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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879928

ABSTRACT

The "lung and large intestine being interior-exteriorly related" is one of the classical theories in traditional Chinese medicine, which indicates a close correlation between the lung and large intestine in physiology and pathology, and plays a pivotal role in guiding the treatment of the lung and bowel diseases. Modern medicine has revealed some connections between the lung and large intestine in tissue origin and mucosal immunity, and preliminarily illuminated the material basis and possible regulatory mechanism of the theory. Recently, this theory has been applied to guide the treatment of refractory lung and intestine diseases such as COVID-19 and ulcerative colitis and has obtained reliable efficacy. Existing research results show that the anatomical homogeneity of lung and large intestine promotes the correlation between lung-bowel mucosal immunity, and mucosal immunity and migration and homing of innate lymphocytes are one of the physiological and pathological mechanisms for lung and large intestine to share. Under the guidance of this theory, Chinese medicines with heat-clearing and detoxifying or tonic effects are commonly used in the treatment of the lung and intestinal diseases by regulating lung-bowel mucosal immunity and they can be candidate drugs to treat lung/intestinal diseases simultaneously. However, the existing studies on immune regulation are mainly focused on the expression levels of sIgA and cytokines, as well as the changes in the number of immune cells such as innate lymphocytes and B lymphocytes. While the following aspects need further investigation: the airway/intestinal mucous hypersecretion, the functional changes of pulmonary and intestinal mucosal barrier immune cells, the dynamic process of lung/intestinal mucosal immune interaction, the intervention effect of local pulmonary/intestinal microecology, the correlation and biological basis between the heat-clearing and detoxifying effect and the tonic effect, and its regulation of pulmonary/intestinal mucosal immunity. In this paper, we try to analyze the internal relationship between lung and intestine related diseases from the point of view of the common mucosal immune system of lung and intestine, and summarize the characteristics and rules of traditional Chinese medicine compound and its active ingredients, which have regulatory effect on lung and intestine mucosal immune system, so as to further explain the theoretical connotation of "lung and large intestine being interior-exteriorly related" and provide reference for the research and development of drugs for related diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Colitis, Ulcerative/immunology , Humans , Intestine, Large/immunology , Lung/immunology , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(2): 271-280, May-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888875

ABSTRACT

Abstract Sepsis induces a severe systemic inflammatory response that may result in multiple organ dysfunction and death. Studies using a protein derived from natural Hevea brasiliensis (rubber tree) latex, denominated Hev b 13, have demonstrated important anti-inflammatory effects, but no data have been published regarding its effects on sepsis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Hev b 13 on the inflammatory response and lung lesions of septal rats. Male Wistar rats were submitted to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), randomized into groups and treated with subcutaneously administered doses of 0.5/2.0/3.0 mg/Kg of Hev b 13. Next, animals were subdivided into three different points in time (1, 6 and 24 hours after treatments) for collection of blood samples and euthanasia accompanied by organ removal. Total and differential leukocyte counts, cytokine dosage and histological assessment were analyzed. Treatment with Hev b 13 resulted in a significant decline in total and differential leukocytes as well as suppression of TNF-α and IL-6 production, associated with the increase in IL-10 and IL-4 in plasma and lung tissue. Moreover, it reduced morphological and pathological changes found in the lungs, including neutrophil infiltration, edema and alveolar thickening. The present study concluded that Hev b 13 exerts anti-inflammatory effects and attenuates lung lesions in septal rats, showing potential for clinical application.


Resumo Sepse induz uma resposta inflamatória sistêmica grave podendo resultar em disfunção de múltiplos órgãos e morte. Pesquisas utilizando uma proteína derivada do látex natural de Hevea brasiliensis (seringueira), denominada Hev b 13 tem demonstrado importantes efeitos anti-inflamatórios, mas nenhum dado foi publicado dos seus efeitos na sepse. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar os efeitos da Hev b 13 na resposta inflamatória e na lesão pulmonar de ratos com sepse. Ratos machos da linhagem Wistar foram submetidos a ligação e perfuração do ceco (LPC), randomizados em grupos e tratados com as doses 0,5/2,0/3,0 mg/Kg de Hev b 13 subcutâneo. Após subdividiu-se os animais em três pontos diferentes de tempo (1, 6 e 24 horas após os tratamentos) para coleta de amostras sanguíneas e eutanásia com remoção dos órgãos. Contagem total e diferencial de leucócitos, dosagem de citocinas e avaliação histológica foram analisadas. O tratamento com a Hev b 13 resultou em diminuição significativa de leucócitos totais e diferenciais bem como suprimiu a produção de TNF-α e IL-6, associado ao aumento de IL-10 e IL-4 no plasma e tecido pulmonar. Além disso, reduziu as alterações morfológicas e patológicas encontradas nos pulmões, incluindo infiltrado de neutrófilos, edema e espessamento alveolar. Este estudo concluiu que a Hev b 13 tem efeitos anti-inflamatórios e atenua lesões pulmonares em ratos com sepse, apresentando potencialidades para aplicabilidade clínica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Proteins/pharmacology , Antigens, Plant/pharmacology , Lung/drug effects , Lung/immunology , Lung/metabolism , Lung Diseases/metabolism , Plant Proteins/administration & dosage , Random Allocation , Cytokines/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Cytokines/blood , Rats, Wistar , Sepsis/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Antigens, Plant/administration & dosage , Lung Diseases/immunology
3.
Biol. Res ; 49: 1-5, 2016.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950856

ABSTRACT

In the mammalian lung, respiratory macrophages provide front line defense against invading pathogens and particulate matter. In birds, respiratory macrophages are known as free avian respiratory macrophages (FARM) and a dearth of the cells in the avian lung has been purported to foreordain a weak first line of pulmonary defense, a condition associated with high mortality of domestic birds occasioned by respiratory inflictions. Avian pulmonary mechanisms including a three tiered aerodynamic filtration system, tight epithelial junctions and an efficient mucociliary escalator system have been known to supplement FARM protective roles. Current studies, however, report FARM to exhibit an exceptionally efficient phagocytic capacity and are effective in elimination of invading pathogens. In this review, we also report on effects of selective synthetic peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR γ) agonists on non phlogistic phagocytic properties in the FARM. To develop effective therapeutic interventions targeting FARM in treatment and management of respiratory disease conditions in the poultry, further studies are required to fully understand the role of FARM in innate and adaptive immune responses.


Subject(s)
Animals , Birds/immunology , Macrophages, Alveolar/physiology , Lung/immunology , Particle Size , Phagocytes/immunology , Phagocytosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/immunology , Respiratory Tract Infections/veterinary , PPAR gamma/physiology , Lung/cytology
4.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(6): 726-731, Sept. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-763099

ABSTRACT

The protective effect of infectious agents against allergic reactions has been thoroughly investigated. Current studies have demonstrated the ability of some helminths to modulate the immune response of infected hosts. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between Toxocara canis infection and the development of an allergic response in mice immunised with ovalbumin (OVA). We determined the total and differential blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cells using BALB/c mice as a model. To this end, the levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and IL-10 and anti-OVA-IgE were measured using an ELISA. The inflammatory process in the lungs was observed using histology slides stained with haematoxylin and eosin. The results showed an increase in the total number of leukocytes and eosinophils in the blood of infected and immunised animals at 18 days after infection. We observed a slight lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrate in the portal space in all infected mice. Anti-OVA-IgE levels were detected in smaller proportions in the plasma of immunised and infected mice compared with mice that were only infected. Therefore, we concluded that T. canis potentiates inflammation in the lungs in response to OVA, although anti-OVA-IgE levels suggest a potential reduction of the inflammatory process through this mechanism.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/parasitology , Hypersensitivity/parasitology , Lung/immunology , Toxocara canis/immunology , Toxocariasis/immunology , Antibodies/blood , Biopsy , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Eosinophils/parasitology , Immunoglobulin E/blood , Inflammation/physiopathology , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-4/blood , Interleukin-5/blood , Leukocyte Count , Lung/pathology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Ovalbumin/immunology , Toxocariasis/blood
5.
Cad. saúde pública ; 31(3): 633-646, 03/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-744824

ABSTRACT

Agricultural workers represent a population that is highly vulnerable to the toxic effects of pesticide exposure. This cross sectional study aimed to describe the health conditions of terrestrial pesticide applicators in Córdoba Province, Argentina, their work practices and socio-demographic characteristics, by means of a standardized self-administered questionnaire (n = 880). A descriptive analysis reported a high prevalence of occasional or frequent symptoms: 47.4% had symptoms of irritation, 35.5% fatigue, 40.4% headache and 27.6% nervousness or depression. Using logistic regression models, risk and protective factors were found for symptoms of irritation, medical consultation and hospitalization. Among the occupational exposure variables, marital status, length of time in the job, low level of protection with regard to the use of personal protective equipment, combined use of different pesticides and the application of the insecticide endosulfan, were associated with a higher frequency of reported symptoms and higher consultation rates and hospitalization.


Los trabajadores agrícolas son una población altamente vulnerable a los efectos tóxicos de la exposición a plaguicidas. Con el objetivo de describir las condiciones de salud de agroaplicadores terrestres de plaguicidas de la Provincia de Córdoba, Argentina, sus prácticas laborales y características sociodemográficas, se realizó un estudio transversal, mediante cuestionario (n = 880). Un análisis descriptivo reportó alta prevalencia de sintomatología ocasional o frecuente: 47,4% síntomas irritativos, 35,5% cansancio, 40,4% cefalea y 27,6% ansiedad o depresión. Mediante modelos logísticos se detectaron factores protectores y de riesgo que explican la presencia de síntomas irritativos, la consulta médica y la hospitalización. El estado civil, la antigüedad en la tarea, el nivel de protección considerando uso de equipo de protección personal, la exposición múltiple a plaguicidas y la aplicación del insecticida endosulfán, se asociaron a mayor frecuencia de reporte de síntomas, consultas médicas y hospitalizaciones por causas relacionadas con la exposición a plaguicidas.


Os trabalhadores agrícolas são uma população altamente vulnerável aos efeitos tóxicos da exposição a pesticidas. Este estudo transversal teve o objetivo de descrever as condições de saúde de aplicadores terrestres de pesticidas da Província de Córdoba, Argentina, suas práticas de trabalho e características sociodemográficas, por meio de um questionário padronizado autoadministrado (n = 880). A análise descritiva relatou alta prevalência de sintomas ocasionais ou frequentes: 47,4% sintomas irritativos, 35,5% fadiga, 40,4% dor de cabeça e 27,6% ansiedade ou depressão. Mediante modelos logísticos foram detectados os fatores protetores e do risco que explicam a presença de sintomas irritativos, consulta médica e hospitalização. O estado civil, anos de trabalho, o nível de proteção considerando o uso de equipamentos de proteção individual, a exposição a vários pesticidas e aplicação do inseticida endosulfan, foram associados com maior frequência de sintomas, consultas médicas e hospitalização por causas relacionadas à exposição ao agrotóxico.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Humans , Mice , Asthma , Epitopes/immunology , Immune Tolerance/immunology , /immunology , Peptides , Allergens/immunology , Asthma/immunology , Asthma/therapy , Bronchial Hyperreactivity/immunology , Desensitization, Immunologic , Disease Models, Animal , Double-Blind Method , Forkhead Transcription Factors/immunology , Genes, MHC Class II , Glycoproteins/genetics , Glycoproteins/immunology , HLA-DR1 Antigen/immunology , Lung/cytology , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Mice, Transgenic , Placebos , Peptides/immunology , Peptides/therapeutic use , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , /immunology , /immunology , Transforming Growth Factor beta/immunology
6.
Acta cir. bras ; 28(4): 299-306, Apr. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-670256

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate morbidity, mortality and microbiological response to fecal peritonitis induced in Wistar rats with permanent bilateral carotid ligation (PBCL). METHODS: Fecal peritonitis was induced in 30 rats, with 10 animals in each group: Group1 - normal young animals; Group2 - normal mature animals; and Group3 - rats with PBCL after four months postoperative follow-up. Peritonitis was induced with 10% stool suspension. Morbidity and mortality were evaluated. The survival animals after seven days were euthanized for tests. For microbiological studies blood were collected from the carotids and right ventricle; and fragments of lung and peritoneum. RESULTS: The morbidity and mortality of young animals were significantly lower than in mature animals with and without PBCL. There was no difference in morbidity and mortality among mature rats with and without PBCL. The diversity of microorganisms producing septicemia was similar to native micro biota of the large bowel. CONCLUSIONS: The immune response was more efficient in young animals, represented by significant less morbidity and no natural mortality. PBLC did not affect morbidity and mortality in mature rats. The immune response to fecal peritonitis has age as an independent predictor.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Carotid Arteries/pathology , Peritoneum/pathology , Peritonitis/pathology , Carotid Arteries/immunology , Feces , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Peritoneum/immunology , Peritonitis/immunology , Peritonitis/mortality , Rats, Wistar , Time Factors , Tissue Adhesions
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-169635

ABSTRACT

Germanium biotite (GB) is an aluminosilicate mineral containing 36 ppm germanium. The present study was conducted to better understand the effects of GB on immune responses in a mouse model, and to demonstrate the clearance effects of this mineral against Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in experimentally infected pigs as an initial step towards the development of a feed supplement that would promote immune activity and help prevent diseases. In the mouse model, dietary supplementation with GB enhanced concanavalin A (ConA)-induced lymphocyte proliferation and increased the percentage of CD3+CD8+ T lymphocytes. In pigs experimentally infected with PRRSV, viral titers in lungs and lymphoid tissues from the GB-fed group were significantly decreased compared to those of the control group 12 days post-infection. Corresponding histopathological analyses demonstrated that GB-fed pigs displayed less severe pathological changes associated with PRRSV infection compared to the control group, indicating that GB promotes PRRSV clearance. These antiviral effects in pigs may be related to the ability of GB to increase CD3+CD8+ T lymphocyte production observed in the mice. Hence, this mineral may be an effective feed supplement for increasing immune activity and preventing disease.


Subject(s)
Aluminum Silicates/administration & dosage , Animal Feed/analysis , Animals , CD3 Complex/metabolism , CD8 Antigens/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Concanavalin A/metabolism , Dietary Supplements/analysis , Disease Models, Animal , Ferrous Compounds/administration & dosage , Germanium/administration & dosage , Lung/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation/drug effects , Lymphocytes/cytology , Lymphoid Tissue/immunology , Mice , Mitogens/metabolism , Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy , Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus/drug effects , Swine
8.
J. bras. pneumol ; 38(3): 321-330, maio-jun. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-640755

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Investigar o significado de marcadores de imunidade celular e de componentes elásticos/colágeno da matriz extracelular em estruturas granulomatosas em biópsias de pacientes com sarcoidose pulmonar ou extrapulmonar. MÉTODOS: Determinações qualitativas e quantitativas de células inflamatórias, de fibras de colágeno e de fibras elásticas em estruturas granulomatosas em biópsias cirúrgicas de 40 pacientes com sarcoidose pulmonar e extrapulmonar foram realizadas por histomorfometria, imuno-histoquímica, e técnicas de coloração com picrosirius e resorcina-fucsina de Weigert. RESULTADOS: A densidade de linfócitos, macrófagos e neutrófilos nas biópsias extrapulmonares foi significativamente maior do que nas biópsias pulmonares. Os granulomas pulmonares apresentaram uma quantidade significativamente maior de fibras de colágeno e menor densidade de fibras elásticas que os granulomas extrapulmonares. A quantidade de macrófagos nos granulomas pulmonares correlacionou-se com CVF (p < 0,05), ao passo que as quantidades de linfócitos CD3+, CD4+ e CD8+ correlacionaram-se com a relação VEF1/CVF e com CV. Houve correlações negativas entre CPT e contagem de células CD1a+ (p < 0,05) e entre DLCO e densidade de fibras colágenas/elásticas (r = -0,90; p = 0,04). CONCLUSÕES: A imunofenotipagem e o remodelamento apresentaram características diferentes nas biópsias dos pacientes com sarcoidose pulmonar e extrapulmonar. Essas diferenças correlacionaram-se com os dados clínicos e espirométricos dos pacientes, sugerindo que há duas vias envolvidas no mecanismo de depuração de antígenos, que foi mais eficaz nos pulmões e linfonodos.


OBJECTIVE: To investigate the significance of cellular immune markers, as well as that of collagen and elastic components of the extracellular matrix, within granulomatous structures in biopsies of patients with pulmonary or extrapulmonary sarcoidosis. METHODS: We carried out qualitative and quantitative evaluations of inflammatory cells, collagen fibers, and elastic fibers in granulomatous structures in surgical biopsies of 40 patients with pulmonary and extrapulmonary sarcoidosis using histomorphometry, immunohistochemistry, picrosirius red staining, and Weigert's resorcin-fuchsin staining. RESULTS: The extrapulmonary tissue biopsies presented significantly higher densities of lymphocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils than did the lung tissue biopsies. Pulmonary granulomas showed a significantly higher number of collagen fibers and a lower density of elastic fibers than did extrapulmonary granulomas. The amount of macrophages in the lung samples correlated with FVC (p < 0.05), whereas the amount of CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ lymphocytes correlated with the FEV1/FVC ratio and VC. There were inverse correlations between TLC and the CD1a+ cell count (p < 0.05), as well as between DLCO and collagen/elastic fiber density (r = -0.90; p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Immunophenotyping and remodeling both showed differences between pulmonary and extrapulmonary sarcoidosis in terms of the characteristics of the biopsy samples. These differences correlated with the clinical and spirometric data obtained for the patients, suggesting that two different pathways are involved in the mechanism of antigen clearance, which was more effective in the lungs and lymph nodes.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Extracellular Matrix/immunology , Immunity, Cellular , Immunophenotyping/methods , Sarcoidosis/immunology , Analysis of Variance , Biopsy , Collagen/immunology , Elastic Tissue/immunology , Elastic Tissue/pathology , Extracellular Matrix/pathology , Granuloma, Respiratory Tract/immunology , Granuloma, Respiratory Tract/pathology , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Lymph Nodes/immunology , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphocytes/immunology , Macrophages, Alveolar/immunology , Sarcoidosis, Pulmonary/immunology , Sarcoidosis, Pulmonary/pathology , Sarcoidosis/pathology
9.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135669

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Mycobacterial heparin-binding haemagglutinin adhesin (HBHA) plays an important role in humoral and cellular immune response and is a potential diagnostic tool for tuberculosis (TB) serodiagnosis. This study was carried out to assess the usefulness of HBHA in TB clinics for differential diagnosis of pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB (PTB, EPTB). Methods: In this study, 165 outpatients and 133 healthy volunteers were included to investigate the role of HBHA in TB diagnosis including the serodiagnostic tests and the interferon-γ release assays (IGRAs). The healthy volunteers were all without BCG vaccination including 73 subjects with purified protein derivative (PPD) (-) and 60 ones with PPD (+) (that is P-B- and P+B-). Of all the 165 outpatients 77 were PTB and 88 were EPTB. HBHA protein was used for serodiagnostic tests and IGRAs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Results: HBHA-specific antibody levels in the serum of healthy subjects were significantly different from the patients with PTB or EPTB (P<0.05). HBHA specific antibody levels in PTB patients could differentiate from EPTB with limited sensitivity (77.08%; 95%CI, 62.69 to 87.97%) and specificity (87.50%; 95%CI, 74.75 to 95.27%). IFN-γ levels in the healthy (P+B- and P-B-) groups were significantly different (P<0.01) with a detection sensitivity of 84.8% (95%CI, 68.54 to 93.02%) and specificity of 80.7% (95%CI, 65.22 to 92.62%). The PTB and EPTB subjects showed no difference in IFN-γ production. Interpretation & conclusions: HBHA serodiagnostic test with IGRAs had the limited potential for use as auxiliary tools for the differential diagnosis of PTB and EPTB, since both methods showed low sensitivity and specificity.


Subject(s)
Adult , Antibodies, Bacterial/isolation & purification , Diagnosis, Differential , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Humans , Interferon-gamma/isolation & purification , Lectins/metabolism , Lung/immunology , Lung/microbiology , Lung/pathology , Middle Aged , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/immunology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/metabolism , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/immunology , Tuberculosis/microbiology , Young Adult
10.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 43(1): 9-17, ene.-mar. 2011. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-634672

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar un ELISA indirecto desarrollado para medir la respuesta inmune humoral en carneros vacunados contra la linfoadenitis caseosa (LC) y/o desafiados con una cepa de Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis homóloga. Se distribuyeron corderos de 4 meses clínicamente sanos en 4 grupos: grupo 1, corderos vacunados (G1, n = 5); grupo 2, corderos vacunados e inoculados (G2, n = 8); grupo 3, corderos inoculados (G3, n = 2); y grupo 4, control (G4, n = 2). Los animales del G1 y del G2 recibieron dos dosis de una bacterina experimental; los del G2 y del G3 fueron desafiados con una cepa de C. pseudotuberculosis cuatro semanas posvacunación. Se estudiaron por ELISA los títulos serológicos durante 7 meses y se efectuaron las necropsias en los grupos G2, G3 y G4. Se tomaron muestras de pulmón y linfonódulos para efectuar estudios bacteriológicos e histopatológicos. La cepa inoculada en los animales del G2 y del G3 reprodujo las lesiones macroscópicas y microscópicas típicas de la LC; ésta fue aislada del sitio de inoculación, de linfonódulos o de pulmón en 7/8 animales del G2 y en 2/2 animales del G3. La prueba de ELISA, con una sensibilidad del 98% y una especificidad del 100%, detectó diferencias significativas entre los serorreactores de los diferentes grupos experimentales y permitió establecer una relación con el tipo de tratamiento aplicado. Se concluye que el ELISA desarrollado puede ser una herramienta útil para identificar animales infectados y con clínica positiva a la LC.


The aim of this study was to evaluate an indirect specific ELISA developed for the detection of humoral immune response in vaccinated sheep and/or challenged with a Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis strain. Healthy 4 month-old lambs were distributed into 4 groups: Group 1 immunized (G1, n = 5), Group 2 vaccinated/inoculated (G2, n = 8), Group 3 inoculated (G3, n = 2) and Group 4 control (G4, n = 2). Groups G1 and G2 received two doses of an experimental bacterin. Four weeks postvaccination, G2 and G3 groups were challenged with a C. pseudotuberculosis strain. Serological titers were studied by ELISA for 7 months and pathological studies were performed in groups G2, G3 and G4 by taking lung and lymph node samples for bacteriology and histopathology. The inoculated strain in G2 and G3 animals reproduced the macroscopic and microscopic lesions typical of caseous lymphadenitis (CL) and was isolated from the inoculation site, lymph nodes and/or lung in 7/8 animals from G2, and 2/2 animals of G3. The developed ELISA test had sensitivity and specificity of 98% and 100% respectively, detected significant differences between serological reactors of different experimental groups and allowed to establish a relationship with the type of treatment. We conclude that the developed ELISA may be a useful tool to identify infected animals with positive clinical CL.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Bacterial/analysis , Bacterial Vaccines/immunology , Corynebacterium Infections/veterinary , Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Lymphadenitis/veterinary , Sheep Diseases/immunology , Sheep/immunology , Vaccination/veterinary , Corynebacterium Infections/immunology , Corynebacterium Infections/microbiology , Corynebacterium Infections/prevention & control , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Lung/immunology , Lymph Nodes/immunology , Lymphadenitis/immunology , Lymphadenitis/microbiology , Lymphadenitis/prevention & control , Random Allocation , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sheep Diseases/microbiology , Sheep Diseases/prevention & control
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-48416

ABSTRACT

Mast cells are well recognized as key cells in allergic reactions, such as asthma and allergic airway diseases. However, the effects of mast cells and TNF-alpha on T-helper type 2 (Th2) cytokine-dependent asthma are not clearly understood. Therefore, an aim of this study was to investigate the role of mast cells on Th2 cytokine-dependent airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation. We used genetically mast cell-deficient WBB6F1/J-KitW/KitW-v (W/Wv), congenic normal WBB6F1/J-Kit+/Kit+ (+/+), and mast cell-reconstituted W/Wv mouse models of allergic asthma to investigate the role of mast cells in Th2 cytokine-dependent asthma induced by ovalbumin (OVA). And we investigated whether the intratracheal injection of TNF-alpha directly induce the expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in W/Wv mice. This study, with OVA-sensitized and OVA-challenged mice, revealed the following typical histopathologic features of allergic diseases: increased inflammatory cells of the airway, airway hyperresponsiveness, and increased levels of TNF-alpha, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, and vascular cellular adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1. However, the histopathologic features and levels of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 proteins in W/Wv mice after OVA challenges were significantly inhibited. Moreover, mast cell-reconstituted W/Wv mice showed restoration of histopathologic features and recovery of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 protein levels that were similar to those found in +/+ mice. Intratracheal administration of TNF-alpha resulted in increased ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 protein levels in W/Wv mice. These results suggest that mast cells play a key role in a Th2 cytokine-dependent asthma model through production of adhesion molecules, including ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, by liberation of TNF-alpha.


Subject(s)
Animals , Asthma/immunology , Blotting, Western , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/biosynthesis , Lung/immunology , Mast Cells/immunology , Mice , Ovalbumin , Th2 Cells/immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1/biosynthesis
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 43(7): 645-650, July 2010. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-550735

ABSTRACT

Leukotrienes are reported to be potent proinflammatory mediators that play a role in the development of several inflammatory diseases such as asthma, rheumatoid arthritis and periodontal disease. Leukotrienes have also been associated with protection against infectious diseases. However, the role of leukotrienes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is not understood. To answer this question, we studied the role of leukotrienes in the protective immune response conferred by prime-boost heterologous immunization against tuberculosis. We immunized BALB/c mice (4-11/group) with subcutaneous BCG vaccine (1 x 10(5) M. bovis BCG) (prime) followed by intramuscular DNA-HSP65 vaccine (100 µg) (boost). During the 30 days following the challenge, the animals were treated by gavage daily with MK-886 (5 mg·kg-1·day-1) to inhibit leukotriene synthesis. We showed that MK-886-treated mice were more susceptible to M. tuberculosis infection by counting the number of M. tuberculosis colony-forming units in lungs. The histopathological analysis showed an impaired influx of leukocytes to the lungs of MK-886-treated mice after infection, confirming the involvement of leukotrienes in the protective immune response against experimental tuberculosis. However, prime-boost-immunized mice treated with MK-886 remained protected after challenge with M. tuberculosis, suggesting that leukotrienes are not required for the protective effect elicited by immunization. Protection against M. tuberculosis challenge achieved by prime-boost immunization in the absence of leukotrienes was accompanied by an increase in IL-17 production in the lungs of these animals, as measured by ELISA. Therefore, these data suggest that the production of IL-17 in MK-886-treated, immunized mice could contribute to the generation of a protective immune response after infection with M. tuberculosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Bacterial Proteins/immunology , /immunology , Leukocytes/immunology , Leukotrienes/biosynthesis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/prevention & control , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , BCG Vaccine/administration & dosage , BCG Vaccine/immunology , Bacterial Proteins/administration & dosage , Cell Movement , /administration & dosage , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Immunization, Secondary , Indoles/pharmacology , Leukotriene Antagonists/pharmacology , Leukotrienes/agonists , Lung/immunology , Lung/microbiology , Lung/pathology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/immunology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/pathology , Vaccines, DNA/administration & dosage
13.
Rev. chil. reumatol ; 25(3): 119-122, 2009. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-563798

ABSTRACT

La enfermedad antimembrana basal glomerular (anti-MBG) es una condición que se manifiesta clínicamente como glomerulonefritis rápidamente progresiva y hemorragia alveolar, también llamada Síndrome Riñón- Pulmón. Se asocia a la presencia de autoanticuerpos dirigidos contra el colágeno tipo IV de la membrana basal glomerular. Las vasculitis sistémicas asociadas a ANCA también pueden manifestarse como Síndrome Riñón-Pulmón, cuadro clínico a veces indistinguible de la enfermedad anti-MBG. La concomitancia de ANCA y anticuerpos anti-MBG en el Síndrome Riñón-Pulmón es del orden de un 30 por ciento, según distintos reportes de la literatura. El perfil clínico, el pronóstico y el rol fisiopatológico de cada anticuerpo en este grupo de pacientes todavía son materia de investigación. El mecanismo patogénico inicial parece ser el daño mediado por ANCA, que puede inducir la aparición de anticuerpos anti-MBG, los que perpetúan el daño en el glomérulo.


Anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-MBG) disease is a condition that is manifested clinically as rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis and alveolar hemorrhage, also known as Pulmonary-Renal Syndrome. It is associated with the presence of autoantibodies directed against type IV collagen of the glomerular basement membrane. Systemic vasculitis associated with ANCA may also manifest as Pulmonary-Renal Syndrome, sometimes clinically indistinguishable from the anti-MBG disease.The concomitance of ANCA and anti-MBG antibodies in the Pulmonary-Renal Syndrome is about 30 percent, according to various reports in literature. The clinical profile, prognosis and physiopathologic roles of each antibody in this group of patients is still under investigation. The pathogenic mechanism appears to be the initial damage mediated by ANCA, which may induce the appearance of anti-MBG, those who perpetuate the glomerulus damage.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Anti-Glomerular Basement Membrane Disease/complications , Anti-Glomerular Basement Membrane Disease/immunology , Lung Diseases/complications , Lung Diseases/immunology , Kidney Diseases/complications , Kidney Diseases/immunology , Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic , Kidney Glomerulus/immunology , Kidney Glomerulus/pathology , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Syndrome
14.
Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol ; 2008 Jun-Sep; 26(2-3): 143-9
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-36906

ABSTRACT

An animal model resembling the human immuno-pathological features of CR allergy is needed for CR allergy research, e.g., measuring allergenicity of novel allergens, testing immunotherapeutic efficacies of drugs and vaccines. In this study we develop a murine model of American CR, P. americana allergy. BALB/c mice, 6 weeks old, were individually intraperitoneally injected with three doses (days 0, 7 and 14) of alum adjuvanted-crude extract of P. americana. On days 21 and 23, they were given crude CR extract in PBS intranasally (10 microl) and aerosolically (10 ml) via an air-pressure nebulizer, respectively. Mice received alum alone and PBS instead of the CR extract served as non-allergenic controls. All mice were bled twenty four hours after the nebulization and sacrificed. Their serum samples, broncho-alveolar lavage fluids (BALF), and lung tissues were collected. BALF of all allergen-treated mice had marked cellular infiltration notably neutrophils, eosinophils and lymphocytes. The average total cell count in BALF of the allergenic mice was 1.9 x 10(5) cells/ml which out-numbered those of the non-allergenic controls (8 x 10(4) cells/ml). The eosinophil infiltration was pronounced in lungs of the allergen-treated mice. Specific serum IgE to the CR extract elevated in serum samples of all allergen treated mice and nil in the sera of the controls. None of the mice showed detectable level of IgG2a to the CR extract. RT-PCR revealed that all allergen-treated mice had marked increase of IL-13, IL-4 and TNF-alpha gene expressions, slight increase of IL-5 gene expression, and absence of detectable IFN-gamma gene expression in comparison to the non-allergenic controls. None of the allergen-treated mice and 50% of the non-allergenic controls had IL-12 gene expression as detected by RT- PCR. One allergen treated-mouse (25%) had subpar level of the IL-18 gene expression compared to the controls. Results of the quantitative real-time PCR conformed to those of the RT-PCR. A murine model of P. americana resembling human allergic manifestations was successfully developed.


Subject(s)
Allergens , Alum Compounds , Animals , Cell Movement , Complex Mixtures/administration & dosage , Disease Models, Animal , Eosinophils/immunology , Female , Humans , Hypersensitivity/blood , Immunization, Secondary , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Leukocyte Count , Lung/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Periplaneta/immunology
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-170423

ABSTRACT

Gap junction channels formed with connexins directly link to the cytoplasm of adjacent cells and have been implicated in intercellular signaling. Connexin 37 (Cx37) is expressed in the gas-exchange region of the lung. Recently, Cx37 has been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory disease. However, no data are available on the role of Cx37 in allergic airway inflammatory disease. In the present study, we used a murine model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic airway disease and primary murine epithelial cells to examine the change of Cx37 in allergic airway disease. These mice develop the following typical pathophysiological features of asthma: airway hyperresponsiveness, airway inflammation, and increased IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, eotaxin, and RANTES levels in lungs. Cx37 protein and mRNA expression were decreased in OVA-induced allergic airway disease. Immunoreactive Cx37 localized in epithelial layers around the bronchioles in control mice, which dramatically disappeared in allergen-induced asthmatic lungs. Moreover, the levels of Cx37 protein in lung tissues showed significantly negative correlations with airway inflammation, airway responsiveness, and levels of Th2 cytokines in lungs. These findings indicate that change of Cx37 may be associated with the asthma phenotype.


Subject(s)
Airway Resistance , Allergens/toxicity , Animals , Asthma/etiology , Base Sequence , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/cytology , Cell Adhesion Molecules/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Chemokines/metabolism , Connexins/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , DNA Primers/genetics , Disease Models, Animal , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Female , Lung/immunology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Ovalbumin/immunology , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Trachea/metabolism
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-147623

ABSTRACT

Allergic asthma is associated with persistent functional and structural changes in the airways and involves many different cell types. Many proteins involved in allergic asthma have been identified individually, but complete protein profiles (proteome) have not yet been reported. Here we have used a differential proteome mapping strategy to identify tissue proteins that are differentially expressed in mice with allergic asthma and in normal mice. Mouse lung tissue proteins were separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis over a pH range between 4 and 7, digested, and then analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MS). The proteins were identified using automated MS data acquisition. The resulting data were searched against a protein database using an internal Mascot search routine. This approach identified 15 proteins that were differentially expressed in the lungs of mice with allergic asthma and normal mice. All 15 proteins were identified by MS, and 9 could be linked to asthma-related symptoms, oxidation, or tissue remodeling. Our data suggest that these proteins may prove useful as surrogate biomarkers for quantitatively monitoring disease state progression or response to therapy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Asthma/genetics , Comparative Study , Disease Models, Animal , Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional , Gene Expression/immunology , Gene Expression Profiling , Lung/immunology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Ovalbumin/immunology , Proteome/analysis , Proteomics/methods , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-71821

ABSTRACT

Oral vaccination may be the most efficient way of inducing an immune response at the remote mucosal site through the common mucosal immune network. Antigenspecific secretory IgA (sIgA) is the major immunoglobulin type generally detected in the secretions of experimental animals following an effective oral immunization. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae causing disease in the lung of pig initially interacts, colonizes, and infects the host tissues at the mucosal surface of the respiratory tract. Also, importantly for A. pleuropneumoniae protection, the quantity of sIgA in the lung had merits associated with the mucosal immunity. However, there is no simple method to monitor the level of sIgA as an indicator for the induction of local immune responses by an oral vaccination in the target tissue. Therefore, the relationship between sIgA and IgG was analyzed to evaluate the induction of local immune responses by an oral immunization with Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing the apxIA and apxIIA genes of A. pleuropneumoniae in this study. The correlation coefficient of determination (r2 x 100) for paired samples in both vaccinated and control groups showed a significant positive-relationship between IgG in sera and sIgA in the lung or intestine. These results indicated that IgG antibody titers in sera could be useful to indirectly predict local immune response, and sIgA, in the lung or intestine to evaluate the efficacy of an oral vaccination.


Subject(s)
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae , Administration, Oral , Animals , Antigens, Fungal/immunology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Vaccines/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Hemolysin Proteins , Immunity, Mucosal/immunology , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory/analysis , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Intestine, Small/immunology , Lung/immunology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/immunology
18.
Indian J Pediatr ; 2004 Mar; 71(3): 195-201
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-80969

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: In this article the authors present relationship between meconium exposure and inflammatory cytokine release in newborn lungs. METHODS: The authors used forty 2-week-old rabbit pups for the study. One-half of the group were instilled with meconium and the other half with saline. Rabbits were sacrificed at 0, 2, 4, 8, and 24 hrs after installation and lung lavage was obtained and was examined for cytokine mRNA expression using RT-PCR and for cytokine proteins using ELISA technique. The data were collected in each of the study group. RESULTS: Meconium instillation caused significant expression of inflammatory cytokines TNFalpha, IL-6, and IL-8 (p < 0.05) with a peak at 8 hrs after meconium instillation. Levels of IL-10 were insignificant (p > 0.05). Also, we found significant increase in necrotic cells and neutrophils (p < 0.05), compared to the control, saline instilled rabbit lungs. CONCLUSION: The present studies demonstrates that meconium induces inflammatory response and cytokines gene and protein expression in the lungs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Newborn , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Lung/immunology , Meconium , RNA, Messenger/biosynthesis , Rabbits
19.
In. Saldanha, Assuero Luiz; Caldas, Célia Pereira. Saúde do idoso: a arte de cuidar. Rio de Janeiro, Interciência, 2 ed; 2004. p.304-308.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-407685

ABSTRACT

À medida que envelhecemos, surgem alterações pulmonares que fazem parte do processo de envelhecimento normal. Precisamos conhecê-las para que através de medidas preventivas, possamos diminuir os riscos para a ocorrência das doenças pulmonares


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/etiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/physiopathology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/prevention & control , Pneumonia/etiology , Pneumonia/prevention & control , Lung/physiopathology , Lung/immunology , Tuberculosis/etiology , Tuberculosis/prevention & control
20.
Arch. venez. pueric. pediatr ; 65(3): 142-145, jul.-sept. 2002. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-349155

ABSTRACT

El síndrome de Kostmann o agranulocitosis congénita infantil es un trastorno inmunológico hereditario caracterizado por una disminución severa del valor absoluto de neutrófilos; así como la aparición de infecciones piogénas recurrentes en los primeros años de vida. Se describe el caso de un lactante menor masculino de 7 meses de edad, quien ingresa al Hospital de Niños "J.M. de Los Ríos" por presentar fiebre, infección pulmonar y neutropenia. El diagnóstico de síndrome de Kostmann o agranulocitosis congénita se basa por los hallazgos en el aspirado y la biopsia de médula; y el tratamiento con factor estimulante de colonias granulocíticas evitó nuevas infecciones bacterianas


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Agranulocytosis , Biopsy , Fever , Bone Marrow/immunology , Neutropenia , Lung/immunology , Child Care , Pediatrics , Venezuela
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