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Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200401, 2020. graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136888


Abstract We present postmortem evidence of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in a patient with severe COVID-19. Autopsies of COVID-19 confirmed cases were performed. The patient died despite antimicrobials, mechanical ventilation, and vasopressor support. Histopathology and peripheral blood galactomannan antigen testing confirmed IPA. Aspergillus penicillioides infection was confirmed by nucleotide sequencing and BLAST analysis. Further reports are needed to assess the occurrence and frequency of IPA in SARS-CoV-2 infections, and how they interact clinically.

Humans , Male , Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Aspergillus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/pathology , Betacoronavirus , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Aspergillus/genetics , Autopsy , Fatal Outcome , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Pandemics , Lung/microbiology
J. bras. pneumol ; 46(2): e20180198, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090801


ABSTRACT Objective: To compare patients with and without previous lung disease, in terms of the spirometry results after they had been treated for pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and cured, as well as to analyze risk factors related to functional severity. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, multicenter study conducted at four referral centers in Brazil. Patients were divided into two groups: those with a history of lung disease or smoking (LDS+ group); and those with no such history (LDS− group). Patients underwent spirometry (at least six months after being cured). Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected. Results: A total of 378 patients were included: 174 (46.1%) in the LDS+ group and 204 (53.9%) in the LDS− group. In the sample as a whole, 238 patients (62.7%) had spirometric changes. In the LDS+ group, there was a predominance of obstructive lung disease (in 33.3%), whereas restrictive lung disease predominated in the LDS− group (in 24.7%). Radiological changes were less common in the LDS− group than in the LDS+ group (p < 0.01), as were functional changes (p < 0.05). However, of the 140 (79.1%) LDS− group patients with a normal or minimally altered chest X-ray, 76 (54%) had functional changes (p < 0.01). The risk factors associated with functional severity in the LDS− group were degree of dyspnea (p = 0.03) and moderate or severe radiological changes (p = 0.01). Conclusions: Impaired pulmonary function is common after treatment for PTB, regardless of the history of lung disease or smoking. Spirometry should be suggested for patients who develop moderate/severe dyspnea or relevant radiological changes after treatment for PTB.

RESUMO Objetivo: Comparar os resultados da espirometria de pacientes tratados e curados para tuberculose pulmonar (TBP) com e sem doença pulmonar prévia e analisar os fatores de risco relacionados à gravidade funcional. Métodos: Estudo transversal, multicêntrico, em quatro centros de referência no Brasil. Os pacientes foram classificados em dois grupos: grupo com doença pulmonar prévia ou história de tabagismo (grupo DPT+) e grupo sem doença pulmonar prévia e sem tabagismo (grupo DPT−). Os pacientes realizaram espirometria (pelo menos seis meses após a cura), e foram coletados dados sociodemográficos e clínicos. Resultados: Foram incluídos 378 pacientes: 174 (46,1%) no grupo DPT+ e 204 (53,9%) no grupo DPT−. Na amostra total, 238 pacientes (62,7%) apresentaram alguma alteração espirométrica. No grupo DPT+ houve predominância de distúrbio ventilatório obstrutivo (em 33,3%), e distúrbio ventilatório restritivo predominou no grupo DPT− (em 24,7%). Quando comparados com o grupo DPT+, os pacientes do grupo DPT− apresentaram menos frequentemente alteração radiológica (p < 0,01) e funcional (p < 0,05). Porém, dos 140 (79,1%) do grupo DPT− com radiografia de tórax normal ou minimamente alterada, 76 (54%) apresentaram alguma alteração funcional (p < 0,01). Os fatores de risco relacionados com a gravidade funcional no grupo DPT− foram grau de dispneia (p = 0,03) e alterações radiológicas moderadas ou acentuadas. Conclusões: O comprometimento da função pulmonar é frequente após o tratamento da TBP independentemente do histórico de tabagismo ou doença pulmonar prévia. A espirometria deve ser sugerida para esses pacientes que evoluem com grau moderado/grave de dispneia e/ou alteração radiológica relevante após o tratamento da TBP.

Humans , Spirometry/statistics & numerical data , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/complications , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Lung/physiopathology , Lung Diseases/diagnosis , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnostic imaging , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil , Smoking/adverse effects , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Lung/microbiology , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung Diseases/physiopathology
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 56(1): e150072, jun. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1007798


Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the causative agent of enzootic pneumonia (EP), a disease that is highly prevalent and globally distributed, causing significant economic losses to the swine industry. Disease progression is characterized by reduced feed conversion and the development of lung lesions. Considering the limited information about the epidemiology of EP in Southern Brazil, the main objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of M. hyopneumoniae in swine lung samples and to evaluate the scores of lung lesions caused by local strains. A total of 120 samples was randomly collected and processed. DNA was extracted from lung tissue to perform nested-PCR and lungs were inspected to evaluate the presence of the pneumonia-like gross lesions of M. hyopneumoniae. The results showed 95.8% positive samples, while the lung lesion score analysis showed suggestive lesions in 60% of samples. The detection of positive samples in nested-PCR was associated with the presence of pneumonia-like gross lesions (P < 0.01). The results demonstrate a high occurrence of EP in slaughter pigs from southern Brazil.(AU)

O Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae é o agente causador da Pneumonia Enzoótica Suína (PES), doença altamente prevalente e mundialmente distribuída, causando grandes perdas econômicas para a indústria suinícola. A progressão da doença é caracterizada pela redução das taxas de conversão alimentar e o desenvolvimento de lesões pulmonares. Visto que há informação limitada sobre a epidemiologia da PES no sul do Brasil, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar a prevalência de M. hyopneumoniae em amostras de pulmão suíno e avaliar o score de lesões pulmonares causadas pelas cepas locais. Um total de 120 amostras foram coletadas aleatoriamente, processadas e analisadas. O DNA foi extraído do tecido pulmonar para realização de Nested-PCR e os pulmões foram inspecionados para presença de lesões macroscópicas sugestivas de M. hyopneumoniae. Os resultados demonstraram 95,8% das amostras positivas para o patógeno. A análise do score pulmonar mostrou lesões sugestivas da PES em 60% das amostras. A detecção de amostras positivas no Nested-PCR foi associada com a presença de lesões sugestivas (P < 0.01). Os dados obtidos neste trabalho demonstram a alta prevalência da PES em granjas do RS.(AU)

Animals , Swine/microbiology , Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae/pathogenicity , Pneumonia of Swine, Mycoplasmal/diagnosis , Lung/microbiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary
J. bras. pneumol ; 45(2): e20180278, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002433


ABSTRACT Objective: Pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial infections are caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), the microbiological diagnosis of which involves the isolation and identification of the same species in at least two sputum samples, one BAL fluid sample, or one lung biopsy sample. The objective of the present study was to determine the frequency at which the various NTM species are identified among selected individuals and in potential cases of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial infection. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of the data on species isolated from respiratory specimens collected from 2,843 individuals between 2011 and 2014. Potential NTM infection cases were identified on the basis of the international microbiological criteria adopted in the state of São Paulo. Results: A total of 50 species were identified using the molecular method PCR-restriction enzyme analysis. Samples collected from 1,014 individuals were analyzed in relation to the microbiological criteria, and 448 (44.18%) had a presumptive diagnosis of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial infection, the species identified most frequently being, in descending order, Mycobacterium kansasii, M. abscessus, M. intracellulare, M. avium, and M. szulgai. Conclusions: Although various NTM species were identified among the individuals studied, those presumptively identified most frequently on the basis of the microbiological criteria adopted in the state of São Paulo were the ones that are most commonly associated with pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial infection worldwide or in specific geographic regions.

RESUMO Objetivo: As micobacterioses pulmonares são doenças causadas por micobactérias não tuberculosas (MNTs), cujo diagnóstico microbiológico envolve o isolamento e a identificação da mesma espécie a partir de pelo menos duas amostras de escarro, uma de lavado brônquico ou uma de biópsia pulmonar. O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar as frequências das diferentes espécies de MNTs em indivíduos selecionados e em potenciais casos de micobacterioses pulmonares. Métodos: Análise retrospectiva dos dados de identificação de espécies isoladas a partir de espécimes clínicos pulmonares de 2.843 indivíduos incluídos no estudo entre 2011 e 2014. A identificação dos potenciais casos baseou-se nos critérios microbiológicos internacionais adotados no estado de São Paulo. Resultados: Um total de 50 espécies foi identificado utilizando-se o método molecular PCR-restriction enzyme analysis. Dos 1.014 indivíduos analisados quanto aos critérios microbiológicos, 448 (44,18%) tiveram o diagnóstico presuntivo de micobacteriose pulmonar, sendo as maiores frequências de casos, em ordem decrescente, Mycobacterium kansasii, M. abscessus, M. intracellulare, M. avium e M. szulgai. Conclusões: Embora tenham sido identificadas diversas espécies de MNTs entre os indivíduos estudados, as que tiveram as maiores frequências de casos presuntivamente identificados pelos critérios microbiológicos adotados no estado de São Paulo foram as que mais frequentemente estão associadas a micobacterioses pulmonares mundialmente ou em várias regiões geográficas.

Humans , Male , Female , Nontuberculous Mycobacteria/isolation & purification , Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous/diagnosis , Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous/microbiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Restriction Mapping , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , Lung/microbiology , Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous/epidemiology
J. bras. pneumol ; 44(5): 424-432, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975938


ABSTRACT The study of the human microbiome-and, more recently, that of the respiratory system-by means of sophisticated molecular biology techniques, has revealed the immense diversity of microbial colonization in humans, in human health, and in various diseases. Apparently, contrary to what has been believed, there can be nonpathogenic colonization of the lungs by microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Although this physiological lung microbiome presents low colony density, it presents high diversity. However, some pathological conditions lead to a loss of that diversity, with increasing concentrations of some bacterial genera, to the detriment of others. Although we possess qualitative knowledge of the bacteria present in the lungs in different states of health or disease, that knowledge has advanced to an understanding of the interaction of this microbiota with the local and systemic immune systems, through which it modulates the immune response. Given this intrinsic relationship between the microbiota and the lungs, studies have put forth new concepts about the pathophysiological mechanisms of homeostasis in the respiratory system and the potential dysbiosis in some diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, COPD, asthma, and interstitial lung disease. This departure from the paradigm regarding knowledge of the lung microbiota has made it imperative to improve understanding of the role of the microbiome, in order to identify possible therapeutic targets and to develop innovative clinical approaches. Through this new leap of knowledge, the results of preliminary studies could translate to benefits for our patients.

RESUMO O estudo do microbioma humano - e, mais recentemente, o do sistema respiratório - através de sofisticadas técnicas de biologia molecular, desvendou a imensa diversidade de colonização microbiana nos seres humanos, sejam saudáveis, sejam portadores de diferentes doenças. Aparentemente, ao contrário do que se acreditava, existe uma colonização não patogênica dos pulmões por microrganismos, como bactérias, fungos e vírus. Esse microbioma pulmonar fisiológico apresenta uma densidade baixa de colônias, porém uma elevada diversidade; por outro lado, alguns estados patológicos levam a uma perda dessa diversidade, com aumento da concentração de alguns gêneros bacterianos em detrimento de outros. Ainda, além do conhecimento qualitativo das bactérias presentes no pulmão em diversos estados de saúde ou de doença, o conhecimento avança para o entendimento da interação que essa microbiota tem com o sistema imune local e sistêmico, modulando a resposta imunológica. Compreendendo essa intrínseca relação entre a microbiota e os pulmões, estudos apresentam novos conceitos sobre os mecanismos fisiopatogênicos da homeostase do sistema respiratório e a possível disbiose em estado de algumas doenças, como fibrose cística, DPOC, asma e doenças intersticiais. Essa quebra de paradigma do conhecimento da microbiota presente nos pulmões fez com que se torne premente entender melhor o papel do microbioma para identificar possíveis alvos terapêuticos e abordagens clínicas inovadoras. Através desse novo salto de conhecimento é que os resultados dos estudos preliminares poderão ser traduzidos em benefícios aos nossos pacientes.

Humans , Dysbiosis/immunology , Microbiota/physiology , Immune System/microbiology , Lung/microbiology , Lung Diseases/microbiology
An. bras. dermatol ; 91(6): 832-834, Nov.-Dec. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-837990


Abstract Cryptococcosis is a fungal infection of opportunistic behavior that is unusual in immunocompetent patients. We report a rare case of disseminated cryptococcosis with cutaneous involvement in an immunocompetent individual. During hospitalization, Cryptococcus gattii was isolated from skin lesions, lung and spinal fluid. The diagnosis of disseminated cryptococcosis was confirmed and treatment was established. The patient showed improvement. Due to the probable clinical severity of the disease and the possibility that skin lesions may be the first manifestation of this illness, prompt diagnosis must be established and treatment provided.

Humans , Male , Adult , Cryptococcosis/immunology , Cryptococcosis/pathology , Dermatomycoses/immunology , Dermatomycoses/pathology , Cryptococcus gattii/isolation & purification , Immunocompetence , Skin/microbiology , Skin/pathology , Treatment Outcome , Cryptococcosis/drug therapy , Dermatomycoses/drug therapy , Lymphocytosis/complications , Lung/microbiology , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-183077


Recently, the numbers of lung transplantation (LT) has been increased in Korea. However, post-LT outcome has not been successful in all patients, which may be partially affected by the primary lung disease. Therefore comprehensive understanding in original pathological diagnosis of patients with LT would be needed for achieving better clinical outcome. To address this issue, we performed clinico-pathological analysis of the explanted lungs from 29 patients who underwent LT over a 9-yr period in Seoul National University Hospital. Among them, 26 patients received single (1/26) or double (25/26) LT, while heart-lung transplantation was performed in 3 patients. The final clinico-pathological diagnoses were idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis/usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) (n = 6), acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP)/diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) (n = 4), AIP/non-specific interstitial pneumonia with DAD (n = 1), collagen vascular disease-related interstitial lung disease (CVD-ILD)/DAD (n = 3), CVD-ILD/UIP (n = 1), lymphangioleiomyomatosis (n = 1), bronchiectasis (n = 4), pulmonary arterial hypertension (n = 2), tuberculosis (n = 1), bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) (n = 1), and lung cancer (n = 1). Moreover, 4 patients who had chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation due to hematologic malignancy showed unclassifiable interstitial pneumonia with extensive fibrosis in the lungs. Our study demonstrates that pathology of the explanted lungs from Korean patients with LT is different from that of other countries except for interstitial lung disease and bronchiectasis, which may be helpful for optimization of selecting LT candidates for Korean patients.

Acinetobacter baumannii/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Bronchiectasis/pathology , Child , Female , Humans , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , Lung/microbiology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/pathology , Lung Transplantation , Male , Middle Aged , Republic of Korea , Treatment Outcome , Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci/isolation & purification , Young Adult
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-83616


A 50-year-old male visited the outpatient clinic and complained of fever, poor oral intake, and weight loss. A chest X-ray demonstrated streaky and fibrotic lesions in both lungs, and chest CT revealed multifocal peribronchial patchy ground-glass opacities with septated cystic lesions in both lungs. Cell counts in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid revealed lymphocyte-dominant leukocytosis, and further analysis of lymphocyte subsets showed a predominance of cytotoxic T cells and few T helper cells. Video-assisted wedge resection of the left upper lobe was performed, and the histologic examination was indicative of a Pneumocystis jirovecii infection. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) was orally administered for 3 weeks; however, the patient complained of cough, and the pneumonia was aggravated in the follow-up chest X-ray and chest CT. Molecular studies demonstrated mutations at codons 55 and 57 of the dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) gene, which is associated with the resistance to TMP-SMX. Clindamycin-primaquine was subsequently administered for 3 weeks replacing the TMP-SMX. A follow-up chest X-ray showed that the pneumonia was resolving, and the cough was also alleviated. A positive result of HIV immunoassay and elevated titer of HCV RNA indicated HIV infection as an underlying condition. This case highlights the importance of careful monitoring of patients with P. jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) during the course of treatment, and the molecular study of DHPS mutations. Additionally, altering the anti-PCP drug utilized as treatment must be considered when infection with drug-resistant P. jirovecii is suspected. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of TMP-SMX-resistant PCP described in Korea.

Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Humans , Lung/microbiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumocystis carinii/drug effects , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Sulfamethoxazole/administration & dosage , Trimethoprim/administration & dosage
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(6): 805-813, 09/09/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723984


The present study analysed the concordance among four different molecular diagnostic methods for tuberculosis (TB) in pulmonary and blood samples from immunocompromised patients. A total of 165 blood and 194 sputum samples were collected from 181 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with upper respiratory complaints, regardless of suspicious for TB. The samples were submitted for smear microscopy, culture and molecular tests: a laboratory-developed conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) and the Gen-Probe and Detect-TB Ampligenix kits. The samples were handled blindly by all the technicians involved, from sample processing to results analysis. For sputum, the sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 96.7% for qPCR, 81.8% and 94.5% for Gen-Probe and 100% and 66.3% for Detect-TB, respectively. qPCR presented the best concordance with sputum culture [kappa (k) = 0.864)], followed by Gen-Probe (k = 0.682). For blood samples, qPCR showed 100% sensitivity and 92.3% specificity, with a substantial correlation with sputum culture (k = 0.754) and with the qPCR results obtained from sputum of the corresponding patient (k = 0.630). Conventional PCR demonstrated the worst results for sputa and blood, with a sensitivity of 100% vs. 88.9% and a specificity of 46.3% vs. 32%, respectively. Commercial or laboratory-developed molecular assays can overcome the difficulties in the diagnosis of TB in paucibacillary patients using conventional methods available in most laboratories.

Humans , HIV Infections/blood , Immunocompromised Host , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Sputum/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Bacterial Load , Coinfection , DNA Primers , HIV , Lung/microbiology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/growth & development , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic/standards , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/blood
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 34(3): 460-472, July-Sept. 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-726791


Introducción. Es necesario desarrollar modelos de estudio de la leptospirosis. Objetivo. Genotipificar un aislamiento de Leptospira proveniente de una persona con síndrome de Weil y evaluar, con el modelo experimental en Mesocricetus auratus , su dinámica de infección. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo la genotipificación por análisis de las secuencias génicas rrs 16S y lipL32 . Se determinó la dosis letal media en hámster inoculada por vía intraperitoneal. Se identificaron los patrones de química clínica, la duración de la leptospiremia, la leptospiruria y la histopatología, comparados con el mismo modelo inoculado con la cepa de Leptospira interrogans (Fiocruz L1-130). Resultados. Mediante análisis molecular se determinó que el aislamiento correspondía a la especie patógena Leptospira santarosai . La bacteria se recuperó a partir de tejido de riñón y de pulmón, y se detectó por medio de PCR lipL32 en el tercer día después de la infección. La proteína C reactiva aumentó en el quinto día después de la infección (3,25 mg/dl; valor normal: 0,3 mg/dl) con una disminución en el día 18 (2,60 mg/dl; valor normal: 0,8 mg/dl). Los biomarcadores de urea mostraron alteraciones indicativas de falla renal aguda (día 5 después de la infección: 49,01 mg/dl y día 18: 53,71 mg/dl). La histopatología mostró neumonía intersticial con diferentes grados de hemorragia, así como nefritis intersticial. Conclusión. Se identificó la presencia de la especie L. santarosai con capacidad patógena comparable con la cepa Fiocruz L1-130 de L. interrogans , de reconocida virulencia y tropismo pulmonar, en cuanto a los aspectos histopatológicos de tropismo a pulmón y riñón. Nunca antes se había evaluado en un modelo experimental un aislamiento de origen local bajo estos criterios biológicos.

Introduction: Is necessary to develop models for the study of leptospirosis. Objective: To genotype a Colombian strain of Leptospira isolated from a human with Weil´s syndrome and to evaluate its infection dynamics in the hamster experimental model. Materials and methods: Genotyping was performed by amplification and sequence analysis of the rrs 16S and lipL32 genes. The median lethal dose was determined in intraperitoneally inoculated hamsters. The patterns of clinical chemistry, the duration of leptospiremia, leptospiruria and pathological findings were studied and compared in the same animal model infected with L. interrogans (Fiocruz L1-130). Results: Molecular typing revealed that the isolate corresponded to the pathogenic species L. santarosai, which was recovered from hamsters´ kidneys and lungs and detected by lipL32 PCR from day 3 post-infection in these organs. There was a marked increase of C-reactive protein in animals at day 5 post-infection (3.25 mg/dl; normal value: 0.3 mg/dl) with decreases by day 18 (2.60 mg/dl: normal value: 0.8 mg/dl). Biomarkers of urea showed changes consistent with possible renal acute failure (day 5 post-infection: 49.01 mg/dl and day 18 post-infection: 53.71 mg/dl). Histopathological changes included interstitial pneumonia with varying degrees of hemorrhage and interstitial nephritis. Conclusion: The pathogenic species L. santarosai was identified in Colombia. Its pathogenicity as determined by tropism to lung and kidney was comparable to that of L. interrogans Fiocruz L1-130, well known for its virulence and pulmonar tropism. The biological aspects studied here had never before been evaluated in an autochthonous isolate.

Animals , Cricetinae , Female , Humans , Male , Leptospira/pathogenicity , Leptospirosis/microbiology , Mesocricetus/microbiology , Bacteremia/microbiology , Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins/genetics , Colombia , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Genotype , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Kidney/microbiology , Kidney/pathology , Leptospira interrogans/genetics , Leptospira interrogans/pathogenicity , Leptospira/classification , Leptospira/genetics , Leptospira/isolation & purification , Lipoproteins/genetics , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/microbiology , Lung/microbiology , Lung/pathology , Models, Animal , Nephritis, Interstitial/microbiology , Organ Specificity , RNA, Bacterial/genetics , /genetics , Species Specificity , Virulence
J. bras. pneumol ; 39(6): 711-718, Nov-Dec/2013. tab


OBJECTIVE: To compare the performance of nested polymerase chain reaction (NPCR) with that of cultures in the detection of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in pulmonary and extrapulmonary specimens. METHODS: We analyzed 20 and 78 pulmonary and extrapulmonary specimens, respectively, of 67 hospitalized patients suspected of having tuberculosis. An automated microbial system was used for the identification of Mycobacterium spp. cultures, and M. tuberculosis IS6110 was used as the target sequence in the NPCR. The kappa statistic was used in order to assess the level of agreement among the results. RESULTS: Among the 67 patients, 6 and 5, respectively, were diagnosed with pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis, and the NPCR was positive in all of the cases. Among the 98 clinical specimens, smear microscopy, culture, and NPCR were positive in 6.00%, 8.16%, and 13.26%, respectively. Comparing the results of NPCR with those of cultures (the gold standard), we found that NPCR had a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 83%, respectively, in pulmonary specimens, compared with 83% and 96%, respectively, in extrapulmonary specimens, with good concordance between the tests (kappa, 0.50 and 0.6867, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Although NPCR proved to be a very useful tool for the detection of M. tuberculosis complex, clinical, epidemiological, and other laboratory data should also be considered in the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis. .

OBJETIVO: Comparar o desempenho da técnica nested polymerase chain reaction (NPCR) com aquele de culturas na detecção do complexo Mycobacterium tuberculosis em espécimes pulmonares e extrapulmonares. MÉTODOS: Analisamos 20 e 78 espécimes pulmonares e extrapulmonares, respectivamente, de 67 pacientes hospitalizados com suspeita de tuberculose. Um sistema automatizado foi utilizado na identificação de culturas de Mycobacterium spp., e M. tuberculosis IS6110 foi utilizada como sequência alvo na NPCR. A estatística kappa foi utilizada para verificar a concordância entre os resultados. RESULTADOS: Entre os 67 pacientes, 6 e 5, respectivamente foram diagnosticados com tuberculose pulmonar e extrapulmonar, e a NPCR foi positiva em todos os casos. Entre os 98 espécimes clínicos, a baciloscopia, cultura e NPCR foram positivas em 6,00%, 8,16% e 13,26%, respectivamente. Comparando-se os resultados da NPCR com aqueles da cultura (padrão ouro) nos espécimes pulmonares, a sensibilidade e a especificidade foram 100% e 83%, respectivamente, enquanto essas nos espécimes extrapulmonares foram 83% e 96% respectivamente, com boa concordância entre os testes (kappa, 0,50 e 0,6867, respectivamente). CONCLUSÕES: Embora a NPCR tenha se mostrado uma ferramenta muito útil na detecção do complexo M. tuberculosis, No entanto, os resultados positivos da NPCR devem ser associados à clínica, dados clínicos, epidemiológicos e outros dados laboratoriais devem também ser considerados no diagnóstico e tratamento da tuberculose pulmonar e extrapulmonar. .

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Lung/microbiology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Sensitivity and Specificity , Treatment Outcome
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 46(10): 839-843, 24/set. 2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-688562


Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a chronic systemic mycosis caused by the inhalation of the thermally dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis as well as the recently described P. lutzii. Because the primary infection occurs in the lungs, we investigated the differential involvement of the right and left lungs in experimental P. brasiliensis infection. Lungs were collected from C57BL/6 mice at 70 days after intravenous infection with 1×106 yeast cells of a virulent strain of P. brasiliensis (Pb18). The left lung, which in mice is smaller and has fewer lobes than the right lung, yielded increased fungal recovery associated with a predominant interleukin-4 response and diminished synthesis of interferon-γ and nitric oxide compared with the right lung. Our data indicate differential involvement of the right and left lungs during experimental PCM. This knowledge emphasizes the need for an accurate, standardized protocol for tissue collection during studies of experimental P. brasiliensis infection, since experiments using the same lungs favor the collection of comparable data among different mice.

Animals , Male , Lung Diseases, Fungal/microbiology , Lung/microbiology , Paracoccidioides , Paracoccidioidomycosis/microbiology , Disease Models, Animal , Interferon-gamma/analysis , /analysis , /analysis , Nitric Oxide/analysis , Time Factors
Clinics ; 68(4): 441-448, abr. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-674238


OBJECTIVES: Chronic paracoccidioidomycosis can diffusely affect the lungs. Even after antifungal therapy, patients may present with residual respiratory abnormalities due to fungus-induced lung fibrosis. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis of 50 consecutive inactive, chronic paracoccidioidomycosis patients was performed using high resolution computed tomography, pulmonary function tests, ergospirometry, the six-minute walk test and health-related quality of life questionnaires. RESULTS: Radiological abnormalities were present in 98% of cases, the most frequent of which were architectural distortion (90%), reticulate and septal thickening (88%), centrilobular and paraseptal emphysema (84%) and parenchymal bands (74%). Patients typically presented with a mild obstructive disorder and a mild reduction in diffusion capacity with preserved exercise capacity, including VO2max and six-minute walking distance. Patient evaluation with the Saint-George Respiratory Questionnaire showed low impairment in the health-related quality of life, and the Medical Research Council questionnaire indicated a low dyspnea index. There were, however, patients with significant oxygen desaturation upon exercise that was associated with respiratory distress compared with the non-desaturated patients. The initial counterimmunoelectrophoresis of these patients was higher and lung emphysema was more prominent; however, there were no differences in the interstitial fibrotic tomographic abnormalities, tobacco exposure, functional responses, exercise capacity or quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: Inactive, chronic paracoccidioidomycosis patients show persistent and disseminated radiological abnormalities by high resolution computed tomography, short impairments in pulmonary function and low impacts on aerobic capacity and quality of life. However, there was a subset of individuals whose functional impairment was more severe. These patients present with higher initial ...

Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Lung/physiopathology , Paracoccidioidomycosis/physiopathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Epidemiologic Methods , Fibrosis/microbiology , Fibrosis/pathology , Fibrosis/physiopathology , Lung/microbiology , Lung/pathology , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Paracoccidioidomycosis/pathology , Quality of Life , Respiratory Function Tests , Smoking/adverse effects , Time Factors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-216009


Geosmithia argillacea, an anamorph of Talaromyces eburneus, is a thermophilic filamentous fungus that has a phenotype similar to that of the Penicillium species, except for the creamy-white colonies and cylindrical conidia. Recently, a new genus called Rasamsonia has been proposed, which is to accommodate the Talaromyces and Geosmithia species. Here, we report the first Korean case of G. argillacea isolated from a patient with a fungal ball. The patient was a 44-yr-old Korean man with a history of pulmonary tuberculosis and aspergilloma. The newly developed fungal ball in his lung was removed and cultured to identify the fungus. The fungal colonies were white and slow-growing, and the filaments resembled those of Penicillium. Molecular identification was carried out by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the 28S rDNA and the beta-tubulin genes. A comparative sequence analysis using the GenBank ( database was performed with the basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) algorithm. The results revealed a 97-100% similarity with the G. argillacea ITS sequence. This case should increase awareness among physicians about the pathogenic potential of G. argillacea in humans and help them accurately identify this fungus, because it can be easily confused with Penicillium and Paecilomyces species owing to their similar phenotypic and microscopic characteristics. A molecular approach should be employed to enable accurate identification of G. argillacea.

Adult , Databases, Genetic , Eurotiales/classification , Humans , Lung/microbiology , Male , Phylogeny , RNA, Ribosomal, 28S/chemistry , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tubulin/chemistry
Rev. chil. infectol ; 29(4): 455-458, ago. 2012. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-649832


Actinomycosis is an infrequent infection caused by bacteria from Actinomyces genus that manifests as a chronic, suppurative and progressive disease. It's more common in men. Thoracic actinomycosis occurs in 15% of the cases, and infection of the chest wall is less frequent. The clinical presentation mimics tuberculosis or neoplastic processes. In this article we present the case of a 63 year-old man with no comorbidity, with pulmonary actinomycosis involving the chest wall mimicking a neoplastic process, basing the diagnosis on histopathologic findings.

La actinomicosis es una infección poco común causada por bacterias del género Actinomyces que se manifiesta como una enfermedad crónica, supurativa y progresiva. Es más frecuente en hombres. La actinomicosis torácica se presenta en 15% de los casos, siendo el compromiso de pared torácica aún menos frecuente. La presentación clínica simula procesos neoplásicos o tuberculosis. Se describe el caso de un hombre de 63 años, sin co-morbilidad, con una actinomicosis pulmonar con compromiso de pared torácica que simuló ser un proceso neoplásico. El diagnóstico fue confirmado por los hallazgos histopatológicos.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Actinomycosis/diagnosis , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Actinomycosis/microbiology , Diagnosis, Differential , Lung/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Thoracic Wall/microbiology
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 32(8): 715-720, ago. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-649509


The diagnosis of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection is often performed through histopathology, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or a combination of these techniques. PCR can be performed on samples using several conservation methods, including swabs, frozen tissue or formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue. However, the formalin fixation process often inhibits DNA amplification. To evaluate whether M. hyopneumoniae DNA could be recovered from FFPE tissues, 15 lungs with cranioventral consolidation lesions were collected in a slaughterhouse from swine bred in herds with respiratory disease. Bronchial swabs and fresh lung tissue were collected, and a fragment of the corresponding lung section was placed in neutral buffered formalin for 48 hours. A PCR assay was performed to compare FFPE tissue samples with samples that were only refrigerated (bronchial swabs) or frozen (tissue pieces). M. hyopneumoniae was detected by PCR in all 15 samples of the swab and frozen tissue, while it was detected in only 11 of the 15 FFPE samples. Histological features of M. hyopneumoniae infection were presented in 11 cases and 7 of these samples stained positive in IHC. Concordance between the histological features and detection results was observed in 13 of the FFPE tissue samples. PCR was the most sensitive technique. Comparison of different sample conservation methods indicated that it is possible to detect M. hyopneumoniae from FFPE tissue. It is important to conduct further research using archived material because the efficiency of PCR could be compromised under these conditions.

O diagnóstico de infecção por Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae é frequentemente realizado através de histopatologia, imuno-histoquímica (IHQ) e reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR), ou uma combinação dessas técnicas. PCR pode ser realizada a partir de amostras submetidas a vários métodos de conservação, incluindo swabs, tecido refrigerado ou congelado, ou ainda tecido fixado em formalina e embebido em parafina (FFEP). Entretanto, o processo de fixação em formalina pode inibir a amplificação de DNA. Para avaliar se DNA de M. hyopneumoniae poderia ser recuperado de tecido FFEP, 15 pulmões com lesões de consolidação crânio-ventral de suínos oriundos de rebanhos com problemas respiratórios foram selecionados no abatedouro. Swabs bronquiais e pulmão fresco foram colhidos, e um fragmento da mesma porção de pulmão foi colocado por 48 horas em solução de formalina tamponada e posteriormente processado e embebido em parafina. PCR foi realizada comparando amostras de tecido fixado em formalina com amostras que passaram somente por refrigeração (swab bronquial) ou foram congeladas (fragmentos de tecido). A detecção de M. hyopneumoniae ocorreu em todas as 15 amostras de swabs e tecido congelado enquanto em amostras de tecido FFEP, o agente foi detectado somente em 11 das 15 amostras. Características histológicas de infecção por M. hyopneumoniae ocorreram em 11 casos e 7 destas amostras obtiveram marcação imuno-histoquímica positiva. Concordância entre histologia e detecção a partir de tecido FFEP foi observada em 13 casos. Dentre as técnicas analisadas, a PCR foi a mais sensível. A comparação de diferentes métodos de conservação de amostras indica que é possível detectar M. hyopneumoniae a partir de tecido FFEP, fato importante para pesquisa utilizando material arquivado, porém a eficácia do teste de PCR pode ficar comprometida sob essas condições.

Animals , Dissection/veterinary , Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae/pathogenicity , Lung/microbiology , Swine/microbiology , Tissue Fixation/veterinary , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Clinical Laboratory Techniques
Rev. chil. infectol ; 29(3): 329-334, jun. 2012. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-645600


Introduction: Lung infections are a serious complication in children with cancer. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) has been demonstrated to be an effective procedure for achieving etiologic diagnosis. Method: We did a retrospective analysis of BAL data performed between November 2005 and October 2008 in children with cancer, severe neutropenia and lung infiltrates for assessing its performance, clinical utility and safety. Thirty-seven BAL were evaluated in 35 patients. Results: Focal infiltrates were demonstrated in imaging studies associated with 19/37 BAL; in 8 an infectious agent was found. Interstitial pattern was observed in 15/37, in which there were 4 positive studies, proving a higher microbiological performance in BAL associated with focal lesions. BAL yielded significant microbiological findings in 32.4% (12/37). Sixteen microorganisms were identified in the study: bacteria in 8 cases, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (n: 2), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n: 2), Acinetobacter baumannii (n: 1), A. Iwoffii (n: 1), group viridans Streptococcus (n: 1), Mycoplasma pneumoniae (n: 1); viruses in 3 cases, metapneumovirus (n: 2) cytomegalovirus (n: 1) and fungal infection in 5 cases, Pneumocystis jiroveci (n: 2) Aspergillus fumigatus (n: 1), Aspergillus niger (n: 1), Candida albicans (n: 1). Therapeutic adjustments were done in 6/37 episodes (16.2%). Conclusion: BAL has a significant role in the evaluation of pulmonary infiltrates in pediatric oncological patients, requiring a prompt and safe diagnosis, which is crucial for the survival with minimal morbidity. Our results suggest that BAL by fiberbronchoscopy should be considered as an initial diagnostic tool in these patients.

Las infecciones pulmonares en niños con cáncer son una complicación grave. El lavado broncoalveolar (LBA) es un procedimiento efectivo para llegar a un diagnóstico etiológico. Se analizaron los resultados de LBA realizados entre noviembre de 2005 y octubre de 2008, en niños con cáncer y neutropenia grave e infiltrados pulmonares para conocer su rendimiento, utilidad clínica y seguridad. Se evaluaron 37 LBA en 35 pacientes. En 19/37 casos los infiltrados radiológicos fueron focales, en 8 se encontró etiología por LBA. En 15/37 casos las imágenes fueron intersticiales encontrándose etiología en 4, resultando un rendimiento microbiológico superior en las lesiones focales. Las muestras del LBA fueron positivas en 32,4% de los episodios (12/37). Se detectaron 16 microorganismos: 8 bacterias, a saber Mycobacterium tuberculosis (n: 2), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n: 2), Acinetobacter baumannii (n: 1), A. Iwoffii (n: 1), Streptococcus grupo viridans (n: 1) y Mycoplasma pneumoniae (n: 1); 3 virus: metapneumovirus (n: 2) y citomegalovirus (n: 1); 5 hongos: Pneumocystis jiroveci (n: 2), Aspergillus fumigatus (n: 1), Aspergillus niger (n: 1) y Candida albicans (n: 1). Se reportaron cambios en la conducta terapéutica en 6 de 37 pacientes (16,2%) con inicio de nuevas terapias o suspensión de tratamientos empíricos. El LBA tuvo un adecuado rendimiento, sin complicaciones importantes por lo que debe ser considerado precozmente y realizado con un estudio protocolizado.

Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/microbiology , Chemotherapy-Induced Febrile Neutropenia/microbiology , Lung/microbiology , Lung , Bronchoalveolar Lavage , Bronchoscopy , Lung Diseases/microbiology , Lung Diseases , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Prospective Studies
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 32(5): 379-382, maio 2012. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-626475


Yersinia enterocolitica é uma bactéria Gram-negativa que causa infecções em diversas espécies de mamíferos. O agente, geralmente, provoca infecções restritas ao intestino e linfonodos mesentéricos, porém a infecção pode se tornar sistêmica ocasionando lesões em outros órgãos como fígado e baço. Neste trabalho descrevem-se dois surtos de infecções sistêmicas causadas pela Yersinia enterocolitica em criatórios comerciais de chinchilas no Rio Grande do Sul (Brasil). Os proprietários relatavam que os animais acometidos apresentavam apatia, anorexia e morte. Foram encaminhados 13 animais para a realização de necropsia. No exame post mortem dos animais observou-se esplenomegalia, hepatomegalia e áreas multifocais esbranquiçadas no fígado, baço, pulmões, rins e intestino. No exame microscópico visualizou-se infiltrado inflamatório de neutrófilos e macrófagos, necrose, deposição de fibrina e ocasionalmente pode ser observado coco-bacilos no centro das áreas de necrose. No cultivo bacteriológico obteve-se o crescimento de Yersinia enterocolitica nos animais provenientes dos dois criatórios. O agente foi isolado de amostras no fígado, baço, intestino e pulmões dos animais necropsiados, além do cultivo de fezes de animais de uma das propriedades acometidas. A yersiniose, portanto, é uma patologia que deve ser investigada em casos de mortalidade de chinchilas.

Yersinia enterocolitica is a Gram-negative bacterium, which causes infections in several mammalian species. It is often recognized as an agent causing intestinal and mesenteric lymph nodes lesions. However, Yersinia enterocolitica infection may also become systemic, with lesions in others organs such as liver and spleen. This paper describes outbreaks of systemic infection due to Yersinia enterocolitica in two commercial chinchilla breeders in Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil). Owners reported that affected animals showed apathy, anorexia prior to death. Macroscopic examination performed in 13 animals revealed splenomegaly, hepatomegaly and multifocal whitish pinpoint foci in liver, spleen, lung, kidney and intestine. Microscopically, the affected tissues had infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages, as well as fibrin and necrosis with central areas containing cocobacilli bacteria. Yersinia enterocolitica was isolated from liver, spleen, lung and intestine samples from animals of both breeders, and from feces of chinchillas of one of the breeders. Therefore, yersiniosis is a disease to be investigated in cases of mortality of chinchillas.

Animals , Autopsy/veterinary , Chinchilla/immunology , Dissection/veterinary , Yersinia enterocolitica/isolation & purification , Spleen/microbiology , Feces/microbiology , Liver/microbiology , Lung/microbiology
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 107(1): 85-88, Feb. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-612810


In this study we compared two polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods using either 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) or 23S rRNA gene primers for the detection of different Leptospira interrogans serovars. The performance of these two methods was assessed using DNA extracted from bovine tissues previously inoculated with several bacterial suspensions. PCR was performed on the same tissues before and after the formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedding procedure (FFPE tissues). The 23S rDNA PCR detected all fresh and FFPE positive tissues while the 16S rDNA-based protocol detected primarily the positive fresh tissues. Both methods are specific for pathogenic L. interrogans. The 23S-based PCR method successfully detected Leptospira in four dubious cases of human leptospirosis from archival tissue specimens and one leptospirosis-positive canine specimen. A sensitive method for leptospirosis identification in FFPE tissues would be a useful tool to screen histological specimen archives and gain a better assessment of human leptospirosis prevalence, especially in tropical countries, where large outbreaks can occur following the rainy season.

Animals , Cattle , Kidney/microbiology , Leptospira interrogans/genetics , Lung/microbiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Formaldehyde , Paraffin Embedding , /genetics , /genetics , Tissue Fixation