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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879798


OBJECTIVE@#To study the expression and significance of ubiquitin-specific protease 7 (USP7) and the key factors of the Wnt signaling pathway in the lung tissue of preterm rats after hyperoxia exposure.@*METHODS@#A total of 180 preterm neonatal Wistar rats were randomly divided into an air control group, an air intervention group, a hyperoxia control group, and a hyperoxia intervention group, with 45 rats in each group. Lung injury was induced by hyperoxia exposure in the hyperoxia groups. The preterm rats in the intervention groups were given intraperitoneal injection of the USP7 specific inhibitor P5091 (5 mg/kg) every day. The animals were sacrificed on days 3, 5, and 9 of the experiment to collect lung tissue specimens. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was used to observe the pathological changes of lung tissue. RT-PCR and Western blot were used to measure the mRNA and protein expression levels of USP7 and the key factors of the Wnt signaling pathway β-catenin and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in lung tissue.@*RESULTS@#The air groups had normal morphology and structure of lung tissue; on days 3 and 5, the hyperoxia control group showed obvious alveolar compression and disordered structure, with obvious inflammatory cells, erythrocyte diapedesis, and interstitial edema. On day 9, the hyperoxia control group showed alveolar structural disorder and obvious thickening of the alveolar septa. Compared with the hyperoxia control group at the corresponding time points, the hyperoxia intervention group had significantly alleviated disordered structure, inflammatory cell infiltration, and bleeding in lung tissue. At each time point, the hyperoxia groups had a significantly lower radial alveolar count (RAC) than the corresponding air groups (@*CONCLUSIONS@#Hyperoxia exposure can activate the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, and USP7 may participate in hyperoxic lung injury through the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. The USP7 specific inhibitor P5091 may accelerate the degradation of β-catenin by enhancing its ubiquitination, reduce lung epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and thus exert a certain protective effect against hyperoxic lung injury.

Animals , Animals, Newborn , Hyperoxia/physiopathology , Lung/physiopathology , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Thiophenes/pharmacology , Ubiquitin-Specific Peptidase 7/metabolism , Ubiquitin-Specific Proteases , Wnt Signaling Pathway
J. bras. pneumol ; 46(3): e20190223, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056633


ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze symptoms at different times of day in patients with COPD. Methods: This was a multicenter, cross-sectional observational study conducted at eight centers in Brazil. We evaluated morning, daytime, and nighttime symptoms in patients with stable COPD. Results: We included 593 patients under regular treatment, of whom 309 (52.1%) were male and 92 (15.5%) were active smokers. The mean age was 67.7 years, and the mean FEV1 was 49.4% of the predicted value. In comparison with the patients who had mild or moderate symptoms, the 183 (30.8%) with severe symptoms were less physically active (p = 0.002), had greater airflow limitation (p < 0.001), had more outpatient exacerbations (p = 0.002) and more inpatient exacerbations (p = 0.043), as well as scoring worse on specific instruments. The most common morning and nighttime symptoms were dyspnea (in 45.2% and 33.1%, respectively), cough (in 37.5% and 33.3%, respectively), and wheezing (in 24.4% and 27.0%, respectively). The intensity of daytime symptoms correlated strongly with that of morning symptoms (r = 0.65, p < 0.001) and that of nighttime symptoms (r = 0.60, p < 0.001), as well as with the COPD Assessment Test score (r = 0.62; p < 0.001), although it showed only a weak correlation with FEV1 (r = −0.205; p < 0.001). Conclusions: Dyspnea was more common in the morning than at night. Having morning or nighttime symptoms was associated with greater daytime symptom severity. Symptom intensity was strongly associated with poor quality of life and with the frequency of exacerbations, although it was weakly associated with airflow limitation.

RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar os sintomas em diferentes momentos do dia em pacientes com DPOC. Métodos: Estudo observacional multicêntrico de corte transversal em oito centros brasileiros. Foram avaliados os sintomas matinais, diurnos e noturnos em pacientes com DPOC estável. Resultados: Foram incluídos 593 pacientes em tratamento regular, sendo 309 (52,1%) do sexo masculino e 92 (15,5%) fumantes ativos. A média de idade foi de 67,7 anos, e a média de VEF1 foi de 49,4% do valor previsto. Os pacientes com sintomas mais graves (n = 183; 30,8%), em comparação com aqueles com sintomas leves e moderados, apresentaram pior nível de atividade física (p = 0,002), maior limitação ao fluxo aéreo (p < 0,001), exacerbações ambulatoriais (p = 0,002) e hospitalares (p = 0,043) mais frequentemente e piores resultados em instrumentos específicos. Os sintomas matinais e noturnos mais frequentes foram dispneia (em 45,2% e 33,1%, respectivamente), tosse (em 37,5% e 33,3%, respectivamente) e chiado (em 24,4% e 27,0%, respectivamente). Houve forte correlação da intensidade dos sintomas diurnos com sintomas matinais (r = 0,65, p < 0,001), sintomas noturnos (r = 0,60, p < 0,001), bem como com o escore do COPD Assessment Test (r = 0,62; p < 0,001); porém, houve uma correlação fraca com VEF1 (r = −0,205; p < 0,001). Conclusões: A dispneia foi mais frequente no período matinal do que no período noturno. Ter sintomas matinais e/ou noturnos foi associado à pior gravidade dos sintomas diurnos. A intensidade dos sintomas foi fortemente associada a pior qualidade de vida e frequência de exacerbações, mas fracamente associada à limitação ao fluxo aéreo.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Periodicity , Quality of Life , Time Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil/epidemiology , Smoking/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Symptom Flare Up , Lung/physiopathology
J. bras. pneumol ; 46(2): e20180198, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090801


ABSTRACT Objective: To compare patients with and without previous lung disease, in terms of the spirometry results after they had been treated for pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and cured, as well as to analyze risk factors related to functional severity. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, multicenter study conducted at four referral centers in Brazil. Patients were divided into two groups: those with a history of lung disease or smoking (LDS+ group); and those with no such history (LDS− group). Patients underwent spirometry (at least six months after being cured). Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected. Results: A total of 378 patients were included: 174 (46.1%) in the LDS+ group and 204 (53.9%) in the LDS− group. In the sample as a whole, 238 patients (62.7%) had spirometric changes. In the LDS+ group, there was a predominance of obstructive lung disease (in 33.3%), whereas restrictive lung disease predominated in the LDS− group (in 24.7%). Radiological changes were less common in the LDS− group than in the LDS+ group (p < 0.01), as were functional changes (p < 0.05). However, of the 140 (79.1%) LDS− group patients with a normal or minimally altered chest X-ray, 76 (54%) had functional changes (p < 0.01). The risk factors associated with functional severity in the LDS− group were degree of dyspnea (p = 0.03) and moderate or severe radiological changes (p = 0.01). Conclusions: Impaired pulmonary function is common after treatment for PTB, regardless of the history of lung disease or smoking. Spirometry should be suggested for patients who develop moderate/severe dyspnea or relevant radiological changes after treatment for PTB.

RESUMO Objetivo: Comparar os resultados da espirometria de pacientes tratados e curados para tuberculose pulmonar (TBP) com e sem doença pulmonar prévia e analisar os fatores de risco relacionados à gravidade funcional. Métodos: Estudo transversal, multicêntrico, em quatro centros de referência no Brasil. Os pacientes foram classificados em dois grupos: grupo com doença pulmonar prévia ou história de tabagismo (grupo DPT+) e grupo sem doença pulmonar prévia e sem tabagismo (grupo DPT−). Os pacientes realizaram espirometria (pelo menos seis meses após a cura), e foram coletados dados sociodemográficos e clínicos. Resultados: Foram incluídos 378 pacientes: 174 (46,1%) no grupo DPT+ e 204 (53,9%) no grupo DPT−. Na amostra total, 238 pacientes (62,7%) apresentaram alguma alteração espirométrica. No grupo DPT+ houve predominância de distúrbio ventilatório obstrutivo (em 33,3%), e distúrbio ventilatório restritivo predominou no grupo DPT− (em 24,7%). Quando comparados com o grupo DPT+, os pacientes do grupo DPT− apresentaram menos frequentemente alteração radiológica (p < 0,01) e funcional (p < 0,05). Porém, dos 140 (79,1%) do grupo DPT− com radiografia de tórax normal ou minimamente alterada, 76 (54%) apresentaram alguma alteração funcional (p < 0,01). Os fatores de risco relacionados com a gravidade funcional no grupo DPT− foram grau de dispneia (p = 0,03) e alterações radiológicas moderadas ou acentuadas. Conclusões: O comprometimento da função pulmonar é frequente após o tratamento da TBP independentemente do histórico de tabagismo ou doença pulmonar prévia. A espirometria deve ser sugerida para esses pacientes que evoluem com grau moderado/grave de dispneia e/ou alteração radiológica relevante após o tratamento da TBP.

Humans , Spirometry/statistics & numerical data , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/complications , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Lung/physiopathology , Lung Diseases/diagnosis , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnostic imaging , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil , Smoking/adverse effects , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Lung/microbiology , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung Diseases/physiopathology
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 37(4): 414-418, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041355


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the association of body mass index (BMI) and albumin with pulmonary function in cystic fibrosis (CF) pediatric subjects. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study with clinically stable CF's subjects. Clinical (pulmonary function) and nutritional evaluation (body mass index and albumin) were performed. Univariate analysis was performed using simple linear correlations. Regression analysis was performed using an exit level of p<0.05. Results: Seventy-eight CF's subjects (mean age 12.8±3.8 years) with mean albumin 4.2±0.4 mg/dL, predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1%) 80.8±22.6 and BMI median percentile 51.2 (1.3-97.7). In the multiple regression models, albumin, age and BMI percentile were associated with pulmonary function. Subjects with lower than 25 BMI percentile had 12.2% lower FEV1%. An albumin increase of 0.1 mg was associated with 2.7% increase in predicted FEV1%, and one year increase in age was associated with reduction in 1.2% of predicted FEV1%. Conclusions: BMI percentile, albumin and age were independently associated with predicted FEV1% in a tertiary referral hospital.

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a associação do Índice de Massa Corporal (IMC) e da albumina com a função pulmonar em pacientes pediátricos com fibrose cística (FC). Métodos: Estudo transversal com pacientes pediátricos com FC clinicamente estáveis. Foram realizadas avaliação clínica (função pulmonar) e nutricional (IMC e albumina). Análise univariada foi realizada usando correlação linear simples. Análise de regressão foi realizada usando o nível de significância de p<0,05. Resultados: Foram incluídos 78 pacientes com FC (média de idade 12,8±3,8 anos) com média de albumina de 4,2±0,4 mg/dL, volume expiratório forçado em um segundo (VEF1%) predito de 80,8±22,6 e mediana do percentual de IMC de 51,2 (1,3-97,7). No modelo de regressão múltipla, albumina, idade e percentual de IMC apresentaram associação com a função pulmonar. Indivíduos com IMC abaixo de 25% apresentaram VEF1% predito 12,2% menor. Um aumento de 0,1 mg de albumina teve associação com aumento de 2,7% no VEF1% predito, e um ano a mais de idade mostrou relação com a redução de 1,2% de VEF1% predito. Conclusão: O percentual de IMC, albumina e idade apresentaram associação independente com o VEF1% predito em um hospital terciário de referência.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Body Mass Index , Cystic Fibrosis/physiopathology , Albumins/metabolism , Lung/physiopathology , Biomarkers/metabolism , Linear Models , Forced Expiratory Volume , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cystic Fibrosis/metabolism
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 85(5): 623-627, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039293


Abstract Introduction: The post-laryngectomy state is characterized by several alterations in lung function. A reliable estimation of lung function can be very useful in laryngectomees to prevent postoperative complications and to evaluate the results of the treatment. Objective: Characterize the presence of respiratory functional disorders and the functional pattern of laryngectomees through the use of an extratracheal device. Methods: This transversal study included 50 patients submitted to total laryngectomy at least 6 months prior to this investigation, as the treatment of choice for laryngeal cancer. Results: 56% percent of the participants had altered breathing pattern, distributed as follows: 14 with obstructive pattern with no air trapping, 11 with obstructive pattern with air trapping and only 3 with restrictive pattern. On average, the diffusion decreased (74.3%) and airway resistance increased (121.7%) when compared to the expected average values for the Brazilian individuals. Conclusion: Most patients submitted to total laryngectomy present altered lung function, usually the obstructive type, frequently associated to a history of smoking.

Resumo Introdução: A condição pós-laringectomia é caracterizada por várias alterações na função pulmonar. Uma estimativa confiável da função pulmonar pode ser muito útil em pacientes laringectomizados para prevenir complicações após as intervenções cirúrgicas e avaliar os resultados do tratamento. Objetivo: Caracterizar a presença de distúrbios funcionais respiratórios e o padrão funcional de pacientes laringectomizados através do uso de um dispositivo extratraqueal. Método: Estudo transversal que incluiu 50 pacientes submetidos à laringectomia total pelo menos seis meses antes desta investigação, como tratamento de escolha para o câncer de laringe. Resultados: Dos participantes, 56% apresentavam padrão respiratório alterado, assim distribuídos: 14 com padrão obstrutivo sem aprisionamento aéreo, 11 com padrão obstrutivo e aprisionamento aéreo e apenas três com padrão restritivo. Em média, verificou-se que a difusão encontrava-se diminuída (74,3%) e a resistência das vias aéreas aumentada (121,7%) em relação aos resultados esperados em brasileiros. Conclusão: A maioria dos pacientes submetidos à laringectomia total apresenta função pulmonar alterada, do tipo obstrutiva, quase sempre associada a história de tabagismo.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Laryngeal Neoplasms/surgery , Laryngectomy , Lung/physiopathology , Respiratory Physiological Phenomena , Spirometry
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 95(5): 614-618, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040364


Abstract Objective: To assess the level of agreement in health-related quality of life between children with Post-infectious Bronchiolitis Obliterans and their parent (so-called proxy). Methods: Participants aged between 8and 17 years who had been previously diagnosed with Post-infectious Bronchiolitis Obliterans were regularly followed up at a pediatric pulmonology outpatient clinic. Parents or legal guardians (caregivers) of these patients were also recruited for the study. A validated and age-appropriate version of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 was used for the assessment of health-related quality of life. Caregivers completed the corresponding proxy versions of the questionnaire. The correlation between self and proxy reports of health-related quality of life was determined by intra-class correlation coefficient and dependent t-tests. Results: The majority of participants were males (79.4%), and the average age was 11.8 years. Intra-class correlations between each of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 domains and the total score were all lower than 0.6, with a range between 0.267 (poor) and 0.530 (fair). When the means of each domain and the total score of the questionnaires were compared, caregivers were observed to have a significantly lower health-related quality of life score than children, with the exception of the social domain in which the difference was not significant. However, the differences in score exceeded the critical threshold difference of four points in all other domains. Conclusion: Proxies of children and adolescents with Post-infectious Bronchiolitis Obliterans appear to consistently perceive their children as having lower health-related quality of life than how the patients perceive themselves.

Resumo: Objetivo: Avaliar o nível de concordância a respeito da qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde entre crianças com bronquiolite obliterante pós-infecciosa e seus pais (responsáveis). Métodos: Os participantes entre 8-17 anos, anteriormente diagnosticados com bronquiolite obliterante pós-infecciosa, foram acompanhados regularmente no ambulatório de pneumologia pediátrica. Os pais ou responsáveis legais (cuidadores) desses pacientes também foram convidados a participar do estudo. Uma versão validada e adequada para a idade do Inventário Pediátrico de Qualidade de Vida, versão 4.0, foi utilizada para a avaliação da qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde. Os cuidadores concluíram as versões do questionário correspondentes aos responsáveis. A correlação entre os autorrelatos e os relatos dos responsáveis da qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde foi determinada pelo coeficiente de correlação intraclasse e pelos testes t dependentes. Resultados: A maior parte dos participantes era do sexo masculino (79,4%) e a idade média foi 11,8 anos. As correlações intraclasse entre cada um dos domínios do Inventário Pediátrico de Qualidade de Vida e o escore total foram todas inferiores a 0,6, com intervalo entre 0,267 (baixo) e 0,530 (justo). Quando as médias de cada domínio e o escore total dos questionários foram comparados, observamos que os cuidadores apresentaram qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde significativamente menor em comparação com as crianças, com exceção do domínio social, no qual a diferença não foi significativa. Contudo, as diferenças no escore ultrapassaram o limite de diferença essencial de 4 pontos em todos os outros domínios. Conclusão: Os responsáveis pelas crianças e adolescentes com bronquiolite obliterante pós-infecciosa parecem perceber de forma consistente que suas crianças possuem qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde menor que os próprios pacientes.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Quality of Life/psychology , Bronchiolitis Obliterans/physiopathology , Parents , Respiratory Function Tests , Severity of Illness Index , Bronchiolitis Obliterans/psychology , Chronic Disease , Surveys and Questionnaires , Statistics, Nonparametric , Sickness Impact Profile , Lung/physiopathology
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(9): 1161-1167, Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041080


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE To investigate the use of Bilevel Positive Airway Pressure (BiPAP) in morbidly obese individuals in two moments following bariatric surgery (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass): post-anesthetic recovery (PAR) and first postoperative day (1PO). DESIGN Randomized and blinded clinical trial. METHODS We studied 40 morbidly obese individuals aged between 25 and 55 years who underwent pulmonary function test and chest X-ray preoperatively, and on the day of discharge (2nd day after surgery). They were randomly allocated into two groups: PAR-G (BiPAP in PAR for one hour), and 1PO-G (BIPAP for one hour on the 1PO). RESULTS In the PAR-G and 1PO-G, respectively there were significant reductions in slow vital capacity (SVC) (p=0.0007 vs. p<0.0001), inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) (p=0.0016 vs. p=0.0026), and forced vital capacity (FVC) (p=0.0013 vs. p<0.0001) and expiratory reserve volume (ERV) was maintained only for the PAR-G (p=0.4446 vs. p=0.0191). Comparing the groups, the SVC (p=0.0027) and FVC (p=0.0028) showed a significant difference between the treatments, while the PAR-G showed smaller declines in these capacities. The prevalence of atelectasis was 10% for the PAR-G and 30% for the 1PO-G (p=0.0027). CONCLUSION Thus, the use of BiPAP in PAR can promote restoration of ERV and contribute to the reduction of atelectasis.

RESUMO OBJETIVO Investigar o uso da pressão positiva em dois níveis nas vias aéreas (BiPAP) em obesos mórbidos em dois momentos após a cirurgia bariátrica (bypass gástrico em Y-de-Roux): recuperação pós-anestésica (RPA) e primeiro dia de pós-operatório (1PO). DESENHO Ensaio clínico randomizado e cego. MÉTODO Foram estudados 40 obesos mórbidos, com idade entre 25 e 55 anos, submetidos à prova de função pulmonar e radiografia de tórax no pré-operatório e no dia da alta (segundo dia de pós-operatório). Eles foram alocados aleatoriamente em dois grupos: G-RPA (BiPAP na RPA por uma hora) e G-1PO (BiPAP por uma hora no 1PO). RESULTADOS No G-RPA e G-1PO, respectivamente, houve reduções significativas na capacidade vital lenta (CVL) (p=0,0007 vs p<0,0001), volume de reserva inspiratório (VRI) (p=0,0016 vs p=0,0026) e capacidade vital forçada (CVF) (p=0,0013 vs p<0,0001). O volume de reserva expiratório (VRE) foi mantido apenas para o G-RPA (p=0,4446 vs p=0,0191). Comparando os grupos, a CVL (p=0,0027) e a CVF (p=0,0028) apresentaram diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos e o G-RPA apresentou menores declínios nessas capacidades. A prevalência de atelectasia foi de 10% para o G-RPA e 30% para o 1PO-G (p=0,0027). CONCLUSÃO O uso de BiPAP na RPA pode promover uma restauração do VRE e contribuir para a redução de atelectasias.

Humans , Female , Adult , Pulmonary Atelectasis/epidemiology , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Bariatric Surgery/rehabilitation , Postoperative Period , Pulmonary Atelectasis/prevention & control , Spirometry , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Single-Blind Method , Vital Capacity , Expiratory Reserve Volume , Prevalence , Lung/physiopathology , Middle Aged
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(6): 387-392, June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011353


ABSTRACT Stroke often leads to abnormalities in muscle tone, posture, and motor control that may compromise voluntary motor function, thus affecting the motor control required for maintaining the synergy of both peripheral and respiratory muscles. Objective To evaluate respiratory muscle strength, pulmonary function, trunk control, and functional independence in patients with stroke and to correlate trunk control with the other variables. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of patients diagnosed with stroke. We assessed respiratory muscle strength, trunk control as assessed by the Trunk Impairment Scale, spirometric variables, and the Functional Independence Measure. Results Forty-four patients were included. Pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength were significantly lower than predicted for the study population, and the mean Trunk Impairment Scale score was 14.3 points. The following significant correlations were found between the variables: trunk control vs. maximal inspiratory pressure (r = 0.26, p < 0.05); trunk control vs. forced vital capacity (r = 0.28, p < 0.05); trunk control vs. forced expiratory volume in one second (r = 0.29, p < 0.05), and trunk control vs. the Functional Independence Measure (r = 0.77, p < 0.05). Conclusion The present study showed that respiratory muscle strength, pulmonary function, functional independence, and trunk control are reduced in patients diagnosed with stroke.

RESUMO Acidente vascular cerebral (AVC) frequentemente leva a anormalidades no tônus muscular, postura e controle motor que podem comprometer a função motora voluntária, afetando o controle motor necessário para manter a sinergia dos músculos periféricos e respiratórios. Objetivo Avaliar a força muscular respiratória, a função pulmonar, o controle do tronco e a independência funcional em pacientes com AVC e correlacionar o controle do tronco com as demais variáveis. Métodos Este foi um estudo transversal, incluindo pacientes diagnosticados com AVC. Avaliamos a força muscular respiratória, o controle do tronco avaliado pela escala de comprometimento de tronco, as variáveis espirométricas e a medida de independência funcional. Resultados Quarenta e quatro pacientes foram incluídos. A função pulmonar e a força muscular respiratória foram significativamente menores do que o previsto para a população estudada, e o escore médio do escala de comprometimento de tronco foi de 14,3 pontos. As seguintes correlações significativas foram encontradas entre as variáveis: controle do tronco vs. pressão inspiratória máxima (r = 0,26, p <0,05); controle do tronco vs capacidade vital forçada (r = 0,28, p <0,05); controle do tronco versus volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo (r = 0,29, p <0,05) e controle do tronco vs. medida de independência funcional (r = 0,77, p <0,05). Conclusão O presente estudo demonstrou que a força muscular respiratória, a função pulmonar, a independência funcional e o controle do tronco estão diminuídos em pacientes diagnosticados com AVC.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Respiratory Muscles/physiopathology , Stroke/physiopathology , Muscle Strength/physiology , Torso/physiopathology , Reference Values , Respiratory Function Tests , Cross-Sectional Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Lung/physiopathology
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 14(1): 29-33, abr. 2019. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-995724


Bronchiolitis obliterans is a rare and severe chronic lung disease resulting from a lower respiratory tract injury. It may occur after a bone marrow or lung transplantation, infectious diseases, or less frequently after inhaling toxic substances or connective tissue diseases. Pathogenesis and molecular biology, as well as the best treatment of bronchiolitis obliterans, remain the subject of ongoing research. This review discusses our current knowledge of lung function of post-infectious bronchiolitis obliterans.

La bronquiolitis obliterante es una enfermedad pulmonar crónica rara y grave que resulta de una lesión del tracto respiratorio inferior. Puede ocurrir después de un trasplante de médula ósea o pulmón, enfermedades infecciosas, o menos frecuentemente después de inhalar sustancias tóxicas o después de enfermedades del tejido conectivo. La patogénesis y la biología molecular, así como el mejor tratamiento de la bronquiolitis obliterante, siguen siendo objeto de investigación. Esta revisión analiza nuestro conocimiento actual sobre la función pulmonar de los pacientes con bronquiolitis obliterante secundaria a infecciones.

Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Respiratory Tract Infections/complications , Bronchiolitis Obliterans/physiopathology , Prognosis , Respiratory Function Tests , Bronchiolitis Obliterans/diagnosis , Lung/physiopathology
Acta cir. bras ; 34(3): e201900302, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989067


Abstract Purpose: To evaluate, in rats, the open field videothermometry in real time while performing left pneumonectomy for early diagnosis of cardiopulmonary changes. Methods: Twelve non-specific pathogen-free Wistar rats were randomly allocated into two groups; pneumectomy group (GP) and sham surgery group (GS). Mean arterial pressure, videothermometry in real time, of the right lung, and histopathological analysis of the remaining lung were evaluated in all animals. Results: Videothermometry in real time allowed identification of temperature variance of right lung after pneumectomy, indicating a significant decrease in temperature during evaluation. There was a statistical difference between M0 and M1, M1 and M2 and M0 and M2 (p<0.004) in GS, and significant difference between M0 and M1, M1 and M2, and M2 and M0 with p<0.0001 in GP. Conclusions: Left pneumonectomy in rats shows initial histopathological changes after 60 minutes of its completion, indicating a possible compensation beginning. The open-field videothermometry in real time proved to be efficient identifying the temperature changes of the remaining lung.

Animals , Pneumonectomy/methods , Body Temperature/physiology , Thermometry/methods , Lung/metabolism , Time Factors , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Wistar , Arterial Pressure/physiology , Lung/physiopathology , Lung/pathology
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(8): e8513, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011602


Phenotypic differences have been described between patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc)-associated interstitial lung disease (ILD) and SSc-associated pulmonary hypertension, including performance differences in the 6-min walk test (6MWT). Moreover, the correlations between the 6MWT and traditional pulmonary function tests (PFTs) are weak, indicating the need to search for new parameters that explain exercise performance. Thus, our objective was to evaluate the impact of ventilation distribution heterogeneity assessed by the nitrogen single-breath washout (N2SBW) test and peripheral muscle dysfunction on the exercise capacity in patients with SSc-ILD and limited involvement of the pulmonary parenchyma. In this cross-sectional study, 20 women with SSc-ILD and 20 matched controls underwent PFTs (including spirometry, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLco), and the N2SBW test) and performed the 6MWT and knee isometric dynamometry. The 6-min walking distance (6MWD, % predicted) was strongly correlated with the phase III slope of the single-breath nitrogen washout (phase III slopeN2SBW) (r=−0.753, P<0.0001) and reasonably correlated with the forced vital capacity (FVC) (r=0.466, P=0.008) and DLco (r=0.398, P=0.011). The peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) during exercise was not significantly correlated with any of the pulmonary or muscle function parameters. The phase III slopeN2SBW was the only predictive variable for the 6MWD, whereas quadriceps strength and FVC/DLco were predictive variables for SpO2. Ventilation distribution heterogeneity is one factor that contributes to a lower 6MWD in SSc-ILD patients. In addition, muscle dysfunction and abnormal lung diffusion at least partly explain the decreased SpO2 of these patients.

Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Scleroderma, Systemic/complications , Exercise Tolerance/physiology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/physiopathology , Hypertension, Pulmonary/physiopathology , Lung/physiology , Raynaud Disease/complications , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Case-Control Studies , Vital Capacity/physiology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/etiology , Pulmonary Ventilation , Walk Test/methods , Hypertension, Pulmonary/etiology , Lung/physiopathology , Lung Volume Measurements/methods
J. bras. pneumol ; 45(1): e20170347, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984615


ABSTRACT Dysfunctional breathing (DB) is a respiratory condition characterized by irregular breathing patterns that occur either in the absence of concurrent diseases or secondary to cardiopulmonary diseases. Although the primary symptom is often dyspnea or "air hunger", DB is also associated with nonrespiratory symptoms such as dizziness and palpitations. DB has been identified across all ages. Its prevalence among adults in primary care in the United Kingdom is approximately 9.5%. In addition, among individuals with asthma, a positive diagnosis of DB is found in a third of women and a fifth of men. Although DB has been investigated for decades, it remains poorly understood because of a paucity of high-quality clinical trials and validated outcome measures specific to this population. Accordingly, DB is often underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed, given the similarity of its associated symptoms (dyspnea, tachycardia, and dizziness) to those of other common cardiopulmonary diseases such as COPD and asthma. The high rates of misdiagnosis of DB suggest that health care professionals do not fully understand this condition and may therefore fail to provide patients with an appropriate treatment. Given the multifarious, psychophysiological nature of DB, a holistic, multidimensional assessment would seem the most appropriate way to enhance understanding and diagnostic accuracy. The present narrative review was developed as a means of summarizing the available evidence about DB, as well as improving understanding of the condition by researchers and practitioners.

RESUMO A disfunção respiratória (DR) é um quadro respiratório caracterizado por padrões respiratórios irregulares que ocorrem na ausência de doenças concomitantes ou secundariamente a doenças cardiopulmonares. Embora o principal sintoma seja frequentemente dispneia ou "fome por ar", a DR também está associada a sintomas não respiratórios, como vertigem e palpitações. A DR pode ser identificada em todas as idades. Sua prevalência entre adultos na atenção primária no Reino Unido é de aproximadamente 9,5%. Além disso, entre indivíduos com asma, um diagnóstico positivo de DR é encontrado em um terço das mulheres e um quinto dos homens. Embora a DR tenha sido investigada por décadas, ela permanece pouco compreendida devido a uma escassez de ensaios clínicos de alta qualidade e de variáveis de desfecho validadas especificamente para essa população. Assim, a DR é frequentemente subdiagnosticada ou diagnosticada incorretamente, devido à similaridade de seus sintomas associados (dispneia, taquicardia e vertigem) aos de outras doenças cardiopulmonares comuns, como DPOC e asma. As altas taxas de diagnóstico incorreto de DR sugerem que os profissionais de saúde não entendam completamente esse quadro e possam, portanto, não fornecer aos pacientes um tratamento adequado. Dada à natureza multifatorial e psicofisiológica da DR, uma avaliação holística e multidimensional parece ser a maneira mais apropriada de melhorar a compreensão e a precisão do diagnóstico. A presente revisão foi desenvolvida como um meio de resumir as evidências disponíveis sobre DB, bem como de melhorar a compreensão do quadro por pesquisadores e profissionais.

Humans , Respiration Disorders/physiopathology , Respiration Disorders/cerebrospinal fluid , Respiration Disorders/psychology , Respiratory Muscles/physiopathology , Exercise Tolerance/physiology , Heart/physiopathology , Hyperventilation/physiopathology , Lung/physiopathology
J. bras. pneumol ; 45(6): e20180148, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040288


ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate parameters of lung function and respiratory muscle strength in different stages of Parkinson's disease (PD), as well as to determine their correlation with motor function and quality of life. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at a referral center for PD in the city of Recife, Brazil. Respiratory muscle strength and lung function, as well as their relationship with motor function and quality of life, were evaluated in patients with PD, stratified by the level of severity, and were compared with the data obtained for a control group. After confirming the normality of data distribution, we performed one-way ANOVA with a post hoc t-test. Results: The sample comprised 66 individuals, in two groups: PD (n = 49) and control (n = 17). All of the parameters investigated showed inverse correlations with PD severity, and there were significant differences among the levels of severity, as well as between the PD and control groups, in terms of the MIP, MEP, FVC, FEV1, and FEF25-75%. The lung function parameters also showed moderate to weak inverse correlations with bradykinesia and rigidity. On a quality of life questionnaire, the total score and mobility domain score both presented a moderate inverse correlation with FVC, FEV1, PEF, and MEP. Conclusions: Respiratory muscle strength and some lung function parameters are impaired from the early stages of PD onward, bradykinesia and rigidity being the cardinal signs that correlate most strongly with impairment of those parameters. Such alterations negatively affect the quality of life of patients with PD.

RESUMO Objetivo: Investigar a repercussão de parâmetros de função pulmonar e de força muscular respiratória nos diversos estágios da doença de Parkinson (DP) e suas correlações com a funcionalidade e a qualidade de vida desses pacientes. Métodos: Estudo de corte transversal realizado em um serviço de referência para DP em Recife (PE). Foram avaliadas a força muscular respiratória e a função pulmonar, assim como suas relações com a funcionalidade e a qualidade de vida, em pacientes com DP estratificados por gravidade da DP e comparados a um grupo controle. Após a verificação da normalidade da amostra, foi realizada one-way ANOVA e teste t post hoc. Resultados: A amostra foi composta por 66 indivíduos, sendo 49 no grupo DP e 17 no grupo controle. Houve reduções nos parâmetros investigados com a progressão da doença, em comparação com o grupo controle, sendo encontradas diferenças significativas em PImáx, PEmáx, CVF, VEF1 e FEF25-75% em todos os estágios da DP. Houve correlações inversas (de fraca a moderada) de alguns parâmetros estudados com bradicinesia e rigidez. Os escores totais do questionário de qualidade de vida e de seu domínio mobilidade apresentaram moderada correlação inversa com CVF, VEF1, PFE e PEmáx. Conclusões: A força muscular respiratória e alguns parâmetros de função pulmonar encontram-se reduzidos desde os estágios iniciais da DP, sendo a bradicinesia e a rigidez os sinais cardinais mais correlacionados ao prejuízo desses parâmetros. Essas alterações repercutem negativamente na qualidade de vida desses pacientes.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Parkinson Disease/physiopathology , Quality of Life , Respiratory Muscles/physiopathology , Muscle Strength/physiology , Lung/physiopathology , Reference Values , Respiratory Function Tests , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Body Size/physiology
J. bras. pneumol ; 45(6): e20180252, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040296


RESUMO Objetivo Estabelecer ponto de corte entre as variáveis clínicas e funcionais para avaliar a prevalência de sarcopenia e dinapenia em pacientes com Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica (DPOC), além de analisar o impacto da Disfunção Muscular Esquelética (DME) nestas variáveis. Métodos Realizado estudo transversal com pacientes diagnosticados com DPOC para determinar sarcopenia ou dinapenia por meio do índice de baixa massa muscular e Força de Preensão Palmar (FPP). Avaliadas a função pulmonar, força muscular respiratória e capacidade funcional (CF). A precisão das variáveis na determinação dos pontos de corte previstos para as doenças em questão foi obtida a partir da curva Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) e de uma análise bidirecional da variância. Resultados Ao final da análise, obtiveram-se 20 pacientes com DPOC estratificados por sarcopenia (n = 11) e dinapenia (n = 07). O grupo com sarcopenia apresentou menor massa magra e menor pressão inspiratória máxima (PImáx), diminuição da Força de Preensão Palmar (FPP) e redução da CF (p<0,050). O grupo com dinapenia apresentou redução da PImáx, menor FPP e menor distância percorrida no teste Incremental Shuttle Walk (ISWT) (p<0,050). Foram encontrados pontos de corte no Volume Expiratório Forçado (VEF1) durante o primeiro segundo na PImáx, na Pressão Expiratória Máxima (PEmáx) e no ISWT, o que possibilitou identificar sarcopenia ou dinapenia nestes pacientes. A partir destes resultados, foi possível encontrar coexistência das condições (efeito DME) na DPOC: redução da distância no ISWT (p = 0,002) e % ISWT (p = 0,017). Conclusões Em pacientes com DPOC moderada a muito grave, a sarcopenia pode ser prevista pelo VEF1 (% previsto) <52, PImáx <73 cm H2O, PEmáx <126 cm H2O e distância percorrida de <295 metros no ISWT. Já a dinapenia pode ser prevista pelo VEF1 <40%, PImáx <71 cm H2O, PEmáx <110 cm H2O e distância de <230 metros percorrida no ISWT.

ABSTRACT Objective To establish a cut-off point for clinical and functional variables to determinate sarcopenia and dynapenia in COPD patients, and to analyze the impact of skeletal muscle dysfunction (SMD) on these variables. Methods Cross-sectional study, screened COPD patients for sarcopenia or dynapenia through low muscle mass and hand grip strength (HGS). Clinical variables: pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength and functional capacity (FC). The precision of the variables in determining points of predictive cut-off for sarcopenia or dynapenia were performed using the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve and two-way analysis of variance. Results 20 COPD patients stratified for sarcopenia (n = 11) and dynapenia (n = 07). Sarcopenia group presented lower lean mass and lower maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), decreased HGS, reduced FC (p<0.050). Dynapenia group presented reduced MIP, lower HGS and walked a shorter distance at Incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT) (p<0.050). We found cut-off points of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), MIP and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP) and ISWT. It is possible to identify sarcopenia or dynapenia in these patients. We found the coexistence of the conditions (SMD effect) in COPD - reduction in the distance in the ISWT (p = 0.002) and %ISWT (p = 0.017). Conclusion In moderate to very severe COPD patients the sarcopenia could be predicted by FEV1 (%predicted) < 52, MIP < 73 cmH2O, MEP < 126 cmH2O and distance traveled of < 295 m in ISWT. Whereas dynapenia could be predicted by FEV1 < 40%, MIP < 71 cmH2O, MEP < 110 cmH2O and distance of < 230 m traveled in ISWT.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Respiratory Muscles/physiopathology , Muscle Weakness/physiopathology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/physiopathology , Sarcopenia/physiopathology , Lung/physiopathology , Reference Values , Severity of Illness Index , Vital Capacity/physiology , Forced Expiratory Volume/physiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , ROC Curve , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Hand Strength/physiology , Muscle Strength/physiology , Walk Test , Maximal Respiratory Pressures
J. bras. pneumol ; 45(4): e20180232, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012565


ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the frequency of spirometry in elderly people, by age group, at a pulmonary function clinic, to assess the quality of spirometry in the extremely elderly, and to determine whether chronological age influences the quality of spirometry. Methods: This was a cross-sectional retrospective study evaluating information (spirometry findings and respiratory questionnaire results) obtained from the database of a pulmonary function clinic in the city of Aracaju, Brazil, for the period from January of 2012 to April of 2017. In the sample as a whole, we determined the total number of spirometry tests performed, and the frequency of the tests in individuals ≥ 60 years of age, ≥ 65 years of age, and by decade of age, from age 60 onward. In the extremely elderly, we evaluated the quality of spirometry using criteria of acceptability and reproducibility, as well as examining the variables that can influence that quality, such a cognitive deficit. Results: The sample comprised a total of 4,126 spirometry tests. Of those, 961 (23.30%), 864 (20.94%), 102 (2.47%), and 26 (0.63%) were performed in individuals ≥ 60, ≥ 65, ≥ 86, and ≥ 90 years of age (defined as extreme old age), respectively. In the extremely elderly, the criteria for acceptability and reproducibility were met in 88% and 60% of the spirometry tests (95% CI: 75.26-100.00 and 40.80-79.20), respectively. The cognitive deficit had a negative effect on acceptability and reproducibility (p ≤ 0.015 and p ≤ 0.007, respectively). Conclusions: A significant number of elderly individuals undergo spirometry, especially at ≥ 85 years of age, and the majority of such individuals are able to perform the test in a satisfactory manner, despite their advanced age. However, a cognitive deficit could have a negative effect on the quality of spirometry.

RESUMO Objetivo: Determinar a frequência de idosos que realizaram espirometria num serviço de função pulmonar, e avaliar a qualidade da realização do exame na velhice extrema e se a idade cronológica influencia essa qualidade. Métodos: Estudo transversal retrospectivo utilizando informações (espirometria e questionário respiratório) de um banco de dados de um serviço de função pulmonar em Aracaju (SE) entre janeiro de 2012 e abril de 2017. Com base na amostra geral, determinou-se o número total de espirometrias realizadas em todas as idades, em idosos ≥ 60 anos, ≥ 65 anos, e por década de idade a partir da sexta década. Na velhice extrema, avaliou-se a qualidade da espirometria utilizando critérios de aceitabilidade e reprodutibilidade, e investigaram-se variáveis que influenciam essa qualidade, tal como déficit cognitivo. Resultados: A amostra geral foi composta por 4.126 espirometrias. Dessas, 961 (23,30%), 864 (20,94%), 102 (2,47%) e 26 (0,63%) foram realizadas em idosos com ≥ 60 anos de idade, ≥ 65 anos, ≥ 86 anos e ≥ 90 anos (velhice extrema), respectivamente. Na velhice extrema, os critérios de aceitabilidade e reprodutibilidade foram preenchidos em 88% (IC95%: 75,26-100,00) e 60% (IC95%: 40,80-79,20) das espirometrias, respectivamente. O déficit cognitivo influenciou negativamente a aceitabilidade e a reprodutibilidade (p ≤ 0,015; e p ≤ 0,007, respectivamente). Conclusões: Idosos na velhice extrema são uma realidade atual nos serviços de função pulmonar, e a maioria deles é capaz de realizar espirometrias adequadamente, apesar da idade avançada. O déficit cognitivo influencia negativamente a qualidade da espirometria.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Respiratory Tract Diseases/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Diseases/physiopathology , Spirometry/methods , Spirometry/standards , Lung/physiopathology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/psychology , Spirometry/psychology , Aging/physiology , Comorbidity , Peak Expiratory Flow Rate , Sex Factors , Vital Capacity/physiology , Forced Expiratory Volume/physiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Age Factors , Cognitive Dysfunction
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 36(4): 474-481, out.-dez. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-977084


RESUMO Objetivo: Verificar as repercussões do teste de esforço submáximo na mecânica respiratória e na função pulmonar de escolares. Métodos: Estudo transversal com escolares de 7 a 14 anos submetidos à avaliação da mecânica respiratória por sistema de oscilometria de impulso (IOS) e da função pulmonar pela espirometria. Realizou-se também o teste de caminhada de seis minutos (TC6), todos segundo os padrões da Sociedade Torácica Americana. O TC6 foi executado duas vezes com intervalo de 30 minutos entre cada teste. O IOS e a espirometria foram feitos antes do primeiro TC6 (pré-TC6) e repetidos imediatamente após o primeiro TC6 (pós-TC61) e após o segundo TC6 (pós-TC62). A comparação dos resultados nos três tempos do estudo se deu por análise de variância para medidas repetidas (teste post-hoc de Bonferroni) ou teste de Friedman, sendo significante p≤0,05. Resultados: Participaram 21 sujeitos; 53% masculinos e idade média de 10,9±2,3 anos. Encontraram-se diferenças entre resistência total (R5) e resistência central das vias aéreas (R20) nos 3 tempos do estudo (p=0,025 e p=0,041, respectivamente). A análise post-hoc indicou aumento de resistência R5 entre pré-TC6 e pós-TC61 (R5=0,540±0,100 versus 0,590±0,150 kPa/L/s, p=0,013; e R20=0,440±0,800 versus 0,470±0,100 kPa/L/s, p=0,038). A única variável espirométrica com alteração no decorrer do tempo foi o fluxo expiratório forçado 25-75% (FEF25-75%) (p=0,003). Conclusões: As repercussões encontradas foram: aumento da resistência total e da resistência central das vias aéreas e redução do FEF25-75% após o TC6 em escolares, sugerindo a necessidade de mais atenção na realização de testes submáximos em crianças com alguma predisposição a alterações das vias aéreas.

ABSTRACT Objective: To verify repercussions of submaximal exercise testing on respiratory mechanics and pulmonary function in schoolchildren. Methods: Cross-sectional study, with children aged 7 to 14 years, who had their respiratory mechanics assessed by impulse oscillometry (IOS), and pulmonary function by spirometry. They performed the six-minute walk test (6MWT), as per the standards by the American Thoracic Society. The 6MWT was performed twice with a 30-minute interval. IOS and spirometry were performed before the first 6MWT (Pre-6MWT) and immediately after the first (Post-6MWT1) and second walking tests (Post-6MWT2). The results in these three phases were compared by analysis of variance for repeated measures (post-hoc Bonferroni test) or by the Friedman's test, with p≤0.05 considered significant. Results: Twenty-one subjects participated in the study: 53% were males and mean age was 10.9±2.3 years. There were differences between total resistance (R5) and central airway resistance (R20) at the three phases of assessment (p=0.025 and p=0.041, respectively). Post-hoc analysis indicated increase in R5 when Pre-6MWT and Post-6MWT1 were compared (R5=0.540±0.100 versus 0.590±0.150 kPa/L/s, p=0.013; and R20=0.440±0.800 versus 0.470±0.100 kPa/L/s, p=0.038). Forced expiratory flow 25-75% (FEF25-75%) changed over time (p=0.003). Conclusions: Repercussions were: increase in central and total airway resistance and reduction of FEF25-75% after 6MWT in schoolchildren, suggesting that greater attention should be given to submaximal tests in children with predisposition to airways alterations.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Spirometry , Chest Wall Oscillation , Walk Test/methods , Lung/physiopathology , Time Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 89(5): 582-591, oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042717


Resumen: Las Interacciones Cardiopulmonares (ICP) corresponden al conjunto de interrelaciones entre el sis tema respiratorio y el cardiovascular, durante el ciclo respiratorio y cardíaco. Estas interacciones varían dependiendo de si el paciente se encuentra en ventilación espontánea o mecánica, afectando en distintos grados la precarga y postcarga, tanto del ventrículo derecho e izquierdo. El entender estas interacciones, resulta esencial al momento de manejar pacientes críticamente enfermos, en donde las manipulaciones de la precarga y postcarga, son de especial importancia al momento de optimizar el débito cardíaco y la entrega de oxígeno a los tejidos. En este artículo se presentan los principios fisiológicos que permiten entender las interacciones cardiopulmonares en ventilación espontánea y en ventilación mecánica, aplicadas a situaciones clínicas específicas, lo que nos ayudará a utilizarlas como herramientas en el manejo de los pacientes.

Abstract: Cardiopulmonary Interactions (CPI) refer to the interplay between the respiratory and cardiovascu lar systems during the respiratory and cardiac cycle. These interactions vary depending on whether the patient is in spontaneous or mechanical ventilation and affect the preload and afterload of both ventricles at different levels. Understanding CPI is essential to the management of critically ill pa tients, where preload and afterload manipulations are specialy important to optimize cardiac output and oxygen delivery to the periphery. The present article reviews the physiological principles required to understand CPI in patients both in spontaneous and mechanical ventilation using specific clinical scenarios to facilitate its use as part of day to day clinical practice.

Humans , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Physiological Phenomena , Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena , Critical Illness , Heart/physiology , Heart/physiopathology , Lung/physiology , Lung/physiopathology
Acta cir. bras ; 33(10): 879-888, Oct. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973464


Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the vascular ventilatory response in different stages of lung development and to compare them to the neonates with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) in a rabbit model. Methods: New Zealand rabbits were divided into 8 groups (n=5): E25, E27, E30, and CDH. All groups were ventilated on a FlexiVent (Scireq, Montreal, QC, Canada), compounding the other 4 groups. The CDH surgery was performed at E25 and the harvest at E30. Dynamic compliance (CRS), dynamic elastance (ERS) and dynamic resistance (RRS) were measured every 4 min/24 min. Median wall thickness (MWT) and airspace were measured. ANOVA Bonferroni tests were used to perform statistical analysis. Significance was considered when p<0.05. Results: CRS was higher in E30 compared to all other groups (p<0.05). CRS and RRS of CDH and E27 were similar and were higher in E25 (p<0.05). MWT was decreased according to the gestational age, was increased in E27V and E30V (p<0.05) and decreased in CDHV (p<0.05), airspace was decreased in E25 and increased in all ventilated groups (p<0.05). Conclusions: The ventilation response of congenital diaphragmatic hernia is like the pseudoglandular stage of the lung development. These findings add information about the physiology of pulmonary ventilation in CDH.

Animals , Rabbits , Respiratory Mechanics/physiology , Hernias, Diaphragmatic, Congenital/physiopathology , Lung/growth & development , Respiratory Function Tests , Diaphragm/surgery , Total Lung Capacity , Airway Resistance , Disease Models, Animal , Hernias, Diaphragmatic, Congenital/etiology , Lung/physiopathology , Lung/blood supply , Animals, Newborn
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 13(4): 137-148, oct. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-947664


Chest physiotherapy is currently an outstanding therapeutic tool for the management of pediatric respiratory patients. Many and varied techniques, manual and assisted, have been developed, some requiring patient collaboration. The development of knowledge and the pathophysiological understanding of respiratory diseases in recent years has generated the need to agree on the terminology, the fundamentals and the application of each of the kinesthetic techniques of respiratory treatment in the pediatric field. The objective of this document was to compile the available literature related to the physiological mechanisms, indications, procedural aspects and most frequently used techniques in our country, with the purpose of being a guideline for the clinical practice of professionals and students. The following techniques were included: prolonged slow expiration, slow expiration with glottis opened, autogenic drainage, assisted autogenic drainage, active cycle, compression/decompression, airway clearance, forced expiration techniques, cough and respiratory exercises.

La kinesiología respiratoria es actualmente una herramienta terapéutica destacada para el manejo de los pacientes respiratorios pediátricos. Se han desarrollado muchas y variadas técnicas, manuales y asistidas, algunas requiriendo colaboración del paciente. El desarrollo del conocimiento y la comprensión fisiopatológica de las enfermedades respiratorias en los últimos años ha generado la necesidad de consensuar la terminología, los fundamentos y la aplicación de cada una de las técnicas kinésicas de tratamiento respiratorio en el ámbito pediátrico. El objetivo de este documento fue recopilar la literatura disponible relacionada con los mecanismos fisiológicos, indicaciones, aspectos procedimentales y técnicas más utilizadas en nuestro país, con el propósito de ser una directriz que oriente la práctica clínica de profesionales y estudiantes en formación. Se incluyeron así las siguientes técnicas: espiración lenta prolongada, espiración lenta con glotis abierta, drenaje autógeno, drenaje autógeno asistido, ciclo activo, presión/descompresión, bloqueos torácicos, técnicas de espiración forzada, tos y ejercicios respiratorios.

Humans , Child , Pediatrics/methods , Thorax , Physical Therapy Specialty , Lung/physiopathology , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Vibration , Drainage, Postural , Physical Therapy Modalities , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Decompression , Exhalation , Kinesics