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1.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e175001, 2021. ilus, graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-1344777

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the role of prostaglandin F2α (PGF) on ovulation. In Experiment 1, cows were randomly allocated to two treatments to receive 150 µg of d-Cloprostenol (PGF Group, n = 12) or 2 mL of NaCl 0.9% (Control Group, n = 11) and CIDRs, were removed 4 days later. No cow ovulated in Control and PGF groups. In Experiment 2, cows were randomly separated into two experimental groups to receive 4 injections of 150 µg of d-Cloprostenol (n = 9) or 2 mL of NaCL 0.9% (n = 9). In this experiment, ovulation was not observed in any cows. In Experiment 3, ovariectomized cows receive three injections of 300µg of PGF analog (PGF Group, n = 5), 100µg of Lecirelin (GnRH Group, n = 5) or 2 mL of PBS (Control Group, n = 4). The LH concentration was higher (P <0.0001) in cows from the GnRH group than in the PGF and Control groups. In experiment 4, cows with preovulatory follicles (>11.5 mm) were treated with Saline (Control Group, n = 6); Lecirelin (GnRH Group, n = 7) or Cloprostenol Sodium (PGF Group, n = 6). There was a significant increase in the vascular area of follicles from 0 to 24 h in GnRH and PGF treatments. In conclusion, PGF was not able to induce ovulation in cows with high or low plasma progesterone concentration. Additionally, PGF alone was not able to induce LH release and follicle luteinization, but increased follicular vascularization.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o papel da prostaglandina F2α (PGF) na ovulação. No Experimento 1, as vacas foram alocadas aleatoriamente em dois tratamentos para receber 150 µg de d-Cloprostenol (Grupo PGF, n = 12) ou 2 mL de NaCl 0,9% (Grupo Controle, n = 11) e os CIDR, foram removidos 4 dias depois. Nenhuma vaca ovulou nos grupos Controle e PGF. No Experimento 2, as vacas foram separadas aleatoriamente em dois grupos experimentais para receber 4 injeções de 150 µg de d-Cloprostenol (n = 9) ou 2 mL de NaCL 0,9% (n = 9). Não foi observada ovulação em nenhum dos animais deste experimento. No Experimento 3, vacas ovariectomizadas receberam três injeções de 300µg de análogo de PGF (Grupo PGF, n = 5), 100µg de Lecirelina (Grupo GnRH, n = 5) ou 2 mL de PBS (Grupo Controle, n = 4). A concentração de LH foi maior (P <0,0001) nas vacas do grupo GnRH do que nos grupos PGF e Controle. No Experimento 4, vacas com folículos pré-ovulatórios (> 11,5 mm) foram tratadas com solução salina (Grupo Controle, n = 6), Lecirelina (Grupo GnRH, n = 7) ou Cloprostenol Sódico (Grupo PGF, n = 6). Houve um aumento significativo na área vascular dos folículos de 0 a 24h nos tratamentos com GnRH e PGF. Em conclusão, a PGF não foi capaz de induzir ovulação em vacas com alta ou baixa concentração plasmática de progesterona. Além disso, a PGF sozinha não foi capaz de induzir a liberação de LH e a luteinização do folículo, mas aumentou a vascularização folicular.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Prostaglandins, Synthetic , Cattle/embryology , Cattle/physiology , Luteinizing Hormone , Dinoprost/analysis , Ovulation , Pituitary Gland
2.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21190643, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249204

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to estimate allelic and genotypic frequencies of markers in the leptin (LEP), pituitary transcription factor (PIT-1) and luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) genes and evaluate their effects on reproductive traits and milk yield of Holstein cattle. Data from 147 cows from department of Francisco Morazán, Honduras, were collected and PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) assays were performed to characterize the PIT-1-HinfI, LEP- A59V and LHR-rs41256848 polymorphisms. To estimate the effect of genotypes on reproductive traits and milk yield fixed and mixed linear models were fitted. The frequencies of the genotypes CC, CT and TT of A59V, AA, AB and BB of HinfI, and CC, CG and GG of rs41256848 were 0.46, 0.33 and, 0.21; 0.09, 0.32 and 0.58; and 0.37, 0.61 and 0.02, respectively. The genotypes of LEP and LHR showed deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The A59V polymorphism was significantly associated with the calving to conception interval (CCI) (p=0.01), being the C allele favorable. The HinfI and rs41256848 polymorphism were significantly associated (p=0.08 and p=0.04) with age to first calving (AFC), being the A and G the alleles favorable associated, respectively. The results suggest that LEP, PIT and LHR polymorphisms can probably act as candidate to be used in marker-assisted selection for AFC and CCI traits.


Subject(s)
Luteinizing Hormone , Leptin , Genetic Profile , Gene Frequency/physiology , Reproduction , Cattle , Polymerase Chain Reaction/instrumentation
3.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(4): 1391-1396, July-Aug. 2020. ilus
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-1131522

ABSTRACT

Este trabalho tem por objetivo descrever um caso de carcinoma espinocelular da base do chifre, bilateral e simétrico, em uma vaca e discutir a questão hormonal, possivelmente envolvida na patogênese da doença. Tratava-se de uma fêmea bovina, 11 anos, com histórico de emagrecimento progressivo, presença de massas exofíticas na base de ambos os chifres e em anestro por muitos anos. Foi realizada biopsia incisional de ambas as lesões para exame histopatológico e dosagens hormonais. Devido à progressão do quadro clínico, optou-se pela eutanásia, seguida dos exames necroscópico e histopatológico. O exame histopatológico revelou tratar-se de um carcinoma espinocelular infiltrativo bem diferenciado, e as dosagens hormonais apresentaram alterações nos níveis do hormônio luteinizante, folículo estimulante e estrógenos totais. Apesar de existirem descrições de carcinomas espinocelulares da base do chifre, ainda não havia relatos da ocorrência do mesmo bilateral e em uma vaca com distúrbios hormonais.(AU)


The objective of this study was to describe a case of bilateral and symmetrical squamous cell carcinoma from the horn base in a cow and to discuss the hormonal question, possibly involved in its pathogenesis. A 11-year-old beef cow presenting a history of progressive thinning, presence of exophytic masses at the base of both horns and anestrous for many years was assisted. An incisional biopsy of both lesions was performed for histopathological examination and hormonal dosages. Due to the clinical progression, euthanasia followed by necroscopic and histopathological examination was carried out. Histopathological examination revealed a well differentiated infiltrative squamous cell carcinoma and the hormonal dosages presented changes in luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating and total estrogen levels. Although there are descriptions of basal squamous cell carcinoma of the horn, there were still no reports of the occurrence of the same bilateral in a cow with hormonal disorders.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Anestrus , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/veterinary , Horns/pathology , Luteinizing Hormone/adverse effects
4.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(1): 4-10, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088773

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective The aim of this study was to investigate polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and to explore the relationship between body fat percentage and metabolic markers. Subjects and methods Sedentary women were assigned to PCOS (N = 60) and CONTROL (N = 60) groups. Each group was subdivided into three subgroups according to body fat percentage (22-27%, 27-32% and 32-37%). The protocol consisted of assessments of glucose, insulin, androgens, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), leptin, adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Results The PCOS subgroups showed higher concentrations of androgens, LH and 17-OHP. Leptin showed direct relationship with increased body fat percentage, whereas adiponectin showed the inverse effect. However, both were unaffected by PCOS. TNF-α and IL-6 were higher in PCOS women and showed a direct relationship with increased body fat percentage. Glucose showed direct relationship with body fat percentage, whereas insulin presented higher values in PCOS women and direct relationship with increased body fat percentage. Conclusions Our findings indicate that PCOS and body fat percentage directly influence concentrations of insulin, TNF-α and IL-6, whereas leptin and adiponectin are influenced only by the increase in body fat percentage in these women. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2020;64(1):4-10


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Biomarkers/blood , Adipose Tissue/anatomy & histology , Metabolic Diseases/blood , Insulin Resistance , Luteinizing Hormone/blood , Body Mass Index , Case-Control Studies , Interleukin-6/blood , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone/blood , Leptin/blood , Adiponectin/blood , Follicle Stimulating Hormone/blood , Glucose/analysis , Androgens/blood , Insulin/blood
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828670

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the association of body fat ratio with precocious puberty in girls. Previous studies have shown that body mass index (BMI) is associated with the girls' age of puberty but have not revealed the association of body fat ratio with age of puberty.@*METHODS@#Based on the consensus on the diagnosis and treatment of central precocious puberty (CPP), 128 children with precocious puberty who were admitted to the hospital from July to August, 2017, were divided into a CPP group with 87 children and a peripheral precocious puberty (PPP) group with 41 children. A total of 51 girls without any puberty development signs were enrolled as the control group. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure the body fat ratios of upper limbs, legs, trunk, android area, gynoid area, and the whole body. The association between body fat ratios and precocious puberty was analyzed with reference to age, BMI, BMI-Z score, bone age, ovarian volume, and hormone levels.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, the CPP and PPP groups had significantly higher body fat ratios of upper limbs, legs, trunk, android area, gynoid area, and the whole body, legs/whole body fat ratio, and (upper limbs+legs)/trunk fat ratio (P0.05). For the girls with precocious puberty, the high body fat ratio group had significantly higher luteinizing hormone (LH) base value, luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH)-stimulated LH peak value, and LH/follicle-stimulating hormone peak value than the low body fat ratio group (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, both the high body fat ratio and low body fat ratio groups had a significantly higher LH base value (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The increase in body fat may be a factor inducing precocious puberty in girls, but further studies are needed to determine the mechanism.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue , Child , Female , Follicle Stimulating Hormone , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone , Humans , Luteinizing Hormone , Puberty, Precocious , Sexual Maturation
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828501

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the efficacy and safety of aromatase inhibitor letrozole in treatment of male children with disorders of sex development (DSD).@*METHODS@#Clinical data of 12 male DSD children with a mean age of 14.6±2.5 years admitted to Peking Union Medical College Hospital from January 2014 to January 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were treated with letrozole (1.25-2.5 mg, once a day) for 3 months or longer, and followed up for 0.5-2.5 years. Clinical manifestation and laboratory test findings were documented, and the efficacy and safety were evaluated.@*RESULTS@#After half-year treatment, the blood luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone levels of patients increased (all < 0.05), and estrogen levels decreased from baseline ( < 0.05). After 1 year of treatment, the blood testosterone level was significantly higher ( < 0.05); the LH and FSH levels tended to increase and the estrogen level tended to decrease, but there was no significant statistical difference ( >0.05). Semen was routinely detected in 8 patients, and sperms were detected in semen of 3 patients with hypospadias. There were no significant changes in biochemical results after treatment, and no significant adverse event was observed during the treatment.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Letrozole can effectively increase testosterone levels in patients with disorders of sex development and promote spermatogenesis, it has no significant adverse effects in short-term administration.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Disorders of Sex Development , Drug Therapy , Follicle Stimulating Hormone , Humans , Letrozole , Therapeutic Uses , Luteinizing Hormone , Male , Retrospective Studies , Testosterone
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828093

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper was to study the effect of Wubi Shanyao Pills on sexual dysfunction in rats with kidney-Yang deficiency and to investigate its possible mechanism. Adenine(100 mg·kg~(-1)) was administered to male SD rats for 8 weeks to establish kidney-Yang deficiency model, and at the same time, Wubi Shanyao Pills(2, 1, 0.5 g·kg~(-1)) were administered to rats for 8 weeks. The syndrome manifestation of kidney-Yang deficiency was observed in rats and the scores of symptoms were evaluated. Sexual behavior indexes(incubation period and times of capture, straddle and ejaculation) were measured by mating experiment. The levels of serum testosterone(T), estradiol(E_2), follicle stimulating hormone(FSH), luteinizing hormone(LH), and gonadotropin releasing hormone(GnRH) were measured by radioimmunoassay. The wet weights of testis and seminal vesicle were measured. The content of fructose in seminal plasma was detected by UV spectrophotometry. The pathological changes of testis and epididymis were observed by HE staining. The expression levels of transforming growth factor(TGF-β1) and cytochrome P450 aromatase(CYP19) in testis were detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. The results showed that Wubi Shanyao Pills could significantly reduce the score of kidney-Yang deficiency syndrome, improve the symptoms of kidney-Yang deficiency syndrome, shorten capture, straddle and ejaculation latency, increase capture and straddle times, increase serum T, LH, FSH, E_2 and GnRH levels, increase the wet weight of testis and seminal vesicle and fructose content in seminal plasma, improve the pathological structure of testis and epididymis, and inhibit the expression of TGF-β1 and increase CYP19 in testis of the model rats. Therefore, Wubi Shanyao Pills can significantly improve sexual dysfunction in rats with kidney-Yang deficiency, and its mechanism may be related to regulating the low function of hypothalamus pituitary gonad(HPG) axis and improving the disorder of sex hormone secretion. In addition, it may be also related to inhibiting the expression of testicular TGF-β1, increasing the expression of CYP19 protein, and then regulating the amount of T converted to E_2.


Subject(s)
Adenine , Animals , Follicle Stimulating Hormone , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone , Luteinizing Hormone , Male , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Testis , Testosterone , Yang Deficiency
8.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 513-522, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827035

ABSTRACT

Mammalian oocytes within Graafian follicles are arrested at prophase I of meiosis. C-type natriuretic peptide (NPPC), secreted by mural granulosa cells (MGCs), maintains oocyte meiotic arrest via binding to its cognate receptor natriuretic peptide receptor 2 (NPR2) and producing cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). NPR2 is most concentrated in the cumulus cells. In addition, cAMP, gap junction, inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) and other important regulatory factors are also involved in meiotic arrest. Luteinizing hormone (LH) then rapidly decreases cGMP and induces oocyte meiotic resumption. In this paper, advances in the molecular mechanisms of meiotic arrest and LH-induced meiotic resumption were reviewed. This paper may provide new ideas for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of related reproductive diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cumulus Cells , Female , Luteinizing Hormone , Meiosis , Natriuretic Peptide, C-Type , Genetics , Oocytes
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787244

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the effect of insulin resistance (IR) on serum Intelectin-1 and endocrinological hormones levels in obese and non-obese women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in Basrah, Iraq.METHODS: From 124 women volunteers, 60 patients with primary and 64 patients with secondary, while 56 normal ovulatory women were taken as controls. Their fasting insulin hormone, intelectin-1, anti-Mullerian hormone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), prolactin (PRL), estradiol (E2) and testosterones (T) were determined by ELISA methods. BMI, glucose and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index as well as IR was determined by the homeostasis model assessment.RESULTS: A significant changes (P<0.05) were seen in the level of homeostasis model assessment-IR, E2 and T. Levels of anti-Mullerian hormone, LH, LH/FSH ratio and prolactin were significantly (P<0.01) increased and level of intelectin-1 and E2/T ratio were significantly (P<0.01) decreased, while quantitative insulin sensitivity check index level was not significantly different (P>0.05) between the patients (1°PCOS and 2°PCOS) and control groups. On the other hand, our data reported that FSH level was significantly (P<0.05) lower in obese and higher in non-obese patients with PCOS as compared to control group.CONCLUSION: Levels of intelectin-1 and endocrinological hormones have significantly associated with body mass index, IR and physical activity in patients and normal groups and the strategies that can modulate levels of these parameters would improve metabolic disarrangements in women with PCOS.


Subject(s)
Anti-Mullerian Hormone , Body Mass Index , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Estradiol , Fasting , Female , Follicle Stimulating Hormone , Glucose , Gonadal Steroid Hormones , Hand , Homeostasis , Humans , Insulin Resistance , Insulin , Iraq , Luteinizing Hormone , Motor Activity , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome , Prolactin , Volunteers
10.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(5): 1043-1054, Sept.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040070

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective Anacyclus Pyrethrum (AP) and Tribulus Terrestris (TT) have been reported as male infertility treatment in several studies; however, in Iranian traditional medicine these two plants are prescribed simultaneously. In this study, we aimed to determine the effects of AP and TT extracts both separately and simultaneously on the male Wistar rat fertility parameters. Materials and Methods 32 male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: Control, TT, AP, and AT treated groups. Treatment continued for 25 days and rats were weighed daily. Their testes were dissected for histological studies. Sperm analysis including sperm count, viability and motility were performed. Serum was obtained to evaluate testosterone, LH and FSH levels. Histological studies were conducted to study Leydig, and Sertoli cells, spermatogonia and spermatid cell numbers, and to measure seminiferous diameter and epithelium thickness. Results Sperm count increased in all the treatment groups. Sperm viability and motility in AT and AP groups were elevated. TT and AT groups showed significantly increased testosterone level compared to control group (P=004, P=0.000, respectively) and TT, AP and AT treatment groups showed increased LH level (P=0.002, P=0.03 and P=0.000, respectively) compared to control, while only AT group showed increased FSH (p=0.006) compared to control. Histological studies showed significant increase of spermatogonia, Leydig and Sertoli cell numbers and epithelial thickness in AT group compared to other groups. All the treatment groups had higher number of Leydig, spermatogonia and spermatid cells. Conclusion TT and AP improved sexual parameters; however, their simultaneous administration had higher improving effects on studied parameters.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium/chemistry , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Tribulus/chemistry , Infertility, Male/drug therapy , Organ Size , Reference Values , Sperm Count , Sperm Motility/drug effects , Spermatozoa/drug effects , Testis/drug effects , Testosterone/blood , Body Weight , Luteinizing Hormone/blood , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Fertility/drug effects , Follicle Stimulating Hormone/blood
11.
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 41(2): 136-143, Apr.-June 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1014737

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To assess the relationship between sexual hormones, sexual function and quality of life in postmenopausal women. Method A cross-sectional study was conducted with a convenience sample of 36 postmenopausal women between the ages of 45 and 65 in follow-up at a climacteric outpatient clinic. Mood, quality of life, sexual function and hormonal profile were assessed. Results With regard to sexual hormones and sexual function, a relationship was found between orgasm and luteinizing hormone (r=0.37), orgasm and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) (r=0.39), SHBG and less pain (r=0.44), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and desire (r=-0.45), as well as between prolactin and lubrication (r=0.33). Sexual hormones and quality of life were related as follows: progesterone and limitations due to physical aspects (r=0.35), SHBG and social aspects (r=0.35), cortisol and pain (r=0.46), DHEA and social aspects (r=-0.40). Finally, the following relationships were found between sexual function and quality of life: sexual desire and vitality, social aspects, state of general health and mental health (r=0.46, r=0.51, r=0.35, and r=0.38, respectively). Arousal, orgasm and satisfaction with sexual life showed a relationship with less physical pain (r=0.40, r=0.42, and r=0.43, respectively). Satisfaction with sexual life was correlated with vitality (r=0.33). Conclusion Different correlations than expected were found in this study regarding the effect of some hormones on sexual function and some aspects of the quality of life of postmenopausal women.


Resumo Objetivo Avaliar a relação entre hormônios sexuais, função sexual e qualidade de vida em mulheres na pós-menopausa. Métodos Estudo transversal com amostra de conveniência de 36 mulheres na pós-menopausa, com idades entre 45 e 65 anos, em seguimento ambulatorial de climatério. Humor, qualidade de vida, função sexual e perfil hormonal foram avaliados. Resultados Entre hormônios sexuais e função sexual, foi encontrada relação entre orgasmo e hormônio luteinizante (r=0,37), orgasmo e globulina ligadora de hormônios sexuais (SHBG) (r=0,39), SHBG e menos dor (r=0,44), desidroepiandrosterona (DHEA) e desejo (r=-0,45), bem como entre prolactina e lubrificação (r=0,33). Entre hormônios sexuais e qualidade de vida: progesterona e limitações por aspectos físicos (r=0,35), SHBG e aspectos sociais (r=0,35), cortisol e dor (r=0,46), DHEA e aspectos sociais (r=-0,40). Por fim, entre função sexual e qualidade de vida: desejo sexual e vitalidade, aspectos sociais, estado geral de saúde e saúde mental (r=0,46, r=0,51, r=0,35 e r=0,38, respectivamente). Excitação, orgasmo e satisfação com a vida sexual mostraram uma relação com menos dor física (r=0,40, r=0,42 e r=0,43, respectivamente). A satisfação com a vida sexual foi correlacionada com a vitalidade (r=0,33). Conclusão Correlações diferentes das esperadas foram encontradas neste estudo em relação ao efeito de alguns hormônios sobre a função sexual e alguns aspectos da qualidade de vida de mulheres na pós-menopausa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Quality of Life/psychology , Sexual Behavior/psychology , Postmenopause/psychology , Postmenopause/blood , Orgasm/physiology , Personal Satisfaction , Progesterone/blood , Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin/analysis , Luteinizing Hormone/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Dehydroepiandrosterone/blood , Middle Aged
12.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(1): 38-44, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989971

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: The main cause of slightly elevated human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) after successful treatment of male germ cell tumors is considered to be pituitary-derived HCG. It is well known that pituitary-derived HCG is frequently detected in postmenopausal women. We evaluated the status of serum HCG in men with elevated gonadotropins, which were induced by androgen deprivation therapy, using commercially available assays. Materials and Methods: We enrolled 44 patients with prostate cancer, who underwent luteinizing-hormone releasing hormone agonist treatment. We measured serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), serum luteinizing hormone (LH), serum total HCG, serum free HCG-β subunit, and urine total HCG 3 times per patient, on the day of treatment initiation, the next day, and 3 months after. Results: On the day after treatment initiation, serum and urine HCG was detected in 61% and 73% of patients, respectively. Markedly strong correlations were observed between serum/urine HCG and FSH/LH. In particular, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis indicated excellent area under the curve (0.977, 95% confidence interval 0.951-1.003)) for serum HCG-detectable LH. At the cutoff value of 21.07 mIU/mL for serum HCG-detectable LH, the sensitivity and specificity were 96.7% and 95.3%, respectively. Serum HCG-β was not detectable at any times in any patients. Conclusions: Suggested pituitary-derived HCG can be frequently detected in patients with elevated gonadotropins, and there is a firm association between HCG detection and gonadotropin levels.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Prostatic Neoplasms/blood , Testosterone/blood , Luteinizing Hormone/blood , Follicle Stimulating Hormone/blood , Chorionic Gonadotropin/biosynthesis , Chorionic Gonadotropin/blood , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human/urine , Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human/blood , Androgen Antagonists/administration & dosage , Middle Aged
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762616

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Precocious puberty refers to the development of secondary sex characteristics before ages 8 and 9 years in girls and boys, respectively. Central precocious puberty (CPP) is caused by premature activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and causes thelarche in girls before the age of 8. A gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulation test is the standard diagnostic modality for diagnosing CPP. However, the test cannot always be used for screening because it is expensive and time-consuming. This study aimed to find alternative reliable screening parameters to identify HPG axis activation in girls <8 years old (CPP) and for girls 8–9 years old (early puberty, EP). METHODS: From January 2013 to June 2015, medical records from 196 girls younger than 9 years old with onset of breast development were reviewed, including 126 girls who had a bone age (BA) 1 year above their chronological age. All patients underwent a GnRH stimulation test, and 117 underwent pelvic sonography. The girls were divided into 4 groups based on age and whether the GnRH stimulation test showed evidence of central puberty. Subanalyses were also conducted within each group based on peak luteinizing hormone (LH) level quartiles. RESULTS: Basal serum LH level was the most sensitive marker for screening CPP and EP. The cutoff values were 0.245 IU/L for CPP under 8 years old (P=0.049, area under the curve [AUC]=0.764, 88% sensitivity, 48% specificity) and 0.275 IU/L for EP between 8–9 years old (P=0.005, AUC=0.813, 79% sensitivity, 77% specificity). Peak LH level decreased as BMI z-score among subgroups increased when there was no difference in BA; however, higher BA eliminated this effect. CONCLUSION: Basal serum LH level is a useful screening parameter for diagnosing CPP and EP in girls. Peak LH levels were lower with increasing BMI z-score, although older BA eliminated this effect.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Breast , Female , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone , Humans , Lutein , Luteinizing Hormone , Mass Screening , Medical Records , Puberty , Puberty, Precocious , Sex Characteristics
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762601

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Obesity is a well-known risk factor for central precocious puberty (CPP). Recently, elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was reported in obese youth. However, few data regarding the relationship between CPP and TSH are available. The aim of this study was to evaluate thyroid function in girls with CPP and the relationship between CPP and serum TSH concentration. METHODS: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study. A total of 1,247 girls aged between 6.0 and 8.9 years who had undergone a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulation test to determine the presence of puberty were studied. Subjects were classified into CPP (n=554) and non-CPP (n=693) groups according to the results of the GnRH stimulation test. Characteristics and laboratory data of the CPP and non-CPP groups were compared and correlations between those characteristics and laboratory data and TSH concentration were evaluated. Serum TSH concentration in the CPP group was higher than that of the non-CPP group (3.19±1.55 mIU/L vs. 2.58±1.34 mIU/L, P<0.001). RESULTS: Serum free thyroxine (fT4) concentration in the CPP group was notably lower than that of the non-CPP group (1.38±0.14 ng/dL vs. 1.44±0.18 ng/dL, P<0.001). Across all subjects, 149 girls (11.9%) had hyperthyrotropinemia. The prevalence of hyperthyrotropinemia was higher in the CPP group compared to the non-CPP group (15.7% vs. 8.9%, P<0.001). TSH concentrations were positively correlated with age, height, weight, BMI, bone age, bone age advance, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF-1 standard deviation score, basal luteinizing hormone (LH), peak LH and basal follicle-stimulation hormone. TSH concentrations were negatively correlated with fT4. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that age (β=0.548, P<0.001) and peak LH (β=0.019, P=0.008) were independently associated with serum TSH concentration. CONCLUSIONS: Hyperthyrotropinemia in girls with CPP tends to be associated with pubertal LH elevation. In conclusion, pubertal onset may be associated with thyroid function.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone , Humans , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I , Linear Models , Luteinizing Hormone , Obesity , Prevalence , Puberty , Puberty, Precocious , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Thyroid Gland , Thyrotropin , Thyroxine
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762593

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The standard method used to diagnose central precocious puberty (CPP) is the gonadotropin releasing hormone stimulation test (GnRHST). However, this test is inconvenient for children because it is time-consuming and requires multiple samples. This study aimed to determine the reliability of morning unstimulated luteinizing hormone (mLH) level when screening for CPP, with an emphasis on the influence of diurnal variation. METHODS: This study included 160 girls with signs of early puberty (SMR 2) under 8 years of age. They were classified as CPP or non-CPP based on their standard GnRHST. The auxological, biochemical, and hormonal characteristics of subjects were retrospectively evaluated. The prognostic value of single morning unstimulated gonadotropin level was examined for use in CPP screening. RESULTS: Of 160 patients, 121 (75.6%) presented with CPP, and 39 (24.4%) were determined to be prepubertal. The mLH/mFSH (morning unstimulated follicular stimulating hormone) ratio showed significant differences between the 2 groups (P<0.001). The mLH was correlated with GnRHST variables (r=0.532, P<0.001). The mLH cutoff point when screening for CPP was 0.22 IU/L, which had sensitivity and specificity of 69.4% and 82.1%, respectively. In regression analysis, bone age (BA) (odds ratio [OR], 1.018; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.967–1.071; P=0.506) and body mass index (BMI) (OR, 0.874; 95% CI, 0.583–1.310; P=0.515) were not significant predictors. The mLH≥0.22 IU/L group (OR, 9.596; 95% CI, 3.853–23.900; P<0.001) was highly suggestive of CPP. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, single morning unstimulated luteinizing hormone had clinical efficacy for CPP screening, but BA advanced over chronological age and BMI was not useful for CPP screening.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Body Mass Index , Child , Female , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone , Gonadotropins , Humans , Lutein , Luteinizing Hormone , Mass Screening , Methods , Puberty , Puberty, Precocious , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Treatment Outcome
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762590

ABSTRACT

Mutations in the CHD7 gene, encoding for the chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 7, are found in approximately 60% of individuals with CHARGE syndrome (coloboma, heart defects, choanal atresia, retarded growth and development, genital hypoplasia, ear abnormalities and/or hearing loss). Herein, we present a clinical case of a 14-year-old male presenting for evaluation of poor growth and pubertal delay highlighting the diagnostic challenges of CHARGE syndrome. The patient was born full term and underwent surgery at 5 days of life for bilateral choanal atresia. Developmental milestones were normally achieved. At age 14 his height and weight were


Subject(s)
Adolescent , CHARGE Syndrome , Choanal Atresia , Diagnosis , Ear , Follicle Stimulating Hormone , Follow-Up Studies , Genetic Testing , Gonadotropins , Growth and Development , Hearing , Heart , Humans , Luteinizing Hormone , Male , Olfaction Disorders , Puberty, Delayed , Testis , Testosterone
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719631

ABSTRACT

Testosterone has a variety of functions and is commonly used in older men to treat symptoms of hypogonadism, such as decreased libido, decreased mood and erectile dysfunction. Despite its positive effects on sexual function, it has a negative effect on fertility. Exogenous testosterone therapy can negatively affect the hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal axis and inhibit the production of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. The purpose of this review is to discuss the contraceptive properties of testosterone therapy and to discuss strategies to increase testosterone in men with the desire to preserve fertility.


Subject(s)
Contraception , Erectile Dysfunction , Family Planning Services , Fertility , Follicle Stimulating Hormone , Gonads , Humans , Hypogonadism , Infertility , Libido , Luteinizing Hormone , Male , Testosterone
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719626

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To characterize the population of hypogonadal men who presented to a tertiary academic urology clinic and evaluate risk factors for primary vs. secondary hypogonadism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated all men with International Classification of Diseases-9 diagnosis codes R68.82 and 799.81 for low libido, 257.2 for testicular hypofunction, and E29.1 for other testicular hypofunction at a tertiary academic medical center from 2013 to 2017. We included men who had testosterone (T) and luteinizing hormone (LH) drawn on the same day. We classified men based on T and LH levels into eugonadal, primary, secondary, and compensated hypogonadism. Risk factors including age, body mass index (BMI) over 30 kg/m2, current smoking status, alcohol use greater than 5 days per week, and Charlson comorbidity index greater than or equal to 1 were investigated and measured in each group using the eugonadal group for reference. RESULTS: Among the 231 men who had both T and LH levels, 7.4%, 42.4%, and 7.4% were classified as primary, secondary, and compensated hypogonadism, respectively. Only elevated BMI was associated with secondary hypogonadism compared to eugonadal men (median BMI, 30.93 kg/m2 vs. 27.69 kg/m2, p=0.003). BMI, age, comorbidities, smoking, or alcohol use did not appear to predict diagnosis of secondary hypogonadism. CONCLUSIONS: Secondary hypogonadism appears to be the most common cause of hypogonadism among men complaining of low T and decreased libido at a tertiary academic medical center. Secondary hypogonadism is associated with elevated BMI and therefore obesity should be used as a marker to evaluate men for both T and LH levels.


Subject(s)
Academic Medical Centers , Body Mass Index , Classification , Clomiphene , Comorbidity , Diagnosis , Humans , Hypogonadism , Libido , Luteinizing Hormone , Male , Obesity , Risk Factors , Smoke , Smoking , Tertiary Care Centers , Testosterone , Urology
20.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 94(1): 69-75, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894102

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: Diagnosis of central precocious puberty has always been challenging in clinical practice. As an important method in the diagnosis of central precocious puberty, luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone stimulation test is complex and time-consuming. In many cases, clinical traits are inconsistent with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone stimulation test results, therefore not reliable for diagnosis. In this study, the authors intended to find an indicator that predicts the results of the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone stimulation test among subjects with early pubertal signs. Methods: Cases of 382 girls with early breast development before 8 years old and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone stimulation test before 9 years old were included and underwent follow-up tests. Patients with peak luteinizing hormone level ≥5 IU/L were considered positive in the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone stimulation test. Anthropometric data, body mass index, bone age evaluation, blood hormones levels of luteinizing hormone, estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone, and uterine and ovarian volumes were analyzed. Results: Subjects with positive results in the initial test demonstrated early bone maturation, accelerated growth, and elevated basal blood luteinizing hormone, estradiol, and follicle-stimulating hormone levels, when compared with subjects with negative results in the initial test. Subjects with positive results in the follow-up test presented a more advanced bone age and more accelerated linear growth, when compared with subjects with negative results in the follow-up test. Conclusions: According to the statistical analysis, advanced bone age is the most effective predictor of the result of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone stimulation test.


Resumo Objetivo: O diagnóstico da puberdade precoce central sempre foi complicado na prática clínica. Como um importante método no diagnóstico de puberdade precoce central, o teste de estimulação do hormônio liberador do hormônio luteinizante é complexo e demorado. Em muitos casos, as características clínicas são incompatíveis com os resultados do teste de estimulação do hormônio liberador do hormônio luteinizante e, assim, não são confiáveis para o diagnóstico. Neste estudo, visamos constatar um indicador que previsse os resultados do teste de estimulação do hormônio liberador do hormônio luteinizante entre indivíduos com sinais puberais precoces. Métodos: Foram incluídos casos de 382 meninas com desenvolvimento precoce das mamas antes dos 8 anos de idade e teste de estimulação do hormônio liberador do hormônio luteinizanteantes dos 9 anos e elas foram submetidas a testes de acompanhamento. Os resultados das pacientes com nível máximo de hormônio luteinizante ≥ 5 IU/L foram consideradas positivos no teste de estimulação do hormônio liberador do hormônio luteinizante. Foi feita uma análise dos dados antropométricos, do índice de massa corporal, da avaliação da idade óssea, dos níveis sanguíneos de hormônio luteinizante, volumes uterinos e ovarianos de estradiol (E2) e do hormônio folículo-estimulante. Resultados: Os indivíduos com resultado positive no teste inicial demonstraram maturação precoce do osso, crescimento acelerado e níveis sanguíneos elevados de hormônio luteinizante, estradiol e hormônio folículo-estimulante, em comparação aos indivíduos com resultados negativos no teste inicial. Os indivíduos com resultados positivos no teste de acompanhamento apresentaram um maior avanço na idade óssea e crescimento linear mais acelerado, em comparação aos indivíduos com resultados negativos no teste de acompanhamento. Conclusões: De acordo com a análise estatística, a idade óssea avançada é o indicador mais efetivo do resultado do teste de estimulação do hormônio liberador do hormônio luteinizante.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Puberty, Precocious/diagnosis , Luteinizing Hormone/blood , Age Determination by Skeleton , Estradiol/blood , Follicle Stimulating Hormone/blood , Puberty, Precocious/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Predictive Value of Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity
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