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Respirar (Ciudad Autón. B. Aires) ; 16(1): 23-30, Marzo 2024.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1551185


Introducción: La EBUS ha sido el foco de numerosos estudios destinados a evaluar su utilidad y rendimiento diagnóstico en diversas patologías. Objetivo principal: Identificación de las características ganglionares evaluadas en el procedimiento de Ultrasonido Endobronquial (EBUS) y su relación con el diagnóstico de malignidad en pacientes del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer de Colombia del 1 de enero de 2017 al 31 de marzo de 2021.Métodos: Estudio analítico observacional transversal. La recopilación de datos implicó un muestreo de casos consecutivos no probabilísticos entre individuos que cumplían los criterios de inclusión.Resultados: Un total de 75 pacientes fueron sometidos a EBUS. Se identificaron 6 características ecográficas de los ganglios de la biopsia asociadas a malignidad destacándose los ganglios mayores de 1 cm, márgenes mal definidos, ecogenicidad heterogénea, ausencia de una estructura hiliar central, presencia de signos de necrosis o coagulación y presencia de conglomerado ganglionar. Conclusión: Este estudio caracterizó la frecuencia de los hallazgos en la ultrasonografía endobronquial destacando algunas características ecográficas de los ganglios mediastínicos que podrían predecir patología maligna.

Introduction: The EBUS has been the focus of numerous studies aiming to evaluate its utility and diagnostic performance across various pathologies. Objective: Identification of the node characteristics evaluated in the Endobronchial Ultrasound (EBUS) procedure and their relationship with malignancy diagnosis in patients at the National Cancer Institute of Colombia from January 1st, 2017, to March 31st, 2021. Methods: Observational cross-sectional analytical study. Data collection involved non-probabilistic consecutive case sampling among individuals meeting the inclusion criteria.Results: A total of 75 patients underwent the EBUS procedure. Our findings revealed six predictors of malignancy based on sonographic features of biopsy nodes, including nodes larger than 1 cm, poorly defined margins, heterogeneous echogenicity, absence of a central hilar structure, presence of signs indicating necrosis or coagulation, and the presence of a ganglion conglomerate. Conclusions: This study showed that endobronchial ultrasonography has several sonographic characteristics at the time of evaluating mediastinal nodes that could predict malignant and benign pathology.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Lymphadenopathy/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Biopsy/methods , Ultrasonography/methods , Colombia , Neoplasm Staging/methods
Int. braz. j. urol ; 48(1): 89-98, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356281


ABSTRACT Purpose: Contrast-enhanced CT scan is the standard staging modality for patients with bladder cancer undergoing radical cystectomy (RC). Involvement of lymph nodes (LN) determines prognosis of patients with bladder cancer. The detection of LN metastasis by CT scan is still insufficient. Therefore, we investigated various CT scan characteristics to predict lymph node ratio (LNR) and its impact on survival. Also, pre-operative CT scan characteristics might hold potential to risk stratify cN+ patients. Materials and Methods: We analyzed preoperative CT scans of patients undergoing RC in a tertiary high volume center. Retrospectively, local tumor stage and LN characteristics such as size, morphology (MLN) and number of loco-regional LN (NLN) were investigated and correlation to LNR and survival was analyzed. CT scan characteristics were used to develop a risk stratification using Kaplan-Maier and multivariate analysis. Results: 764 cN0 and 166 cN+ patients with complete follow-up and imaging data were included in the study. Accuracy to detect LN metastasis and locally advanced tumor stage in CT scan was 72% and 62%. LN larger than 15mm in diameter were significantly associated with higher LNR (p=0.002). Increased NLN correlated with decreased CSS and OS (p=0.001: p=0.002). Furthermore, CT scan based scoring system precisely differentiates low-risk and high-risk profiles to predict oncological outcome (p <0.001). Conclusion: In our study, solely LN size >15mm significantly correlated with higher LNR. Identification of increased loco-regional LN was associated with worse survival. For the first time, precise risk stratification based on computed-tomography findings was developed to predict oncological outcome for clinical lymph node-positive patients undergoing RC.

Humans , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/surgery , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/pathology , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Cystectomy , Prognosis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Retrospective Studies , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes/surgery , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Neoplasm Staging
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 338-342, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887864


Objective To explore the value of trans-lymphatic contrast-enhanced ultrasound(CEUS)in the diagnosis of cervical lymph node metastasis of thyroid cancer. Methods The patients with suspected thyroid cancer underwent conventional ultrasound and trans-lymphatic CEUS examinations before the biopsy.The differences in ultrasound and CEUS characteristics of cervical lymph nodes between the metastatic group and the non-metastatic group were compared,and pathological results were regarded as the golden standard. Results Twenty patients had thyroid cancer,including 12 cases with lymph node metastasis and 8 cases without metastasis.The diagnostic sensitivity(91.7%

Humans , Contrast Media , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Lymphatic Metastasis/diagnostic imaging , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography
Acta cir. bras ; 36(6): e360608, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278115


ABSTRACT Purpose To reduce false-negative rates (FNR) in sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) of clinically positive (cN+) axilla in patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). The removal of three or more lymph nodes with dual-tracer mapping including a radioisotope was used. However, in the Brazilian Unified Health System, the radioisotope tracer is not feasible in some hospitals. We conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate the detection rate of sentinel lymph node (SLN) in patients who converted from cN+ to ycN0 after NAC using blue dye as a single-agent mapping tracer. Methods During the period of March 2018 to September 2019, 34 patients who underwent NAC with cN+ who converted to ycN0 were enrolled in the study. The SLNB was performed using blue dye as a single-agent mapping followed by axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). Results The detection rate of sentinel lymph node was of 85.3%, being SLNB not possible for five patients (14.7%), due to fibrosis. The mean number of removed SLN was 2.5. Conclusions The use of blue dye as a single-agent mapping tracer demonstrated an acceptable detection rate of 85.3%. Although the FNR was possible to be determined, the small sample size might overestimate this rate. The removal of three or more lymph nodes with single-agent mapping tracer might be indicated for breast cancer patients who converted to ycN0 after NAC in the Brazilian health public services, in which radioisotope tracer is not suitable.

Humans , Female , Breast Neoplasms/surgery , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy , Axilla , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Lymphatic Metastasis
J. bras. pneumol ; 47(2): e20200055, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1180801


ABSTRACT Objective: Evaluation of enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes is crucial for patient management. Malignant lymphoma and sarcoidosis are often difficult to differentiate. Our objective was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of MRI for differentiating between sarcoidosis and malignant lymphoma. Methods: This was a retrospective study involving 47 patients who underwent chest MRI and were diagnosed with one of the diseases between 2017 and 2019. T1, T2, and diffusion-weighted signal intensity were measured. Apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) and T2 ratios were calculated. The diagnostic performance of MRI was determined by ROC analysis. Results: Mean T2 ratio was significantly lower in the sarcoidosis group than in the lymphoma group (p = 0.009). The T2-ratio cutoff value that best differentiated between lymphoma-related and sarcoidosis-related enlarged lymph nodes was 7.1, with a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of 58.3%, 95.6%, 76.5%, 93.3%, and 68.7%, respectively. The mean ADC was significantly lower in the lymphoma group than in the sarcoidosis group (p = 0.002). The ADC cutoff value that best differentiated between lymphoma-related and sarcoidosis-related enlarged lymph nodes was 1.205, with a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of 87.5%, 82.6%, 85.1%, 84.0% and 86.3%, respectively. No significant differences were found between the two groups regarding T1 signal intensity, T2 signal intensity, and lymph node diameter. Conclusions: MRI parameters such as ADC, diffusion, and T2 ratio can be useful in the differentiation between sarcoidosis and lymphoma in the evaluation of enlarged lymph nodes.

RESUMO Objetivo: A avaliação de linfonodomegalias mediastinais é crucial para o manejo dos pacientes. O linfoma maligno e a sarcoidose costumam ser difíceis de diferenciar. Nosso objetivo foi determinar a precisão diagnóstica da RMN para diferenciar sarcoidose de linfoma maligno. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo com 47 pacientes submetidos a RMN de tórax e diagnosticados com uma das doenças entre 2017 e 2019. Foi medida a intensidade do sinal em T1, T2 e difusão. Foram calculados o coeficiente de difusão aparente (ADC, do inglês apparent diffusion coefficient) e a razão T2. O desempenho diagnóstico da RMN foi determinado pela análise da curva ROC. Resultados: A média da razão T2 foi significativamente menor no grupo sarcoidose que no grupo linfoma (p = 0,009). A razão T2 = 7,1 foi o melhor valor de corte para diferenciar linfonodomegalias relacionadas com linfoma daquelas relacionadas com sarcoidose, com sensibilidade, especificidade, valor preditivo positivo, valor preditivo negativo e precisão de 58,3%, 95,6%, 76,5%, 93,3% e 68,7%, respectivamente. A média do ADC foi significativamente menor no grupo linfoma que no grupo sarcoidose (p = 0,002). O ADC = 1,205 foi o melhor valor de corte para diferenciar linfonodomegalias relacionadas com linfoma daquelas relacionadas com sarcoidose, com sensibilidade, especificidade, valor preditivo positivo, valor preditivo negativo e precisão de 87,5%, 82,6%, 85,1%, 84,0% e 86,3%, respectivamente. Não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos quanto à intensidade do sinal em T1, intensidade do sinal em T2 e diâmetro dos linfonodos. Conclusões: Parâmetros de RMN como ADC, difusão e razão T2 podem ser úteis na diferenciação entre sarcoidose e linfoma na avaliação de linfonodomegalias.

Humans , Sarcoidosis/diagnostic imaging , Lymphoma/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Lymphatic Metastasis
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 911-916, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921559


Objective To establish an artificial intelligence model based on B-mode thyroid ultrasound images to predict central compartment lymph node metastasis(CLNM)in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma(PTC). Methods We retrieved the clinical manifestations and ultrasound images of the tumors in 309 patients with surgical histologically confirmed PTC and treated in the First Medical Center of PLA General Hospital from January to December in 2018.The datasets were split into the training set and the test set.We established a deep learning-based computer-aided model for the diagnosis of CLNM in patients with PTC and then evaluated the diagnosis performance of this model with the test set. Result The accuracy,sensitivity,specificity,and area under receiver operating characteristic curve of our model for predicting CLNM were 80%,76%,83%,and 0.794,respectively. Conclusion Deep learning-based radiomics can be applied in predicting CLNM in patients with PTC and provide a basis for therapeutic regimen selection in clinical practice.

Humans , Artificial Intelligence , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Lymphatic Metastasis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/diagnostic imaging , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(6): 803-809, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142206


ABSTRACT Objective: The objective of the study was to develop an association between clinicopathologic and sonographic features of patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma and the prevalence of lymph node metastasis. Subjects and methods: Clinicopathologic and sonographic features of 415 patients of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma with (n = 102) or without (n = 313) lymph node metastasis were retrospectively reviewed. The thickness of the lymph node ≥ 6 mm with intra-lymph nodal occupying lesions considered lymph node metastasis. Also, it was considered metastasis if lymph node perfusion or blood flow defect was found with any thickness size. Univariate following multivariate analysis was performed for the prediction of sonographic features and clinicopathologic factors for the prevalence of lymph node metastasis. Results: Male gender ( p = 0.041), age < 45 years ( p = 0.042), preoperative calcitonin > 65 pg/ mL ( p = 0.039), nodule size > 5 mm in diameter ( p = 0.038), bilaterality ( p = 0.038), tumor capsular invasion ( p = 0.048), cystic change ( p = 0.047), and hyper vascularity ( p = 0.049) of thyroid nodules were associated with lymph node metastasis. Also, thyroid nodules 5 mm and more in diameter may have high aggressiveness. Conclusion: These data helped the surgeon for individualized treatment in thyroid carcinoma and avoid unnecessary prophylactic surgery of the lymph node.

Humans , Male , Thyroidectomy , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Thyroid Neoplasms/epidemiology , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Carcinoma, Papillary , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Lymphatic Metastasis/diagnostic imaging , Middle Aged
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 781-788, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878678


Objective To investigate the correlation between CT texture analysis and synchronous distant metastasis in patients with lymph node-negative colorectal cancer. Methods The preoperative CT images of 82 patients with lymph node-negative colorectal cancer were analyzed retrospectively.There were 12 patients with simultaneous distant metastasis and 70 patients without simultaneous distant metastasis.The maximum plane of the lesion on plain scan and portal CT images was analyzed by TexRAD software.When the spatial scaling factor(SSF)was 0 and 2-6,six texture parameters were obtained,and the differences of texture parameters between the two groups were compared.The counting data were analyzed by chi-square test and the measurement data by Mann-Whitney test. Results There was a significant difference in the skewness of SSF=3 between the simultaneous distant metastasis group and the non-synchronous metastasis group on plain CT scan(

Humans , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Neoplasm Metastasis , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
J. bras. pneumol ; 46(2): e20180183, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134861


ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the diagnostic yield of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) in non-neoplastic patients with isolated intrathoracic lymphadenopathy (IL). Methods: This was a retrospective study of patients with isolated IL referred for EBUS-TBNA. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of EBUS-TBNA in the diagnosis of granulomatous, reactive, and neoplastic lymphadenopathy. In cases of nonspecific granulomas, reactive lymphadenopathy, or inconclusive results, a definitive diagnosis was established by other diagnostic procedures or during a follow-up period of at least 18 months. Results: Among the 58 patients included in the study, EBUS-TBNA established a diagnosis of granulomatous disease in 22 (38%), reactive lymphadenopathy in 15 (26%), cancer in 8 (14%), and other diseases in 3 (5%). Results were inconclusive in 10 (17%), the diagnosis being established by other bronchoscopic procedures in 2 (20%) and by surgical procedures in 8 (80%). A final diagnosis of reactive lymphadenopathy was established in 12. Of those, 11 (92%) had their diagnosis confirmed during follow-up and 1 (8%) had their diagnosis confirmed by mediastinoscopy. In another 3, a final diagnosis of sarcoidosis or neoplasm was established. For the diagnosis of granulomatous disease, neoplasms, and reactive lymphadenopathy, EBUS-TBNA was found to have a sensitivity of 73%, 68%, and 92%, respectively; a specificity of 100%, 100%, and 93%, respectively; an accuracy of 86%, 93%, and 93%, respectively; a PPV of 100%, 100%, and 80%, respectively; and an NPV of 78%, 92%, and 98%, respectively. Conclusions: In non-neoplastic patients, granulomatous disease and reactive lymphadenopathy appear to be common causes of isolated IL. EBUS-TBNA shows promising results as a first-line minimally invasive diagnostic procedure. The results obtained by EBUS-TBNA can be optimized by examining clinical and radiological findings during follow-up or by comparison with the results obtained with other bronchoscopic methods.

RESUMO Objetivo: Determinar o rendimento diagnóstico da endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA, aspiração transbrônquica com agulha guiada por ultrassonografia endobrônquica) em pacientes não neoplásicos com linfonodomegalia intratorácica (LI) isolada. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo com pacientes com LI isolada encaminhados para EBUS-TBNA. Foram calculados a sensibilidade, especificidade, precisão, valor preditivo positivo (VPP) e valor preditivo negativo (VPN) da EBUS-TBNA no diagnóstico de linfadenopatia granulomatosa, reacional e neoplásica. Em casos de granulomas inespecíficos, linfadenopatia reacional ou resultados inconclusivos, o diagnóstico definitivo foi estabelecido por meio de outros procedimentos diagnósticos ou ao longo de pelo menos 18 meses de acompanhamento. Resultados: Nos 58 pacientes incluídos, a EBUS-TBNA permitiu que se estabelecesse o diagnóstico de doença granulomatosa em 22 (38%), linfadenopatia reacional em 15 (26%), câncer em 8 (14%) e outras doenças em 3 (5%). Os resultados foram inconclusivos em 10 (17%), nos quais o diagnóstico foi feito por meio de outros procedimentos broncoscópicos, em 2 (20%), ou de procedimentos cirúrgicos, em 8 (80%). O diagnóstico final de linfadenopatia reacional foi feito em 12. Destes, 11 (92%) receberam confirmação diagnóstica durante o acompanhamento e 1 (8%), por meio de mediastinoscopia. Em outros 3, o diagnóstico final foi sarcoidose ou neoplasia. Para o diagnóstico de doença granulomatosa, câncer e linfadenopatia reacional, a EBUS-TBNA apresentou sensibilidade de 73%, 68% e 92%, respectivamente; especificidade de 100%, 100% e 93%, respectivamente; precisão de 86%, 93% e 93%, respectivamente; VPP de 100%, 100% e 80%, respectivamente; VPN de 78%, 92% e 98%, respectivamente. Conclusões: Em pacientes não neoplásicos, doenças granulomatosas e linfadenopatia reacional parecem ser causas comuns de LI isolada. A EBUS-TBNA apresenta resultados promissores como procedimento diagnóstico minimamente invasivo de primeira linha. Os resultados obtidos pela EBUS-TBNA podem ser otimizados pelos achados clínicos e radiológicos durante o acompanhamento ou pela comparação com os resultados de outros métodos broncoscópicos.

Humans , Bronchi/diagnostic imaging , Bronchoscopy , Ultrasonography, Interventional/methods , Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration/methods , Lymphadenopathy/diagnostic imaging , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinum/diagnostic imaging , Biopsy, Needle/methods , Bronchi/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Lymphadenopathy/pathology , Lymph Nodes/pathology
J. bras. pneumol ; 46(6): e20190221, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134920


ABSTRACT Objective: Lung cancer (LC) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Accurate mediastinal staging is mandatory in order to assess prognosis and to select patients for surgical treatment. EBUS-TBNA is a minimally invasive procedure that allows sampling of mediastinal lymph nodes (LNs). Some studies have suggested that EBUS-TBNA is preferable to surgical mediastinoscopy for mediastinal staging of LC. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to compare EBUS-TBNA and mediastinoscopy in terms of their effectiveness for mediastinal LN staging in potentially operable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: This was a systematic review and meta-analysis, in which we searched various databases. We included studies comparing the accuracy of EBUS-TBNA with that of mediastinoscopy for mediastinal LN staging in patients with NSCLC. In the meta-analysis, we calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratios, and negative likelihood ratios. We also analyzed the risk difference for the reported complications associated with each procedure. Results: The search identified 4,201 articles, 5 of which (with a combined total of 532 patients) were selected for inclusion in the meta-analysis. There were no statistically significant differences between EBUS-TBNA and mediastinoscopy in terms of the sensitivity (81% vs. 75%), specificity (100% for both), positive likelihood ratio (101.03 vs. 95.70), or negative likelihood ratio (0.21 vs. 0.23). The area under the summary ROC curve was 0.9881 and 0.9895 for EBUS-TBNA and mediastinoscopy, respectively. Although the number of complications was higher for mediastinoscopy, the difference was not significant (risk difference: −0.03; 95% CI: −0.07 to 0.01; I2 = 76%). Conclusions: EBUS-TBNA and mediastinoscopy produced similar results for mediastinal staging of NSCLC. EBUS-TBNA can be the procedure of first choice for LN staging in patients with NSCLC.

RESUMO Objetivo: O câncer de pulmão (CP) é uma das principais causas de morte no mundo. Um estadiamento mediastinal preciso é obrigatório para avaliação do prognóstico e seleção de pacientes para tratamento cirúrgico. EBUS-TBNA é um procedimento minimamente invasivo que permite a amostragem de linfonodos mediastinais. Alguns estudos sugerem que a EBUS-TBNA é preferível que a mediastinoscopia cirúrgica no estadiamento mediastinal do CP. O objetivo desta revisão sistemática e meta-análise foi comparar a eficácia da EBUS-TBNA e da mediastinoscopia no estadiamento linfonodal mediastinal do câncer de pulmão de células não pequenas (CPCNP) potencialmente operável. Métodos: Foram pesquisados diversos bancos de dados. Estudos comparando a precisão da EBUS-TBNA e da mediastinoscopia no estadiamento linfonodal mediastinal em pacientes com CPCNP foram incluídos. Na meta-análise, foram calculadas sensibilidade e especificidade, bem como razões de verossimilhança positiva e negativa. A diferença de risco de complicações relatadas para cada procedimento também foi analisada. Resultados: A pesquisa identificou 4.201 artigos, dos quais 5 foram selecionados para a meta-análise (total combinado de 532 pacientes). Não houve diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre EBUS-TBNA e mediastinoscopia: sensibilidade (81% vs. 75%), especificidade (100% para ambas), razão de verossimilhança positiva (101,03 vs. 95,70) e razão de verossimilhança negativa (0,21 vs. 0,23). A área sob a curva summary ROC para EBUS-TBNA e para mediastinoscopia foi de 0,9881 e 0,9895, respectivamente. Embora o número de complicações tenha sido maior para mediastinoscopia, não foi encontrada diferença significativa (diferença de risco: −0,03; IC95%: −0,07 to 0,01; I2 = 76%). Conclusões: EBUS-TBNA e mediastinoscopia apresentaram resultados semelhantes no estadiamento mediastinal do CPCNP. EBUS-TBNA pode ser o procedimento de primeira escolha no estadiamento linfonodal em pacientes com CPCNP.

Humans , Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration/methods , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Lymph Nodes/surgery , Mediastinal Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinoscopy/methods , Bronchoscopy , Sensitivity and Specificity , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/surgery , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/diagnostic imaging , Endoscopy , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinum/surgery , Neoplasm Staging
Clinics ; 75: e1691, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133437


OBJECTIVE: Imaging diagnosis of cervical lymphadenopathy has conventionally used ultrasonography. Shear wave elastography (SWE) is a recent ultrasound technological advancement that has shown promise in the important medical problem of differentiating between benign and malignant cervical lymph nodes based on quantitative measurements of elasticity modulus. However, widely varying elasticity modulus metrics and regions-of-interest (ROIs) were used in existing studies, leading to inconsistent findings and results that are hard to compare with each other. METHODS: Using a large dataset of 264 cervical lymph nodes from 200 patients, we designed a study comparing three elasticity modulus metrics (Emax, Emean, and standard deviation-SD) with three different ROIs to evaluate the effect of such selections. The metric values were compared between the benign and malignant node groups. The different ROI and metric selections were also compared through receiver operating characteristics curve analysis. RESULTS: For all ROIs, all metric values were significantly different between the two groups, indicting their diagnostic potential. This was confirmed by the ≥0.80 area under the curve (AUC) values achieved with these metrics. Different ROIs had no effect on Emax, whereas all ROIs achieved high performance at 0.88 AUC. For Emean, the smallest ROI focusing on the area of the highest elasticity achieved the best diagnostic performance. In contrast, the larger ROIs achieved higher performances for SD. CONCLUSIONS: This study illustrated the effect of elasticity modulus and ROI selection on the diagnostic performance of SWE on cervical lymphadenopathy. These new findings help guide relevant future studies and clinical applications of this important quantitative imaging modality.

Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Reproducibility of Results , Ultrasonography , Sensitivity and Specificity , Diagnosis, Differential , Elastic Modulus , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Neck/diagnostic imaging
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 79(4): 482-492, dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058726


RESUMEN En la práctica clínica es habitual el estudio de linfonodos cervicales. La anamnesis y el examen físico orientan la etiología, pero ocasionalmente debemos recurrir a estudios imagenológicos. Esto es muy relevante en contexto de un linfonodo metastásico por un carcinoma escamoso de cabeza y cuello. Para esto podemos utilizar diversas herramientas imagenológicas. El ultrasonido se utiliza para el estudio inicial de una masa cervical en donde clínicamente no queda claro el origen. La tomografía computarizada permite la evaluación de manera global del cuello. Se utiliza ante sospechas o diagnósticos confirmados de carcinoma escamoso de cabeza y cuello. La resonancia magnética tiene utilidad en casos que requieren evaluación de un primario y el cuello, como cánceres de glándulas salivales, base de lengua, lengua oral o piso de boca. El PET-TC es un buen examen a la hora de evaluar un cáncer de cabeza y cuello de primario desconocido y posibles metástasis a distancia, como también cuando se quiere evaluar adenopatías persistentes postratamiento con radioquimioterapia. Tener una evaluación ordenada en el estudio de un linfonodo, por sobre todo con un uso adecuado del recurso imagenológico ayuda a no enlentecer el proceso diagnóstico y dar un diagnóstico y tratamiento más certero.

ABSTRACT In clinical practice, the study of cervical lymph nodes is common. The anamnesis and the physical examination often guide the etiology, however sometimes we have to use images studies. This is very relevant when we are assessing a metastatic lymph node due to head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Ultrasound is usually used for the initial study of a cervical mass where the physician cannot determine its origin. The computed tomography allows a global evaluation of the neck. It is most often used when there is suspicion or confirmed diagnoses of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Magnetic resonance imaging is useful in cases that require evaluation of a primary neoplasm and the neck, such in salivary gland cancers, tongue base cancers, oral tongue or mouth floor tumors. PET-CT is a good test to evaluate head and neck cancers of unknown primary site and possible distant metastases, as well as evaluation of persistent adenopathies after treatment with radiochemotherapy. Having an organized evaluation in the study of a lymph node, with an adequate use of the imaging resource, helps not to hinder the diagnostic process and give an accurate diagnosis and treatment.

Humans , Head and Neck Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Lymph Nodes/anatomy & histology , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonics/methods , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Lymphadenopathy/diagnostic imaging , Head and Neck Neoplasms
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 85(3): 297-302, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011631


Abstract Introduction: Ultrasonography is the easiest non-invasive method to diagnose lymph node metastases in patients with head and neck cancer. However, since CT scans are often preferred in the evaluation of primary tumours of these patients, information about lymphatic metastases may also available in these patients. Therefore, ultrasound is not routinely employed in the evaluation of these patients. However, elastography technique, a recent development in ultrasound technology, could make use of ultrasonography in these patients even more widespread, even though it is still not widely used today. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of sonographic elastography in the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis of head and neck cancer. Methods: Twenty-three patients diagnosed with head and neck cancer and scheduled for surgical treatment including neck dissection were included in the study. All patients underwent neck examination by palpation, ultrasound elastography and computerized tomography with contrast. To compare the diagnostic performance of palpation, ultrasound elastography and computerized tomography, the findings of each examination method were compared with the histopathological examination results of neck specimens. Results: 15 (65.2%) patients had a primary tumour in the larynx; 7 (30.4%) in the oral cavity; and 1 (4.3%) in the parotid. 7 (30.4%) out of 23 patients underwent bilateral neck dissection. In total, 30 neck dissections were hereby taken into account during study. Ultrasound elastography showed higher accuracy (83.3%) and higher sensitivity (82.4%) than palpation and computerized tomography, but the specificity of ultrasound elastography was lower (84.6%) than palpation and computerized tomography. Conclusions: Ultrasound elastography is helpful for the diagnosis of lymph node metastases in patients with head and neck cancer. Due to its non-invasive character, it can be used safety in combination with other radiological techniques to support or improve their diagnostic performance.

Resumo Introdução: A ultrassonografia é o método mais fácil e não invasivo para diagnosticar metástases em linfonodos em pacientes com câncer de cabeça e pescoço. No entanto, como as tomografias computadorizadas são frequentemente preferidas na avaliação de tumores primários desses pacientes, as informações sobre metástases linfáticas também se tornam disponíveis. Portanto, a ultrassonografia não faz parte da avaliação de rotina desses pacientes. Entretanto, a técnica de elastografia, um desenvolvimento mais recente na tecnologia de ultrassom, poderia tornar o uso da ultrassonografia mais difundido nesses pacientes, embora atualmente ainda não seja amplamente usado. Objetivo: Avaliar o papel da elastografia ultrassonográfica no diagnóstico de metástases em linfonodos em casos de câncer de cabeça e pescoço. Método: Foram incluídos no estudo 23 pacientes diagnosticados com câncer de cabeça e pescoço e com tratamento cirúrgico programado, inclusive esvaziamento cervical. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a exame cervical por palpação, elastografia ultrassonográfica e tomografia computadorizada com contraste. Para comparar o desempenho diagnóstico da palpação, elastografia ultrassonográfica e tomografia computadorizada, os achados de cada método de exame foram comparados com os resultados do exame histopatológico de amostras obtidas do pescoço. Resultados: Dos pacientes, 15 (65,2%) apresentaram tumor primário na laringe; sete (30,4%) na cavidade oral; e um (4,3%) na parótida. Sete (30,4%) dos 23 pacientes foram submetidos a esvaziamento cervical bilateral. Foram considerados durante o estudo 30 pescoços. A elastografia ultrassonográfica mostrou maior acurácia (83,3%) e maior sensibilidade (82,4%) do que a palpação e a tomografia computadorizada, mas a especificidade da elastografia ultrassonográfica foi menor (84,6%) do que a palpação e a tomografia computadorizada. Conclusões: A elastografia ultrassonográfica é útil para o diagnóstico de metástases de linfonodos em pacientes com câncer de cabeça e pescoço. Graças ao seu caráter não invasivo, pode ser usada com segurança em combinação com outras técnicas radiológicas para apoiar ou melhorar o desempenho diagnóstico.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Head and Neck Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Lymphatic Metastasis/diagnostic imaging , Cross-Sectional Studies , Predictive Value of Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Head and Neck Neoplasms/pathology , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Neoplasm Staging
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 22(4): 449-454, Oct.-Dec. 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975616


Abstract Introduction Papillary thyroid carcinoma has a very high rate of lateral neck node metastases, and there is almost unanimity concerning the fact that some sort of formal neck dissection must be performed to address the clinical neck disease in these cases. Although there is an agreement that levels II to IV need to be cleared in these patients, the clearance of level V is debatable. Objectives We herein have tried to analyze various papers that have documented a structured approach to neck dissection in these patients. Moreover, we have also tried to consider this issue through various aspects, like spinal accessory nerve injury and the impact of neck recurrence on survival. Data Synthesis The PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER), and Ovid databases were searched for studies written in English that focused on lateral neck dissection (levels II-IV or II-V) for papillary thyroid carcinoma. Case reports with 10 patients or less were excluded. Conclusions The current evidence is equivocal whether to clear level V or not, and the studies published on this issue are very heterogeneous. Level II-IV versus level II-V selective neck dissections in node-positive papillary thyroid carcinoma patients is far from categorical, with pros and cons for both approaches. Hence, we feel that there is a need for more robust homogeneous data in order to provide an answer to this question.

Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Neck Dissection , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , /surgery , Shoulder/physiopathology , Accessory Nerve/surgery , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Neoplasm Staging
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 62(5): 495-500, Oct. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983800


ABSTRACT Objective: Our aim was to present our experiences related to performing neck surgery using the guided intraoperative scintigraphic tumor targeting (GOSTT) procedure for patients who had locally recurrent or persistent differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and who had undergone previous thyroid surgery. Subjects and methods: We retrospectively evaluated 11 patients who had locally recurrent or persistent DTC, who had undergone previous surgery, and for whom reoperation was planned for metastatic cervical lymph nodes (LNs). We performed the neck surgery using the GOSTT procedure on all patients and at a single academic institution. Results: The 11 patients had a total of 26 LNs, as marked with a radiotracer, and those LNs' mean size was 14.7 ± 8.2 mm (range: 5-34 mm). Histopathological examinations revealed DTC metastasis in all 26 of the preoperatively marked LNs. Of the 11 patients, only one needed a reoperation in the neck; she had another successful surgery (also using the GOSTT procedure). In the evaluation of the patients' final status, all were disease-free in their necks. There also were no GOSTT-associated postoperative complications. Conclusion: The GOSTT procedure is a useful, successful, inexpensive, and comfortable procedure for marking and mapping metastatic LNs, especially in DTC patients who have undergone previous surgery.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Papillary/surgery , Carcinoma, Papillary/secondary , Lymph Node Excision/methods , Lymph Nodes/surgery , Neck/surgery , Carcinoma, Papillary/diagnostic imaging , Radionuclide Imaging/methods , Radiography, Interventional , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Lymphatic Metastasis , Neck/pathology , Neck/diagnostic imaging , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 38(3): 298-302, jul.-set. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-973982


RESUMEN El linfoma linfocítico de células pequeñas es una neoplasia de células B maduras con un amplio espectro de presentaciones clínicas. Las infecciones por gérmenes oportunistas no asociadas con el tratamiento, incluso en estadios avanzados de la enfermedad, tienen baja incidencia. Se han reportado muy pocos casos de pacientes con linfoma linfocítico de células pequeñas asociado a histoplasmosis diseminada que no habían recibido quimioterapia en el momento del diagnóstico. Se presenta el caso de una paciente de 82 años que fue hospitalizada por presentar tos seca intermitente, astenia y adinamia de un mes de evolución. Se le practicaron múltiples estudios para detectar infecciones o compromiso inmunológico o reumático, y se diagnosticó un síndrome adenopático extenso con compromiso cervical, torácico y retroperitoneal. En la citometría de flujo y en la biopsia de ganglio linfático cervical, se reportaron los fenotipos CD19+, CD20dim, CD5+, CD45+, CD23+, CD43neg y CD10neg, con restricción de la cadena ligera kappa, lo cual confirmó un linfoma linfocítico de células pequeñas. En la histopatología del ganglio, se observaron granulomas epitelioides sin necrosis, pero las coloraciones especiales no mostraron la presencia de microorganismos, en tanto que el cultivo del ganglio fue positivo para Histoplasma capsulatum. Se inició el tratamiento antifúngico con anfotericina B e itraconazol, y la paciente tuvo una adecuada evolución. Dado que no se cumplían los criterios para el tratamiento oncológico, se continuó con su observación mediante controles periódicos. Las infecciones oportunistas pueden ser la manifestación clínica inicial en pacientes con síndromes linfoproliferativos de bajo grado. Este caso demuestra que pueden desarrollarse, incluso, en ausencia de quimioterapia.

ABSTRACT The small lymphocytic lymphoma is a mature B cell neoplasm with a broad spectrum of clinical presentations. Opportunistic infections that are not related to the treatment, even in advanced stages, have a low incidence rate. There are few case reports in the medical literature of patients who have not received immunosuppressive therapy and present with small lymphocytic lymphoma associated with disseminated histoplasmosis at diagnosis. A female 82-year-old patient was admitted due to an intermittent dry cough, asthenia, and adynamia that had persisted for one month. Multiple studies to detect infections and immuno-rheumatic conditions were performed and an extensive cervical, thoracic and peritoneal adenopathic syndrome was diagnosed. A flow cytometry and a cervical lymph node biopsy were performed reporting CD19+, CD20dim, CD5+, CD45+, CD23+, CD43neg, and CD10neg phenotypes with restriction in the light kappa chain compatible with a small lymphocytic lymphoma. Epithelioid granulomas without necrosis were observed in the lymph node histopathology and special colorations showed no microorganisms. The culture from the lymph node was positive for Histoplasma capsulatum. We initiated treatment with amphotericin B and itraconazole with an adequate response. In the absence of compliance with oncology treatment criteria, the patient was managed on a "watch and wait" basis. Opportunistic infections could be the initial clinical manifestation in patients with low-grade lymphoproliferative syndromes. This case report shows that they can develop even in the absence of chemotherapy.

Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Opportunistic Infections/complications , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/diagnosis , Histoplasmosis/complications , Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/complications , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Itraconazole/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Watchful Waiting , Alzheimer Disease/complications , Histoplasma/isolation & purification , Histoplasmosis/diagnosis , Histoplasmosis/drug therapy , Hypertension/complications , Lymph Nodes/microbiology , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
Int. braz. j. urol ; 44(4): 688-696, July-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954075


ABSTRACT Objectives: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of preoperative multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) as a predictor of extracapsular extension (ECE) and unfavorable Gleason score (GS) in patients with intermediate and high-risk prostate cancer (PCa). Materials and Methods: Patients with clinically localized PCa who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) and had preoperative mp-MRI between May-2011 and December-2013. Mp-MRI was evaluated according to the European Society of Urogenital Radiology MRI prostate guidelines by two different readers. Histopathological RP results were the standard reference. Results: 79 patients were included; mean age was 61 and median preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) 7.0. On MRI, 28% patients had ECE evidenced in the mp-MRI, 5% seminal vesicle invasion (SVI) and 4% lymph node involvement (LNI). At RP, 39.2% had ECE, 26.6% SVI and 12.8% LNI. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of mp-MRI for ECE were 54.9%, 90.9%, 76%, 81% and 74.1% respectively; for SVI values were 19.1%, 100%, 77.3%, 100% and 76.1% respectively and for LNI 20%, 98.4%, 86.7%, 66.7% and 88.7%. Conclusions: Major surgical decisions are made with digital rectal exam (DRE) and ultrasound studies before the use of Mp-MRI. This imaging study contributes to rule out gross extraprostatic extension (ECE, SVI, LNI) without competing with pathological studies. The specificity and NPV are reasonable to decide surgical approach. A highly experienced radiology team is needed to provide accurate estimations of tumor extension and aggressiveness.

Humans , Male , Adult , Aged , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Prostatectomy/methods , Prostatic Neoplasms/surgery , Seminal Vesicles/pathology , Seminal Vesicles/diagnostic imaging , Biopsy , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Risk Assessment/methods , Neoplasm Grading , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Invasiveness/pathology , Neoplasm Staging
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 16(2): eAO4094, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-891467


ABSTRACT Objective To describe the results of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration in making diagnosis of mediastinal injuries associated to different causes. Methods A retrospective cross-sectional study of patients submitted to Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration at a private organization, between June 2013 and October 2016. All cases referred for collection of lymph nodes or peritracheal/peribronchial masses by endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration, and evaluated through tomography or PET-CT were included. Interventional pulmonologists and thoracic surgeons with experience in the method did the procedures. Rapid on-site evaluation of fine needle aspiration was performed by an experienced pathologist. Material analysis included cytological smear and cytopathological analysis of paraffin-embedded cell blocks. Other specific analyses (immunocytochemistry, tests and cultures of infectious agents) were performed whenever necessary. Results We included 72 patients; 6 were excluded for presenting endobronchial lesions in which bronchoscopic biopsy could be performed, or intrathoracic lesions that were not accessible by endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration. The mean age of 66 patients included for analysis was 61.17 years (±14.67 years), with a predominance of males (64%). Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration was definitive for diagnosis in 60 cases (91%). Three cases (4.5%) had inconclusive test results. There were no major complications related to the procedure. Conclusion Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration had a high diagnosis yield, with minimal morbidity, being an excellent option for diagnostic approach of patients with lymphadenopathy or intrathoracic lesions, and for neoplasm staging.

RESUMO Objetivo Descrever os resultados da utilização de punção aspirativa por agulha guiada por ultrassom endobrônquico na definição do diagnóstico em casos de lesões mediastinais por diferentes causas. Métodos Estudo transversal retrospectivo de pacientes submetidos à punção aspirativa por agulha guiada por ultrassom endobrônquico em instituição privada, entre junho de 2013 e outubro de 2016. Foram incluídos todos os casos referenciados para coleta de materiais de linfonodos ou massas peritraqueais/peribrônquicas por punção aspirativa por agulha guiada por ultrassom endobrônquico, estudados com tomografia ou PET-CT. Os procedimentos foram realizados por pneumologistas intervencionistas e cirurgiões torácicos com experiência no método. Rapid on-site evaluation da punção aspirativa por agulha fina foi realizada por patologista experiente. A análise do material incluiu citologia dos esfregaços em lâminas e análise citopatológica do emblocado celular. Outras análises específicas (imunocitoquímica, pesquisas e culturas de agentes infecciosos) foram realizadas se necessárias. Resultados Foram incluídos 72 pacientes; destes, 6 foram excluídos por apresentarem lesões endobrônquicas passíveis de biópsia broncoscópica convencional ou lesões intratorácicas não acessíveis a punção aspirativa por agulha guiada por ultrassom endobrônquico. Assim, a média de idade dos 66 pacientes incluídos para análise foi 61,17 anos (±14,67 anos), com predomínio do sexo masculino (64%). A punção aspirativa por agulha guiada por ultrassom endobrônquico foi definitivo para o diagnóstico em 60 casos (91%). Três casos (4,5%) foram inconclusivos. Não houve complicações maiores relacionadas ao procedimento. Conclusão A punção aspirativa por agulha guiada por ultrassom endobrônquico teve elevado rendimento diagnóstico, com mínima morbidade, constituindo excelente opção na abordagem diagnóstica de pacientes com linfadenopatia ou lesões intratorácicas e no estadiamento de neoplasias.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Bronchoscopy/methods , Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration/methods , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Mediastinal Diseases/pathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Paraffin Embedding , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinum/pathology , Mediastinum/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinal Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Middle Aged
Rev. chil. infectol ; 34(4): 410-412, ago. 2017. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042638


Resumen La infección por Bartonella henselae es una zoonosis frecuente transmitida por el gato doméstico. En la mayoría de los casos se presenta con una linfadenitis regional. La búsqueda y caracterización de los ganglios linfáticos por imagenología puede ser útil en el diagnóstico diferencial, con la ventaja de ser un método no invasor. En la actualidad, nuevas técnicas de diagnóstico por imagen han mejorado la detección y caracterización de las adenopatías, tal es el caso de la tomografía por emisión de positrones (PET/CT) que permite la evaluación de ganglios linfáticos hipermetabólicos, de manera independiente del crecimiento individual de cada ganglio linfático. Se revisan tres casos de enfermedad por arañazo de gato y sus estudios imagenológicos respectivos.

Bartonella henselae infection is a frequent zoonosis from the domestic cat. It is presented with regional lymphadenitis in the majority of cases. Searching and characterization of lymph nodes by diagnostic imaging can be useful in the differential diagnosis approach, with a clear advantage, because it is a noninvasive method. Currently, new diagnostic imaging techniques improves the quality of screening and characterization of adenopathies, such is the case of PET/CT, which allows a better evaluation of hypermetabolic lymph nodes, without considering the individual growth of each lymph node. In this article, three cases of cat scratch diseases serology and their respective imaging findings are reviewed.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Cat-Scratch Disease/diagnostic imaging , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Follow-Up Studies