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Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 1-17, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971636


A long-held belief is that pituitary hormones bind to their cognate receptors in classical target glands to actuate their manifold functions. However, a number of studies have shown that multiple types of pituitary hormone receptors are widely expressed in non-classical target organs. Each pituitary gland-derived hormone exhibits a wide range of nonconventional biological effects in these non-classical target organs. Herein, the extra biological functions of pituitary hormones, thyroid-stimulating hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, adrenocorticotrophic hormone, and prolactin when they act on non-classical organs were summarized, defined by the novel concept of an "atypical pituitary hormone-target tissue axis." This novel proposal explains the pathomechanisms of abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism, obesity, hypertension, fatty liver, and atherosclerosis while offering a more comprehensive and systematic insights into the coordinated regulation of environmental factors, genetic factors, and neuroendocrine hormones on human biological functions. The continued exploration of the physiology of the "atypical pituitary hormone-target tissue axis" could enable the identification of novel therapeutic targets for metabolic diseases.

Humans , Pituitary Hormones/metabolism , Luteinizing Hormone , Follicle Stimulating Hormone , Prolactin , Pituitary Gland/metabolism
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 776-780, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980795


OBJECTIVE@#To observe the efficacy and safety of acupuncture combined with auricular point sticking for girls aged 3-8 years with incomplete precocious puberty (IPP).@*METHODS@#Sixty girls with IPP were randomly divided into an observation group (30 cases, 2 cases dropped off) and a control group (30 cases, 2 cases were eliminated). The girls in the control group were treated with healthy diet and proper exercise for 12 weeks. On the basis of the treatment in the control group, the girls in the observation group were treated with acupuncture combined with auricular point sticking. The acupuncture was applied at Sanyinjiao (SP 6), Guanyuan (CV 4), Guilai (ST 29), etc., the needles were retained for 20 min, acupuncture was given twice a week (once every 3 days). The auricular point sticking was applied at Luanchao (TF2), Neishengzhiqi (TF2), Neifenmi (CO18), Yuanzhong (AT2,3,4i), etc., twice a week. The treatment was given for 12 weeks. Before treatment, after treatment and in follow-up after 12 weeks of treatment completion, the Tanner stage of breast, serum contents of sex hormone (luteinizing hormone [LH], follicle-stimulating hormone [FSH], estradiol [E2]) were observed. The ovarian volume, the number of follicles with diameter>4 mm, and the uterine volume were measured by abdominal color Doppler ultrasound. In addition, the safety of the observation group was evaluated.@*RESULTS@#Compared with before treatment, the Tanner stage of breast in the observation group was improved after treatment and in follow-up (P<0.05); after treatment and in follow-up, the Tanner stage of breast in the observation group was better than that in the control group (P<0.05). Compared with before treatment, the serum levels of LH and E2 in the observation group were increased (P<0.05), and the volume of bilateral ovaries was larger (P<0.05) in follow-up. Compared with before treatment, the serum contents of LH, FSH and E2 in the control group were increased (P<0.05), the volume of bilateral ovaries was larger (P<0.05), and the number of follicles was increased (P<0.05) after treatment and in follow-up. The serum levels of LH, FSH and E2 in the observation group were lower than those in the control group (P<0.05), the volume of bilateral ovaries was smaller than that in the control group (P<0.05), and the number of follicles was lower than that in the control group (P<0.05). Compared with before treatment, the uterine volume in the two groups was larger in follow-up (P<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups after treatment and in follow-up (P>0.05). During the treatment, 3 cases in the observation group had slight abdominal pain and subcutaneous blood stasis, without serious adverse reactions.@*CONCLUSION@#Acupuncture combined with auricular point sticking could improve the Tanner stage of breast, reduce the level of sex hormone, slow down the development and maturation of ovary and follicle, and control the degree and speed of sexual development in girls aged 3-8 years with IPP.

Female , Humans , Puberty, Precocious/therapy , Acupuncture Therapy , Estradiol , Luteinizing Hormone , Ovary
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 577-584, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986964


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the mechanism underlying the inhibitory effect of quercetin against testicular oxidative damage induced by a mixture of 3 commonly used phthalates (MPEs) in rats.@*METHODS@#Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control group, MPEs exposure group, and MPEs with low-, median- and high-dose quercetin treatment groups. For MPEs exposure, the rats were subjected to intragastric administration of MPEs at the daily dose of 900 mg/kg for 30 consecutive days; Quercetin treatments were administered in the same manner at the daily dose of 10, 30, and 90 mg/kg. After the treatments, serum levels of testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and testicular malondialdeyhde (MDA), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were detected, and testicular pathologies of the rats were observed with HE staining. The expressions of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), Kelch-like ECH2 associated protein 1 (Keap1) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) in the testis were detected using immunofluorescence assay and Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, the rats with MPEs exposure showed significant reductions of the anogenital distance, weight of the testis and epididymis, and the coefficients of the testis and epididymis with lowered serum testosterone, LH and FSH levels (P < 0.05). Testicular histological examination revealed atrophy of the seminiferous tubules, spermatogenic arrest, and hyperplasia of the Leydig cells in MPEs-exposed rats. MPEs exposure also caused significant increments of testicular Nrf2, MDA, SOD, CAT and HO-1 expressions and lowered testicular Keap1 expression (P < 0.05). Treatment with quercetin at the median and high doses significantly ameliorated the pathological changes induced by MPEs exposure (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Quercetin treatment inhibits MPEs-induced oxidative testicular damage in rats possibly by direct scavenging of free radicals to lower testicular oxidative stress and restore the regulation of the Nrf2 signaling pathway.

Rats , Male , Animals , Testis , Quercetin/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Testosterone/pharmacology , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Follicle Stimulating Hormone , Luteinizing Hormone
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 159-165, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971054


OBJECTIVES@#To study the value of basal luteinizing hormone (LH) level combined with uterine volume measurement in the early diagnosis of central precocious puberty (CPP) in girls with different Tanner stages.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on the girls who presented with breast development before the age of 8 years and attended the Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from January 2017 to September 2022. According to the results of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist test, the girls with peak LH ≥5.0 IU/L and peak LH/follicle stimulating hormone ≥0.6 were enrolled as the positive group, and the other girls were enrolled as the negative group. The two groups were compared in terms of the basal LH level and uterine volume. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to analyze their value in the early diagnosis of CPP.@*RESULTS@#For the girls with Tanner B2 and B3 stages, the positive group had significantly higher basal LH level and uterine volume than the negative group (P<0.05). The basal LH level had an optimal cut-off value of 0.325 IU/L and 0.505 IU/L respectively in the diagnosis of Tanner stage B2/B3 CPP, while uterine volume had an optimal cut-off value of 1.639 mL and 2.158 mL respectively. Basal LH level combined with uterine volume measurement had a significantly larger area under the ROC curve than uterine volume measurement alone (P<0.001), but with no significant difference compared with that of basal LH level measurement alone (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Basal LH level combined with uterine volume measurement is valuable in the early diagnosis of CPP in girls with different Tanner stages, which provides a basis and guiding significance for clinical diagnosis of CPP.

Child , Female , Humans , Early Diagnosis , Luteinizing Hormone/chemistry , Puberty, Precocious/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Uterus/pathology
Medicina (Ribeirão Preto) ; 55(4)dez. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1417454


Background: Some studies indicated that body mass index (BMI) is inversely proportional to serum testosterone concentrations in men. Purposes: This study aimed to analyze the effects of aging and obesity on total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT), bioavailable testosterone (BT), luteinizing hormone (LH), and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed to assess the clinical and laboratory profiles of 701 patients treated at a private urology clinic in Ponta Grossa, Brazil, from January 2016 to December 2018. Results: Patients' age ranged from 16 to 88 years (mean, 56.9 ± 13.62 years). Age did not significantly influence serum TT concentrations, except compared to patients aged >70 years. However, changes were observed in FT and BT (p < 0.05). The mean SHBG increased with age (p < 0.05). A tendency toward LH elevation was observed in older patients, but it was not statistically significant. An inverse proportional relationship between TT, FT, and BT and the testosterone deficiency rate (TT < 300 ng/dL) was observed within BMI groups (p < 0.05). The testosterone deficiency rate was 21.5% in individuals with normal BMI, 29% in overweight individuals, and 37% in obese individuals. Conclusions: Aging affected the testosterone concentrations in men and became increasingly evident using FT and BT instead of TT. SHBG increased with age. Obesity was associated with a decrease in TT, FT, and BT but also increased the rate of hypogonadism. (AU)

Fundamentos: Alguns estudos indicam que o índice de massa corporal (IMC) é inversamente proporcional à con-centração de testosterona sérica em homens. Objetivos: O objetivo deste estudo é analisar o efeito do envelhe-cimento e da obesidade na testosterona biodisponível total e livre, bem como nos níveis de hormônio luteinizante e globulina ligadora de hormônio sexual. Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo transversal abordando o perfil clínico e laboratorial de 701 pacientes atendidos em uma clínica privada de urologia em Ponta Grossa, Brasil, de janei-ro de 2016 a dezembro de 2018. Resultados: A idade dos pacientes variou de 16 a 88 anos (média de 56,9 ± 13,62 anos). A idade não influenciou significativamente as concentrações séricas de testosterona total, exceto quando comparada a pacientes com mais de 70 anos. No entanto, foi observada diferença na testosterona livre e biodisponível (p <0,05). A média de globulina de ligação aos hormônios sexuais aumentou com a idade (p <0,05). Embora uma tendência à elevação da luteinização tenha sido observada em pacientes mais idosos, ela não foi significativa. Relação inversa entre testosterona total, livre e biodisponível e taxa de deficiência de testosterona (testosterona total <300 ng / dL) foi observada dentro dos grupos de índice de massa corporal (p <0,05). A taxa de deficiência de testosterona em indivíduos com índice de massa corporal normal foi de 21,5%, indivíduos com sobre-peso foi de 29% e em indivíduos com obesidade foi de 37%. Conclusões: O envelhecimento afetou a concentração de testosterona em homens, mais evidente ao avaliar testosterona livre e biodisponível em vez de testosterona total. A globulina de ligação aos hormônios sexuais aumentou com a idade. A obesidade foi associada à redução da testosterona total, livre e biodisponível e ao aumento da taxa de hipogonadismo. (AU)

Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aging , Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin , Luteinizing Hormone , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hypogonadism
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(1): S1-S8, feb 2022. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1353845


Desde hace varias décadas, los análogos de la hormona liberadora de gonadotrofinas (aGnRH) son el tratamiento de elección en la pubertad precoz central (PPC) en niñas y en niños. Causan una inhibición del eje hipotálamo-hipófiso-gonadal, disminuyen la secreción de gonadotrofinas, estradiol y testosterona; como consecuencia, producen una regresión de los caracteres sexuales secundarios durante el tratamiento. En los últimos años, estos análogos también se utilizan en adolescentes transgénero, en adolescentes y adultas jóvenes con enfermedades oncológicas, en algunas situaciones muy particulares en niños y niñas con talla baja, y en pacientes con trastornos del neurodesarrollo. En Argentina, los más utilizados son el acetato de triptorelina y el acetato de leuprolide en sus formas de depósito. Estos medicamentos han demostrado eficacia y seguridad. El objetivo de esta publicación es realizar una revisión y actualización del uso de los aGnRH en niños, niñas y adolescentes.

For several decades, gonadotropin releasing hormone analogs (GnRHa) are the medical treatment selected for central precocious puberty (CPP) in girls and boys. They generate an inhibition of the hypothalamus-pituitarygonadal axis decreasing LH, FSH, estradiol and testosterone secretion and, in this way, they produce a regression of secondary sexual characters under treatment. In the last years, these analogs are also used in trans adolescents, in adolescents and young adults with oncological diseases, in some very particular situations in children with short stature and in patients with neurodevelopmental disorders. In Argentina the most commonly used formulations are triptorelin and leuprolide acetate depot forms. These analogs have proven both their efficacy and their safety. The aim of this paper is to review and update about the use of GnRHa in children and adolescents.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Puberty, Precocious/drug therapy , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone/analogs & derivatives , Luteinizing Hormone , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone/therapeutic use , Leuprolide/therapeutic use , Triptorelin Pamoate/therapeutic use
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 163-172, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929221


OBJECTIVE@#Moxibustion, a common therapy in traditional Chinese medicine, has potential benefits for treating decreased ovarian reserve (DOR). The present study investigates the protective effect of moxibustion in a rat model of DOR and explores the possible mechanisms.@*METHODS@#Sixty-four female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: control, DOR, moxibustion (MOX), and hormone replacement therapy (HRT). The DOR rat model was established by intragastric administration of 50 mg/kg Tripterygium glycoside suspension (TGS), once daily for 14 days. MOX and HRT treatments were given from the day TGS administration was initiated. The ovarian reserve function was evaluated by monitoring the estrus cycle, morphological changes in ovaries, levels of serum estradiol (E2), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), pregnancy rate and embryo numbers. Terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick-end-labeling staining was used to identify ovarian granulosa cell apoptosis, while the protein and mRNA expressions of Bax, B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase B (AKT) in ovarian tissues were examined by immunohistochemistry, Western blot and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the DOR group, MOX improved the disordered estrous cycle, promoted follicular growth, reduced the number of atresia follicles, increased the concentrations of serum E2 and AMH, and decreased serum FSH and LH concentrations. More importantly, the pregnancy rate and embryo numbers in DOR rats were both upregulated in the MOX treatment group, compared to the untreated DOR model. Further, we found that the MOX group had reduced apoptosis of ovarian granulosa cells, increased Bcl-2 expression and reduced expression of Bax. Furthermore, the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway was triggered by the moxibustion treatment.@*CONCLUSION@#Moxibustion improved ovarian function and suppressed apoptosis of ovarian granulosa cells in a rat model of DOR induced by TGS, and the mechanism may involve the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.

Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Follicle Stimulating Hormone , Luteinizing Hormone , Moxibustion , Ovarian Reserve , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/pharmacology , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/genetics
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 195-201, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928929


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the therapeutic effect of Bushen Yiqi Huoxue Decoction BYHD) in patients with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR).@*METHODS@#A total of 180 patients with DOR diagnosed from December 2013 to December 2014 were equally assigned into progynova and duphaston (E+D) group, Zuogui Pill group and BYHD group with 60 cases in each by computerized randomization. Patients received E+D, Zuogui Pill or BYHD for 12 months, respectively. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol (E2), anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), antral follicle count (AFC), ovarian volume, endometrial thickness, and the resistance indices (RIs) of ovarian arteries and uterine arteries were observed before and after treatment.@*RESULTS@#Nine women (4 from the E+D group, 3 from the Zuogui Pill group, and 2 from the BYHD group) withdrew from the study. After 6 months, Zuogui Pill and BYHD significantly decreased FSH and LH and increased endometrial thickness and AMH (all P<0.01). BYHD also resulted in E2 elevation (P<0.05), ovary enlargement (P<0.05), AFC increase (P<0.01), and RI of ovarian arteries decrease (P<0.05). After 12 months, further improvements were observed in the Zuogui Pill and BYHD groups (all P<0.01), but BYHD showed better outcomes, with lower FSH, larger ovaries and a thicker endometrium compared with the Zuogui Pill group (all P<0.01). However, E+D only significantly increased endometrial thickness (P<0.01) and no significant improvements were observed in the RI of uterine arteries in the three groups.@*CONCLUSIONS@#BYHD had a favorable therapeutic effect in patients with DOR by rebalancing hormone levels, promoting ovulation, and repairing the thin endometrium. The combination of tonifying Shen (Kidney), benefiting qi and activating blood circulation may be a promising therapeutic strategy for DOR.

Female , Humans , Anti-Mullerian Hormone/pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Follicle Stimulating Hormone , Luteinizing Hormone , Ovarian Reserve
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 274-286, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928554


Nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA) refers to the failure of spermatogenesis, which affects approximately 1% of the male population and contributes to 10% of male infertility. NOA has an underlying basis of endocrine imbalances since proper human spermatogenesis relies on complex regulation and cooperation of multiple hormones. A better understanding of subtle hormonal disturbances in NOA would help design and improve hormone therapies with reduced risk in human fertility clinics. The purpose of this review is to summarize the research on the endocrinological aspects of NOA, especially the hormones involved in hypothalamic-pituitary-testis axis (HPTA), including gonadotropin-releasing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, testosterone, estradiol, sex hormone binding globulin, inhibin B, anti-Müllerian hormone, and leptin. For the NOA men associated with primary testicular failure, the quality of currently available evidence has not been sufficient enough to recommend any general hormone optimization therapy. Some other NOA patients, especially those with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, could be treated with hormonal replacement. Although these approaches have succeeded in resuming the fertility in many NOA patients, the prudent strategies should be applied in individuals according to specific NOA etiology by balancing fertility benefits and potential risks. This review also discusses how NOA can be induced by immunization against hormones.

Humans , Male , Azoospermia/etiology , Follicle Stimulating Hormone , Luteinizing Hormone , Sperm Retrieval , Testis , Testosterone/therapeutic use
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 21-25, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928520


Prior research suggests a link between circulating levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and prostate cancer outcomes. FSH levels may also explain some of the observed differences in cardiovascular events among men treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists compared to GnRH agonists. This study evaluates the association between preoperative FSH and long-term cardiovascular and oncologic outcomes in a cohort of men with long follow-up after radical prostatectomy. We performed a cohort study utilizing an institutional biobank with annotated clinical data. FSH levels were measured from cryopreserved plasma and compared with sex steroids previously measured from the same samples. Differences in oncologic outcomes between tertiles of FSH levels were compared using adjusted cox regression models. Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) were similarly assessed using hospital admission diagnostic codes. A total of 492 patients were included, with a median follow-up of 13.1 (interquartile range: 8.9-15.9) years. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) levels, but not other androgens, negatively correlated with FSH levels on linear regression analysis (P = 0.03). There was no association between FSH tertile and outcomes of biochemical recurrence, time to castrate-resistant prostate cancer, or time to metastasis. MACEs were identified in 50 patients (10.2%), with a mean time to first event of 8.8 years. No association with FSH tertile and occurrence of MACE was identified. Our results do not suggest that preoperative FSH levels are significantly associated with oncologic outcomes among prostate cancer patients treated with radical prostatectomy, nor do these levels appear to be predictors of long-term cardiovascular risk.

Humans , Male , Cohort Studies , Follicle Stimulating Hormone , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone , Luteinizing Hormone , Prostatectomy , Prostatic Neoplasms/surgery
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 370-380, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939572


Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common disease caused by complex endocrine and metabolic abnormalities in women of childbearing age. Metformin is the most widely used oral hypoglycemic drug in clinic. In recent years, metformin has been used in the treatment of PCOS, but its mechanism is not clear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of metformin on PCOS and its mechanism through PCOS mouse model. Female C57BL/6J mice aged 4-5 weeks were intragastrically given letrozole (1 mg/kg daily) combined with a high-fat diet (HFD) for 21 days to establish the PCOS model. After modeling, metformin (200 mg/kg daily) was intragastrically administered. One month later, the body weight and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were measured. Hematoxylin eosin (H&E) staining was used to detect the pathological changes of ovary. The serum levels of anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), E2 and testosterone (T) were measured by ELISA. The expression of DDX4/MVH was detected by immunohistochemistry. DDX4/MVH and PCNA were co-labeled by immunofluorescence. The protein levels of DDX4/MVH, PCNA, cyclin D2, AMPK and mTOR were detected by Western blot. The results showed that after metformin treatment, the body weights of PCOS mice were gradually returned to normal, glucose tolerance was significantly improved, serum E2 levels were increased, while AMH, LH, T levels and LH/FSH ratio were decreased. Ovarian polycystic lesions were reduced with reduced atresia follicles. Furthermore, the number of proliferative female germline stem cells (FGSCs) and levels of proliferation related proteins (PCNA, cyclin D2) were significantly increased, and the p-mTOR and p-AMPK levels were markedly up-regulated. These results suggest that metformin treatment not only improves hyperandrogenemia, glucose intolerance and polycystic ovarian lesions in PCOS, but also activates the function of FGSCs. The underlying mechanism may be related to the phosphorylation of AMPK and mTOR. These findings provide new evidence to use metformin in the treatment of PCOS and follicular development disorder.

Animals , Female , Humans , Mice , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Cyclin D2 , Follicle Stimulating Hormone/therapeutic use , Luteinizing Hormone/therapeutic use , Metformin/pharmacology , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Oogonial Stem Cells/metabolism , Ovarian Cysts/drug therapy , Ovarian Neoplasms , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/drug therapy , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen/therapeutic use , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases
Int. j. morphol ; 40(5): 1404-1414, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405270


SUMMARY: In Saudi Arabia, it is widely believed that women with reproductive problems can use the extract of the sage plant as a tea drink. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of this herb on the fertility of female rats and embryo implantation. Forty-eight Wistar virgin female rats were divided into four groups at random, with 12 rats in each group. The control group received distilled water orally. The three treatment groups received different concentrations of sage extract: 15, 60, or 100 mg/kg for 14 days before mating, then mated with a male and sacrificed on the 7th day of gestation, the uterine horns removed, and photographed. The total body weight of mothers, weight of uteri and ovaries and number of fetuses were determined. Ovarian and uteri tissues were cut into 5 µ sections and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Serum FSH, LH were determined by the ELISA method. The present study showed that low dose of sage (15 mg/kg) have no effects on serum concentration levels of FSH and LH hormones, also has no effect on the number of growing follicles. The present study showed a significant differences (P≤0.05) in body weight, ovary and uterus weight in the groups treated with high doses of Salvia officinalis as compared to control group. Also a significant differences (P≤0.05) found in FSH, LH hormones. Histological study showed overall histomorphological structural configurations including growing and matured graafian follicular countable changes, besides a number of corpora lutea and regressed follicles in the treated groups with high doses of Salvia officinalis as compared to control group. The researchers concluded that the extract of the sage plant with high doses can stimulate the growth graafian follicles and improve fertility in female rats.

RESUMEN: En Arabia Saudita, se cree ampliamente que las mujeres con problemas reproductivos pueden usar el extracto de la planta de salvia como bebida de té. Este estudio se realizó para investigar los efectos de esta hierba sobre la fertilidad de las ratas hembra y la implantación del embrión. Se dividieron cuarenta y ocho ratas hembra vírgenes Wistar en cuatro grupos al azar, con 12 ratas en cada grupo. El grupo control recibió agua destilada por vía oral. Los tres grupos de tratamiento recibieron diferentes concentraciones de extracto de salvia: 15, 60 o 100 mg/kg durante 14 días antes del apareamiento, luego se aparearon con un macho y se sacrificaron el día 7 de gestación, se extrajeron los cuernos uterinos y se fotografiaron. Se determinó el peso corporal total de las madres, el peso del útero y los ovarios y el número de fetos. Los tejidos ováricos y uterinos se cortaron en secciones de 5 µ y se tiñeron con hematoxilina y eosina. FSH sérica, LH se determinaron por el método ELISA. El presente estudio mostró que dosis bajas de salvia (15 mg/kg) no tienen efectos sobre los niveles de concentración sérica de las hormonas FSH y LH, tampoco tienen efecto sobre el número de folículos en crecimiento. El presente estudio mostró diferencias significativas (P≤0,05) en el peso corporal, peso de ovario y útero en los grupos tratados con altas dosis de Salvia officinalis en comparación con el grupo control. También se encontraron diferencias significativas (P≤0,05) en las hormonas FSH, LH. El estudio histológico mostró configuraciones estructurales histomorfológicas generales que incluyen cambios contables en los folículos maduros (de Graaf) y en crecimiento, además de una cantidad de cuerpos lúteos y folículos en regresión en los grupos tratados con altas dosis de Salvia officinalis en comparación con el grupo de control. Los investigadores concluyeron que el extracto de la planta de salvia en altas dosis puede estimular el crecimiento de los folículos maduros y mejorar la fertilidad en ratas hembra.

Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Embryo Implantation/drug effects , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Salvia officinalis/chemistry , Fertility/drug effects , Body Weight , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Luteinizing Hormone/analysis , Administration, Oral , Follicle Stimulating Hormone/analysis
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(6): 758-767, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349985


ABSTRACT Objective: Contrast-enhanced brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is routinely performed in children with central precocious puberty (CPP). We evaluated the value of a dedicated sellar MRI protocol without contrast enhancement in girls with CPP. Subjects and methods: This study included 261 girls diagnosed with CPP. We performed sellar MRI scanning without gadolinium enhancement of the hypothalamic-pituitary area (HPA) at the pituitary level, including additional T2-weighted imaging of whole-brain scans to check for other lesions. We evaluated the prevalence of intracranial lesions via this MR protocol. In addition,the correlation between the clinical parameters and morphology of the pituitary gland on the images was assessed. Results: Intracranial lesions were detected in 17 (6.5%) of the 261 girls. Of the 17 girls with abnormalities, 16 (94.1%) had findings in brain areas other than the HPA. The weight, height, Tanner stage of patients were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the group with greater pituitary height. Patient weight and height, Tanner stage of breast development, and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were significantly (p < 0.05) greater in those with a higher pituitary grade as determined on sellar MRI. Conclusion: A dedicated unenhanced sellar MRI protocol provides valuable information on brain lesions and pituitary morphology. We found a significantly low prevalence of brain lesions among girls with CPP. Analysis of the height or shape of the pituitary gland on sellar MRI revealed significant correlations with the weight, height, Tanner stage, and LH levels of the patients.

Humans , Female , Puberty, Precocious/epidemiology , Puberty, Precocious/diagnostic imaging , Luteinizing Hormone , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Prevalence , Contrast Media , Gadolinium
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(10): 749-758, Oct. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357062


Abstract Objective To investigate whether patients with a previous recombinant follicle stimulating hormone (rFSH)-stimulated cycle would have improved outcomes with rFSH + recombinant luteinizing hormone (rLH) stimulation in the following cycle. Methods For the present retrospective case-control study, 228 cycles performed in 114 patients undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) between 2015 and 2018 in an in vitro fertilization (IVF) center were evaluated. Controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) was achieved with rFSH (Gonal-f, Serono, Geneva, Switzerland) in the first ICSI cycle (rFSH group), and with rFSH and rLH (Pergoveris, Merck Serono S.p.A, Bari, Italy) in the second cycle (rFSH + rLH group). The ICSI outcomes were compared among the groups. Results Higher estradiol levels, oocyte yield, day-3 high-quality embryos rate and implantation rate, and a lower miscarriage rate were observed in the rFSH + rLH group compared with the rFSH group. In patients < 35 years old, the implantation rate was higher in the rFSH + rLH group compared with the rFSH group. In patients ≥ 35 years old, higher estradiol levels, oocyte yield, day-3 high-quality embryos rate, and implantation rate were observed in the rFSH + rLH group. In patients with ≤ 4 retrieved oocytes, oocyte yield, mature oocytes rate, normal cleavage speed, implantation rate, and miscarriage rate were improved in the rFSH + rLH group. In patients with ≥ 5 retrieved oocytes, higher estradiol levels, oocyte yield, and implantation rate were observed in the rFSH + rLH group. Conclusion Ovarian stimulation with luteinizing hormone (LH) supplementation results in higher implantation rates, independent of maternal age and response to COS when compared with previous cycles stimulated with rFSH only. Improvements were also observed for ICSI outcomes and miscarriage after stratification by age and retrieved oocytes.

Resumo Objetivo: Investigar se há algum efeito da suplementação com hormônio luteinizante (LH, na sigla em inglês) no regime com antagonista do hormônio liberador de gonadotropina (GnRH, na sigla em inglês) sobre os resultados dos ciclos consecutivos de injeção intracitoplasmática de espermatozoides (ICSI, na sigla em inglês). Métodos Para o presente estudo retrospectivo de caso-controle, foram avaliados 228 ciclos de microinjeção intracitoplasmática de espermatozoides (ICSI, na sigla em inglês) realizados em 114 pacientes entre 2015 e 2018 em um centro privado de fertilização in vitro (FIV) afiliado a uma universidade. O estímulo ovariano controlado (EOC) foi feito com hormônio folículo- estimulante recombinante (rFSH, na sigla em inglês) (Gonal-f, Serono, Genebra, Suíça) no primeiro ciclo de ICSI (grupo rFSH), e com rFSH e rLH (Pergoveris, Merck Serono S.p.A, Bari, Itália) no segundo ciclo (grupo rFSH + rLH). Os desfechos dos ciclos de ICSI foram comparados entre os grupos. Resultados Níveis mais elevados de estradiol, de recuperação oocitária, taxa de embriões de alta qualidade no 3° dia e taxa de implantação, e menor taxa de aborto foram observados no grupo rFSH + rLH. Em pacientes < 35 anos, a taxa de implantação foi maior no grupo rFSH + rLH em comparação com o grupo rFSH. Em pacientes com ≥ 35 anos, maiores níveis de estradiol, recuperação oocitária, a taxa de embriões de alta qualidade no 3° dia e a taxa de implantação foram observados no grupo rFSH + rLH. Em pacientes com baixa resposta ao EOC (≤ 4 oócitos recuperados), a recuperação oocitária, a taxa de oócitos maduros, a taxa de velocidade normal de clivagem, a taxa de implantação e a taxa de aborto foram melhoradas no grupo rFSH + rLH. Em pacientes com resposta normal ao EOC (≥ 5 oócitos recuperados), níveis mais elevados de estradiol, recuperação oocitária e taxa de implantação foram observados no grupo rFSH + rLH. Conclusão A estimulação ovariana com suplementação de LH resultou em taxas de implantação mais altas, independentemente da idade materna e da resposta ao EOC, em comparação com os ciclos anteriores estimulados apenas com rFSH. Melhorias também foram observadas nos resultados da ICSI e na taxa de aborto quando as pacientes foram estratificadas por idade e número de oócitos recuperados.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Ovulation Induction , Sperm Injections, Intracytoplasmic , Luteinizing Hormone , Fertilization in Vitro , Case-Control Studies , Retrospective Studies , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone , Pregnancy Rate , Follicle Stimulating Hormone
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(6): 480-486, June 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341135


Abstract The process of ovulation involves multiple and iterrelated genetic, biochemical, and morphological events: cessation of the proliferation of granulosa cells, resumption of oocyte meiosis, expansion of cumulus cell-oocyte complexes, digestion of the follicle wall, and extrusion of the metaphase-II oocyte. The present narrative review examines these interrelated steps in detail. The combined or isolated roles of the folliclestimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) are highlighted. Genes indiced by the FSH genes are relevant in the cumulus expansion, and LH-induced genes are critical for the resumption ofmeiosis and digestion of the follicle wall. A nonhuman model for follicle-wall digestion and oocyte release was provided.

Resumo O processo de ovulação envolve modificações genéticas, bioquímicas e morfológicas múltiplas e interrelacionadas: suspensão da proliferação das células da granulosa, reinício da meiose do oócito, expansão das células do complexo cumulus-oócito, digestão da parede folicular, e extrusão do oócito. Esta revisão narrativa examina em detalhes cada um desses eventos e os principais genes e proteínas envolvidos. Mais importante, a ação combinada ou isolada do hormônio folículo-estimulante (HFE) e do hormônio luteinizante (HL) é destacada. Detalha-se o papel do HFE na expansão do cumulus e do HL na digestão da parede folicular, permitindo a extrusão do oócito na superfície ovariana. Proveu-se um modelo não humano para explicar a digestão da parede folicular.

Humans , Animals , Female , Ovulation/physiology , Luteinizing Hormone/physiology , Oocytes/growth & development , Ovulation/genetics , Luteinizing Hormone/genetics , Signal Transduction , Models, Animal , Cumulus Cells/physiology , Follicle Stimulating Hormone/physiology , Follicle Stimulating Hormone/genetics , Ovarian Follicle/growth & development , Granulosa Cells/physiology , Meiosis/physiology , Meiosis/genetics
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21190643, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249204


Abstract The aim of this study was to estimate allelic and genotypic frequencies of markers in the leptin (LEP), pituitary transcription factor (PIT-1) and luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) genes and evaluate their effects on reproductive traits and milk yield of Holstein cattle. Data from 147 cows from department of Francisco Morazán, Honduras, were collected and PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) assays were performed to characterize the PIT-1-HinfI, LEP- A59V and LHR-rs41256848 polymorphisms. To estimate the effect of genotypes on reproductive traits and milk yield fixed and mixed linear models were fitted. The frequencies of the genotypes CC, CT and TT of A59V, AA, AB and BB of HinfI, and CC, CG and GG of rs41256848 were 0.46, 0.33 and, 0.21; 0.09, 0.32 and 0.58; and 0.37, 0.61 and 0.02, respectively. The genotypes of LEP and LHR showed deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The A59V polymorphism was significantly associated with the calving to conception interval (CCI) (p=0.01), being the C allele favorable. The HinfI and rs41256848 polymorphism were significantly associated (p=0.08 and p=0.04) with age to first calving (AFC), being the A and G the alleles favorable associated, respectively. The results suggest that LEP, PIT and LHR polymorphisms can probably act as candidate to be used in marker-assisted selection for AFC and CCI traits.

Luteinizing Hormone , Leptin , Genetic Profile , Gene Frequency/physiology , Reproduction , Cattle , Polymerase Chain Reaction/instrumentation
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e175001, 2021. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1344777


This study aimed to evaluate the role of prostaglandin F2α (PGF) on ovulation. In Experiment 1, cows were randomly allocated to two treatments to receive 150 µg of d-Cloprostenol (PGF Group, n = 12) or 2 mL of NaCl 0.9% (Control Group, n = 11) and CIDRs, were removed 4 days later. No cow ovulated in Control and PGF groups. In Experiment 2, cows were randomly separated into two experimental groups to receive 4 injections of 150 µg of d-Cloprostenol (n = 9) or 2 mL of NaCL 0.9% (n = 9). In this experiment, ovulation was not observed in any cows. In Experiment 3, ovariectomized cows receive three injections of 300µg of PGF analog (PGF Group, n = 5), 100µg of Lecirelin (GnRH Group, n = 5) or 2 mL of PBS (Control Group, n = 4). The LH concentration was higher (P <0.0001) in cows from the GnRH group than in the PGF and Control groups. In experiment 4, cows with preovulatory follicles (>11.5 mm) were treated with Saline (Control Group, n = 6); Lecirelin (GnRH Group, n = 7) or Cloprostenol Sodium (PGF Group, n = 6). There was a significant increase in the vascular area of follicles from 0 to 24 h in GnRH and PGF treatments. In conclusion, PGF was not able to induce ovulation in cows with high or low plasma progesterone concentration. Additionally, PGF alone was not able to induce LH release and follicle luteinization, but increased follicular vascularization.(AU)

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o papel da prostaglandina F2α (PGF) na ovulação. No Experimento 1, as vacas foram alocadas aleatoriamente em dois tratamentos para receber 150 µg de d-Cloprostenol (Grupo PGF, n = 12) ou 2 mL de NaCl 0,9% (Grupo Controle, n = 11) e os CIDR, foram removidos 4 dias depois. Nenhuma vaca ovulou nos grupos Controle e PGF. No Experimento 2, as vacas foram separadas aleatoriamente em dois grupos experimentais para receber 4 injeções de 150 µg de d-Cloprostenol (n = 9) ou 2 mL de NaCL 0,9% (n = 9). Não foi observada ovulação em nenhum dos animais deste experimento. No Experimento 3, vacas ovariectomizadas receberam três injeções de 300µg de análogo de PGF (Grupo PGF, n = 5), 100µg de Lecirelina (Grupo GnRH, n = 5) ou 2 mL de PBS (Grupo Controle, n = 4). A concentração de LH foi maior (P <0,0001) nas vacas do grupo GnRH do que nos grupos PGF e Controle. No Experimento 4, vacas com folículos pré-ovulatórios (> 11,5 mm) foram tratadas com solução salina (Grupo Controle, n = 6), Lecirelina (Grupo GnRH, n = 7) ou Cloprostenol Sódico (Grupo PGF, n = 6). Houve um aumento significativo na área vascular dos folículos de 0 a 24h nos tratamentos com GnRH e PGF. Em conclusão, a PGF não foi capaz de induzir ovulação em vacas com alta ou baixa concentração plasmática de progesterona. Além disso, a PGF sozinha não foi capaz de induzir a liberação de LH e a luteinização do folículo, mas aumentou a vascularização folicular.(AU)

Animals , Female , Cattle , Prostaglandins, Synthetic , Cattle/embryology , Cattle/physiology , Luteinizing Hormone , Dinoprost/analysis , Ovulation , Pituitary Gland
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 57: e19016, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345457


The methanolic extract of Buchholzia coriacea seeds (MEBC) has been reported to induce male reproductive toxicity by decreasing sperm parameters and fertility index. To elucidate the possible mechanism(s), the effects of graded doses of MEBC on sex hormones and sperm profile were investigated in this study. The MEBC (e.g., 50, 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg) was administered daily (p.o.) to male Wistar rats for 6 weeks, while a concurrent control group received distilled water (vehicle). Then, the animals were sacrificed under sodium pentobarbital anaesthesia. Weights of organs were recorded, and the sperm profile was determined microscopically. Testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) were assayed from the obtained serum using the ELISA technique. Sperm motility was significantly reduced by MEBC (i.e., 50 and 200 mg/kg), and sperm count reduced in all treated groups in a dose-dependent manner compared with that of the control. Serum testosterone, LH, and FSH decreased in treated rats. A histopathological examination of testes showed a considerable depletion and necrosis of the epithelium of seminiferous tubules. The result suggests that Buchholzia coriacea seeds induce male reproductive toxicity by suppressing the pituitary-gonadal axis.

Animals , Male , Rats , Spermatozoa/drug effects , Cola , Capparaceae/classification , Sperm Count/instrumentation , Sperm Motility , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/instrumentation , Luteinizing Hormone/analysis , Fertility , Follicle Stimulating Hormone/analysis
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(5): 591-596, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131134


ABSTRACT Objectives The determinants of an increased risk of an organic pathology underlying central precocious puberty (CPP) in girls remain contentious. The present study aimed to determine the clinical and hormonal findings that can be used to differentiate organic and idiopathic CPP in girls as a screening method so that only those considered likely to have organic CPP undergo cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Subjects and methods The medical records of 286 girls that received GnRH agonist (GnRHa) therapy for CPP were retrospectively evaluated. Chronological and bone age, height, pubertal stage, and basal/stimulated gonadotropin and estradiol (E2) levels, as well as cranial MRI findings at the time CPP was diagnosed were recorded. Clinical and hormonal parameters that can be used to differentiate between girls with organic and idiopathic CPP were identified using ROC curves. Results Organic CPP was noted in 6.3% of the participants. Puberty started before age 6 years in 88.9% of the girls with organic CPP. Mean E2 and peak luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were higher in the girls with organic CPP than in those with idiopathic CPP that were matched for pubertal stage, as follows: early stage puberty (Tanner 2 and 3): E2: 62.4 ± 19.8 pg/mL vs. 29.1 ± 9.5 pg/mL; peak LH: 16.8 ± 3.2 IU/L vs. 12.2 ± 3.7 IU/L; advanced stage puberty (Tanner 4): mean E2: 87.6 ± 3.4 pg/mL vs. 64.6 ± 21.2 pg/mL; peak LH: 20.8 ± 0.4 IU/L vs. 16.6 ± 5.8 IU/L (P < 0.001 for all). Thresholds for differentiating organic and idiopathic CPP in girls with early-stage puberty were 38.1 pg/mL for E2 (100% sensitivity and 80.4% specificity) and 13.6 IU/L for peak LH (100% sensitivity and 66.4% specificity). Conclusion Pubertal symptoms and signs generally begin before age 6 years and hormone levels are much higher than expected for pubertal stage in girls with organic CPP. Based on the present findings, cranial MRI is recommended for girls aged < 6 years, as the risk of diagnosing an organic pathology is highest in this age group. Hormone levels higher than expected for pubertal stage might be another indication for cranial MRI, regardless of patient age. Cranial MRI should be performed in girls with early-stage puberty, and an E2 level > 38 pg/mL and/or a peak LH level > 13.6 IU/L.

Humans , Female , Child , Puberty, Precocious/diagnostic imaging , Luteinizing Hormone , Central Nervous System , Retrospective Studies , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone , Follicle Stimulating Hormone
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(4): 1391-1396, July-Aug. 2020. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1131522


Este trabalho tem por objetivo descrever um caso de carcinoma espinocelular da base do chifre, bilateral e simétrico, em uma vaca e discutir a questão hormonal, possivelmente envolvida na patogênese da doença. Tratava-se de uma fêmea bovina, 11 anos, com histórico de emagrecimento progressivo, presença de massas exofíticas na base de ambos os chifres e em anestro por muitos anos. Foi realizada biopsia incisional de ambas as lesões para exame histopatológico e dosagens hormonais. Devido à progressão do quadro clínico, optou-se pela eutanásia, seguida dos exames necroscópico e histopatológico. O exame histopatológico revelou tratar-se de um carcinoma espinocelular infiltrativo bem diferenciado, e as dosagens hormonais apresentaram alterações nos níveis do hormônio luteinizante, folículo estimulante e estrógenos totais. Apesar de existirem descrições de carcinomas espinocelulares da base do chifre, ainda não havia relatos da ocorrência do mesmo bilateral e em uma vaca com distúrbios hormonais.(AU)

The objective of this study was to describe a case of bilateral and symmetrical squamous cell carcinoma from the horn base in a cow and to discuss the hormonal question, possibly involved in its pathogenesis. A 11-year-old beef cow presenting a history of progressive thinning, presence of exophytic masses at the base of both horns and anestrous for many years was assisted. An incisional biopsy of both lesions was performed for histopathological examination and hormonal dosages. Due to the clinical progression, euthanasia followed by necroscopic and histopathological examination was carried out. Histopathological examination revealed a well differentiated infiltrative squamous cell carcinoma and the hormonal dosages presented changes in luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating and total estrogen levels. Although there are descriptions of basal squamous cell carcinoma of the horn, there were still no reports of the occurrence of the same bilateral in a cow with hormonal disorders.(AU)

Animals , Female , Cattle , Anestrus , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/veterinary , Horns/pathology , Luteinizing Hormone/adverse effects