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1.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 37(2): 245-250, 20220316. tab, fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362958

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Los linfangiomas son anormalidades benignas del sistema linfático, que corresponden a dilataciones quísticas de estos vasos y se localizan especialmente en el cuello. Solo el 10 % de todas estas malformaciones se encuentran en el abdomen y presentan síntomas variables de acuerdo al tamaño y su ubicación especifica, siendo el dolor abdominal el principal síntoma. Métodos. Se presentan cinco pacientes pediátricos con malformaciones linfáticas abdominales. Se describen su cuadro clínico, localización, tratamiento y la experiencia en el manejo de dicha patología en un hospital de referencia. Resultados. Los métodos más apropiados para hacer una aproximación diagnóstica son la ecografía, la tomografía computarizada y la resonancia nuclear magnética. Dentro de las opciones descritas para el tratamiento están la farmacológica, la escleroterapia y la resección quirúrgica, tanto por vía abierta como por laparoscopia. Conclusión. Existe una variedad de métodos para realizar la resección de los linfangiomas abdominales, pero la cirugía sigue siendo la más efectiva, especialmente cuando se cuenta con la laparoscopia como una herramienta terapéutica.


Introduction. Lymphangiomas are benign abnormalities of the lymphatic system, which correspond to cystic dilations of these vessels and are located especially in the neck. Only 10% of all these malformations are found in the abdomen and present variable symptoms according to size and their specific location, with abdominal pain being the main symptom. Methods. Five pediatric patients with abdominal lymphatic malformations are presented. Their clinical presentation, location, treatment and experience in the management of this pathology in a referral hospital are described. Results. The most appropriate methods to make a diagnostic approach are ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Among the options described for treatment are pharmacological, sclerotherapy and surgical resection, both open and laparoscopic. Conclusion. There are a variety of methods for resecting abdominal lymphangiomas, but surgery remains the most effective, especially when laparoscopy is used as a therapeutic tool.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lymphangioma , Lymphatic Diseases , Sclerotherapy , Laparoscopy , Lymphatic System
2.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2633-2644, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887829

ABSTRACT

Endothelial cells that form the inner layers of both blood and lymphatic vessels are important components of the vascular system and are involved in the pathogenesis of vascular and lymphatic diseases. Angiopoietin (Ang)-Tie axis in endothelial cells is the second endothelium-specific ligand-receptor signaling system necessary for embryonic cardiovascular and lymphatic development in addition to the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor pathway. The Ang-Tie axis also maintains vascular homeostasis by regulating postnatal angiogenesis, vessel remodeling, vascular permeability, and inflammation. Therefore, the dysfunction of this system leads to many vascular and lymphatic diseases. In light of the recent advances on the role of the Ang-Tie axis in vascular and lymphatic system-related diseases, this review summarizes the functions of the Ang-Tie axis in inflammation-induced vascular permeability, vascular remodeling, ocular angiogenesis, shear stress response, atherosclerosis, tumor angiogenesis, and metastasis. Moreover, this review summarizes the relevant therapeutic antibodies, recombinant proteins, and small molecular drugs associated with the Ang-Tie axis.


Subject(s)
Angiopoietins , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Lymphatic Diseases , Lymphatic System/metabolism , Receptor, TIE-2/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
3.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(1): 11-17, 2020-02-00. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1095278

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Las causas más frecuentes de la linfadenopatía cervical son las afecciones inflamatorias y reactivas; solo unos pocos casos representan una patología seria. El objetivo fue evaluar la relación entre los hallazgos ecográficos y el diagnóstico histopatológico. Población y métodos. Este estudio retrospectivo abarcó la linfadenopatía cervical en los menores de 20 años seguidos en nuestro centro, entre enero de 2007 y diciembre de 2016. Según los informes anatomopatológicos, se dividió a los pacientes en dos grupos: benigno y maligno. Se compararon los resultados anatomopatológicos y los hallazgos ecográficos. Resultados. Después del análisis de los resultados histopatológicos y los hallazgos ecográficos, se incluyó a 107 pacientes con linfadenopatía cervical persistente (44 casos malignos; 63, benignos). La media de edad de los grupos maligno y benigno fue de 14 ± 6,1 años y de 11,9 ± 4,8 años, respectivamente. La presencia de vascularidad hiliar fue estadísticamente significativa (p < 0,0001) en la linfadenopatía benigna, mientras que el flujo periférico y la vascularidad mixta lo fueron (p < 0,05) en la linfadenopatía maligna. No se observó una diferencia significativa en el diámetro máximo (27,3 ± 11,1 mm y 29,8 ± 12,3 mm, respectivamente), pero sí en el diámetro mínimo entre los grupos benigno y maligno (13,7 ± 7,3 mm y 18,7 ± 8,8 mm, respectivamente). Conclusiones. Este estudio sugiere que existe una relación entre los hallazgos ecográficos y de la biopsia para la diferenciación entre la linfadenopatía benigna y maligna, en especial, en el patrón vascular intraganglionar y el hilio ganglionar.


Introduction. The most common causes of cervical lymphadenopathy (LAP) are inflammatory and reactive conditions; only a small proportion have serious pathology, such as malignancy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between USG findings and histopathological diagnosis of the cervical LAP. Population and Methods. This retrospective study comprised the cases of cervical LAP in patients aged under 20 years old followed in our center between January 2007 to December 2016. Based on pathology reports, we divided the patients into two groups: benign and malignant. Pathology results and USG findings were compared. Results. After the analyze of the histopathological results and USG findings, 107 patients with persistent cervical LAP (44 malignant; 63 benign) were included in the study. Mean age of malignant and benign group were 14 ± 6.1; 11.9 ± 4.8 years, respectively. Hilar vascularity for benign LAP was highly statistically significant (P < 0.0001) and peripheral flow and mixed vascularity for malignant LAP were also statistically significant (p < 0.05). There was not a significant difference in the maximum diameter (27.3 ± 11.1 mm and 29.8 ± 12.3 mm, respectively), however, there was a significant difference in the minimum diameter between benign and malignant groups (13.7 ± 7.3 mm and 18.7 ± 8.8 mm, respectively).Conclusions. The present study suggests that there is a relationship between US and biopsy findings for the differentiation of benign from malignant LAP, especially in terms of nodal hilus and intranodal vascular pattern.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Ultrasonography , Lymphadenopathy/diagnostic imaging , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Lymphadenopathy/pathology , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphatic Diseases/physiopathology , Lymphoma/diagnosis , Lymphoma/etiology
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786140

ABSTRACT

Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute febrile illness that is characterized by systemic inflammation usually involving medium-sized arteries and multiple organs during the acute febrile phase, leading to associated clinical findings. The diagnosis is based on the principal clinical findings including fever, extremity changes, rash, conjunctivitis, oral changes, and cervical lymphadenopathy. However, KD diagnosis is sometimes overlooked or delayed because other systemic organ manifestations may predominate in acute phase of KD. As a cardiovascular manifestation, an acute pericarditis usually shows a small pericardial effusion, but large pericardial effusion showing clinical signs of cardiac tamponade is very rare. Here, we described a case of incomplete KD presenting with impending cardiac tamponade, and recurrent fever and pleural effusion.


Subject(s)
Arteries , Cardiac Tamponade , Conjunctivitis , Diagnosis , Exanthema , Extremities , Fever , Inflammation , Lymphatic Diseases , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , Pericardial Effusion , Pericarditis , Pleural Effusion
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811216

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare patient survival outcomes between completion hysterectomy and conventional surveillance in locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the cervix after concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT).METHODS: Patients with adenocarcinoma of the cervix after CCRT were identified in a tertiary academic center database from 2004 to 2018. Patients received completion hysterectomy or surveillance after CCRT. We compared the progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) between the patients with or without adjuvant hysterectomy. Surgery features, operative complications, and pathologic characteristics were documented. Patient outcomes were also analyzed according to clinicopathologic factors.RESULTS: A total of 78 patients were assigned to completion surgery and 97 to surveillance after CCRT. The PFS was better in the surgery group compared to the CCRT only group, at 3 years the PFS rates were 68.1% and 45.2%, respectively (hazard ratio [HR]=0.46; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.282–0.749; p=0.002). Adjuvant surgery was also associated with a higher rate of OS (HR=0.361; 95% CI=0.189–0.689; p=0.002), at 3 years, 87.9% and 67%, respectively. Tumor stage, size, lymph-vascular space invasion (LVSI), lymphadenopathy were associated with PFS but not with OS. Hysterectomy specimens revealed 64.1% (50/78) of the patients had pathologic residual tumor. Patients age less than 60, tumor size over 4 cm, stage IIB and persistent residual disease after CCRT were most likely to benefit from hysterectomy. Hysterectomy was associated with a lower rate of locoregional recurrence but did not reach statistical significance (5.13% vs. 13.5%, p=0.067).CONCLUSION: Completion hysterectomy after CCRT was associated with better survival outcome compared with the current standard of care.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Cervix Uteri , Chemoradiotherapy , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Humans , Hysterectomy , Lymphatic Diseases , Neoplasm, Residual , Recurrence , Standard of Care , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
6.
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 35(3): e963, jul.-set. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093283

ABSTRACT

El timo es un órgano cervicotorácico, impar y mediano, situado en la base del cuello y parte superior del mediastino. Junto a la médula ósea es uno de los dos órganos primarios del sistema inmune y ejerce su función en los neonatos y en los niños, fundamentalmente. Entra en regresión a partir de la pubertad, aunque algunos autores plantean que la involución puede comenzar un poco antes, cuando los principales tejidos linfoides están plenamente desarrollados. Interviene sinérgicamente con otras glándulas de secreción interna: tiroides, suprarrenal, hipófisis, para elaborar substancias necesarias para el desarrollo general del organismo. Es un órgano muy sensible a todo influjo. Como todos los órganos de la economía el timo presenta enfermedades producidas tanto por crecimiento exagerado, como por hipoplasias o atrofias. Dentro de las primeras las más comunes son la hiperplasia tímica y el timoma y, entre las últimas el síndrome de DiGeorge ha sido bien caracterizado en la literatura internacional desde la segunda mitad del siglo pasado. Sin embrago, en los últimos tiempos los inmunólogos hablan de la hipoplasia tímica como entidad que puede asociarse o no a estados de inmunodeficiencia. Se describen brevemente estas afecciones(AU)


The thymus is a cervicothoracic organ, odd and medium, located at the base of the neck and upper part of the mediastinum. Next to the bone marrow is one of the two primary organs of the immune system and exerts its function in neonates and children, fundamentally. It regresses after puberty, although some authors suggest that the involution can begin a little earlier, when the main lymphoid tissues are fully developed. It intervenes synergistically with other glands of internal secretion: thyroid, adrenal, pituitary gland, to develop substances necessary for the general development of the organism. It is a very sensitive organ to all influence. Like all the organs of the economy, the thymus presents diseases caused both by exaggerated growth, as by hypoplasias or atrophies. Among the former, the most common are thymic hyperplasia and thymoma and, among the latter, DiGeorge syndrome has been well characterized in international literature since the second half of the last century. However, in recent times immunologists speak of thymic hypoplasia as an entity that may or may not be associated with immunodeficiency states. These conditions are briefly described(AU)


Subject(s)
Thymus Hyperplasia/complications , Thymus Gland/physiopathology , Lymphatic Diseases/epidemiology
7.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 91(1): e641, ene.-mar. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-985601

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Dentro del espectro de las malformaciones congénitas con las cuales debe lidiar un cirujano pediatra, los tumores y malformaciones vasculares representan un grupo especial de entidades que continúan actualmente en estudio. Objetivo: Determinar las características clínicoquirúrgicas de una serie de dos casos con malformaciones de origen linfático. Presentacion de casos: Dos pacientes con edades pediátricas, 12 y 4 años, respectivamente, ingresaron en servicio de urgencia con signos de oclusión intestinal y lesiones tumorales quísticas abdominales que requirieron tratamiento quirúrgico con modalidades de técnicas quirúrgicas diferentes. La evolución final fue satisfactoria. Conclusión: Los linfagiomas intestinales forman parte de la gama de presentaciones clínicas de las malformaciones de origen linfático, con una incidencia baja pero que, dada su localización y síntomas, pueden requerir tratamiento quirúrgico de urgencia. Su evolución y resolución es satisfactoria, debido al bajo índice de recidiva tras la exéresis completa(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: Within the range of congenital malfomations that surgeons have to deal with, vascular tumors and malformations represent an special group of entities that are still under study. Objective: To determine the clinical-surgical characteristics of a series of two cases with congenital malformations of lymphatic origin. Cases presentation: Two patients of 12 and 4 years old respectively that were admitted in the Emergencies services in the Clinical-Surgical Hospital of Guayaquil, Ecuador, with manifestations of intestinal obstruction and abdominal cystic tumoral lesions that required surgical treatments with different techniques. Final evolution was satisfactory. Conclusion: Intestinal lymphoangiomas are part of the kinds of clinical presentations of lymphatic origin´s malformations. These have a low incidence but due to their localization and symptoms can require emergency surgical treatment. Their evolution and resolution is satisfactory due to the low index of recidive after complete exeresis(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Child , Intestinal Obstruction/diagnostic imaging , Lymphatic Diseases/complications , Abdominal Neoplasms/pathology , Case Reports , Lymphangioma/complications
8.
Ultrasonography ; : 58-66, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-731040

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study evaluated the feasibility of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography and characterized the sonographic features of lymph nodes (LNs) with Kikuchi disease in pediatric patients. METHODS: Seventy-six cervical LN biopsies were performed for the diagnosis of cervical lymphadenopathy. ARFI imaging was performed, and the characteristic ultrasound features of the biopsied LNs and the contralateral LNs were analyzed. We also reviewed clinical and conventional ultrasonographic findings. RESULTS: On histology, 56 patients were diagnosed with Kikuchi disease. These LNs were large and elongated, with increased perinodal echogenicity and capsular thickening. In 38 of them, ARFI elastography was performed, and the median shear wave velocity (SWV) of the biopsied LNs with Kikuchi disease (2.19 m/sec; range, 1.45 to 4.57 m/sec) was higher than of the contralateral LNs (1.72 m/sec; range, 0.95 to 2.65 m/sec; P < 0.001). In patients with reactive hyperplasia, the mean SWV of the biopsied LNs (2.00 m/sec; range, 1.49 to 2.26 m/sec) was higher than that of the contralateral LNs (1.55 m/sec; range, 1.21 to 2.32 m/sec; P=0.031). CONCLUSION: The SWV of LNs with Kikuchi disease was significantly higher than that of the contralateral LNs. Morphologically, LNs with Kikuchi disease showed an enlarged, elongated, and oval shape, increased perinodal echogenicity, and capsular thickening. In addition to the conventional ultrasonographic findings, the application of ARFI is feasible even in pediatric patients for the evaluation of cervical lymphadenopathy.


Subject(s)
Acoustics , Biopsy , Diagnosis , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Histiocytic Necrotizing Lymphadenitis , Humans , Hyperplasia , Lymph Nodes , Lymphatic Diseases , Pediatrics , Ultrasonography
9.
Laboratory Medicine Online ; : 236-241, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760512

ABSTRACT

Splenic B-cell lymphomas (SBCLs) show characteristically pronounced splenomegaly without significant lymphadenopathy. Distinguishing hairy cell leukemia (HCL) from other SBCLs (splenic marginal zone lymphoma [SMZL], variant HCL [v-HCL], and splenic diffuse red pulp small B-cell lymphoma [SDRPL]) is essential to determine suitable treatments and prognoses. With advances in diagnostic modalities and therapies, splenectomy is not commonly performed, and thus diagnosis of HCL must be based on the results obtained using blood and bone marrow samples. Annexin A1 is known as the most specific marker for HCL. There has yet been no report of the assessment of annexin A1 immunostaining from Korea. In this study we analyzed samples from 13 Korean patients with SBCLs (three HCL, three v-HCL, six SMZL, and one SDRPL) from May 2001 to December 2016. Immunohistochemical analyses for annexin A1 and CD20 were performed using bone marrow sections; molecular analyses for detection of the BRAF V600E mutation were also performed. All HCL patients showed positive results for annexin A1 immunostaining and the presence of the BRAF V600E mutation, and negative results for other SBCLs. Our results confirmed the high specificity of annexin A1 and the BRAF V600E mutation as HCL markers. Molecular analysis requires expensive equipment and substantial manpower. Annexin A1 is a better alternative as an HCL marker than the BRAF V600E mutation in terms of cost-effectiveness.


Subject(s)
Annexin A1 , Bone Marrow , Diagnosis , Humans , Korea , Leukemia, Hairy Cell , Lymphatic Diseases , Lymphoma , Lymphoma, B-Cell , Prognosis , Sensitivity and Specificity , Splenectomy , Splenomegaly
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788053

ABSTRACT

Colorectal carcinoma invading the submucosa but not the muscularis propria (pT1) represents the earliest form of clinically relevant colorectal cancer in most patients. T1 colorectal cancer with synchronous liver metastasis is considered to be rare. We report a rare case of T1 colon cancer with synchronous liver metastasis not detected by preoperative imaging study. A 54-year-old male patient presented to our department for treatment of sigmoid colon cancer following an endoscopic submucosal dissection. Histopathological examination revealed the pedunculated mass was moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma without lymphovascular invasion and the depth of submucosal invasion was 2,000 µm, the resection margin was not involved. We performed a laparoscopic anterior resection with lymph node dissection. After the 3 months, the patient's carcinoembryonic antigen level elevated from 1.4 to 7.26 ng/mL (normal level: <1.5 ng/mL) and the abdominal computed tomography and FDG-PET/CT (positron emission tomography-computed tomography) showed multiple hepatic metastases in both hepatic lobes (SUVmax: 5.6) without evidence of local recurrence or lymphadenopathy. We strongly suspected a synchronous liver metastasis not detected by imaging study as opposed to a systemic recurrence. Therefore, evaluation and follow-up protocol of T1 colorectal cancer should be changed for discovery and prediction of synchronous liver metastasis; because we cannot exclude the possibility of synchronous liver metastasis.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Carcinoembryonic Antigen , Colon , Colonic Neoplasms , Colorectal Neoplasms , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Liver , Lymph Node Excision , Lymphatic Diseases , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Metastasis , Recurrence , Sigmoid Neoplasms
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760129

ABSTRACT

Rosai-Dorfman disease, also known as the sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy, is a rare and benign histioproliferative disease in which lymphadenopathy results from infiltration and dilatation of lymph node sinuses by large histiocytes. We experienced a case of a 59-year-old man, presenting bilateral cervical masses with pain since one month ago. Radiologically, there were multiple enlarged lymph nodes with homogenous contrast enhancement at both cervical areas. Excisional biopsy revealed that the tumor was consistent with the Rosai-Dorfman disease. The patient was treated successfully with corticosteroid. Herein, we report our experiences with literature reviews.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Dilatation , Histiocytes , Histiocytosis , Histiocytosis, Sinus , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Lymphatic Diseases , Middle Aged , Neck
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760111

ABSTRACT

Malakoplakia is usually found in the genitourinary tract; however, it occurs uncommonly as a chronic inflammatory disease and rarely in the head and neck area, having been reported in the literature only few times. Here, we report, with a review of the related literature, a case of malakoplakia on the posterior neck. A 76-year-old male patient visited our institution presenting a rapidly growing neck mass that had invaded the overlying skin for several weeks. The results of imaging studies strongly indicated a malignant tumor, but an accurate diagnosis was not made until after a fine needle aspiration biopsy was undertaken twice. The lesion was completely excised with an extended radical neck dissection including the overlying skin and scalene muscle upon consent of the patient. The pathological diagnosis was made with various immunohistochemical staining methods including Von Kossa, Periodic acid-Schiff-diastase, CD-68 and CD163. During the 24 months follow-up after the surgery, there was no sign of recurrence.


Subject(s)
Aged , Biopsy , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Diagnosis , Follow-Up Studies , Head , Humans , Lymphatic Diseases , Malacoplakia , Male , Neck Dissection , Neck , Recurrence , Skin
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760083

ABSTRACT

Ectopic thyroid means that thyroid tissue is present at an unusual area rather than at the orthotropic thyroid position. The most common form of ectopic thyroid is lingual thyroid, followed by thyroglossal duct cyst. Ectopic thyroid in the lateral neck area is extremely rare, with only a few case reports found in the literature review. Several studies recommended that metastasizing malignancy should be considered in lateral ectopic thyroid. Described here is a case of 60 year-old woman with lateral ectopic thyroid, which was newly found during a follow-up and was mistaken for metastatic lymphadenopathy.


Subject(s)
Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lingual Thyroid , Lymphatic Diseases , Lymphatic Metastasis , Neck , Thyroglossal Cyst , Thyroid Dysgenesis , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroid Nodule
14.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 358-361, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759947

ABSTRACT

Pharyngitis is a prevalent disease of the upper respiratory tract that requires treatment with an antibiotic. Group A streptococci (GAS) are the most frequent etiologic agents of bacterial pharyngitis. Because GAS are susceptible to penicillin, routine antibiotic susceptibility testing is not needed. Generally, patients with bacterial pharyngitis have high fever, cervical lymphadenopathy and tenderness, and tonsillar exudative discharge without symptoms of the common cold (e.g., cough, rhinorrhea, and sneezing). However, differentiating bacterial pharyngitis from viral pharyngitis based only on their clinical manifestations is problematic. Therefore, a bacterial culture or a rapid antigen detection test (RADT) is required for the diagnosis of bacterial pharyngitis. Although bacterial culture is the gold standard for diagnosis of bacterial pharyngitis, its accuracy is affected by the technical expertise of the technician, and there is a delay of 1–2 days before the results become available. In contrast, the sensitivity of RADT has increased to over 90%, making them suitable for screening purposes. The result of a RADT is available within 5–10 minutes, obviating the need for a second visit to obtain the results of culture. Use of a RADT would enable the optimal antibiotic to be administered earlier, reducing the overuse of antibiotics.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Common Cold , Cough , Diagnosis , Drug Resistance , Fever , Humans , Immunologic Tests , Lymphatic Diseases , Mass Screening , Penicillins , Pharyngitis , Professional Competence , Respiratory System
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758517

ABSTRACT

Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disease of unknown etiology. Vocal fold paralysis secondary to sarcoidosis is extremely rare but it can develop as a result of compressive lymphadenopathy, granulomatous infiltration, and neural involvement. We report the case of a 56-year-old woman who presented with unilateral vocal fold paralysis and enlarged supraclavicular lymph nodes. Computed tomography of the neck revealed multiple, enlarged, and matted lymph nodes at the cervical level of IV. An ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy of the lymph node was performed, and a histopathological diagnosis of sarcoidosis was made by validating the presence of noncaseating granuloma. After implementation of steroid therapy, the patient exhibited immediate recovery from vocal fold paralysis. Although an extremely rare disease, sarcoidosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of vocal fold paralysis. Accurate diagnosis and prompt steroid treatment may reduce the morbidity of patients with vocal fold paralysis secondary to sarcoidosis.


Subject(s)
Biopsy, Large-Core Needle , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Granuloma , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Lymphatic Diseases , Middle Aged , Neck , Paralysis , Rare Diseases , Sarcoidosis , Vocal Cords
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764176

ABSTRACT

The cisterna chyli, a dilated lymphatic sac in the retrocrural space, is usually located to the right of the aorta. We report a case of a left-sided cisterna chyli, which was incidentally detected on the radiologic examinations of a preoperative workup for cholangiocarcinoma. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) images revealed a cisterna chyli measuring 2.5 cm in length in the left retrocrural space. The dilated lumbar lymphatics joined with the cisterna chyli, which was continuous with the left-sided thoracic duct. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second antemortem case of a left-sided cisterna chyli in literature. The cisterna chyli can mimic retrocrural lymphadenopathy, solid tumor with cystic degeneration, abscess or hematoma. The left-sided cisterna chyli should be referred to as a structure so as to be cautious in surgical approach.


Subject(s)
Abscess , Aorta , Cholangiocarcinoma , Hematoma , Lymphatic Abnormalities , Lymphatic Diseases , Thoracic Duct
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763514

ABSTRACT

Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy, also known as Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD), is a rare histiocytic disorder of unknown etiology. Most patients with RDD have spontaneous remission, but in some patients, the disease recurs after complete remission and may not respond to general treatment. Some patients with RDD involving the extranodal system can have serious symptoms such as vital organ dysfunction due to mass effects, neurological symptoms caused by intracranial involvement, and respiratory distress with airway involvement. We report the case of a 7-year-old girl with severe dyspnea due to refractory extranodal RDD that caused progressive upper airway obstruction. She was admitted because of nasal congestion and persistent cervical lymphadenopathy, and diagnosed as having RDD by cervical lymph node incisional biopsy. The initial prednisone treatment did not improve her symptoms. The following contrast-enhanced neck computed tomography revealed a newly developed airway mass protruding in the upper trachea. After 8 weeks of chemotherapy with vinblastine, methotrexate, and prednisone, complete remission was attained. Seven months after chemotherapy cessation, the disease recurred, and chemotherapy with vincristine, cytarabine, and prednisone was resumed. Despite the chemotherapy and emergency radiotherapy, no improvement was observed in the cervical lymph node enlargement and airway obstructive symptom due to the upper tracheal mass. 2-Chlorodeoxyadenosine (cladribine) therapy was initiated, and the patient got complete remission after 6 cycles of the cladribine treatment and maintained no evidence of disease for 2 years. We suggest that cladribine is an effective treatment option for recurrent/refractory RDD.


Subject(s)
Airway Obstruction , Biopsy , Child , Cladribine , Cytarabine , Drug Therapy , Dyspnea , Emergencies , Estrogens, Conjugated (USP) , Female , Histiocytosis, Sinus , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Lymphatic Diseases , Methotrexate , Neck , Prednisone , Radiotherapy , Remission, Spontaneous , Trachea , Vinblastine , Vincristine
18.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 369-372, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763450

ABSTRACT

Gastric cancers that fulfill the Japanese criteria for curative endoscopic resection show a low risk of lymph node (LN) metastasis. Here, we report a case of LN metastasis from early gastric cancer that fulfilled the curative criteria. A 74-year-old Japanese woman was referred to our hospital for treatment of early gastric cancer identified at the site of a hyperplastic polyp that had been diagnosed 10 years prior to presentation. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography did not show any lymphadenopathy and laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy was performed. Histopathological examination revealed a predominantly moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma that measured 15 mm in size and was confined to the mucosa. However, a single metastatic regional LN was observed. A few cancer cells showed positive staining for alpha-fetoprotein. It should be noted that early gastric cancer can be accompanied by LN metastasis even if it fulfills the criteria for curative endoscopic resection.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Aged , alpha-Fetoproteins , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Female , Gastrectomy , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Lymphatic Diseases , Mucous Membrane , Neoplasm Metastasis , Polyps , Stomach Neoplasms
20.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 152-158, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763414

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study aimed to identify the predictive factors for inaccurate endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) diagnosis of swollen lymph nodes without rapid on-site cytopathological evaluation. METHODS: Eighty-three consecutive patients who underwent EUS-FNA for abdominal or mediastinal lymph nodes from January 2008 to June 2017 were included from a prospectively maintained EUS-FNA database and retrospectively reviewed. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of EUS-FNA for the detection of neoplastic diseases were calculated. Candidate factors for inaccurate diagnosis (lymph node size and location, needle type, puncture route, number of passes, and causative disease) were evaluated by comparison between accurately diagnosed cases and others. RESULTS: The final diagnosis of the punctured lymph node was classified as neoplastic (65 cases: a metastatic lymph node, malignant lymphoma, or Crow-Fukase syndrome) or non-neoplastic (18 cases: a reactive node or amyloidosis). The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 83%, 94%, and 86%, respectively. On multivariate analyses, small size of the lymph node was the sole predictive factor for inaccurate EUS-FNA diagnosis with a significant difference (odds ratios, 19.8; 95% confidence intervals, 3.15–124; p=0.0015). CONCLUSIONS: The lymph node size of <16 mm was the only independent factor associated with inaccurate EUS-FNA diagnosis of swollen lymph nodes.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration , Endosonography , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Lymphatic Diseases , Lymphoma , Multivariate Analysis , Needles , Prospective Studies , Punctures , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sensitivity and Specificity
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