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1.
Rev. argent. reumatolg. (En línea) ; 34(2): 43-50, oct. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1521644

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: el progreso en los tratamientos para el lupus eritematoso sistémico (LES) resultó en una disminución de la mortalidad; sin embargo, la enfermedad cardiovascular y las complicaciones infecciosas aún son las principales causas de muerte. La evidencia apoya la participación del sistema inmunológico en la generación de la placa aterosclerótica, así como su conexión con las enfermedades autoinmunes. Objetivos: describir la frecuencia de eventos cardiovasculares (ECV) en el Registro de Lupus Eritematoso Sistémico de la Sociedad Argentina de Reumatología (RELESSAR) transversal, así como sus principales factores de riesgo asociados. Materiales y métodos: estudio descriptivo y transversal para el cual se tomaron los pacientes ingresados en el registro RELESSAR transversal. Se describieron las variables sociodemográficas y clínicas, las comorbilidades, score de actividad y daño. ECV se definió como la presencia de al menos una de las siguientes patologías: enfermedad arterial periférica, cardiopatía isquémica o accidente cerebrovascular. El evento clasificado para el análisis fue aquel posterior al diagnóstico del LES. Se conformaron dos grupos macheados por edad y sexo 1:2. Resultados: 1515 pacientes mayores de 18 años participaron del registro. Se describieron 80 pacientes con ECV (5,3%). En este análisis se incluyeron 240 pacientes conformando dos grupos. La edad media fue de 47,8 (14,4) y 47,6 (14,2) en el grupo con y sin ECV respectivamente. Los pacientes con ECV tuvieron mayor duración del LES en meses, mayor índice de Charlson, mayor SLICC (Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology), mayor frecuencia de manifestaciones neurológicas, síndrome antifosfolípido, hospitalizaciones y uso de ciclofosfamida. Las únicas variables asociadas en el análisis multivariado fueron el índice de Charlson (p=0,004) y el SLICC (p<0,001). Conclusiones: los ECV influyen significativamente en nuestros pacientes, y se asocian a mayor posibilidad de daño irreversible y comorbilidades.


Abstract Introduction: progress in treatments for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has resulted in a decrease in mortality; however, cardiovascular and infectious diseases remain the leading causes of death. Evidence supports the involvement of the immune system in the generation of atherosclerotic plaque, as well as its connection to autoimmune diseases. Objectives: to describe the frequency of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the cross-sectional RELESSAR registry, as well as its associated variables. Materials and methods: a descriptive and cross-sectional study was performed using patients admitted to the cross-sectional RELESSAR registry. Sociodemographic variables, clinical variables, comorbidities, activity and damage scores were described. CVD was defined as at least one of the following: peripheral arterial disease, ischemic heart disease, or cerebrovascular accident. All patients with at least one CVD were included in our analysis (heart attack, central nervous system vascular disease, and peripheral arteries atherosclerotic disease). The event classified for the analysis was that after the diagnosis of SLE. SLE diagnosis was previous to CVD. Two groups matched by age and sex, 1:2 were formed. Results: a total of 1515 patients older than 18 years participated in the registry. Eighty patients with CVD (5.3%) were described in the registry. Two-hundred and forty patients were included, according to two groups. The mean age was 47.8 (SD 14.4) and 47.6 (SD 14.2) in patients with and without CVD, respectively. Patients with CVD had a longer duration of SLE in months, a higher Charlson index, a higher SLICC, increased frequency of neurological manifestations, antiphospholipid syndrome, hospitalizations, and use of cyclophosphamide. The associated variables in the multivariate were the Charlson Index (p=0.004) and the SLICC (p<0.001). Conclusions: CVDs have a significant influence on our patients, being associated with a greater possibility of damage and comorbidities.


Subject(s)
Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Cardiovascular Diseases , Mortality
2.
MedUNAB ; 26(1): 54-62, 20230731.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1525298

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El síndrome de Rhupus es la superposición de dos enfermedades autoinmunes, la artritis reumatoide o artritis idiopática juvenil y el lupus eritematoso sistémico, la prevalencia es de 7-401 por 100,000 niños. El síndrome de Felty se caracteriza por la tríada de artritis idiopática juvenil, esplenomegalia y neutropenia; padecer más de una patología reumática es un extraño fenómeno estimado entre el 0.01-2%. Objetivo. Describir el proceso de atención de enfermería integral en una adolescente con Rhupus y síndrome de Felty, bajo el modelo de adaptación de Callista Roy. Metodología. Caso clínico de enfermería en una paciente de 15 años seleccionada en hospitalización pediátrica, con previo consentimiento informado; intervenida a través del proceso de atención de enfermería estructurado según la taxonomía de la North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, la Clasificación de Resultados de Enfermería, y la Clasificación de Intervenciones de Enfermería, con intervenciones intrahospitalarias y seguimiento con tele-enfermería. Resultados. Mejoría de la ambulación y afrontamiento de problemas evidenciados por el aumento del bienestar de la paciente y la familia. Conclusiones. Ante una enfermedad desconocida, el proceso de atención de enfermería, con intervenciones directas y acompañamiento continuo, permite realizar una atención integral, a fin de lograr la adaptación de la paciente y su familia. Palabras clave: Adaptación Psicológica; Atención de Enfermería; Enfermería; Síndrome de Felty; Lupus Eritematoso Sistémico; Resiliencia Psicológica.


Introduction. Rhupus syndrome is the overlap of two autoimmune diseases, rheumatoid arthritis or juvenile idiopathic arthritis, and systemic lupus erythematosus, with a prevalence of 7-401 per 100,000 children. Felty's syndrome is characterized by the triad of juvenile idiopathic arthritis, splenomegaly, and neutropenia; experiencing more than one rheumatic pathology is a rare phenomenon estimated between 0.01-2%. Objective. Describe the comprehensive nursing care process in an adolescent with Rhupus and Felty's syndrome, under the adaptation model of Callista Roy. Methodology. Nursing case study of a 15-year-old patient selected in pediatric hospitalization, with prior informed consent; intervened through the structured nursing care process according to the taxonomy of the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, the Nursing Outcomes Classification, and the Nursing Interventions Classification, with in-hospital interventions and follow-up through tele-nursing. Results. Improvement in ambulation and coping with problems evidenced by the increased well-being of the patient and the family. Conclusions. Faced with an unknown disease, the nursing care process, with direct interventions and continuous support, allows for comprehensive care to achieve the adaptation of the patient and her family. Keywords: Adaptation, Psychological; Nursing Care; Nursing; Felty Syndrome; Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic; Resilience, Psychological.


Introdução. A síndrome de Rhupus é a sobreposição de duas doenças autoimunes, artrite reumatoide ou artrite idiopática juvenil e lúpus eritematoso sistêmico, a prevalência é de 7-401 por 100,000 crianças. A síndrome de Felty é caracterizada pela tríade de artrite idiopática juvenil, esplenomegalia e neutropenia; sofrer de mais de uma patologia reumática é um fenômeno estranho estimado entre 0.01-2%. Objetivo. Descrever o processo de assistência integral de enfermagem em uma adolescente com Rhupus e síndrome de Felty, sob o modelo de adaptação de Callista Roy. Metodologia. Caso clínico de enfermagem em uma paciente de 15 anos selecionada em internação pediátrica, com prévio consentimento informado; ela teve intervenção por meio do processo de cuidado de enfermagem estruturado segundo a taxonomia da North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, a Classificação dos Resultados de Enfermagem e a Classificação das Intervenções de Enfermagem, com intervenções intra-hospitalares e acompanhamento com tele-enfermagem. Resultados. Melhora na deambulação e enfrentamento de problemas evidenciados pelo aumento do bem-estar do paciente e da família. Conclusões. Diante de uma doença desconhecida, o processo de assistência de enfermagem, com intervenções diretas e acompanhamento contínuo, permite um cuidado integral, de forma a alcançar a adaptação do paciente e de sua família. Palavras-chave: Adaptação Psicológica; Cuidados de Enfermagem; Enfermagem; Síndrome de Felty; Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico; Resiliência Psicológica.


Subject(s)
Felty Syndrome , Adaptation, Psychological , Nursing , Resilience, Psychological , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Nursing Care
3.
Femina ; 51(6): 374-379, 20230630. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1512427

ABSTRACT

O lúpus eritematoso sistêmico é uma doença crônica, complexa e multifatorial que apresenta manifestações em vários órgãos. O seu acometimento ocorre 10 vezes mais no sexo feminino do que no masculino. É uma doença com uma clínica variada e com graus variados de gravidade, causando fadiga, manifestações cutâneas, como rash malar, fotossensibilidade, queda de cabelo e manifestações musculoesqueléticas, como artralgia, mialgia e atrite. Podem ocorrer flares (crises), que se caracterizam por aumento mensurável na atividade da doença. No climatério, no período da pré-menopausa, o lúpus eritematoso sistêmico ocorre com mais frequência, podendo ocorrer também na pós-menopausa. Algumas doenças são mais frequentes na fase do climatério, e a presença do lúpus pode influenciar na sua evolução, como a doença cardiovascular, osteoporose e tromboembolismo venoso. A terapia hormonal oral determina aumento do risco de tromboembolismo venoso no climatério, e na paciente com lúpus eritematoso sistêmico há aumento dos riscos de flares e de trombose. Em vista disso, a terapia hormonal é recomendada apenas para pacientes com lúpus eritematoso sistêmico estável ou inativo, sem história de síndrome antifosfolípides e com anticorpos antifosfolípides negativa, devendo-se dar preferência para a terapia estrogênica transdérmica, em menor dose e de uso contínuo. Na paciente com lúpus eritematoso sistêmico ativo ou com história de síndrome antifosfolípides ou com anticorpos antifosfolípides positiva, recomenda-se a terapia não hormonal, como os antidepressivos. (AU)


Systemic lupus erythematosus is a chronic, complex, multifactorial disease that manifests in several organs. Its involvement occurs 10 times more in females than in males. It is a disease with a varied clinic and varying degrees of severity, causing fatigue, skin manifestations such as malar rash, photosensitivity, hair loss and musculoskeletal manifestations such as arthralgia, myalgia and arthritis. Flare may occur, which are characterized by measurable increase in disease activity. In the climacteric, in the premenopausal period, systemic lupus erythematosus occurs more frequently, and may also occur in the postmenopausal period. Some diseases are more frequent in the Climacteric phase and the presence of lupus can influence its evolution, such as cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis and venous thromboembolism. Oral hormone therapy determines an increased risk of venous thromboembolism in the climacteric and in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus there is an increased risk of flares and thrombosis. In view of this, hormone therapy is only recommended for patients with stable or inactive systemic lupus erythematosus, without a history of antiphospholipid syndrome and with antiphospholipid antibodies, giving preference to transdermal estrogen therapy, at a lower dose and for continuous use. In patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus or with a history of antiphospholipid syndrome or positive antiphospholipid antibodies, non-hormonal therapy, such as antidepressants, is recommended. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/etiology , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/therapy , Osteoporosis/etiology , Thromboembolism/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/complications , Hormones/administration & dosage , Hormones/therapeutic use
4.
Rev. ecuat. pediatr ; 24(1): 7-15, 21 de abril 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1433992

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El lupus eritematoso sistémico (LES) es una enfermedad autoinmune que puede afectar a múltiples órganos. Las patologías asociadas como: la hepatitis y la nefritis lúpica no son frecuentes en la población infantil, pero conllevan a consecuencias graves con riesgo de insuficiencia hepática y enfermedad renal crónica, aumentando la mor-bimortalidad en los pacientes pediátricos. Caso clínico: Paciente masculino de 11 años con cuadro clínico caracterizado por: astenia, hiporexia, epistaxis, prurito e ictericia marcada, de cuatro meses de evolución, sin diagnóstico establecido. Se solicitó estudios de laboratorio que reportaron aumento de transaminasas, proteinuria, ANAS y AC. DNA positivo, además se realizaron estudios de imagen, biopsia renal y hepática, con la finalidad de esclarecer el diagnóstico. Evolución: A través de un abordaje clínico multidisciplinar, exámenes paraclínicos y anatomopatológicos se estableció el diagnóstico de LES asociado a Hepatitis Autoinmune y Nefritis Lúpica. Paciente permaneció en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Pediátricos con evolución favorable a tratamiento. Conclusiones: El LES Pediátrico asociado a hepatitis autoinmune y nefritis lúpica es una rara presentación clínica de la cual existen muy pocos casos reportados a nivel mundial. En su diagnóstico se debe resaltar la perspicacia clínica multi-disciplinar, laboratorio, imagenología y datos histopatológicos clave para establecer un diagnóstico oportuno con mejor pronóstico y tratamiento y así evitar desenlaces mortales en los pacientes pediátricos.


Introduction: Systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disease that can affect multiple organs. Associated pathologies such as hepatitis and lupus nephritis are not frequent in the child population. Still, they lead to serious consequences with the risk of liver failure and chronic kidney disease, increasing morbidity and mortality in pediatric patients. Clinical case: An 11-year-old male patient with a clinical picture characterized by: asthenia, hypoxia, epistaxis, pruritus, and marked jaundice, of four months of evolution, without an established diagnosis. Laboratory studies were requested that reported increased transaminases, proteinuria, ANAS, and AC. Positive DNA, imaging studies, and kidney and liver biopsy were also performed to clarify the diagnosis. Evolution: Through a multidisciplinary clinical approach, and paraclinical and pathological examinations, the diagnosis of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus associated with Autoimmune Hepatitis and Lupus Nephritis was established. The patient remained in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit with favorable evolution to treatment. Conclusions: Pediatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus associated with autoimmune hepatitis and lupus nephritis is a rare clinical presentation of which very few cases are reported worldwide. In its diagnosis, multidisciplinary clinical acumen, laboratory, imaging, and critical histopathological data should be highlighted to establish an opportune diagnosis with better prognosis and treatment and thus avoid fatal outcomes in pediatric patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Lupus Nephritis , Hepatitis, Autoimmune , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Indicators of Morbidity and Mortality
5.
Rev. cient. cienc. salud ; 5(1): 1-11, 26-01-2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1451749

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La internación de pacientes con lupus eritematoso sistémico (LES) es frecuente. Objetivo. Determinar los factores de riesgo de internación y mortalidad en pacientes con LES internados en el Hospital Nacional de enero del 2016 a diciembre 2019. Metodología. Estudio observacional descriptivo con componente analítico de corte transverso. Se incluyeron pacientes mayores de 15 años con el diagnóstico de LES. Las variables fueron edad, sexo, comorbilidades, abandono de tratamiento, escolaridad, score de SLEDAI, características clínicas y óbito. Los resultados se expresaron en forma de frecuencia para las variables cualitativas, como media y desviación estándar para las variables continuas. Para establecer asociaciones entre las variables cualitativas, se utilizó la prueba de la ji cuadrado y para establecer la fuerza de la asociación se calculó el Odds Ratio(OR) con su intervalo de confianza del 95 %. Resultados. se incluyeron130 pacientes (edad media:31 ± 12,1) que correspondieron a 170 internaciones, el 92% fue del sexo femenino, la hipertensión arterial se presentó en el 51,4%. La causa frecuente de internación fue la actividad de la enfermedad (75,8%). El 21,5% ingresó a UCIA (unidad de cuidados intensivos). El grado de escolaridad, el abandono del tratamiento y la actividad de la enfermedad se relacionaron (p<000001) con el óbito de los pacientes. Conclusiones. La actividad de la enfermedad fue una causa frecuente de internación y se relacionó con el óbito. Además, el abandono del tratamiento se encontró como un factor de riesgo para el óbito. Palabras Claves: hospitalización; lupus eritematoso sistémico; factores de riesgo


Introduction.Hospitalization in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) isfrequent. Objective.To determine hospitalization and mortality risk factors inpatients with SLE admitted to the National Hospital from January 2016 to December 2019. Material and methods. observational descriptivewith an analytical componentandcross-sectional study. Patients over 15 years of age with a diagnosis of SLE were included. The variables were age, sex, comorbidities, abandonment of treatment, education, SLEDAI score, clinical characteristics and death. Results were expressed as frequency for qualitative variables, and mean and standard deviation for continuous variables. To establish associations between the qualitative variables, the chi-square test was used; and the strength of the associationwere measured by the Odds Ratio (OR)with its 95% confidence interval (CI). Results. 130 patients (mean age 31 ± 12.1) corresponding to 170 hospitalizations were studied, 92% were women and arterial hypertension presented 51.4%of the patients. The frequent cause of hospitalization was disease activity (75.8%). A 21.5% were admitted to theICU (intensive care unit). Education level, treatment abandonment and disease activity were associated to mortality(p<000001). Conclusions.Disease activity was a frequent cause of hospitalizationand associated to patient death. Treatment abandonment was also found to be a risk factor for death. Key words:hospitalization; systemic lupus erythematosus; risk factors


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Risk Factors , Hospitalization
6.
Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology ; (12): 633-637, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981910

ABSTRACT

Objective To identify the relationship between nephritis activity, autophagy and inflammation in patients with SLE. Methods Western blot analysis was used to detect the expression of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) and P62 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of SLE patients with lupus nephritis and non-lupus nephritis patients. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interferon γ (IFN-γ) in the serum of SLE patients were determined by ELISA. The correlation between LC3II/LC3I ratio and SLE disease activity score (SLEDAI), urinary protein, TNF-α and IFN-γ levels was analyzed by Pearson method. Results The expression of LC3 was increased and P62 was decreased in SLE patients. TNF-α and IFN-γ were increased in the serum of SLE patients. LC3II/LC3I ratio was positively correlated with SLEDAI (r=0.4560), 24 hour urine protein (r=0.3753), IFN-γ (r=0.5685), but had no correlation with TNF-α (r=0.04 683). Conclusion Autophagy is found in PBMCs of SLE, and the autophagy is correlated with renal damage and inflammation in patients with lupus nephritis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Autophagy-Related Proteins/metabolism , Lupus Nephritis/urine , Kidney , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/metabolism
7.
Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology ; (12): 356-362, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981874

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the role of autophagy, apoptosis of neutrophils and neutrophils extracellular traps (NET) formation in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods Thirty-six patients with SLE were recruited as research subjects, and 32 healthy controls matched accordingly were enrolled as control subjects. The expression levels of microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3B (LC3B), autophagy-related gene5(ATG5), P62, B-cell lymphoma 2(Bcl2), Bcl2-related X protein (BAX) in neutrophils were detected by Western blot analysis. Flow cytometry was employed to analyze the expression of LC3B on neutrophils. The expression level of myeloperoxidase(MPO) in plasma was estimated by ELISA. Furthermore, neutrophils were cultured in vitro and stimulated by 100 nmol/L rapamycin and 10 μg/mL lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 6 hours, respectively. And then, the expression levels of LC3B, ATG5, P62, Bcl2 and BAX in neutrophils were detected by Western blot analysis. The level of MPO in culture supernatant was detected by ELISA. The change of fluorescence intensity of NET in culture supernatant was assayed by SytoxTM Green staining combined with fluorescence spectrophotometry. Results Compared with healthy controls, the levels of autophagy and apoptosis of neutrophils and NET formation in SLE patients were increased. The level of apoptosis and NET formation was positively associated with neutrophil autophagy. The level of autophagy showed an increase but had no effect on apoptosis and NET formation for neutrophil stimulated by rapamycin. The levels of autophagy and NET formation also increased with no significant effect on apoptosis for neutrophil induced by LPS. Conclusion The autophagy, apoptosis and NET formation of neutrophils increase in SLE patients. The activation of autophagy and NET in neutrophils possibly result from the inflammatory internal environment in SLE patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Neutrophils , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism , Sirolimus/pharmacology , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Autophagy
8.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 250-255, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970276

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the risk factors of childhood systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with thyroid dysfunction and to explore the relationship between thyroid hormone and kidney injury of lupus nephritis (LN). Methods: In this retrospective study, 253 patients who were diagnosed with childhood SLE and hospitalized in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from January 2019 to January 2021 were enrolled in the case group, and 70 healthy children were the control cases. The patients in the case group were divided into the normal thyroid group and the thyroid dysfunction group. Independent t-test, χ2 test, and Mann-Whitney U test were used for comparison between the groups, Logistic regression analysis was used for multivariate analysis, and Spearman correlation. Results: A total of 253 patients, there were 44 males and 209 females in the case group, and the age of onset was 14 (12, 16) years; a total of 70 patients, 24 males and 46 females were in the control group, and the age of onset was 13 (10, 13) years. The incidence of thyroid dysfunction in the case group was higher than that in the control group (48.2% (122/253) vs. 8.6% (6/70), χ²=36.03, P<0.05). Of the 131 patients, there were 17 males and 114 females in the normal thyroid group, and the age of onset was 14 (12, 16) years. Of the 122 patients in the thyroid dysfunction group, 28 males and 94 females were in the thyroid dysfunction group, and the age of onset was 14 (12, 16) years. Of the 122 had thyroid dysfunction, including 51 cases (41.8%) with euthyroid sick syndrome, 25 cases (20.5%) with subclinical hypothyroidism, 18 cases (14.8%) patients with sub-hyperthyroidism, 12 cases (9.8%) with hypothyroidism, 10 cases (8.2%) with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 4 cases (3.3%) with hyperthyroidism, and 2 cases (1.6%) with Graves disease. Compared to patients with normal thyroid function, the serum level of triglyceride, total cholesterol, urine white blood cell, urine red blood cell, 24 h urine protein, D-dimer, and fibrinogen, ferritin and systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity Index-2000 (SLEDAI-2K) score were higher in patients with thyroid dysfunction (Z=3.07, 3.07, 2.48, 3.16, 2.40, 3.99, 2.68, 2.55, 2.80, all P<0.05), while the serum level of free thyroxine and C3 were lower in thyroid disfunction patients (10.6 (9.1, 12.7) vs. 11.3 (10.0, 12.9) pmol/L, and 0.46 (0.27, 0.74) vs. 0.57 (0.37, 0.82) g/L, Z=2.18, 2.42, both P<0.05). The higher level of triglyceride and D-dimer were the independent risk factors for childhood SLE with thyroid dysfunction (OR=1.40 and 1.35, 95%CI 1.03-1.89 and 1.00-1.81, respectively, both P<0.05). There were 161 patients with LN in the case group, all of which were conducted with renal biopsies, including 11 cases (6.8%) with types Ⅰ LN, 11 cases (6.8%) with typesⅡLN, 31 cases (19.3%) with types Ⅲ LN, 92 cases (57.1%) with types Ⅳ LN, and 16 cases (9.9%) with types Ⅴ LN. There were significant differences in the level of free triiodothyronine and thyroid stimulating hormone among different types of kidney pathology (both P<0.05); compared with types I LN, the serum level of free triiodothyronine was lower in types Ⅳ LN (3.4 (2.8, 3.9) vs. 4.3 (3.7, 5.5) pmol/L, Z=3.75, P<0.05). The serum level of free triiodothyronine was negatively correlated with the acute activity index score of lupus nephritis (r=-0.228, P<0.05), while the serum level of thyroid stimulating hormone was positively correlated with the renal pathological acute activity index score of lupus nephritis (r=0.257, P<0.05). Conclusions: There is a high incidence of thyroid dysfunction in childhood SLE patients. The higher SLEDAI and more severe renal damage were found in SLE patients with thyroid dysfunction compared to these with normal thyroid functions. The risk factors of childhood SLE with thyroid dysfunction are the higher level of triglyceride and D-dimer. The serum level of thyroid hormone is possibly related to the kidney injury of LN.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Male , Humans , Lupus Nephritis/epidemiology , Triiodothyronine , Retrospective Studies , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Hypothyroidism/epidemiology , Hyperthyroidism , Risk Factors
9.
Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine ; (12): 775-784, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985988

ABSTRACT

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease with complicated pathogenesis and diverse clinical manifestations. The current recommendations of the Chinese Rheumatology Association are based on a comprehensive investigation of evidence based medicine, domestic and international guidelines for SLE, and experts' proposals, and aim to provide a more scientific and authoritative reference for the diagnosis and management of SLE. The recommendations focus on four aspects; clinical manifestations, laboratory evaluation, diagnosis and disease assessment, and disease treatment and monitoring. The goal of the recommendations is to standardize the diagnosis and treatment of SLE in China so as to improve the prognosis of SLE patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Prognosis , Rheumatology , China , Severity of Illness Index
10.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 1080-1085, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985636

ABSTRACT

Objective: To characterize the incidence density of systematic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in Yinzhou District of Ningbo from 2016 to 2021, and compare the age and gender specific differences. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted based on the related data from 2015 to 2021 collected from the Health Information Platform of Yinzhou. Suspected SLE cases in local residents were identified by fuzzy matching of International Classification of Diseases 10th edition code "M32" or Chinese text "lupus". The classification criteria from Systemic Lupus International Collaboration Clinics-2012 and The European League Against Rheumatism/American College of Rheumatology-2019 were used for case verification. SLE cases were identified with specific algorithm based on verification results, and new cases were identified with 1 year as the washout period. The incidence density and 95%CI were estimated by Poisson distribution. Results: From 2016 to 2021, a total of 1 551 921 permanent residents were registered in Yinzhou, in whom 51.52% were women. The M(Q1,Q3) age at enrollment was 40.38 (27.54, 53.54) years. The M(Q1,Q3) of follow-up person-years was 3.83 (0.41, 5.83) years. There were 451 new SLE cases, in which 352 were women (78.05%). The 6-year incidence density was 8.14/100 000 person-years (95%CI: 7.41/100 000 person-years-8.93/100 000 person-years) for the total population, 3.68/100 000 person-years (95%CI: 2.99/100 000 person-years-4.48/100 000 person-years) for men and 12.37/100 000 person-years (95%CI: 11.11/100 000 person-years- 13.73/100 000 person-years) for women. The incidence density in men appeared a small peak at 20-29 years old, and began to increase with age from 40 years old. The incidence density in women was highest in age group 20-29 years (16.57/100 000 person-years) and remained to be high until 30-79 years old. The incidence density of SLE in Yinzhou show no significant temporal trend from 2016 to 2021 (men: P=0.848; women: P=1.000). Conclusions: The incidence density of SLE in Yinzhou from 2016 to 2021 was similar to those of other areas in China. SLE has a high incidence in women, especially in the young and elderly, suggesting that more attention should be paid to the diagnosis and treatment of SLE in women.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Asian People , Incidence , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , China/epidemiology
11.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 891-898, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985492

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the causal effects of the serum Vitamin D levels on the risk of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods: A two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) study was performed to infer the causality. Three Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for circulating Vitamin D levels, including 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] and C3-epimer of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [C3-epi-25(OH)D3] published in 2020, and one GWAS for SLE published in 2015 were utilized to analyze the causal effects of the serum Vitamin D levels on the risk of SLE. MR analyses were conducted using the inverse-variance weighted method (IVW), weighted median, MR-Egger methods, MR-pleiotropy residual sum and outlier (MR-PRESSO) method. Results: 34, 29 and 6 SNPs were respectively selected as instrumental variables to analyze the causal association of total 25 (OH) D level, 25 (OH) D3 level and C3-epi-25 (OH) D3 level with the risk of SLE. The MR results showed that each standard deviation decrease in the level of 25(OH)D3 would result in 14.2% higher risk of SLE (OR, 0.858; 95%CI, 0.753-0.978; P=0.022). The levels of 25(OH)D and C3-epi-25(OH)D3 had null associations with risk of SLE (OR, 0.849; 95%CI, 0.653-1.104; P=0.222; OR, 0.904; 95%CI, 0.695-1.176; P=0.452). Conclusion: This study have identified a causal effect of 25(OH)D3 on increased risk of SLE. These findings highlighted the significance of active monitoring and prevention of SLE in population of low Vitamin D levels.


Subject(s)
Humans , Genome-Wide Association Study , Vitamin D , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Vitamins , Causality , Mendelian Randomization Analysis/methods , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
12.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 43-57, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971633

ABSTRACT

Autoimmune-related skin diseases are a group of disorders with diverse etiology and pathophysiology involved in autoimmunity. Genetics and environmental factors may contribute to the development of these autoimmune disorders. Although the etiology and pathogenesis of these disorders are poorly understood, environmental variables that induce aberrant epigenetic regulations may provide some insights. Epigenetics is the study of heritable mechanisms that regulate gene expression without changing DNA sequences. The most important epigenetic mechanisms are DNA methylation, histone modification, and noncoding RNAs. In this review, we discuss the most recent findings regarding the function of epigenetic mechanisms in autoimmune-related skin disorders, including systemic lupus erythematosus, bullous skin diseases, psoriasis, and systemic sclerosis. These findings will expand our understanding and highlight the possible clinical applications of precision epigenetics approaches.


Subject(s)
Humans , Autoimmune Diseases/genetics , Epigenesis, Genetic , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/genetics , DNA Methylation , Psoriasis/genetics
13.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 549-561, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982581

ABSTRACT

Immunoglobulin (IgG) glycosylation affects the effector functions of IgG in a myriad of biological processes and has been closely associated with numerous autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), thus underlining the pathogenic role of glycosylation aberration in autoimmunity. This study aims to explore the relationship between IgG sialylation patterns and lupus pregnancy. Relative to that in serum samples from the control cohort, IgG sialylation level was aberrantly downregulated in serum samples from the SLE cohort at four stages (from preconception to the third trimester of pregnancy) and was significantly associated with lupus activity and fetal loss during lupus pregnancy. The type I interferon signature of pregnant patients with SLE was negatively correlated with the level of IgG sialylation. The lack of sialylation dampened the ability of IgG to suppress the functions of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). RNA-seq analysis further revealed that the expression of genes associated with the spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) signaling pathway significantly differed between IgG- and deSia-IgG-treated pDCs. This finding was confirmed by the attenuation of the ability to phosphorylate SYK and BLNK in deSia-IgG. Finally, the coculture of pDCs isolated from pregnant patients with SLE with IgG/deSia-IgG demonstrated the sialylation-dependent anti-inflammatory function of IgG. Our findings suggested that IgG influences lupus activity through regulating pDCs function via the modulation of the SYK pathway in a sialic acid-dependent manner.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pregnancy , Female , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/pathology , Signal Transduction , N-Acetylneuraminic Acid/metabolism , Immunoglobulin G , Dendritic Cells/pathology
14.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 789-794, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982349

ABSTRACT

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) complicated with acquired hemophilia A (AHA) is a rare condition with frequently delayed diagnosis and a high mortality rate, so it is necessary to strengthen the understanding of this disease. In this study, the characteristics and treatment in 1 case of SLE complicated by AHA is reported and analyzed, and a literature review is conducted. The patient was a 29-year-old young female with a 10-year history of SLE, the main clinical manifestation was severe abdominal bleeding. Laboratory tests revealed that the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) was notably prolonged (118.20 s), and the coagulation factor VIII activity (FVIII꞉C) was extremely decreased (0.20%) with high-titer of factor VIII (FVIII) inhibitor (31.2 BU/mL). After treating with high-dose glucocorticoid, immunoglobulin, cyclophosphamide, rituximab, blood transfusion, and intravenous infusion of human coagulation FVIII, the coagulation function and coagulation FVIII꞉C were improved, and FVIII inhibitor was negative without serious adverse reactions. During the next 5-year follow-up, the patient's condition was stable and no bleeding occurred. In the case of coagulation dysfunction in SLE, especially with isolated APTT prolongation, AHA should be screened. When the therapeutic effects of glucocorticoid combined with immunosuppressants are not desirable, rituximab could be introduced.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Adult , Hemophilia A/therapy , Rituximab , Glucocorticoids , Factor VIII , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Hemorrhage/complications
15.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 889-895, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982146

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the expression and clinical significance of soluble Fas (sFas) and sFasL in patients with secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH).@*METHODS@#From September 2015 to December 2020, 86 sHLH patients who met the HLH2004 diagnostic criteria were collected. They were divided into 55 cases in the MAHLH group and 31 cases in the NonMAHLH group according to the etiology. Thirty healthy persons were chosen as the normal control group, and 20 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) were chosen as the disease control group. The expression levels of sFas and sFasL in the serum of patients with each group were detected by ELISA, and the clinical data were collected for statistical analysis. The significance of sFas and sFasL in sHLH was analyzed by ROC curve.@*RESULTS@#Serum levels of sFas and sFasL in patients with newly diagnosed sHLH were significantly higher than those in disease control group and normal control group (P<0.01). The levels of sFas and sFasL in MAHLH group were significantly higher than those in nonMAHLH (infection related HLH and autoimmune disease related HLH) group (P<0.01). The serum levels of sFas and sFasL in 17 newly treated patients with sHLH (17/86) after treatment were significantly lower than those before treatment (P<0.01). The serum sFas level in newly diagnosed sHLH patients was positively correlated with SF(r=0.35), sCD25(r=0.79) and sFasL(r=0.73). The serum sFasL level was positively correlated with SF(r=0.39), sCD25(r=0.64) and sFas(r=0.73). Compared with the NonMAHLH group, the area under the ROC curve was 0.707 (95% CI: 0.593-0.821) (P=0.0015). The optimal critical value for diagnosing MAHLH by sFas level was 12 743 pg/ml, and the sensitivity and specificity were 70.9% and 71% respectively. Compared with the NonMAHLH group, the area under the ROC curve was 0.765(95% CI: 0.659-0.87)(P<0.01). The median OS time of sFas high expression group (≥16798.5 pg/ml) and sFasL high expression group (≥4 785 pg/ml) was significantly shorter than that of the low expression group (P<0.001).@*CONCLUSION@#Serum levels of sFas and sFasL can be used for the early diagnosis and differential diagnosis of sHLH disease, and are the factor related to the poor prognosis of sHLH.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic , Clinical Relevance , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic
16.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 415-419, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981972

ABSTRACT

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune connective tissue disease that affects multiple organs and systems. It is more common in women of childbearing age. Compared with the general population, pregnant women with SLE are at a significantly increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes such as preterm birth and intrauterine growth restriction. In addition, the offspring of SLE patients may also be adversely affected by in utero exposure to maternal autoantibodies, cytokines, and drugs. This article summarizes the long-term developmental outcomes of offspring of pregnant women with SLE in terms of the blood system, circulatory system, nervous system, and immune system.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy , Humans , Female , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Pregnant Women , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Premature Birth/etiology , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic
17.
Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery ; (12): 605-614, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981640

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To describe the disease characteristics of osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) who experiencing prolonged glucocorticoid (GC) exposure.@*METHODS@#Between January 2016 and June 2019, 449 SLE patients meeting the criteria were recruited from multiple centers. Hip MRI examinations were performed during screening and regular follow-up to determine the occurrence of ONFH. The cohort was divided into ONFH and non-ONFH groups, and the differences in demographic baseline characteristics, general clinical characteristics, GC medication information, combined medication, and hip clinical features were compared and comprehensively described.@*RESULTS@#The age at SLE diagnosis was 29.8 (23.2, 40.9) years, with 93.1% (418 cases) being female. The duration of GC exposure was 5.3 (2.0, 10.5) years, and the cumulative incidence of SLE-ONFH was 9.1%. Significant differences ( P<0.05) between ONFH and non-ONFH groups were observed in the following clinical characteristics: ① Demographic baseline characteristics: ONFH group had a higher proportion of patients with body mass index (BMI)<20 kg/m 2 compared to non-ONFH group. ② General clinical characteristics: ONFH group showed a higher proportion of patients with cutaneous and renal manifestations, positive antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) and anticardiolipin antibodies, severe SLE patients [baseline SLE Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K) score ≥15], and secondary hypertension. Fasting blood glucose in ONFH group was also higher. ③ GC medication information: ONFH group had higher initial intravenous GC exposure rates, duration, cumulative doses, higher cumulative GC doses in the first month and the first 3 months, higher average daily doses in the first 3 months, and higher proportions of average daily doses ≥15.0 mg/d and ≥30.0 mg/d, as well as higher full-course average daily doses and proportion of full-course daily doses ≥30.0 mg/d compared to non-ONFH group. ④ Combined medications: ONFH group had a significantly higher rate of antiplatelet drug use than non-ONFH group. ⑤ Hip clinical features: ONFH group had a higher proportion of hip discomfort or pain and a higher incidence of hip joint effusion before MRI screening than non-ONFH group.@*CONCLUSION@#The incidence of ONFH after GC exposure in China's SLE population remains high (9.1%), with short-term (first 3 months), medium-to-high dose (average daily dose ≥15 mg/d) GC being closely associated with ONFH. Severe SLE, low BMI, certain clinical phenotypes, positive aPLs, and secondary hypertension may also be related to ONFH.


Subject(s)
Female , Male , Humans , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Incidence , Femur Head , Prospective Studies , Femur Head Necrosis/epidemiology , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/chemically induced , Hypertension/drug therapy
18.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244123, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278562

ABSTRACT

Abstract Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is an important component of the innate immune system and have been associated with several autoimmune diseases, such as Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). The aim of this study was to investigate polymorphisms in TLR9 gene in a Brazilian SLE patients group and their association with clinical manifestation, particularly Jaccoud's arthropathy (JA). We analyzed DNA samples from 204 SLE patients, having a subgroup of them presenting JA (n=24). A control group (n=133) from the same city was also included. TLR9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (−1237 C>T and +2848 G>A) were identified by sequencing analysis. The TLR9 gene genotype frequency was similar both in SLE patients and the control group. In the whole SLE population, an association between the homozygosis of allele C at position −1237 with psychosis and anemia (p < 0.01) was found. Likewise, the homozygosis of allele G at position +2848 was associated with a discoid rash (p < 0.05). There was no association between JA and TLR9 polymorphisms. These data show that TLR9 polymorphisms do not seem to be a predisposing factor for SLE in the Brazilian population, and that SNPs are not associated with JA.


Resumo O receptor Toll-like 9 (TLR9) é um componente importante do sistema imunológico inato e tem sido associado a várias doenças autoimunes, como o Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico (LES). O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar polimorfismos no gene TLR9 em um grupo de pacientes brasileiros com LES e sua associação com a manifestação clínica, particularmente a artropatia de Jaccoud (JA). Foram analisadas amostras de DNA de 204 pacientes com LES, e um subgrupo com JA (n=24). Um grupo de controle (n=133) da mesma cidade também foi incluído. Os polimorfismos de nucleotídeos únicos TLR9 (SNPs) (−1237 C>T e +2848 G>A) foram identificados pela análise de sequenciamento. A frequência do genótipo genético TLR9 foi semelhante tanto em pacientes com LES quanto no grupo controle. Em toda a população de LES, foi encontrada associação entre a homozigose do alelo C na posição −1237 com psicose e anemia (p < 0,01). Da mesma forma, a homozigose do alelo G na posição +2848 foi associada a uma erupção cutânea discoide (p < 0,05). Não houve associação entre polimorfismos JA e TLR9. Esses dados mostram que os polimorfismos TLR9 não parecem ser um fator predisponível para o LES na população brasileira, e que os SNPs não estão associados ao JA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Toll-Like Receptor 9/genetics , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/genetics , Brazil , Pilot Projects , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Gene Frequency/genetics
19.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 27(3): 1164-1172, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1425449

ABSTRACT

O Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico (LES) é uma patologia crônica, de origem autoimune e inflamatória. As diversas manifestações clínicas existentes em pacientes acometidos pelo LES, sejam elas sistêmicas ou órgãos-alvo, possibilitam variados diagnósticos diferenciais. Dentre as manifestações clínicas que possibilitam estes diagnósticos está o acometimento cutâneo, com vasta variabilidade de apresentação. Da mesma forma, a sífilis também possui apresentação cutânea, tornando possível o diferencial de diagnóstico com outras patologias, inclusive o próprio LES. O presente estudo tem como objetivo relatar um caso de sífilis mimetizando lúpus eritematoso sistêmico, descrever o quadro clínico apresentado pelo paciente, bem como as ferramentas utilizadas para diagnóstico, e a posterior abordagem terapêutica. O caso relatado refere-se a um paciente de 29 anos, do sexo masculino, procedente de Campos Novos (SC), que apresentou um quadro clínico e laboratorial de lúpus-like induzido por uma infecção aguda de sífilis. A resolução completa de critérios inflamatórios de LES ocorreu após tratamento correto da doença infecciosa, com total melhora clínica e sorológica.


Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease. The various clinical manifestations in SLE patients, both systemic and in target organs, allow for various differential diagnoses. Among the clinical manifestations that aid in diagnosis are the cutaneous injuries, which have a wide range of presentations. Syphilis also has cutaneous manifestations, which aid in the differential diagnosis from other pathologies, including SLE. The present study aims to report a case of syphilis mimicking SLE, describe the clinical condition presented by the patient, the tools used for diagnosis, and the therapeutic approach. The case reported refers to a 29- year-old male patient from Campos Novos (SC), who showed a clinical and laboratory lupus-like condition induced by an acute syphilis infection. The full resolution of SLE inflammatory criteria occurred following appropriate treatment for the infectious disease, with complete clinical and serological improvement.


El lupus eritematoso sistémico (LES) es una enfermedad inflamatoria autoinmune crónica. Las diversas manifestaciones clínicas de los pacientes con LES, tanto sistémicas como en órganos diana, permiten realizar varios diagnósticos diferenciales. Entre las manifestaciones clínicas que ayudan al diagnóstico se encuentran las lesiones cutáneas, que tienen una amplia gama de presentaciones. La sífilis también tiene manifestaciones cutáneas, que ayudan al diagnóstico diferencial con otras patologías, incluido el LES. El presente estudio tiene como objetivo comunicar un caso de sífilis que simula un LES, describir el cuadro clínico presentado por la paciente, las herramientas utilizadas para el diagnóstico y el abordaje terapéutico. El caso relatado se refiere a un paciente masculino de 29 años, natural de Campos Novos (SC), que presentó un cuadro clínico y de laboratorio semejante al lupus, inducido por una infección aguda por sífilis. La resolución completa de los criterios inflamatorios del LES ocurrió tras el tratamiento adecuado de la enfermedad infecciosa, con mejoría clínica y serológica completa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Syphilis/diagnosis , Syphilis/pathology , Syphilis/therapy , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/diagnosis , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/pathology , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/therapy , Skin Manifestations , Adaptation, Biological , Communicable Diseases/pathology , Communicable Diseases/therapy , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Case Reports as Topic , Infections/diagnosis
20.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 45(2): 196-203, Apr.-June 2023. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1448348

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction The Evans syndrome (ES) is a rare, often chronic, relapsing and treatment-refractory hematological disorder. We described the clinical features, diagnostic workup, treatment and outcome in patients with ES. Method We performed a retrospective chart review of patients aged < 18 years with ES admitted to a tertiary center in Brazil from 2001 to 2021. The analysis of the data was primarily descriptive, using median, interquartile range and categorical variables presented in absolute frequencies. Main results Twenty patients (12 female, 8 male) were evaluated in this study. The median age at the initial cytopenia was 4.98 years (1.30-12.57). The ES was secondary in nine cases (45%), of which six patients (30%) showed autoimmune disease (AID) or primary immunodeficiencies (PID) and one presented a spontaneous recovery. Steroids and intravenous immunoglobulin were first-line therapy in 19 cases. Twelve patients (63%) required second-line treatments (rituximab, cyclosporine, splenectomy, sirolimus, cyclophosphamide, mycophenolate mofetil, azathioprine and eltrombopag). The median follow-up period was 2.41 years (1.4 -7.52). One patient (5%) died of underlying neuroblastoma, one case (5%) was lost to follow-up and four patients (20%) received a medical discharge. The median age for the 14 remaining cases was 12.6 years. Twelve patients (85.7%) were in complete response (CR) with no therapies. Two patients (14.3%) were in CR with chronic therapy. Conclusion As ES may be a symptom of AID and PID, a thorough rheumatological, immunologic and genetic workup and a careful follow-up are essential. The second-line treatment remains a dilemma. Further prospective studies are needed to address the optimal therapeutic combinations, morbidity and mortality in this disorder.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune , Pediatrics , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic
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