages, Alveolar , Neutrophils , Lung/cytology , Reference Standards , Bronchoscopy/veterinary
6.
Biol. Res ; 49: 1-5, 2016.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950856

ABSTRACT

In the mammalian lung, respiratory macrophages provide front line defense against invading pathogens and particulate matter. In birds, respiratory macrophages are known as free avian respiratory macrophages (FARM) and a dearth of the cells in the avian lung has been purported to foreordain a weak first line of pulmonary defense, a condition associated with high mortality of domestic birds occasioned by respiratory inflictions. Avian pulmonary mechanisms including a three tiered aerodynamic filtration system, tight epithelial junctions and an efficient mucociliary escalator system have been known to supplement FARM protective roles. Current studies, however, report FARM to exhibit an exceptionally efficient phagocytic capacity and are effective in elimination of invading pathogens. In this review, we also report on effects of selective synthetic peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR γ) agonists on non phlogistic phagocytic properties in the FARM. To develop effective therapeutic interventions targeting FARM in treatment and management of respiratory disease conditions in the poultry, further studies are required to fully understand the role of FARM in innate and adaptive immune responses.


Subject(s)
Animals , Birds/immunology , Macrophages, Alveolar/physiology , Lung/immunology , Particle Size , Phagocytes/immunology , Phagocytosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/immunology , Respiratory Tract Infections/veterinary , PPAR gamma/physiology , Lung/cytology
7.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 35(supl.1): 56-60, dez. 2015. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: lil-789010

ABSTRACT

A Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne (DMD) é uma doença genética de caráter recessivo que caracterizada por fraqueza muscular progressiva de cintura pélvica e escapular evoluindo para insuficiência respiratória e, ou cardíaca. O camundongo mdx é um modelo amplamente utilizado para estudos da DMD. Apesar do fenótipo destes animais serem mais suave, estes apresentam o principal músculo respiratório, o diafragma com morfologia e bioquímica semelhante à DMD humana, fato este que pode comprometer a função respiratória e consequentemente os pulmões. Foi realizado um estudo anatômico descritivo do parênquima pulmonar dos pulmões de 5 animais modelo mdx comparando estes com os pulmões de 5 camundongos BALB/C57 (Mus musculus). Os pulmões foram analisados macroscopicamente e através de microscopia de luz e eletrônica de varredura. Os achados sugerem que o modelo mdx apresenta morfologia pulmonar semelhante aos camundongos BALB/C57 e que seu uso deve ser cauteloso e criterioso em ensaios clínicos que aborde este órgão.(AU)


The Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a recessive genetic disease characterized by progressive muscle weakness of the pelvic and scapular girdle and progressing to respiratory or heart failure. The mdx mouse is a model widely used for studies. Although they possess a milder phenotype, the morphology and biochemistry of the diaphragm are similar to human DMD. We performed a descriptive anatomical study of the pulmonary parenchyma of five mdx animal models and compared these with the lungs of 5 mice BALB/C57 (Mus musculus). The findings suggest that the mdx model has morphological features similar to BALB/C57 mice and it must be used with caution in clinical trials which involve the lung.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne , Heart Failure/veterinary , Lung/cytology , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/veterinary , Parenchymal Tissue
8.
Cad. saúde pública ; 31(3): 633-646, 03/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-744824

ABSTRACT

Agricultural workers represent a population that is highly vulnerable to the toxic effects of pesticide exposure. This cross sectional study aimed to describe the health conditions of terrestrial pesticide applicators in Córdoba Province, Argentina, their work practices and socio-demographic characteristics, by means of a standardized self-administered questionnaire (n = 880). A descriptive analysis reported a high prevalence of occasional or frequent symptoms: 47.4% had symptoms of irritation, 35.5% fatigue, 40.4% headache and 27.6% nervousness or depression. Using logistic regression models, risk and protective factors were found for symptoms of irritation, medical consultation and hospitalization. Among the occupational exposure variables, marital status, length of time in the job, low level of protection with regard to the use of personal protective equipment, combined use of different pesticides and the application of the insecticide endosulfan, were associated with a higher frequency of reported symptoms and higher consultation rates and hospitalization.


Los trabajadores agrícolas son una población altamente vulnerable a los efectos tóxicos de la exposición a plaguicidas. Con el objetivo de describir las condiciones de salud de agroaplicadores terrestres de plaguicidas de la Provincia de Córdoba, Argentina, sus prácticas laborales y características sociodemográficas, se realizó un estudio transversal, mediante cuestionario (n = 880). Un análisis descriptivo reportó alta prevalencia de sintomatología ocasional o frecuente: 47,4% síntomas irritativos, 35,5% cansancio, 40,4% cefalea y 27,6% ansiedad o depresión. Mediante modelos logísticos se detectaron factores protectores y de riesgo que explican la presencia de síntomas irritativos, la consulta médica y la hospitalización. El estado civil, la antigüedad en la tarea, el nivel de protección considerando uso de equipo de protección personal, la exposición múltiple a plaguicidas y la aplicación del insecticida endosulfán, se asociaron a mayor frecuencia de reporte de síntomas, consultas médicas y hospitalizaciones por causas relacionadas con la exposición a plaguicidas.


Os trabalhadores agrícolas são uma população altamente vulnerável aos efeitos tóxicos da exposição a pesticidas. Este estudo transversal teve o objetivo de descrever as condições de saúde de aplicadores terrestres de pesticidas da Província de Córdoba, Argentina, suas práticas de trabalho e características sociodemográficas, por meio de um questionário padronizado autoadministrado (n = 880). A análise descritiva relatou alta prevalência de sintomas ocasionais ou frequentes: 47,4% sintomas irritativos, 35,5% fadiga, 40,4% dor de cabeça e 27,6% ansiedade ou depressão. Mediante modelos logísticos foram detectados os fatores protetores e do risco que explicam a presença de sintomas irritativos, consulta médica e hospitalização. O estado civil, anos de trabalho, o nível de proteção considerando o uso de equipamentos de proteção individual, a exposição a vários pesticidas e aplicação do inseticida endosulfan, foram associados com maior frequência de sintomas, consultas médicas e hospitalização por causas relacionadas à exposição ao agrotóxico.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Humans , Mice , Asthma , Epitopes/immunology , Immune Tolerance/immunology , /immunology , Peptides , Allergens/immunology , Asthma/immunology , Asthma/therapy , Bronchial Hyperreactivity/immunology , Desensitization, Immunologic , Disease Models, Animal , Double-Blind Method , Forkhead Transcription Factors/immunology , Genes, MHC Class II , Glycoproteins/genetics , Glycoproteins/immunology , HLA-DR1 Antigen/immunology , Lung/cytology , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Mice, Transgenic , Placebos , Peptides/immunology , Peptides/therapeutic use , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , /immunology , /immunology , Transforming Growth Factor beta/immunology
9.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2015 Feb; 52 (1): 107-110
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-157962

ABSTRACT

Autofluorescence exhibited by tissues often interferes with immunofluorescence. Using imaging and spectral analysis, we observed remarkable reduction of autofluorescence of formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissues irradiated with light prior to incubation with immunofluorescent dyes. The technique of photobleaching offers significant improvement in the quality and specificity of immunofluorescence. This has the potential for better techniques for disease diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Antinuclear/diagnosis , Fluorescent Antibody Technique/methods , Lung/cytology , /methods , Photobleaching , Spectrometry, Fluorescence/methods
10.
Int. j. morphol ; 32(1): 151-153, Mar. 2014. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-708739

ABSTRACT

It is considered that healthy adult cartilage has little or no capacity for renewal, and that chondrocytes maintain a stable resting phenotype and resist proliferation and differentiation throughout life. Recently we found that cell turnover in lung cartilage is possible and that nestin-positive cells may have a role in it. In this paper, we report additional findings about chondrocyte renewal in lung cartilage. Lung specimens from CD1 mice at the age of 2, 6, 12, 18 or 24 months were fixed in 10% neutral-buffered formalin and paraffin-embedded. Nestin expression was examined by an immunohistochemical peroxidase-based method. We found nestin-positive cells inside of cartilage islets and cells in division very close from them. Our findings indicate that there exist nestin-positive mesenchymal stem cells in the adult that are able to differentiate into lung chondrocytes, perhaps to maintain homeostasis or repair damaged tissue. These findings may improve our knowledge about the cartilage biology and could provide new cell candidates for cartilage tissue engineering.


Se considera que el cartílago adulto sano tiene poca o ninguna capacidad para renovarse, y que sus condrocitos permanecen en un estado de reposo estable, careciendo de las propiedades de proliferación y diferenciación. Recientemente encontramos que el recambio celular en el cartílago pulmonar es posible y que células troncales positivas para nestin pudieran tener algún papel en el mismo. En este artículo, reportamos nuevos hallazgos acerca de la renovación de condrocitos en el cartílago pulmonar. Pulmones de ratones CD1 de 2, 6, 12, 18 o 24 meses de edad se fijaron en formalina amortiguada al 10% y se incluyeron en parafina. Se analizó la expresión de nestin utilizando un método inmunohistoquímico basado en un sistema de detección con peroxidasa. Encontramos células positivas para nestin en el interior de los islotes de cartílago y células en división muy cercanas a ellas. Estos hallazgos indican que existen células madre mesenquimales positivas para nestin en el adulto con capacidad para diferenciarse en condrocitos pulmonares, probablemente para mantener la homeostasis tisular o reparar daños en el tejido. Asimismo, estos hallazgos pueden aumentar nuestra comprensión acerca de las propiedades biológicas del cartílago y podrían proporcionar nuevos candidatos para la ingeniería celular en la terapia regenerativa en enfermedades de las articulaciones.


Subject(s)
Stem Cells/physiology , Cartilage/cytology , Chondrocytes/physiology , Nestin/metabolism , Lung/cytology , Immunohistochemistry
11.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 89(3): 300-306, maio-jun. 2013. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-679311

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVOS: Analisar os efeitos da exposição à hiperóxia (100% de oxigênio) sobre a histoarquitetura pulmonar de camundongos neonatos. MÉTODOS: Camundongos neonatos da linhagem Balb/c foram expostos à hiperóxia (GH) (100% de oxigênio) (n = 10) em uma câmara (15 x 20 x 30 cm) por 24 horas, com fluxo de 2 L/min. O grupo controle (GC) (n = 10) foi exposto a normóxia em um mesmo tipo de câmara e pelo mesmo tempo. Após a exposição, os animais foram sacrificados por decapitação, os pulmões foram removidos para análise histológica e processados de acordo com a rotina do laboratório. Cortes de 3 µm de espessura foram corados com hematoxilina e eosina (H&E). A análise morfométrica foi realizada com o objetivo de analisar macrófagos presentes na luz alveolar, densidade de superfície (Sv) de trocas gasosas, densidade de volume (Vv) de parênquima pulmonar e áreas de atelectasias. RESULTADOS: Foi verificada diminuição do número de macrófagos alveolares (MØ) no GH (GH = 0,08±0,01 MØ/mm²; GC = 0,18±0,03 MØ/mm²; p = 0,0475), Sv de troca gasosa no GH (GH = 8,08 ± 0,12 mm² /mm³; GC = 8,65 ± 0,20 mm² /mm³; p = 0,0233), Vv de parênquima pulmonar no GH (GH = 54,7/33,5/83,5 %/mm²; GC = 75/56,7/107,9 %/mm²; p < 0.0001) quando comparado com o GC. Entretanto, houve aumento de áreas de atelectasias no GH (GH = 17,5/11,3/38,4 atelectasia/mm²; GC = 14/6,1/24,4 atelectasia/mm²; p = 0,0166) quando comparado com o GC. CONCLUSÃO: Nossos resultados indicam que a hiperóxia promoveu alterações na histoarquitetura pulmonar, aumentando áreas de atelectasia e hemorragia alveolar difusa.


OBJECTIVES: To analyze the effects of exposure to hyperoxia (100% oxygen) on the lung histoarchitecture of neonatal mice. METHODS: Neonatal Balb/c mice were exposed to hyperoxia (HG) (100% oxygen) (n = 10) in a chamber (15 x 20 x 30 cm) for 24 horas ours with a flow of 2 L/min. The control group (CG) (n = 10) was exposed to normoxia in the same type of chamber and for the same time. After exposure, the animals were euthanized by decapitation; the lungs were removed and processed for histological examination according to the laboratory routine. Three-mm thick sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). The morphometric analysis was performed with in order to analyze the macrophages present in the alveolar lumen, surface density (Sv) of gas exchange, volume density (Vv) of lung parenchyma, and areas of atelectasis. RESULTS: A decrease in the number of alveolar macrophages (MØ) was observed in the HG (HG = 0.08±0.01 MØ/mm², CG = 0.18±0.03 MØ/mm², p = 0.0475), Sv of gas exchange in HG (HG = 8.08±0.12 mm² /mm³, CG = 8.65±0.20 mm² /mm³, p = 0.0233), Vv of lung parenchyma in HG (HG = 54.7/33.5/83.5%/ mm²; CG = 75/56.7/107.9%/mm², p < 0.0001) when compared with the CG. However, there was an increase in areas of atelectasis in HG (HG = 17.5/11.3/38.4 atelectasis/mm², CG = 14/6.1/24.4 atelectasis/mm², p = 0.0166) when compared with the CG. CONCLUSION: The present results indicate that hyperoxia caused alterations in lung histoarchitecture, increasing areas of atelectasis and diffuse alveolar hemorrhage.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Inhalation Exposure/adverse effects , Lung/pathology , Macrophages, Alveolar/pathology , Oxygen/toxicity , Animals, Newborn , Hemorrhage/etiology , Lung/cytology , Lung/metabolism , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Models, Animal , Macrophages, Alveolar/metabolism , Oxygen/administration & dosage , Pulmonary Atelectasis/etiology , Pulmonary Atelectasis/pathology , Random Allocation , Statistics, Nonparametric
12.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 437-444, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-89564

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The present study was designed to determine whether rapamycin could inhibit transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1)-induced fibrogenesis in primary lung fibroblasts, and whether the effect of inhibition would occur through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and its downstream p70S6K pathway. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Primary normal human lung fibroblasts were obtained from histological normal lung tissue of 3 patients with primary spontaneous pneumothorax. Growth arrested, synchronized fibroblasts were treated with TGF-beta1 (10 ng/mL) and different concentrations of rapamycin (0.01, 0.1, 1, 10 ng/mL) for 24 h. We assessed m-TOR, p-mTOR, S6K1, p-S6K1 by Western blot analysis, detected type III collagen and fibronectin secreting by ELISA assay, and determined type III collagen and fibronectin mRNA levels by real-time PCR assay. RESULTS: Rapamycin significantly reduced TGF-beta1-induced type III collagen and fibronectin levels, as well as type III collagen and fibronectin mRNA levels. Furthermore, we also found that TGF-beta1-induced mTOR and p70S6K phosphorylation were significantly down-regulated by rapamycin. The mTOR/p70S6K pathway was activated through the TGF-beta1-mediated fibrogenic response in primary human lung fibroblasts. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that rapamycin effectively suppresses TGF-beta1-induced type III collagen and fibronectin levels in primary human lung fibroblasts partly through the mTOR/p70S6K pathway. Rapamycin has a potential value in the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis.


Subject(s)
Cells, Cultured , Collagen Type III/metabolism , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Fibronectins/metabolism , Humans , Lung/cytology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Sirolimus/pharmacology , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/antagonists & inhibitors
13.
Acta cir. bras ; 27(8): 561-565, Aug. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-643625

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) combined with fluid resuscitation on pulmonary cell death in rats induced with controlled hemorrhagic shock (HS). METHODS: Two arteries (MAP calculation and exsanguination) and one vein (treatments) were catheterized in 22 anesthetized rats. Two groups of male albino rats were induced with controlled HS at 35mmHg MAP for 60 min. After this period, the RL group was resuscitated with Ringer's lactate and the RL+NAC group was resuscitated with Ringer's lactate combined with 150mg/Kg NAC. The control group animals were cannulated only. The animals were euthanized after 120 min of fluid resuscitation. Lung tissue samples were collected to evaluate the following: histopathology, TUNEL and imunohistochemical expression of caspase 3. RESULTS: RL showed a greater number of cells stained by TUNEL than RL + NAC, but there was no change in caspase 3 expression in any group. CONCLUSION: N-acetylcysteine associate to fluid resuscitation, after hemorrhagic shock, decreased cell death attenuating lung injury.


OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito da N-acetilcisteína (NAC) combinada ao fluido de reposição volêmica na morte celular pulmonar de ratos submetidos ao choque hemorrágico (CH) controlado. MÉTODOS: Duas artérias (cálculo da PAM e exsanguinação) e uma veia (tratamentos) foram cateterizadas em 22 ratos anestesiados. Dois grupos de ratos machos albinos foram induzidos ao CH controlado com PAM de 35mmHg por 60 min. Após este período, o grupo RL foi ressuscitado com Ringer lactato e o grupo RL+NAC foi ressuscitado com Ringer lactato associado com 150mg/Kg de NAC. O grupo controle sofreu somente o procedimento cirúrgico de cateterização. Os animais sofreram eutanásia após 120 min. da ressuscitação. Amostras de tecido pulmonar foram coletadas para histopatologia, TUNEL e a imuno-expressão da caspase 3. RESULTADOS: RL apresentou maior número de células marcadas pelo TUNEL do que RL+NAC, porém sem alteração na expressão da caspase 3 em nenhum dos grupos estudados. CONCLUSÃO: A N-acetilcisteína teve um papel protetor na morte celular em modelo de choque hemorrágico controlado.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Acetylcysteine/therapeutic use , Cell Death/drug effects , Lung/cytology , Resuscitation/methods , Shock, Hemorrhagic/drug therapy , /metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Fluid Therapy , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , Lung Injury/prevention & control , Shock, Hemorrhagic/pathology , Time Factors
14.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 32(3): 267-270, Mar. 2012. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-624121

ABSTRACT

O período neonatal dos bezerros é um momento crítico para adaptação do recém-nascido à vida extra uterina e o sistema respiratório, um dos mais exigidos funcionalmente, é frequentemente afetado por enfermidades, redundando no prejuízo direto da sua função e acarretando perdas econômicas importantes na pecuária. O ponto básico para reduzir estas perdas, é representado pela adequada avaliação clínica dos neonatos, todavia o diagnóstico baseado exclusivamente no exame físico é muito difícil de ser estabelecido. O uso de exames complementares como a citologia do trato respiratório torna-se uma ferramenta diagnóstica importante nestes casos, porém faz-se necessário, padronizar seus achados frente às diferentes técnicas empregadas para a sua obtenção. Assim, o presente estudo propôs-se acompanhar as variações dos constituintes celulares da região traqueobrônquica e broncoalveolar obtidos por lavados respiratórios pelos métodos de traqueocentese e por colheita nasotraqueal respectivamente, durante o primeiro mês de vida de bezerros sadios. Observou-se alteração no quadro citológico ao longo do tempo, quando a região traqueobrônquica foi lavada, expresso por diminuição da porcentagem de macrófagos alveolares, com aumento de neutrófilos, possivelmente, por maior irritação local provocada pela técnica, que se repetiu sequencialmente e/ou por maior estimulo de microorganismos inalados depositados nesta região. Na região broncoalveolar, não encontraram-se variações nos constituintes celulares em função do tempo. Os resultados permitiram a conclusão que a população celular da região traqueobrônquica modificou-se ao longo das semanas de vida dos bezerros, possivelmente pela técnica empregada e/ou fisiologia normal da região, sendo representadas por maiores magnitudes de neutrófilos. De modo diverso, na região broncolaveolar, as células evidenciaram um comportamento estável durante o primeiro mês de vida dos bezerros neonatos, apresentando predomínio numérico dos macrófagos alveolares.


The neonatal calf is a critical moment for adaptation of the newborn to extra uterine life. The respiratory tract is functionally very demanded and often affected by disease, resulting in direct loss of their function and causing serious economic losses in livestock. The basic point to reduce these losses is appropriate clinical evaluation of neonates; but the diagnosis based solely in physical examination is very difficult to establish. The use of complementary analysis such cytology of the respiratory tract becomes an important diagnostic tool; however their findings must be standardized in the face of different techniques employed. This research studied the dynamics of the cellularity of the bronchoalveolar and tracheobronchial region obtained through lung lavage harvested by nasotracheal catheterization technique and tracheocenthesis respectively, during the first month of life of healthy calves. The tracheobronchial cytology was influenced by the time, showing decreased number of alveolar macrophages and greater number of neutrophils, possibly increased by local irritation caused by the technique, which was repeated sequentially, and/or through greater stimulation of inhaled microorganisms deposited in this region. In the bronchoalveolar region no variation in the cellular constituents in function of time was found. The results allowed the conclusion the cell population of the tracheobronchial region has changed over the week-old calves, possibly due to the technique used and/or to the normal region physiology, represented by higher magnitudes of neutrophils. Otherwise, the cells of the broncholaveolar region showed a stable behavior during the first month of life of newborn calves, presenting numerical predominance of alveolar macrophages.


Subject(s)
Animals , Infant, Newborn , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/cytology , Macrophages, Alveolar/cytology , Neutrophils/cytology , Lung/cytology , Trachea/cytology , Microscopy/veterinary , Respiratory System/cytology
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-7978

ABSTRACT

Survivin, a member of the inhibitors of apoptosis protein family, is expressed during development and in various human cancers. However, the clinical relevance of survivin in cancer is still a matter of debate. Genes induced by hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) were screened using cDNA microarray technology in the stomach cancer cell lines, NUGC3 and MKN28. The levels of JunB, survivin, and uro-plasminogen activator (uPA) were up-regulated in cells treated with HGF in a dose-dependent manner. HGF-induced up regulation of JunB, survivin, and uPA was inhibited by pre-treatment with a MEK inhibitor (PD 98059). HGF-induced up-regulation of uPA was repressed by survivin knockdown. HGF enhanced the binding activity of JunB to the survivin promoter in control cells, but not in the JunB-shRNA cells. Transfection with survivin-shRNA resulted in a decrement of cell proliferation, as determined with MTT assays. In an in vitro invasion assay, significantly fewer cells transfected with survivin shRNA than control cells were able to invade across a Matrigel membrane barrier. In conclusion, survivin appeared to play an important role in the up-regulation of uPA induced by HGF via JunB and might contribute to HGF-mediated tumor invasion and metastasis, which may serve as a promising target for gastric cancer therapy.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Cell Hypoxia , Cell Line, Tumor , Cytoprotection , Glutathione Peroxidase/metabolism , Herbicides/toxicity , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/metabolism , Lung/cytology , Malondialdehyde/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Paraquat/toxicity , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
16.
Acta cir. bras ; 25(1): 117-120, jan.-fev. 2010. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-537131

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of pulmonary instillation of Benzo[a]pyrene in lung apoptosis of Wistar rats. METHODS: Male Rattus norvegicus albinus, Wistar lineage was carried through an intra-pulmonary instillation of the Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) dilution in alcohol 70 percent. Three experimental groups had been formed with 08 animals each: Control Group (Alcohol 70 percent); B[a]P Group 40 mg/kg; e B[a]P Group 80mg/kg, submitted to euthanasia 16 and 18 weeks after the experimental procedure. The pulmonary sections had been processed by TUNEL method and submitted to the histomorphometric analysis to quantify the apoptotic cell number. RESULTS: After 16 weeks, mean of apoptotic cells number in control group (19,3±3,2) was greater than 40mg/Kg group (11,8±1,9; p<0,01) and 80mg/Kg group (7,0±1,4; p<0,01). Significant difference also observed between 40mg/Kg and 80mg/Kg (p<0,05). After 18 weeks, mean of apoptotic cells number in control group (18,0±2,2) was greater than 40mg/Kg group (8,8±1,7; p<0,01) and 80mg/Kg group (5,5±1,3; p<0,01). Significant difference wasn't observed between 40mg/Kg and 80mg/Kg (ns). CONCLUSION: Intra-pulmonary instillation of Benzo[a]pyrene induces significant decrease of apoptotic activity in lung tissue.


OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência da instilação intrapulmonar de Benzo[a]pireno na apoptose pulmonar de ratos Wistar. MÉTODOS: Rattus norvegicus albinus, linhagem Wistar machos foram submetidos à instilação intra-pulmonar da diluição em álcool 70 por cento de Benzo[a]pireno (B[a]P). Foram formados três grupos experimentais com 08 animais cada: Grupo Controle (álcool 70 por cento); Grupo B[a]P 40 mg/kg; e Grupo B[a]P 80mg/kg, submetidos a eutanásia 16 e 18 semanas após o procedimento experimental. As secções pulmonares foram processadas pelo método TUNEL e submetidas à análise histomorfométrica para quantificação do número de células apoptóticas. RESULTADOS: Após 16 semanas, a média do número de células apoptóticas do grupo controle (19,3±3,2) mostrou-se maior que o grupo 40mg/Kg (11,8±1,9; p<0,01) e 80mh/Kg (7,0±1,4; p<0,01). Diferença significante foi também observada entre os grupos 40mg/Kg e 80mg/Kg (p<0,05). Após 18 semanas, a média do número de células apoptóticas do grupo controle (18,0±2,2) mostrou-se maior que o grupo 40mg/Kg (8,8±1,7; p<0,01) e 80mh/Kg (5,5±1,3; p<0,01). Não foi observada diferença significante entre os grupos 40 e 80mg/Kg (ns). CONCLUSÃO: A instilação intrapulmonar de Benzo[a]pireno induziu diminuição significativa da atividade apoptótica em tecido pulmonar.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Apoptosis/drug effects , Benzo(a)pyrene/administration & dosage , Lung/drug effects , Lung/cytology , Models, Animal , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar
17.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 104(5): 749-754, Aug. 2009. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-528085

ABSTRACT

Paracoccidioidomycosis presents a variety of clinical manifestations and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis can reach many tissues, most importantly the lungs. The ability of the pathogen to interact with host surface structures is essential to its virulence. The interaction between P. brasiliensis and epithelial cells has been studied, with particular emphasis on the induction of apoptosis. To investigate the expression of different apoptosis-inducing pathways in human A549 cells, we infected these cells with P. brasiliensis Pb18SP (subcultured) and 18R (recently isolated from cell culture and showing a high adhesion pattern) samples in vitro. The expressions of Bcl-2, Bak and caspase 3 were analysed by flow cytometry and DNA fragmentation using the TUNEL technique. Apoptosis of human A549 cells was induced by P. brasiliensis in a sample and time-dependent manner. Using an in vitro model, our data demonstrates that caspase 3, Bak, Bcl-2 and DNA fragmentation mediate P. brasiliensis-induced apoptosis in A549 cells. The overall mechanism is a complex process, which may involve several signal transduction pathways. These findings could partially explain the efficient behaviour of this fungus in promoting tissue infection and/or blood dissemination.


Subject(s)
Humans , Apoptosis/physiology , Epithelial Cells/microbiology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Lung/cytology , Paracoccidioides/physiology , /analysis , Cell Line/microbiology , Flow Cytometry , Paracoccidioides/pathogenicity , /analysis , /analysis
18.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 422-426, 2009.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-110992

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of phase contrast X-ray microtomography and microradiography, using a polychromatic synchrotron X-ray, for analysis of the mouse lung microstructure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Normal mice were used for experiments. Some of the mouse lungs were prepared by the lung fixation-inflation method. The resulting sponge-like inflated lung samples were used for microtomography. The remaining mouse lungs were cut into 10 um sections and were used for microradiography and optical microscopic correlation. The experiments on mouse lung samples were performed at the 7B2 beamline of the Pohang Light Source in Korea. RESULTS: Phase contrast X-ray microtomography of inflated lung samples showed individual alveolar structure on 3-D reconstruction. Phase contrast microradiographs of thin lung samples showed microstructure of lung, such as alveoli and bronchioles, and were well correlated with optical microscopic images. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that the phase contrast X-ray microtomography and microradiography using polychromatic synchrotron X-ray is feasible for evaluation of microstructure of the lung.


Subject(s)
Animals , Lung/cytology , Mice , Microscopy/methods , Microscopy, Phase-Contrast , X-Ray Microtomography/methods
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-34740

ABSTRACT

Stimulatory heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins (Gs protein) stimulate cAMP generation in response to various signals, and modulate various cellular phenomena such as proliferation and apoptosis. This study aimed to investigate the effect of Gs proteins on gamma ray-induced apoptosis of lung cancer cells and its molecular mechanism, as an attempt to develop a new strategy to improve the therapeutic efficacy of gamma radiation. Expression of constitutively active mutant of the alpha subunit of Gs (GalphasQL) augmented gamma ray-induced apoptosis via mitochondrial dependent pathway when assessed by clonogenic assay, FACS analysis of PI stained cells, and western blot analysis of the cytoplasmic translocation of cytochrome C and the cleavage of caspase-3 and ploy(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in H1299 human lung cancer cells. GalphasQL up-regulated the Bak expression at the levels of protein and mRNA. Treatment with inhibitors of PKA (H89), SP600125 (JNK inhibitor), and a CRE-decoy blocked GalphasQL-stimulated Bak reporter luciferase activity. Expression of GalphasQL increased basal and gamma ray-induced luciferase activity of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) and AP-1, and the binding of CREB and AP-1 to Bak promoter. Furthermore, prostaglandin E2, a Galphas activating signal, was found to augment gamma ray-induced apoptosis, which was abolished by treatment with a prostanoid receptor antagonist. These results indicate that Galphas augments gamma ray-induced apoptosis by up-regulation of Bak expression via CREB and AP-1 in H1299 lung cancer cells, suggesting that the efficacy of radiotherapy of lung cancer may be improved by modulating Gs signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis/radiation effects , Cell Line, Tumor , Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein/metabolism , GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs/metabolism , Gamma Rays , Heterotrimeric GTP-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Lung/cytology , Lung Neoplasms , Transcription Factor AP-1/metabolism , Up-Regulation , bcl-2 Homologous Antagonist-Killer Protein/metabolism
20.
J. bras. pneumol ; 33(5): 502-509, set.-out. 2007. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-467474

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Quantificar fibras elásticas (FE), músculo liso (ML) e linfócitos T CD4+ e CD8+ na doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica (DPOC) estável. MÉTODOS: Biópsias cirúrgicas foram obtidas de 15 pacientes com DPOC, 18 tabagistas sem limitação do fluxo aéreo e 14 não tabagistas. FE, ML e células T CD4+ e CD8+ foram quantificados através de métodos histológicos e imuno-histoquímicos. RESULTADOS: Não foi observada diferença estatisticamente significativa das FE nos três grupos (p > 0,05). Tanto a quantidade de FE por unidade de área pulmonar (mm²), quanto o percentual destas fibras por tecido pulmonar foram semelhantes nos três grupos. Foi encontrado aumento da quantidade de ML em pacientes com DPOC quando comparados a tabagistas (p = 0,003) e não tabagistas (p = 0,009). Houve tendência de aumento das células T CD8+ nos pacientes com DPOC. O total de células T CD4+ estava diminuído nos pacientes com DPOC quando comparados aos tabagistas (p = 0,015) e não tabagistas (p = 0,003). Observou-se fraca correlação entre estas células e a relação entre o volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo e a capacidade vital forçada (r² = 0,003). CONCLUSÕES: A quantidade de FE foi semelhante nos três grupos estudados. A hipertrofia/hiperplasia muscular da parede das vias aéreas foi encontrada tanto em pacientes com DPOC quanto em tabagistas, indicando que o remodelamento ocorra também nos tabagistas sem limitação do fluxo aéreo. Houve diminuição da relação CD4/CD8 em pacientes com DPOC.


OBJECTIVE: To quantify elastic fibers (EFs) and smooth muscle (SM) cells, as well as CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS: Surgical specimens were obtained from 15 COPD patients, 18 smokers without airflow limitation, and 14 nonsmokers. Histological and immunohistochemical methods were employed in order to quantify EFs, SM cells, CD4+ T cells, and CD8+ T cells. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in EF numbers among the three groups (p > 0.05). The number of EFs per unit area of lung tissue (mm²) and the percentage of EFs in the lung tissue were similar among the three groups. The numbers of SM cells were found to be higher in the COPD patients than in the smokers (p = 0.003) or in the nonsmokers (p = 0.009). There was a tendency toward an increase in CD8+ T-cell counts in the COPD patients. In specimens collected from the COPD patients, CD4+ T-cell counts were lower than in those collected from the smokers (p = 0.015) or from the nonsmokers (p = 0.003). There was a weak correlation between CD4+ T-cell count and the ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second to forced vital capacity (r² = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: The EF counts were similar among the three groups. Hypertrophy/hyperplasia of airway wall SM cells was found in the COPD patients and in the smokers, indicating that airway remodeling occurs in smokers. The CD4/CD8 ratio was lower in the COPD patients.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , /pathology , /pathology , Elastic Tissue/pathology , Muscle, Smooth/cytology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/pathology , Smoking/pathology , Biopsy , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Forced Expiratory Volume/physiology , Immunohistochemistry , Lymphocyte Count , Lung/cytology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/blood , Statistics, Nonparametric , Vital Capacity/physiology
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