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1.
Rev. Méd. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 59(6)01-dic-2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357666

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el linfoma con células en anillo de sello es una entidad poco frecuente y simuladora de neoplasias epiteliales, sarcomas y condiciones reactivas de histiocitos. Representa una variante morfológica de distintos linfomas no Hodgkin, por lo que su diagnóstico puede representar un desafío y debe ser considerado al realizar estudios complementarios. Objetivo: mostrar un caso con una morfología muy poco frecuente y recalcar la importancia de conocer esta entidad para no cometer errores en su diagnóstico. Caso clínico: se documenta el caso de un hombre de 67 años que desarrolló crecimientos ganglionares en axila derecha, cuello, ingle derecha, y región submandibular, con aparente afección en pulmones y bazo, que fue diagnosticado como linfoma B difuso de células grandes con morfología en anillo de sello, originado en el centro germinal. Se realizó estudio de microscopía electrónica de transmisión para una mejor caracterización de la morfología. Desafortunadamente el paciente no regresó a consulta de seguimiento, por lo que no inició tratamiento, falleció a los 6 meses posteriores al diagnóstico. Conclusiones: el linfoma con fenotipo en anillo de sello es poco frecuente, y puede presentarse en cualquier tipo de linfomas no Hodgkin; sin embargo, esta morfología es más comúnmente asociada a carcinomas y, en menor frecuencia, a sarcomas, melanomas o histiocitos reactivos, por lo que el considerar esta entidad junto con el uso adecuado de estudios complementarios es de gran importancia para su adecuado diagnóstico.


Background: Signet-ring cell lymphoma is a rare entity that simulates epithelial neoplasms, sarcomas and reactive histiocytes conditions. It represents a morphological variant of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, its diagnosis can represent a challenge, therefore it should be considered in complementary studies. Objective: The aim of this work is to show a case with a very rare morphology and to emphasize the importance of awareness this entity and avoid mistakes in its diagnosis. Clinical case: We present a case of a 67-year-old man, who developed lymph node growths in the right armpit, neck, right groin, and submandibular region, with apparent involvement of the lungs and spleen; was diagnosed as diffuse large B cell lymphoma with signet-ring morphology, originated in the germinal center. Transmission electron microscopy study was carried out for a more precise characterization of the morphology. Unfortunately, the patient did not return for a follow-up consultation, so he did not start treatment and died 6 months after diagnosis. Conclusions: Lymphoma with the signet-ring phenotype is rare, and can occur in any type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma; however, this morphology is more commonly associated with carcinomas and, less frequently, with sarcomas, melanomas or reactive histiocytes conditions, therefore should be considered this entity together with the appropriate use of complementary studies for proper diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse , Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin , Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell , Lymph Nodes , Melanoma , Mexico
2.
An. bras. dermatol ; 96(6): 693-699, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355635

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: There are conflicting data regarding the prognostic value of the lymphatic basin drainage pattern in melanoma patients and the evidence is scant in the setting of negative sentinel lymph node biopsy. Objective: To investigate whether the pattern of lymphatic basin drainage influences the risk of nodal disease in patients with melanoma of the trunk and negative sentinel lymph node biopsy. Methods: A case series of patients with trunk melanoma and negative sentinel lymph node biopsy was retrospectively evaluated. Clinicopathological features, the pattern of lymphatic drainage and nodal, metastatic, and overall recurrence-free survival were reviewed. Results: Of the 135 patients included, multiple lymphatic basin drainage was identified in 61 (45.2%). Ten of the 74 (13.5%) patients with single drainage developed nodal recurrence, compared with 2 of the 61 (3.6%) patients with multiple drainages (p = 0.04). Nodal recurrence-free survival was significantly longer in the group with multiple drainages than in the group with single drainage (175.6 vs. 138.7 months; p = 0.04). In multivariate analysis, single drainage was associated with a higher risk of nodal recurrence (HR = 4.54; p = 0.05). No significant differences in metastatic and overall recurrence-free survival were found between groups. Study limitations: Retrospective analysis, single-center study, small sample, detailed histopathologic information not always present. Conclusions: In patients with trunk melanoma and negative sentinel lymph node biopsy, multiple lymphatic basin drainage may be an independent risk factor for nodal disease recurrence. This factor may help to identify patients with negative sentinel lymph node biopsy with a higher risk of nodal recurrence.


Subject(s)
Skin Neoplasms/surgery , Melanoma/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
3.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(3): 484-494, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154488

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Prostate cancer is the most common invasive cancer in men. Radical prostatectomy (RP) is a definitive treatment option, but biochemical recurrence can reach 40%. Salvage lymphadenectomy is a relatively recent approach to oligometasis and has been rapidly diffused primarily due to improvement in imaging diagnosis and results showing possibly promising therapy. A systematic literature review was performed in March 2020, according to the PRISMA statement. We excluded studies with patients with suspicion or confirmation of visceral and / or bone metastases. A total of 27 articles were included in the study. All studies evaluated were single arm, and there were no randomized studies in the literature. A total of 1,714 patients received salvage lymphadenectomy after previous treatment for localized prostate cancer. RP was the most used initial therapeutic approach, and relapses were based on PET / CT diagnosis, with Coline-11C being the most widely used radiopharmaceutical. Biochemical response rates ranged from 0% to 80%. The 5 years - Free Survival Biochemical recurrence was analyzed in 16 studies with rates of 0% up to 56.1%. The articles do not present high levels of evidence to draw strong conclusions. However, even if significant rates of biochemical recurrence are not evident in all studies, therapy directed to lymph node metastases may present good oncological results and postpone the onset of systemic therapy. The long-term impact in overall survival and quality of life, as well as the best strategies for case selection remains to be determined.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/surgery , Quality of Life , Prostatectomy , Salvage Therapy , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/surgery
4.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(4): 297-303, Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280048

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To evaluate the number of patients with early-stage breast cancer who could benefit from the omission of axillary surgery following the application of the Alliance for Clinical Trials in Oncology (ACOSOG) Z0011 trial criteria. Methods A retrospective cohort study conducted in the Hospital da Mulher da Universidade Estadual de Campinas. The study population included 384 women diagnosed with early-stage invasive breast cancer, clinically negative axilla, treated with breast-conserving surgery and sentinel lymph node biopsy, radiation therapy, chemotherapy and/or endocrine therapy, from January 2005 to December 2010. The ACOSOG Z0011 trial criteria were applied to this population and a statistical analysis was performed to make a comparison between populations. Results A total of 384 patients underwent breast-conserving surgery and sentinel lymph node biopsy. Of the total number of patients, 86 women underwent axillary lymph node dissection for metastatic sentinel lymph nodes (SNLs). One patient underwent axillary node dissection due to a suspicious SLN intraoperatively, thus, she was excluded fromthe study. Among these patients, 82/86 (95.3%) had one to two involved sentinel lymph nodes andmet the criteria for the ACOSOG Z0011 trial with the omission of axillary lymph node dissection. Among the 82 eligible women, there were only 13 cases (15.9%) of lymphovascular invasion and 62 cases (75.6%) of tumors measuring up to 2 cm in diameter (T1). Conclusion The ACOSOG Z0011 trial criteria can be applied to a select group of SLNpositive patients, reducing the costs and morbidities of breast cancer surgery.


Resumo Objetivo Avaliar o número de pacientes com câncer de mama em estágio inicial que se beneficiariam da omissão da linfadenectomia axilar segundo o protocolo Z0011 da Alliance for Clinical Trials in Oncology (ACOSOG). Métodos Estudo de coorte retrospectiva conduzido no Hospital da Mulher da Universidade Estadual de Campinas. Foram incluídas mulheres diagnosticadas com carcinoma invasivo de mama em estágio inicial, com axila clinicamente negativa, tratadas com cirurgia conservadora e biópsia do linfonodo sentinela, radioterapia, quimioterapia e/ou hormonioterapia, de janeiro de 2005 a dezembro de 2010. Os critérios do estudo da ACOSOG Z0011 foram aplicados a essas mulheres e foi realizada uma análise estatística que comparou ambas as populações dos estudos. Resultados Foram estudadas 384 mulheres submetidas a cirurgia conservadora de mama e biópsia do linfonodo sentinela. Entre elas, 86 mulheres foram submetidas a linfadenectomia axilar por metástase presente no linfonodo sentinela. Uma paciente foi submetida a linfadenectomia axilar por ter um linfonodo palpável suspeito no intraoperatório, não incluída no estudo. Entre essas 86 pacientes, 82 (95,3%) tiveram de 1 a 2 linfonodos sentinela comprometidos e seriam elegíveis para omissão da linfadenectomia axilar pelos critérios do ACOSOG Z0011. Entre as 82 pacientes elegíveis, apenas 13 (15,9%) delas apresentaram tumores com invasão angiolinfática, e 62 (75,6%) dos tumores mediram até 2 cm (T1). Conclusão Os critérios do estudo ACOZOG Z0011 podem ser aplicados a um seleto grupo de pacientes com linfonodo sentinela positivo reduzindo os custos e a morbidade cirúrgica do tratamento do câncer de mama.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Breast Neoplasms/surgery , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Mastectomy, Segmental , Lymph Node Excision , Axilla/pathology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Retrospective Studies , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging
5.
Rev. argent. mastología ; 40(145): 65-80, mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1291291

ABSTRACT

El estado axilar es un factor pronóstico para los estadios tempranos de cáncer de mama. Existen factores que podrían predecir riesgo de mayor enfermedad axilar. El objetivo es determinar cuáles son los factores predictivos independientes de alta carga residual ganglionar axilar (4 o más GNC comprometidos) luego de la BGC positiva. Estudio analítico, observacional, cohorte retrospectiva de pacientes con tumores T1-2, axila clínicamente negativa, a las que se les realizó cirugía conservadora (CC) y BGC con resultado positivo (marco o micrometástasis) y se les realizó posterior linfadenectomía axilar (LA). Del total de 325 pacientes, 96 tuvieron resultado positivo para metástasis en el ganglio centinela (29,5%) y también se les realizó LA. Se dividió a la población seleccionada en dos grupos según el compromiso de los GNC: baja carga axilar 0-3 GNC positivos, y alta carga axilar 4 o más GNC positivos. Se observaron como factores que demostraron mayor riesgo para alta carga axilar ganglionar residual al grado histológico, ki-67 y la invasión extracapsular en el GC; pero solamente la invasión extracapsular en el GC demostró ser significativa en el análisis multivariado. Probablemente con un mayor número de pacientes otras variables pudieran haber resultado factores de riesgo independiente


Axillary status is a prognostic factor for early stages of breast cáncer. There are predictive factors that might indicate the risk of greater axilary disease. The aim is to determine which are the independent predictive factor sor a high residual axillary nodal burden (four or more non-sentinel lymph nodes involved) after a positive sentinel node biopsy. Retrospective cohort analytic observational study of patients with T1-2 tumors, negative axilla, who underwent breast conserving surgery and sentinel node biopsy with a positive result (macro ­ or micro-metastasis) and later underwent lymph node dissection. Out of the total 325 patients, 96 got a positive result for metástasis in the sentinel lymph node (29.5%) and also underwent lymph node dissection. The selected population was divided into two groups according to the involvement of NSLNs: low axillary burden: 0-3 NSLNs, and high axillary burden: 4 or more positive NSLNs. Among the factors found to have a higher risk of high residual axillary nodal burden were the histologic grade, Ki-67 and the extracapsular invasión of the SLN, but only the extracapsular invasión of the SLN was found to be significant in the multivariate analysis. It is likely that with a higher number of patients, other variables might have been independent risk factors


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Sentinel Lymph Node , Axilla , Biopsy , Breast Neoplasms , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes
6.
An. bras. dermatol ; 96(1): 82-84, Jan.-Feb. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152789

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cutaneous tuberculosis is a rare infection that is difficult to diagnose, because it shows less sensitivity and specificity in classic complementary exams when compared with the pulmonary form. The Xpert MTB/RIF® method offers an early diagnosis that identifies the DNA of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the main mutations that give the bacterium resistance to rifampicin. The authors present a case of scrofuloderma whose diagnosis was quickly obtained through the secretion of a cervical lesion, allowing an early diagnosis and the initiation of appropriate treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis, Cutaneous/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Antibiotics, Antitubercular/therapeutic use , Antibiotics, Antitubercular/pharmacology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Rifampin/therapeutic use , Sensitivity and Specificity , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Lymph Nodes
7.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 14(2): 77-80, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283556

ABSTRACT

El carcinoma oculto de tiroides está poco reportado. Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 59 años. Durante un control por hipotiroidismo se solicitó ecografía cervical, la que mostró áreas hipoecogénicas en lóbulo derecho, una formación nodular hiperecogénica circunscrita no sospechosa de 8 mm y una adenopatía cervical periglandular derecha de 20 x 12 x 8 mm con áreas quísticas y microcalcificaciones, asociadas a hipervascularización. Se solicitó punción aspirativa por aguja fina del ganglio linfático, con resultado de citología negativa para células neoplásicas. El examen microscópico es compatible con tiroiditis, por lo que no es posible descartar metástasis. Se realizó biopsia del ganglio linfático, el que se informa como metástasis ganglionar linfática de 1.3 cm, histología de carcinoma papilar variedad folicular, sin invasión extracapsular. Se realizó tiroidectomía total y disección cervical derecha. El estudio anatomopatológico reportó una tiroiditis crónica de Hashimoto con un nódulo fibroso hialinizado de 0,4 cm negativo para tumor maligno y metástasis en 4 de 28 ganglios linfáticos, sin invasión extracapsular. El tamaño de la metástasis fue de 0,3 a 0,9 cm. Posteriormente se administró 100 mci de radioyodo. Actualmente, la paciente está en buenas condiciones y mantiene controles con ecografía y tiroglobulina periódicos.


Occult thyroid carcinoma is under-reported. The case of a 59-year-old woman is presented. During a check-up for hypothyroidism, a cervical ultrasound was requested, which showed hypoechogenic areas in the right lobe, an 8 mm nonsuspicious circumscribed hyperechogenic nodular formation and a 20 x 12 x 8 mm right cervical periglandular lymphadenopathy with cystic areas and microcalcifications, associated with hypervascularisation. Fine needle aspiration of the lymph node was requested, with negative cytology results for neoplastic cells. Microscopic examination was compatible with thyroiditis, so metastasis could not be ruled out. A biopsy of the lymph node was performed, which was reported as a 1.3 cm lymph node metastasis, histology of papillary carcinoma of the follicular variety, without extracapsular invasion. Total thyroidectomy and right cervical dissection were performed. The anatomopathological study reported chronic Hashimoto's thyroiditis with a 0.4 cm hyalinised fibrous nodule negative for malignant tumour and metastases in 4 of 28 lymph nodes, without extracapsular invasion. The size of the metastasis was 0.3 to 0.9 cm. Subsequently, 100 mci of radioiodine was administered. The patient is currently in good condition and maintains regular ultrasound and thyroglobulin monitoring.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/secondary , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Lymph Nodes/pathology
8.
Rev. venez. cir ; 74(1): 407-411, 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1283702

ABSTRACT

Describir la técnica quirúrgica de la disección axilar dirigida (DAD) usando carbón vegetal como marcador del ganglio linfático axilar metastásico al momento del diagnóstico conjuntamente con la biopsia del ganglio centinela en paciente con cáncer de mama tratada con quimioterapia neoadyuvante con respuesta completa clínica y ecográficamente, demostrando su seguridad y eficacia. Material y Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo y descriptivo. Paciente con cáncer de mama y ganglio linfático metastásico en axila ipsilateral marcado con carbón vegetal al confirmarse ese diagnóstico y tratada con quimioterapia neoadyuvante con posterior negativización tanto clínica como ecográfica del ganglio linfático metastásico. Se planificó para disección axilar dirigida (extirpación del ganglio marcado con carbón vegetal y biopsia de ganglio centinela) con el fin de demostrar la eficacia del marcador utilizado y su relación o no con el ganglio centinela. Resultados: Se comprobó la identificación certera del ganglio afectado marcado con carbón vegetal el cual no presentó migración del colorante o reacción inflamatoria local coincidiendo además con dos ganglios centinelas todos con respuesta patológica completa. El carbón permaneció 153 días desde su administración hasta la cirugía axilar. Conclusión: Esta experiencia admite el marcaje con carbón vegetal del ganglio axilar metastásico al momento de su diagnóstico como un método seguro, sencillo, económico y accesible en relación a otros métodos de marcaje, además su asociación con la biopsia del ganglio centinela nos permite prescindir de la disección axilar en caso de respuesta patológica completa, sin embargo, es importante resaltar que se necesitan evaluar más casos para obtener conclusiones determinantes(AU)


To describe the surgical technique of targeted axillary dissection using charcoal marking of the metastatic lymph node at the time of diagnosis together with sentinel node biopsy in a breast cancer patient who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy with complete clinical and sonographical response, demonstrating its safety and efficacy. Material and Methods: Retrospective and descriptive study. Patient with breast cancer and metastatic lymph node in the ipsilateral axilla which was marked with charcoal upon confirmation of this diagnosis and treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy with subsequent clinical and sonographical negativization of the metastatic lymph node. It was planned for targeted axillary dissection (removal of charcoal-marked lymph node and sentinel node biopsy) in order to demonstrate the efficacy of the marker used and its relationship or not with the sentinel node. Results: The correct identification of the affected lymph node marked with charcoal was verified, which did not present dye migration or local inflammatory reaction, also coinciding with two sentinel nodes, all of them with a complete pathological response. The charcoal remained 153 days from its administration until the axillary surgery. Conclusion: This experience supports charcoal marking of the metastatic lymph node at the time of diagnosis as a safe, simple, inexpensive and accessible method in relation to other marking methods, in addition its association with sentinel node biopsy allows us to dispense with axillary dissection in case of complete pathological response, however it is important to highlight that more cases need to be evaluated to obtain decisive conclusions(AU)


Subject(s)
Female , Middle Aged , Axilla/pathology , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy , Sentinel Lymph Node , Breast Neoplasms , Charcoal , Drug Therapy , Lymph Nodes
9.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 29: e3408, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1289786

ABSTRACT

Objective: to evaluate the contribution of an instructional module identifying the number and characteristics of lymph nodes by undergraduate nursing students. Method: an experimental, randomized, controlled and masked study using an instructional module for intervention. The 68 students who made up the control group or the experimental group performed the prototype lymph node palpation in the initial and final phases, following the free registration of the characteristics and number of these structures. Between the phases, the instructional module (palpation prototype and a registration guide instrument) was applied to the experimental group. Descriptive statistics and mixed linear regression were used for analysis. Results: the experimental group showed greater accuracy (p<0.05) in the evaluation of the size, consistency, mobility and coalescence of the lymph nodes in the final phase when compared to the control; it also showed more chances to correctly evaluate the consistency ( OR 45,26; 95% CI<7,74>‡<264.54> p<0.0001), mobility (OR 55.95; CI 95% 12.45 - 251.60; p<0.0001) and size (OR 25.64; CI 95% 3.92 - 160.2; p=0.0002) of the lymph nodes. Conclusion: the results reinforce the contribution of the instructional module to increase the knowledge of nursing students about the evaluation of lymph nodes.


Objetivo: avaliar a contribuição de um módulo instrucional para a identificação do número e das características de linfonodos por estudantes de graduação em enfermagem. Método: estudo experimental, aleatorizado, controlado e mascarado utilizando para intervenção um módulo instrucional. Os 68 estudantes que compuseram o grupo controle ou o grupo experimento realizaram nas fases inicial e final a palpação dos linfonodos em protótipo, seguindo-se o registro livre das características e número dessas estruturas. Ao grupo experimento foi aplicado, entre as fases, o módulo instrucional (protótipo de palpação e um instrumento-guia de registro). Para análise empregou-se estatística descritiva e regressão linear mista. Resultados: o grupo experimento apresentou maior acerto (p<0,05) na avaliação do tamanho, consistência, mobilidade e coalescência dos linfonodos na fase final quando comparado ao controle; ainda, apresentou mais chances de avaliar corretamente a consistência (OR 45,26; IC 95% 7,74 - 264,54; p<0,0001), mobilidade (OR 55,95; IC 95% 12,45 - 251,60; p<0,0001) e tamanho (OR 25,64; IC 95% 3,92 - 160,62; p=0,0002) dos linfonodos. Conclusão: os resultados reforçam a contribuição do módulo instrucional para o aumento do conhecimento de estudantes de enfermagem sobre a avaliação de linfonodos.


Objetivo: evaluar la contribución de un módulo instruccional a la identificación del número y características de ganglios linfáticos por estudiantes de pregrado de enfermería. Método: estudio experimental, aleatorizado, controlado y enmascarado mediante intervención de un módulo instruccional. Los 68 estudiantes que integraron el grupo control o el grupo experimental realizaron en las fases inicial y final la palpación de los ganglios linfáticos en prototipo, tras el registro libre de las características y número de estas estructuras. El módulo instruccional (prototipo de palpación y un instrumento-guía de registro) se aplicó al grupo de Experimental. Para el análisis, se utilizó estadística descriptiva y regresión lineal mixta. Resultados: el grupo Experimental mostró mayor acierto (p<0,05) en la evaluación del tamaño, consistencia, movilidad y coalescencia de los ganglios linfáticos en la fase final en comparación con el control; aun así, presentó más probabilidad de evaluar correctamente la consistencia (OR 45,26; IC del 95% 7,74 - 264,54; p<0,0001), la movilidad (OR 55,95; IC del 95% 12,45 - 251, 60; p<0,0001) y tamaño (OR 25,64; IC 95% 3,92 - 160,62; p=0,0002) de los ganglios linfáticos. Conclusión: los resultados refuerzan el aporte del módulo instruccional para el incremento del conocimiento de los estudiantes de enfermería sobre la evaluación de ganglios linfáticos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Physical Examination , Students, Nursing , Teaching , Linear Models , Control Groups , Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate , Simulation Training , Lymph Nodes , Lymphatic Metastasis
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880661

ABSTRACT

The preliminary screening of oral cancer mostly depends on the experience of clinicians, The surgical margin of tumor is mostly based on physical examination and preoperative imaging examination. It lacks real-time and objective intraoperative evaluation methods. Indocyanine green (ICG), as a safe and pollution-free organic fluorescent pigments, combined with near-infrared fluorescence imaging can be applied in the screening of early oral cancer, the determination of tumor resection margins, sentinel lymph node biopsy, cervical lymph node dissection, targeted chemotherapy, and other aspects. Near-infrared fluorescence imaging may become a key link in the early diagnosis and accurate treatment for oral cancer in the future.


Subject(s)
Humans , Indocyanine Green , Lymph Nodes , Mouth Neoplasms/therapy , Optical Imaging , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879953

ABSTRACT

:To establish and verify a risk prediction nomogram for ipsilateral axillary lymph node metastasis in breast cancer stage T1 (mass ≤ 2 cm). :The clinicopathological data of 907 patients with T1 breast cancer who underwent surgical treatment from January 2010 to June 2015 were collected,including 573 cases from the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine (modeling group) and 334 cases from Zhejiang University Lishui Hospital (verification group). The risk factors of ipsilateral axillary lymph node metastasis were analyzed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression. The influencing factors were used to establish a nomogram for predicting ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes metastasis in T1 breast cancer. The model calibration,predictive ability and clinical benefit in the modeling group and the verification group were analyzed by C index,receiver operating characteristic curve,calibration curve and decision curve analysis (DCA) curve,respectively. :Univariate analysis showed that lymph node metastasis was related with primary tumor size,vascular tumor thrombus,Ki-67,histopathological grade,and molecular type ( vascular tumor thrombus,Ki-67 positive,estrogen receptor (ER) positive,and histopathological grade 2-3 were independent risk factors of axillary lymph node metastasis (<0.05 or <0.01). Based on the independent risk factors,a nomogram prediction model was established. The C indexes of the model group and the validation group were 0.739 (95%:0.693-0.785) and 0.736 (95%:0.678-0.793),respectively. The calibration curve and DCA curve of the modeling group and the verification group indicated that the model was consistent and had good clinical benefit. :Primary tumor size,histopathological grade,vascular tumor thrombus,Ki-67,and ER status are predictors of ipsilateral axillary lymph node metastasis in T1 breast cancer. The established prediction nomogram can effectively predict the risk of ipsilateral axillary lymph node metastasis in T1 breast cancer,which can be used as a reference for individualized axillary management.


Subject(s)
Axilla , Breast Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Lymphatic Metastasis , Nomograms , Retrospective Studies
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887864

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the value of trans-lymphatic contrast-enhanced ultrasound(CEUS)in the diagnosis of cervical lymph node metastasis of thyroid cancer. Methods The patients with suspected thyroid cancer underwent conventional ultrasound and trans-lymphatic CEUS examinations before the biopsy.The differences in ultrasound and CEUS characteristics of cervical lymph nodes between the metastatic group and the non-metastatic group were compared,and pathological results were regarded as the golden standard. Results Twenty patients had thyroid cancer,including 12 cases with lymph node metastasis and 8 cases without metastasis.The diagnostic sensitivity(91.7%


Subject(s)
Contrast Media , Humans , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Lymphatic Metastasis/diagnostic imaging , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921559

ABSTRACT

Objective To establish an artificial intelligence model based on B-mode thyroid ultrasound images to predict central compartment lymph node metastasis(CLNM)in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma(PTC). Methods We retrieved the clinical manifestations and ultrasound images of the tumors in 309 patients with surgical histologically confirmed PTC and treated in the First Medical Center of PLA General Hospital from January to December in 2018.The datasets were split into the training set and the test set.We established a deep learning-based computer-aided model for the diagnosis of CLNM in patients with PTC and then evaluated the diagnosis performance of this model with the test set. Result The accuracy,sensitivity,specificity,and area under receiver operating characteristic curve of our model for predicting CLNM were 80%,76%,83%,and 0.794,respectively. Conclusion Deep learning-based radiomics can be applied in predicting CLNM in patients with PTC and provide a basis for therapeutic regimen selection in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , Humans , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Lymphatic Metastasis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/diagnostic imaging , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging
14.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 333-340, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921271

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Pathological complete response (pCR) of axillary lymph nodes (ALNs) is frequently achieved in patients with clinically node-positive breast cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), and ALN status is an important prognostic factor for breast cancer patients. This study aims to develop a new predictive clinical model to assess the ALN pCR rate after NAC.@*METHODS@#This was a retrospective series of 467 patients who had biopsy-proven positive ALNs at diagnosis and underwent ALN dissection from 2007 to 2014 at the National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. We analyzed the clinicopathologic features of the patients and developed a nomogram to predict the probability of ALN pCR. A multivariable logistic regression stepwise model was used to construct a nomogram to predict ALN pCR in node-positive patients. The adjusted area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was calculated to quantify the ability to rank patients by risk. Internal validation was performed using the 50/50 hold-out validation method. The nomogram was externally validated with prospective cohorts of 167 patients from 2016 to 2018 at the Cancer Hospital of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and 114 patients from 2018 to 2020 at Beijing Tiantan Hospital.@*RESULTS@#In this retrospective study, 115 (24.6%) patients achieved ALN pCR after NAC. Multivariate analysis showed that clinical tumor stage (Odds ratio [OR]: 0.321, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.121-0.856; P = 0.023); primary tumor response (OR: 0.189; 95% CI: 0.123-0.292; P < 0.001), and estrogen receptor status (OR: 0.530, 95% CI: 0.304-0.925; P = 0.025) were independent predictors of ALN pCR. The nomogram was constructed based on the result of multivariate analysis. In the internal validation of performance of nomogram, the AUCs for the training and test sets were 0.719 and 0.753, respectively. The nomogram was validated in external cohorts with AUCs of 0.720, which demonstrated good discriminatory power in these data sets.@*CONCLUSION@#We developed a nomogram to predict the likelihood of axillary pCR in node-positive breast cancer patients after NAC. The predictive model performed well in multicenter prospective external validation. This practical tool could provide information to surgeons regarding whether to perform additional ALN dissection after NAC.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#ChiCTR.org.cn, ChiCTR1800014968.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Lymphatic Metastasis , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Nomograms , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies
15.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2692-2699, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921207

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Breast cancer patients with ipsilateral supraclavicular lymph node metastasis (ISLNM) but without distant metastasis are considered to have a poor prognosis. This study aimed to develop a nomogram to predict the overall survival (OS) of breast cancer patients with ISLNM but without distant metastasis.@*METHODS@#Medical records of breast cancer patients who received surgical treatment at the Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Jiyuan People's Hospital and Huaxian People's Hospital between December 21, 2012 and June 30, 2020 were reviewed retrospectively. Overall, 345 patients with pathologically confirmed ISLNM and without evidence of distant metastasis were identified. They were further randomized 2:1 and divided into training (n = 231) and validation (n = 114) cohorts. A nomogram to predict the probability of OS was constructed based on clinicopathologic variables identified by the univariable and multivariable analyses. The predictive accuracy and discriminative ability were measured by calibration plots, concordance index (C-index), and risk group stratification.@*RESULTS@#Univariable analysis showed that estrogen receptor-positive (ER+), progesterone receptor-positive (PR+), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive (HER2+) with Herceptin treatment, and a low axillary lymph node ratio (ALNR) were prognostic factors for better OS. PR+, HER2+ with Herceptin treatment, and a low ALNR remained independent prognostic factors for better OS on multivariable analysis. These variables were incorporated into a nomogram to predict the 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS of breast cancer patients with ISLNM. The C-indexes of the nomogram were 0.737 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.660-0.813) and 0.759 (95% CI: 0.636-0.881) for the training and the validation cohorts, respectively. The calibration plots presented excellent agreement between the nomogram prediction and actual observation for 3 and 5 years, but not 1 year, OS in both the cohorts. The nomogram was also able to stratify patients into different risk groups.@*CONCLUSIONS@#In this study, we established and validated a novel nomogram for predicting survival of patients with ISLNM. This nomogram may, to some extent, allow clinicians to more accurately estimate prognosis and to make personalized therapeutic decisions for individual patients with ISLNM.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Lymphatic Metastasis , Nomograms , Retrospective Studies
16.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 981-988, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920979

ABSTRACT

Cervical cancer is a common gynecologic malignancy. Most patients with early-stage cervical cancer received unnecessary systemic pelvic lymphadenectomy, which increased the risk of surgical complications. At present, sentinel lymph node biopsy has been applied in the clinical practice of cervical cancer abroad, however it is still at the starting stage in China in need of application and promotion. The Obstetrics and Gynecology Committee of Chinese Research Hospital Association invited domestic experts in the field of gynecologic oncology to discuss the application value, patient evaluation, technical methods, operation steps, pathological examination and many other key points of sentinel lymph node biopsy based on the current research status, and reached the consensus of clinical application on sentinel lymph node biopsy in cervical cancer to guide the standardized application of the technique in China.


Subject(s)
Consensus , Female , Humans , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes/surgery , Lymphatic Metastasis , Neoplasm Staging , Sentinel Lymph Node/surgery , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/surgery
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878698

ABSTRACT

Objective To compare the differences of energy spectrum CT between small cell lung cancer(SCLC)with mediastinal lymph node metastasis and mediastinal sarcoidosis.Methods Twenty-five SCLC patients with mediastinal lymph node metastasis(SCLC group)and 26 patients with mediastinal sarcoidosis(sarcoidosis group)confirmed by bronchoscopy and biopsy in Tangshan People's Hospital from January 2018 to June 2019 were selected as the research objects.The CT value,iodine concentration,water concentration and energy spectrum curve slope under different single energy levels were compared between SCLC group and sarcoidosis group.Results The single-energy CT values of 40-80 keV segments in the arterial phase of the SCLC group were significantly higher than those in the sarcoidosis group(all P 0.05).The single-energy CT values of 40-90 keV segments in venous phase of the SCLC group were significantly higher than those of the sarcoidosis group(all P 0.05).The concentrations of iodine in the arterial phase and venous phase of the SCLC group were(11.56±4.06)μg/cm


Subject(s)
Humans , Lung Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Lymph Nodes , Lymphatic Metastasis , Sarcoidosis/diagnostic imaging , Small Cell Lung Carcinoma/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
18.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 318-325, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878045

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Methylene blue is the most commonly used tracer for sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy (SLNB) in China. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of clinical application of SLNB using methylene blue dye (MBD) for early breast cancer and the prognosis of patients with different SLN and non-SLN statuses.@*METHODS@#We retrospectively analyzed the clinicopathological data of patients with early breast cancer treated at the Peking University First Hospital between 2013 and 2018. We calculated the SLN identification rate (IR) in SLNB with MBD and the false-negative rate (FNR), and analyzed the prognosis of patients with different SLN and non-SLN statuses using Kaplan-Meier curves.@*RESULTS@#Between January 2013 and December 2018, 1603 patients with early breast cancer underwent SLNB with MBD. The SLN IR was 95.8% (1536/1603). Two SLNs (median) were detected per patient. There were significant differences in FNR between patients with SLN micrometastasis and macrometastasis (19.0% vs. 4.5%, χ2 = 12.771, P < 0.001). Chi-square test showed that there were significant differences in SLN successful detection rates among patients with different vascular tumor embolism status (96.3% vs. 90.8%, χ2 = 9.013, P = 0.003) and tumor (T) stages (96.6% vs. 94.1%, χ2 = 5.189, P = 0.023). Multivariate analysis showed that vascular tumor embolism was the only independent factor for SLN successful detection (odds ratio: 0.440, 95% confidence interval: 0.224-0.862, P = 0.017). Survival analysis showed a significant difference in disease-free survival (DFS) between patients with non-SLN metastasis and patients without non-SLN metastasis (P = 0.006).@*CONCLUSION@#Our single-center data show that, as a commonly used tracer in SLNB in China, MBD has an acceptable SLN IR and a low FNR in frozen sections. This finding is consistent with reports of dual tracer-guided SLNB. Positive SLNs with non-SLN metastasis are associated with DFS.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/surgery , China , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Methylene Blue , Retrospective Studies , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
19.
J. bras. pneumol ; 47(2): e20200055, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1180801

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Evaluation of enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes is crucial for patient management. Malignant lymphoma and sarcoidosis are often difficult to differentiate. Our objective was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of MRI for differentiating between sarcoidosis and malignant lymphoma. Methods: This was a retrospective study involving 47 patients who underwent chest MRI and were diagnosed with one of the diseases between 2017 and 2019. T1, T2, and diffusion-weighted signal intensity were measured. Apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) and T2 ratios were calculated. The diagnostic performance of MRI was determined by ROC analysis. Results: Mean T2 ratio was significantly lower in the sarcoidosis group than in the lymphoma group (p = 0.009). The T2-ratio cutoff value that best differentiated between lymphoma-related and sarcoidosis-related enlarged lymph nodes was 7.1, with a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of 58.3%, 95.6%, 76.5%, 93.3%, and 68.7%, respectively. The mean ADC was significantly lower in the lymphoma group than in the sarcoidosis group (p = 0.002). The ADC cutoff value that best differentiated between lymphoma-related and sarcoidosis-related enlarged lymph nodes was 1.205, with a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of 87.5%, 82.6%, 85.1%, 84.0% and 86.3%, respectively. No significant differences were found between the two groups regarding T1 signal intensity, T2 signal intensity, and lymph node diameter. Conclusions: MRI parameters such as ADC, diffusion, and T2 ratio can be useful in the differentiation between sarcoidosis and lymphoma in the evaluation of enlarged lymph nodes.


RESUMO Objetivo: A avaliação de linfonodomegalias mediastinais é crucial para o manejo dos pacientes. O linfoma maligno e a sarcoidose costumam ser difíceis de diferenciar. Nosso objetivo foi determinar a precisão diagnóstica da RMN para diferenciar sarcoidose de linfoma maligno. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo com 47 pacientes submetidos a RMN de tórax e diagnosticados com uma das doenças entre 2017 e 2019. Foi medida a intensidade do sinal em T1, T2 e difusão. Foram calculados o coeficiente de difusão aparente (ADC, do inglês apparent diffusion coefficient) e a razão T2. O desempenho diagnóstico da RMN foi determinado pela análise da curva ROC. Resultados: A média da razão T2 foi significativamente menor no grupo sarcoidose que no grupo linfoma (p = 0,009). A razão T2 = 7,1 foi o melhor valor de corte para diferenciar linfonodomegalias relacionadas com linfoma daquelas relacionadas com sarcoidose, com sensibilidade, especificidade, valor preditivo positivo, valor preditivo negativo e precisão de 58,3%, 95,6%, 76,5%, 93,3% e 68,7%, respectivamente. A média do ADC foi significativamente menor no grupo linfoma que no grupo sarcoidose (p = 0,002). O ADC = 1,205 foi o melhor valor de corte para diferenciar linfonodomegalias relacionadas com linfoma daquelas relacionadas com sarcoidose, com sensibilidade, especificidade, valor preditivo positivo, valor preditivo negativo e precisão de 87,5%, 82,6%, 85,1%, 84,0% e 86,3%, respectivamente. Não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos quanto à intensidade do sinal em T1, intensidade do sinal em T2 e diâmetro dos linfonodos. Conclusões: Parâmetros de RMN como ADC, difusão e razão T2 podem ser úteis na diferenciação entre sarcoidose e linfoma na avaliação de linfonodomegalias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sarcoidosis/diagnostic imaging , Lymphoma/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Lymphatic Metastasis
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