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1.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 508-513, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984750

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand the characteristics and influencing factors of lymph node metastasis of the right recurrent laryngeal nerve in thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), and to explore the reasonable range of lymph node dissection and the value of right recurrent laryngeal nerve lymph node dissection. Methods: The clinicopathological data with thoracic ESCC were retrospectively analyzed, and the characteristics of lymph node metastasis along the right recurrent laryngeal nerve and its influencing factors were explored. Results: Eighty out of 516 patients had lymph node metastasis along the right recurrent laryngeal nerve, the metastasis rate was 15.5%. Among 80 patients with lymph node metastasis along the right recurrent laryngeal nerve, 25 cases had isolated metastasis to the right recurrent laryngeal nerve lymph node but no other lymph nodes. The incidence of isolated metastasis to the recurrent laryngeal nerve lymph node was 4.8% (25/516). A total of 1 127 lymph nodes along the right recurrent laryngeal nerve were dissected, 115 lymph nodes had metastasis, and the degree of lymph node metastasis was 10.2%. T stage, degree of tumor differentiation and tumor location were associated with right paraglottic nerve lymph node metastasis (all P<0.05). The lymph node metastasis rate along the right recurrent laryngeal in patients with upper thoracic squamous cell carcinoma (23.4%, 26/111) was higher than that of patients with middle (13.5%, 40/296) and lower (12.8%, 14/109) thoracic squamous cell carcinoma (P=0.033). In patients with poorly differentiated ESCC (20.6%, 37/180) the metastasis rate was higher than that of patients with moderately (14.6%, 39/267) and well-differentiated (5.8%, 4/69; P<0.05). The lymph node metastasis rate of patients with stage T4 (27.3%, 3/11) was higher than that of patients with stage T1 (9.6%, 19/198), T2 (19.0%, 16/84) and T3 (18.8%, 42/1 223; P<0.05). Multivariate regression analysis showed that tumor location (OR=0.61, 95% CI: 0.41-0.90, P=0.013), invasion depth (OR=1.46, 95% CI: 1.11-1.92, P=0.007), and differentiation degree (OR=1.67, 95% CI: 1.13-2.49, P=0.011) were independent risk factors for lymph node metastasis along right recurrent laryngeal nerve of ESCC. Conclusions: The lymph node along the right recurrent laryngeal nerve has a higher rate of metastasis and should be routinely dissected in patients with ESCC. Tumor location, tumor invasion depth, and differentiation degree are risk factors for lymph node metastasis along right recurrent laryngeal nerve in patients with ESCC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Esophagectomy
2.
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 582-589, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985812

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To evaluate the positive rate of left posterior lymph nodes of the superior mesenteric artery (14cd-LN) in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic head carcinoma,to analyze the impact of 14cd-LN dissection on lymph node staging and tumor TNM staging. Methods: The clinical and pathological data of 103 consecutive patients with pancreatic cancer who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy at Pancreatic Center,the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University from January to December 2022 were analyzed,retrospectively. There were 69 males and 34 females,with an age(M (IQR))of 63.0 (14.0) years (range:48.0 to 86.0 years). The χ2 test and Fisher's exact probability method was used for comparison of the count data between the groups,respectively. The rank sum test was used for comparison of the measurement data between groups. Univariate and multivariate Logistic regression analyzes were used for the analysis of risk factors. Results: All 103 patients underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy successfully using the left-sided uncinate process and the artery first approach. Pathological examination showed pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in all cases. The location of the tumors was the pancreatic head in 40 cases,pancreatic head-uncinate in 45 cases,and pancreatic head-neck in 18 cases. Of the 103 patients,38 cases had moderately differentiated tumor and 65 cases had poorly differentiated tumor. The diameter of the lesions was 3.2 (0.8) cm (range:1.7 to 6.5 cm),the number of lymph nodes harvested was 25 (10) (range:11 to 53),and the number of positive lymph nodes was 1 (3) (range:0 to 40). The lymph node stage was stage N0 in 35 cases (34.0%),stage N1 in 43 cases (41.7%),and stage N2 in 25 cases (24.3%). TNM staging was stage ⅠA in 5 cases (4.9%),stage ⅠB in 19 cases (18.4%),stage ⅡA in 2 cases (1.9%),stage ⅡB in 38 cases (36.9%),stage Ⅲ in 38 cases (36.9%),and stage Ⅳ in 1 case (1.0%). In 103 patients with pancreatic head cancer,the overall positivity rate for 14cd-LN was 31.1% (32/103),and the positive rates for 14c-LN and 14d-LN were 21.4% (22/103) and 18.4% (19/103),respectively. 14cd-LN dissection increased the number of lymph nodes (P<0.01) and positive lymph nodes (P<0.01). As a result of the 14cd-LN dissection,the lymph node stage was changed in 6 patients,including 5 patients changed from N0 to N1 and 1 patient changed from N1 to N2. Similarly,the TNM stage was changed in 5 patients,including 2 patients changed from stage ⅠB to ⅡB,2 patients changed from stage ⅡA to ⅡB,and 1 patient changed from stage ⅡB to Ⅲ. Tumors located in the pancreatic head-uncinate (OR=3.43,95%CI:1.08 to 10.93,P=0.037) and the positivity of 7,8,9,12 LN (OR=5.45,95%CI:1.45 to 20.44,P=0.012) were independent risk factors for 14c-LN metastasis; while tumors with diameter >3 cm (OR=3.93,95%CI:1.08 to 14.33,P=0.038) and the positivity of 7,8,9,12 LN (OR=11.09,95%CI:2.69 to 45.80,P=0.001) were independent risk factors for 14d-LN metastasis. Conclusion: Due to its high positive rate in pancreatic head cancer,dissection of 14cd-LN during pancreaticoduodenectomy should be recommended,which can increase the number of lymph nodes harvested,provide a more accurate lymph node staging and TNM staging.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Pancreaticoduodenectomy/methods , Retrospective Studies , Prognosis , Lymph Node Excision/methods , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Pancreatic Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasm Staging
3.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 702-709, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985761

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the value of plasma cells for diagnosing lymph node diseases. Methods: Common lymphadenopathy (except plasma cell neoplasms) diagnosed from September 2012 to August 2022 were selected from the pathological records of Changhai Hospital, Shanghai, China. Morphological and immunohistochemical features were analyzed to examine the infiltration pattern, clonality, and IgG and IgG4 expression of plasma cells in these lymphadenopathies, and to summarize the differential diagnoses of plasma cell infiltration in common lymphadenopathies. Results: A total of 236 cases of lymphadenopathies with various degrees of plasma cell infiltration were included in the study. There were 58 cases of Castleman's disease, 55 cases of IgG4-related lymphadenopathy, 14 cases of syphilitic lymphadenitis, 2 cases of rheumatoid lymphadenitis, 18 cases of Rosai-Dorfman disease, 23 cases of Kimura's disease, 13 cases of dermal lymphadenitis and 53 cases of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL). The main features of these lymphadenopathies were lymph node enlargement with various degrees of plasm cell infiltration. A panel of immunohistochemical antibodies were used to examine the distribution of plasma cells and the expression of IgG and IgG4. The presence of lymph node architecture could help determine benign and malignant lesions. The preliminary classification of these lymphadenopathies was based on the infiltration features of plasma cells. The evaluation of IgG and IgG4 as a routine means could exclude the lymph nodes involvement of IgG4-related dieases (IgG4-RD), and whether it was accompanied by autoimmune diseases or multiple-organ diseases, which were of critical evidence for the differential diagnosis. For common lesions of lymphadenopathies, such as Castleman's disease, Kimura's disease, Rosai-Dorfman's disease and dermal lymphadenitis, the expression ratio of IgG4/IgG (>40%) as detected using immunhistochemistry and serum IgG4 levels should be considered as a standard for the possibility of IgG4-RD. The differential diagnosis of multicentric Castleman's diseases and IgG4-RD should be also considered. Conclusions: Infiltration of plasma cells and IgG4-positive plasma cells may be detected in some types of lymphadenopathies and lymphomas in clinicopathological daily practice, but not all of them are related to IgG4-RD. It should be emphasized that the characteristics of plasma cell infiltration and the ratio of IgG4/IgG (>40%) should be considered for further differential diagnosis and avoiding misclassification of lymphadenopathies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Castleman Disease/pathology , Plasma Cells/pathology , Immunoglobulin G4-Related Disease , China , Lymphadenopathy/pathology , Inflammation/pathology , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Diagnosis, Differential , Lymphadenitis/pathology , Immunoglobulin G/metabolism
4.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 82-87, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969809

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological characteristics of superior mediastinal lymph node metastases (sMLNM) in medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). Methods: This retrospective analysis enrolled the patients who were treated for sMLNM of MTC in our hospital from May 2012 to January 2021. All patients were suspected of sMLNM due to preoperative imaging. According to the pathological results, the patients were divided into two groups named sMLNM group and the negative superior-mediastinal-lymph-node group. We collected and analyzed the clinical features, pathological features, pre- and post-operative calcitonin (Ctn), and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels of the two groups. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze risk factors, and receiver operation characteristic (ROC) curves were drawn to determine the optimal cut-off values of preoperative Ctn and preoperative CEA for predicting sMLNM. Results: Among the 94 patients, 69 cases were in the sMLNM group and 25 cases were in the non-SMLNM group. Preoperative Ctn level (P=0.003), preoperative CEA level (P=0.010), distant metastasis (P=0.022), extracapsular lymph node invasion (P=0.013), the number of central lymph node metastases (P=0.002) were related to sMLNM, but the multivariate analysis did not find any independent risk factors. The optimal threshold for predicting sMLNM by pre-operative Ctn is 1500 pg/ml and AUC is 0.759 (95% CI: 0.646, 0.872). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of diagnosis are 61.2%, 77.3%, 89.1%, 39.5%, respectively. In patients who underwent mediastinal lymph node dissection through transsternal approach, the metastatic possibility of different levels from high to low were level 2R (82.3%, 28/34), level 2L (58.8%, 20/34), level 4R (58.8%, 20/34), level 3 (23.5%, 8/34), level 4L (11.8%, 4/34). Postoperative complications occurred in 41 cases (43.6%), and there was no perioperative death in all cases. 14.8% (12/81) of the patients achieved biochemical complete response (Ctn≤12 pg/ml) one month after surgery, 5 of these patients were in sMLNM group. Conclusions: For patients who have highly suspicious sMLNM through imaging, combining with preoperative Ctn diagnosis can improve the accuracy of diagnosis, especially for patients with preoperative Ctn over 1 500 pg/ml. The superior mediastinal lymph node dissection for the primary sternotomy should include at least the superior mediastinal levels 2-4 to avoid residual lesions. The strategy of surgery needs to be cautiously performed. Although the probability of biochemical cure in sMLNM cases is low, nearly 40% of patients can still benefit from the operation at the biochemical level.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoembryonic Antigen , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine/pathology , Lymph Node Excision/methods
5.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 675-679, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986836

ABSTRACT

Objective: To summarize the clinical characteristics of patients with skip metastasis at esophageal resection margin during radical gastrectomy. Methods: This is a descriptive study of case series. Relevant data from 2006 to 2022 were collected from two major gastric cancer consultation and treatment centers: Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital and Jinling Hospital.Characteristics, surgical approach, number of dissected lymph nodes, immunohistochemical staining, and pathological staging were summarized and analyzed. The distribution of residual tumor cells at the esophageal margins was further analyzed at the cellular and tissue levels. Skip metastasis at the esophageal resection margin was defined as a negative esophageal margin with a positive margin in the cephalad donut. Results: Thirty (0.33%, 30/8972) eligible patients, 24 (80.0%) of whom were male, were identified in the two centers. The mean age was 63.9±11.0 years. Seventeen (56.7%) of these patients had papillary or tubular adenocarcinomas, including 13 (43.3%) poorly- and four (13.3%) moderately-differentiated tumors; four (13.3%) had signet-ring cell carcinomas; four (13.3%) mucinous adenocarcinomas; three (10.0%) mixed adenocarcinomas, including two with poorly-differentiated tubular adenocarcinomas mixed with signet-ring cell carcinoma and mucinous adenocarcinoma; and one had a poorly differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma mixed with signet-ring cell carcinoma. Two patients (6.7%) had other types of cancer, namely adenosquamous carcinoma in one patient and undifferentiated carcinoma in the other one. The predominant tumor sites were the lesser curvature (n=26, 86.7%) and the cardia (n=24, 80.0%). The mean tumor diameter was 6.6 cm, mean distance between tumor and esophageal resection margin was 1.5 cm, and proportions of tumor invasion into the dentate line, nerves, and vessels were 80.0% (24/30), 86.7%(26/30), and 93.3% (28/30), respectively. The mean number of lymph nodes resected was 20.4±8.9. The pathological stage was mainly T4 (n=18, 60.0%) and N3 (n=21, 70.0%), the median Ki67 was 52.7%, and the rates of positivity for HER2, EGFR, VEGFR, E-cadherin and PD-L1 were 40.0% (12/30), 46.7% (14/30), 80.0% (24/30), 86.7% (26/30) and 16.7% (5/30), respectively. At the cellular level, cancer cells were mainly distributed in small focal areas, as cell masses, or as tumor thrombi; large numbers of widely distributed atypic cells were seldom observed. At the tissue level, cancer cells were located in the mucosal layer in seven patients (23.3%), in the submucosal layer in 18 (60.0%), and in the muscular layer in five (16.7%); no cancer cells were identified in the outer membrane. Five of the seven tumors were located in the lamina propria, two in the muscularis mucosae, and none in the mucosal epithelium. Conclusion: Patients with skip metastasis at the esophageal resection margin at radical gastrectomy have unfavorable tumor biology and a high proliferation index, are at a late pathological stage, and the residual cancer is mostly located in the submucosa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Female , Margins of Excision , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell/pathology , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous/pathology , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Gastrectomy , Neoplasm Staging , Retrospective Studies
6.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 633-638, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986831

ABSTRACT

There is a consensus that selectively perform splenic lymph node dissection is necessary for high-risk patients with proximal gastric cancer to achieve radical treatment. However, there are still some outstanding issues that need to be solved during the practice of splenic lymph node dissection. These include poorly defined boundaries, technical difficulties, and blurred boundaries in No. 10 and No. 11 lymph nodes, etc. Membrane anatomy has achieved successful applications in the field of gastric and colorectal surgery in recent years. The study of membrane anatomy in the splenic hilum region is controversial due to the special location of the splenic hilum, which involves multiple organs and affiliated mesentery undergoing complex rotation, folding, and fusion during embryonic development. In this manuscript, we summarize the following points based on existing research and personal experience regarding membrane anatomy. 1. There is a membrane anatomical structure that can be used for lymph node dissection in the splenic hilum region. 2. The membrane structure in the splenic hilum region can be divided into two layers: the superficial layer is composed of the dorsal mesogastrium, and the deep layer is composed of Gerota fascia, the tail of the pancreas, and the mesentery of the transverse colon (from head to tail). 3. There is a loose space between the two layers that can be used for separation during surgery. The resection of the dorsal mesogastrium belongs to D2 dissection. The No. 10 lymph node in the deeper layer belongs to the duodenal mesentery, and the resection of the No.10 lymph node exceeds D2 dissection. The complete excision of the gastric dorsal mesentery is consistent with the D2+CME surgical mode proposed by Gong Jianping's group.


Subject(s)
Humans , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Laparoscopy , Gastrectomy , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymph Node Excision
7.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 492-498, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986817

ABSTRACT

Early colorectal cancers refer to invasive cancers that have infiltrated into the submucosa without invading muscularis propria, and approximately 10% of these patients have lymph node metastases that cannot be detected by conventional imaging. According to the guidelines of Chinese Society of Clinical Oncology (CSCO) Colorectal Cancer, early colorectal cancer cases with risk factors for lymph node metastasis (poor tumor differentiation, lymphovascular invasion, deep submucosal invasion and high-grade tumor budding) should receive salvage radical surgical resection; however, the specificity of this risk-stratification is inadequate, making most patients undergo unnecessary surgery. Firstly, this review focuses on the definition, oncological impact importance and controversy of the above "risk factors". Then, we introduce the progress of the risk stratification system for lymph node metastasis in early colorectal cancer, including the identification of new pathological risk factors, the construction of new risk quantitative models based on pathological risk factors, artificial intelligence and machine learning technology and the discovery of novel molecular markers associated with lymph node metastasis based on gene test or liquid biopsy. Aim to enhance clinicians' understanding of the risk assessment of lymph node metastasis in early colorectal cancer; we suggest to take the patient's personal situation, tumor location, anti-cancer intention and other factors into account to make individualized treatment strategies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Artificial Intelligence , Colorectal Neoplasms/surgery , Risk Factors , Risk Assessment , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Lymph Nodes/pathology
8.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 325-329, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986793

ABSTRACT

Due to the anatomical specificity of esophagus, esophagectomy can be carried out using different approaches, such as left transthoracic, right transthoracic and transhiatal approaches. Each surgical approach is associated with a different prognosis due to the complex anatomy. The left transthoracic approach is no longer the primary choice due to its limitations in providing adequate exposure, lymph node dissection, and resection. The right transthoracic approach is capable of achieving a larger number of dissected lymph nodes and is currently considered the preferred procedure for radical resection. Although the transhiatal approach is less invasive, it could be challenging to perform in a limited operating space and has not been widely adopted in clinical practice. Minimally invasive esophagectomy offers a wider range of surgical options for treating esophageal cancer. This paper reviews different approaches to esophagectomy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Prognosis , Lymph Node Excision/methods , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Esophagectomy/methods
9.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 319-324, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986792

ABSTRACT

Esophageal cancer is a common malignant tumor in China. For resectable ones, surgery is still the primary treatment. At present, the extent of lymph node dissection remains controversial. Extended lymphadenectomy makes metastatic lymph nodes more likely to be resected, which contributed to pathological staging and postoperative treatment. However,it may also increase the risk of postoperative complications and affect prognosis. Therefore, it is controversial how to balance the optimal extent/number of dissected lymph nodes for radical resection with the lower risk of severe complications. In addition, whether the lymph node dissection strategy should be modified after neoadjuvant therapy needs to be investigated, especially for patients who have a complete response to neoadjuvant therapy. Herein, we summarize the clinical experience on the extent of lymph node dissection in China and worldwide, aiming to provide guidence for the extent of lymph node dissection in esophageal cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Prognosis , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasm Staging , Esophagectomy
10.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 464-470, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981292

ABSTRACT

Bladder cancer is a common malignant tumor of the urinary system.The prognosis of patients with positive lymph nodes is worse than that of patients with negative lymph nodes.An accurate assessment of preoperative lymph node statushelps to make treatmentdecisions,such as the extent of pelvic lymphadenectomy and the use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy.Imaging examination and pathological examination are the primary methods used to assess the lymph node status of bladder cancer patients before surgery.However,these methods have low sensitivity and may lead to inaccuate staging of patients.We reviewed the research progress and made an outlook on the application of clinical diagnosis,imaging techniques,radiomics,and genomics in the preoperative evaluation of lymph node metastasis in bladder cancer patients at different stages.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lymphatic Metastasis , Neoplasm Staging , Cystectomy/methods , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/pathology , Lymph Node Excision/methods , Lymph Nodes/pathology
11.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 355-360, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981278

ABSTRACT

Objective To establish a nomogram for predicting the risk of cervical lymph node metastasis in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). Methods The patients with complete clinical data of DTC and cervical lymph node ultrasound and diagnosed based on pathological evidence from January 2019 to December 2021 were assigned into a training group (n=444) and a validation group (n=125).Lasso regression was performed to screen the data with differences between groups,and multivariate Logistic regression to establish a prediction model with the factors screened out by Lasso regression.C-index and calibration chart were employed to evaluate the prediction performance of the established model. Results The predictive factors for establishing the model were lymph node short diameter≥0.5 cm,long-to-short-axis ratio<2,disappearance of lymph node hilum,cystic transformation,hyperechogenicity,calcification,and abnormal blood flow (all P<0.001).The established model demonstrated a good discriminative ability,with the C index of 0.938 (95%CI=0.926-0.961) in the training group. Conclusion The nomogram established based on the ultrasound image features of cervical lymph nodes in DTC can accurately predict the risk of cervical lymph node metastasis in DTC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Nomograms , Lymphatic Metastasis , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Neck/pathology , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Retrospective Studies
12.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 219-224, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971518

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the value of lymphatic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (LCEUS) with intra-glandular injection of contrast agent for diagnosis of central compartment lymph node metastasis of thyroid cancer.@*METHODS@#From November, 2020 to May, 2022, the patients suspected of having thyroid cancer and scheduled for biopsy at our center received both conventional ultrasound and LCEUS examinations of the central compartment lymph nodes before surgery. All the patients underwent surgical dissection of the lymph nodes. The perfusion features in LCEUS were classified as homogeneous enhancement, heterogeneous enhancement, regular/irregular ring, and non-enhancement. With pathological results as the gold standard, we compared the diagnostic ability of conventional ultrasound and LCEUS for identifying metastasis in the central compartment lymph nodes.@*RESULTS@#Forty-nine patients with 60 lymph nodes were included in the final analysis. Pathological examination reported metastasis in 34 of the lymph nodes, and 26 were benign lymph nodes. With ultrasound findings of heterogeneous enhancement, irregular ring and non-enhancement as the criteria for malignant lesions, LCEUS had a diagnostic sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 97.06%, 92.31% and 95% for diagnosing metastatic lymph nodes, respectively, demonstrating its better performance than conventional ultrasound (P < 0.001). Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis showed that LCEUS had a significantly greater area under the curve than conventional ultrasound for diagnosing metastatic lymph nodes (94.7% [0.856-0.988] vs 78.2% [0.656-0.878], P=0.003).@*CONCLUSION@#LCEUS can enhance the display and improve the diagnostic accuracy of the central compartment lymph nodes to provide important clinical evidence for making clinical decisions on treatment of thyroid cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lymphatic Metastasis/diagnostic imaging , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Ultrasonography/methods , Lymph Nodes/pathology , ROC Curve
13.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 132-137, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971242

ABSTRACT

Hilar splenic lymph node metastasis is one of the risk factors for poor prognosis in patients with proximal gastric cancer. Laparoscopic spleen-preserving splenic hilar lymph node dissection (LSPSHLD) can effectively improve the survival benefits of patients at high risk of splenic hilar lymph node metastasis. However, LSPSHLD is still a challenging surgical difficulty in radical resection of proximal gastric cancer. Moreover, improper operation can easily lead to splenic vascular injury, spleen injury and pancreatic injury and other related complications, due to the deep anatomical location of the splenic hilar region and the intricate blood vessels.Therefore, in the prevention and treatment of LSPSHLD-related complications, we should first focus on prevention, clarify the indication of surgery, and select the benefit group of LSPSHLD individually, so as to avoid the risk caused by over-dissection. Meanwhile, during the perioperative period of LSPSHLD, it is necessary to improve the cognition of related risk factors, conduct standardized and accurate operations in good surgical field exposure and correct anatomical level to avoid surrounding tissues and organs injury, and master the surgical skills and effective measures to deal with related complications, so as to improve the surgical safety of LSPSHLD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Spleen/surgery , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Gastrectomy/adverse effects , Lymph Node Excision/adverse effects , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Laparoscopy/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies
14.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 75-83, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971236

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the factors influencing tumor-specific survival of early-onset locally advanced rectal cancer. Methods: All-age patients with primary locally advanced rectal cancer from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database (2010 to 2019) were included in this study. Early- and late-onset locally advanced rectal cancer was defined according to age of 50 years at diagnosis. Early-onset locally advanced rectal cancer was divided into five age groups for subgroup analyses. Age, sex, tumor-specific survival time and survival status of patients at diagnosis, pathological grade, TNM stage, perineural invasion, tumor deposits, tumor size, pretreatment CEA , radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and number of lymph node dissections were included. Progression-free survival (PFS) was analyzed and compared between patients with early- and late-onset rectal cancer. Results: A total of 5,048 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer were included in the study (aged 27-70 years): 1,290 (25.55%) patients with early-onset rectal cancer and 3,758 (74.45%) patients with late-onset rectal cancer. Patients with early-onset rectal cancer had a higher rate of perineural invasion (P<0.001), more positive lymph nodes dissected (P<0.001), higher positive lymph node ratios (P<0.001), and a higher proportion receiving preoperative radiotherapy (P=0.002). Patients with early-onset rectal cancer had slightly better short-term survival than those with late-onset rectal cancer (median (IQR ): 54 (33-83) vs 50 (31-79) months, χ2=5.192, P=0.023). Multivariate Cox regression for all patients with locally advanced rectal cancer showed that age (P=0.008), grade of tumor differentiation (P=0.002), pretreatment CEA (P=0.008), perineural invasion (P=0.021), positive number (P=0.004) and positive ratio (P=0.001) of dissected lymph nodes, and sequence of surgery and radiotherapy (P=0.005) influenced PFS. This suggests that the Cox regression results for all patients may not be applicable to patients with early-onset cancer. Cox analysis showed tumor differentiation grade (patients with low differentiation had a higher risk of death, P=0.027), TNM stage (stage III patients had a higher risk of death, P=0.025), T stage (higher risk of death in stage T4, P<0.001), pretreatment CEA (P=0.002), perineural invasion (P<0.001), tumor deposits (P=0.005), number of dissected lymph nodes (patients with removal of 12-20 lymph nodes had a lower risk of death, P<0.001), and positive number of dissected lymph nodes (P<0.001) were independent factors influencing PFS of patients with early-onset locally advanced rectal cancer. Conclusion: Patients with early-onset locally advanced rectal cancer were more likely to have adverse prognostic factors, but an adequate number of lymph node dissections (12-20) resulted in better survival outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Neoplasm Staging , Extranodal Extension/pathology , Survival Analysis , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Lymph Nodes/pathology
15.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 51-57, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971233

ABSTRACT

After the implementation of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and total mesorectal excision, lateral local recurrence becomes the major type of local recurrence after surgery in rectal cancer. Most lateral recurrence develops from enlarged lateral lymph nodes on an initial imaging study. Evidence is accumulating to support the combined use of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and lateral lymph node dissection. The accuracy of diagnosing lateral lymph node metastasis remains poor. The size of lateral lymph nodes is still the most commonly used variable with the most consistent accuracy and the cut-off value ranging from 5 to 8 mm on short axis. The morphological features, differentiation of the primary tumor, circumferential margin, extramural venous invasion, and response to chemoradiotherapy are among other risk factors to predict lateral lymph node metastasis. Planning multiple disciplinary treatment strategies for patients with suspected nodes must consider both the risk of local recurrence and distant metastasis. Total neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy is the most promising regimen for patients with a high risk of recurrence. Simultaneous Integrated Boost Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy seemingly improves the local control of positive lateral nodes. However, its impact on the safety of surgery in patients with no response to the treatment or regrowth of lateral nodes remains unclear. For patients with smaller nodes below the cut-off value or shrunken nodes after treatment, a close follow-up strategy must be performed to detect the recurrence early and perform a salvage surgery. For patients with stratified lateral lymph node metastasis risks, plans containing different multiple disciplinary treatments must be carefully designed for long-term survival and better quality of life.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Quality of Life , Neoplasm Staging , Retrospective Studies , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Lymph Node Excision/methods , Neoadjuvant Therapy/methods , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/surgery
16.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 38-43, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971231

ABSTRACT

Radical gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy has been widely performed as the standard surgery for patients with gastric cancer in major medical centers in China and abroad. However, the exact extent of lymph node dissection is still controversial. In the latest version of the Japanese Gastric Cancer Treatment Guidelines, No. 14v lymph nodes (along the root of the superior mesenteric vein) are again defined as loco-regional lymph nodes, and it is clarified that distal gastric cancer presenting with infra-pyloric regional lymph node (No.6) metastasis is recommended for D2+ superior mesenteric vein (No. 14v) lymph node dissection. To explore the relevance and clinical significance of No.6 and No.14v lymphadenectomy in radical gastric cancer surgery, a review of the national and international literature revealed that No.6 lymph node metastasis was associated with No.14v lymph node metastasis, that No.6 lymph node status was a valid predictor of No.14v lymph node negative status and false negative rate, and that for gastric cancer patients with No. 14v lymph node negative and No.6 lymph node positive, the dissection of No.14v lymph node may also have some significance. The addition of No. 14v lymph node dissection in radical gastrectomy is safe, but it is more important to distinguish the patients who can benefit from it. Professor Liang Han of Tianjin Medical University Cancer Hospital is currently leading a multicenter, large-sample, prospective clinical trial (NCT02272894) in China, which is expected to provide higher level evidence for the clinical significance of lymph node dissection in No.14v.


Subject(s)
Humans , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymph Node Excision , Gastrectomy , Multicenter Studies as Topic
17.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 31-37, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971176

ABSTRACT

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) can be detected with enlarged lymph nodes on imaging, but their benignity and malignancy are difficult to determine directly, making it difficult to stage the tumor and design radiotherapy target volumes. The clinical diagnosis of malignant lymph nodes is often based on the short diameter of lymph nodes ≥1 cm or the maximum standard uptake value ≥2.5, but the sensitivity and specificity of these criteria are too low to meet the clinical needs. In recent years, many advances have been made in diagnosing benign and malignant lymph nodes using other imaging parameters, and with the development of radiomics, deep learning and other technologies, models of mining the image information of enlarged lymph node regions further improve the diagnostic accuracy. The purpose of this paper is to review recent advances in imaging-based diagnosis of benign and malignant enlarged lymph nodes in NSCLC for more accurate and noninvasive assessment of lymph node status in clinical practice.
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Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Diagnostic Imaging , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Sensitivity and Specificity
18.
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 251-255, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970187

ABSTRACT

Pancreatic cancer is a malignant tumor of digestive system with poor prognosis,and surgical resection is still the only hope for a radical cure. Although the current consensus and guidelines describe in detail the standard and extended range of lymph node dissection,the selection of specific range of lymph node dissection and its impact on prognosis are still controversial. Current studies have not only proposed some improved extent of lymph node dissection, such as total mesopancreas excision and Heidelberg triangle dissection, but also suggested different extent of lymph node dissection for ventral and dorsal pancreatic head cancer. In addition, the prognosis of pancreatic head cancer in uncinate process and non-uncinate process is different after para-aortic lymph node dissection, which is worthy of further study. Neoadjuvant therapy or conversion therapy provides more surgical opportunities for patients with pancreatic cancer. For these patients, Heidelberg triangle dissection has potential value in improving prognosis. This paper summarizes the exploration and latest progress of standard and extended lymph node dissection, lymph node dissection of specific site of pancreatic head cancer and the extent of lymph node dissection after neoadjuvant/transformation therapy in recent years.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lymph Node Excision , Pancreatic Neoplasms/pathology , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Pancreas/pathology , Prognosis
19.
Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 370-374, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982751

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the risk factors of recurrence after surgical resection of differentiated thyroid carcinoma combined with iodine-131 and TSH(Thyroid stimulating hormone) inhibition therapy. Methods:From January 2015 to April 2020, the clinical data of patients with structural recurrence and without recurrence were retrospectively collected after surgical treatment combined with iodine-131 and TSH inhibition therapy in the First Medical Center of PLA General Hospital. The general conditions of the two groups of patients were analyzed and the measurement data in line with the normal distribution was used for comparison between groups. For measurement data with non-normal distribution, the rank sum test was used for inter-group comparison. The Chi-square test was used for comparison between the counting data groups. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to determine the risk factors associated with relapse. Results:The median follow-up period was 43 months(range 18-81 months) and 100 patients(10.5%) relapsed among the 955 patients. Univariate analysis showed that tumor size, tumor multiple, the number of lymph node metastases>5 in the central region of the neck, and the number of lymph node metastases>5 in the lateral region were significantly correlated with post-treatment recurrence(P<0.001, P=0.018, P<0.001, P<0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that tumor size(adjusted odds ratio OR: 1.496, 95%CI: 1.226-1.826, P<0.001), tumor frequency(adjusted odds ratio OR: 1.927, 95%CI: 1.003-3.701, P=0.049), the number of lymph node metastases in the central neck region>5(adjusted odds ratio OR: 2.630, 95%CI: 1.509-4.584, P=0.001) and the number of lymph node metastases in the lateral neck region>5(adjusted odds ratio OR: 3.074, 95%CI: 1.649-5.730, P=0.001) was associated with tumor recurrence. Conclusion:The study showed that tumor size, tumor multiple, the number of lymph node metastases in the central region of the neck>5 and the number of lymph node metastases in the side of the neck >5 are independent risk factors for recurrence of differentiated thyroid cancer after surgical resection combined with iodine-131 and TSH inhibition therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/surgery , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Neck Dissection , Thyroidectomy/adverse effects , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Risk Factors , Adenocarcinoma , Thyrotropin , Lymph Nodes/pathology
20.
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 74(4): 368-375, ago. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407938

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivos: El sistema linfático del estómago es complejo y multidireccional, siendo difícil predecir el patrón de diseminación linfática en el adenocarcinoma (ADC) gástrico. Los objetivos de este trabajo son determinar si el analizar los grupos ganglionares de la pieza quirúrgica por separado tiene implicaciones en el estadiaje, además estudiar la afectación de diferentes grupos ganglionares. Materials y Método: Estudio observacional retrospectivo de pacientes intervenidos de gastrectomía y linfadenectomía con intención curativa por ADC en un hospital de referencia (2017-2021).,_Se han comparado aquellos pacientes cuya pieza quirúrgica se estudió en su totalidad (grupo A) con aquellos en los que se separaron los grupos ganglionares para su análisis (grupo B). En el grupo B, se ha analizado la afectación ganglionar de diferentes grupos ganglionares en base a la localización tumoral y el estadio pT. Resultados: Se incluyeron 150 pacientes. La media de ganglios analizados fue significativamente mayor cuando se separaron los grupos ganglionares (grupo B) (24,01 respecto a 20,49). La afectación ganglionar fue del 45,8%, 58,3% y 55,5% en los tumores de tercio superior, medio e inferior respectivamente, y los grupos difirieron en base a la localización tumoral. El riesgo de afectación ganglionar fue significativamente mayor y hubo más grupos ganglionares perigástricos afectos cuanto mayor era el estadio pT. Conclusiones: Separar los grupos ganglionares previo a su análisis aumenta el número de ganglios analizados mejorando el estadiaje ganglionar. Existen diferentes rutas de drenaje linfático dependiendo de la localización tumoral y la afectación ganglionar aumenta de forma paralela al estadio pT.


Objectives: The lymphatic system of the stomach is complex and multidirectional, making it difficult to predict the pattern of lymphatic spread in gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC). The aim of this paper is to determine if analyzing the lymph node groups of the surgical specimen separately has implications in the pathological staging, as well as to study the involvement rate of different lymph node groups. Material and Method: Retrospective observational study of patients who underwent curative intent gastrectomy and lymphadenectomy for GAC in a reference hospital (2017-2021). Those patients whose surgical specimen was studied as a whole (group A) were compared with those in whom the lymph node groups were separated by surgeons before analysis (group B). In group B, the involvement of different lymph node groups was analyzed based on tumor location and pT stage. Results: 150 patients were included. The mean number of lymph nodes analyzed was significantly higher when the lymph node groups were separately analyzed (group B) (24.01 compared to 20.49). Lymph node involvement was 45.8%, 58.3%, and 55.5% in tumors of the upper, middle, and lower third, respectively, and the involved groups differed depending on the tumor location. The higher the pT stage was, the risk of lymph node involvement was significantly higher and there were more perigastric lymph node groups affected. Conclusions: Separating lymph node groups prior to their analysis increases the number of lymph nodes analyzed and therefore improves lymph node staging. There are different lymphatic drainage routes depending on the tumor location and lymph node involvement increases in parallel with the pT stage.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Stomach Neoplasms/surgery , Adenocarcinoma/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Lymph Node Excision/methods , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Neoplasm Invasiveness/pathology , Neoplasm Staging
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