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1.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 42(2): 131-139, Apr.-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394418

ABSTRACT

Background: The relative rarity of synchronous para-aortic lymph node (PALN) metastasis (SPM) and metachronous PALN recurrence (MPR) in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) patients leads to a limited number of studies on patient management, and no treatment guidelines have been established to date. Objective: To assess the prognostic, predictive roles, and long-term outcomes of different management strategies for isolated MPR and SPM in CRC patients to establish the best one. Materials and Methods: We included 35 CRC patients with isolated MPR and 25 patients with isolated SPM who underwent curative R0 resection. We performed PALN dissection (PALND) in 15 cases in MPR group and in 10 cases in the SPM group; all remaining patients in both groups underwent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) without further surgical intervention. During the study period of about 5 years, we compared the patients who underwent PALND and those who underwent CRT. Results: The overall survival and recurrence-free survival rates were significantly longer in patients who underwent PALND (p = 0.049 and 0.036 respectively). (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Colorectal Neoplasms/therapy , Lymphatic Metastasis/diagnosis , Recurrence , Survival Rate , Treatment Outcome , Chemoradiotherapy , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Neoplasm Staging , Neoplasms, Multiple Primary
3.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 48(2): 303-313, March-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364958

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To determine independent predictors of inguinal lymph node (ILN) metastasis in patients with penile cancer. Patients and methods: We retrospectively analyzed all patients with penile cancer who underwent surgery at our medical center in the last ten years (n=157). Using univariate and multivariate logistic-regression models, we assessed associations with age, medical-history, phimosis, onset-time, number and maximum diameter of involved ILNs measured by imaging, pathological T stage, degree of tumor differentiation and/or cornification, lymphatic vascular infiltration (LVI), nerve infiltration, and ILN metastases. Interaction and stratified analyses were used to assess age, phimosis, onset time, number of ILNs, cornification, and nerve infiltration. Results: A total of 110 patients were included in the study. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the following factors were significantly correlated with ILN metastasis: maximum diameter of enlarged ILNs, T stage, pathological differentiation, and LVI. Among patients with a maximum ILN diameter ≥1.5cm, 50% had lymph node metastasis whereas 30.6% patients with a maximum ILN diameter <1.5cm showed LNM. Among 44 patients with stage Ta/T1, 10 showed ILN metastases, while 47.0% patients with stage T2 showed ILN metastases. Among 40 patients with highly differentiated penile-cancer, eight showed ILN metastasis, while 47.1% patients with low-to-middle differentiation showed ILN metastases. The rate of LNM was 33.3% in the LVI-free group and 64.3% in the LVI group. Conclusion: Our single-center results suggested that maximum ILN diameter, pathological T stage, pathological differentiation, and LVI were independent risk factors for ILN metastases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Penile Neoplasms/surgery , Penile Neoplasms/pathology , Prognosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Neoplasm Staging
4.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 68(2): 227-233, Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365336

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The stroma surrounding the tumor cells is important in tumor progression and treatment resistance, besides the properties of tumor cells. Studies on the tumor stroma characteristics will contribute to the knowledge for new treatment approaches. METHODS: A total of 363 breast cancer patients were evaluated for the tumor-stroma ratio. The percentage of stroma was visually assessed on hematoxylin-eosin stained slides. The cases of tumor-stroma ratio more than 50% were categorized as tumor-stroma ratio high, and those less than 50% and below were categorized as tumor-stroma ratio low. RESULTS: Tumor-stroma ratio-high tumors had shorter overall survival (p=0.002). Disease-free survival tended to be shorter in tumor-stroma ratio-high tumors (p=0.082) compared with tumor-stroma ratio-low tumors. Tumor-stroma ratio was an independent prognostic parameter for the total group of patients (p=0.003) and also axillary lymph node metastasis and tumor-stroma ratio was statistically associated (p=0.004). Also, tumor-stroma ratio was an independent prognostic parameter in node-positive Luminal A and B subgroups for overall survival (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Tumor-stroma ratio is an independent prognostic parameter that can be evaluated quite easily in all molecular subtypes of all breast cancers and does not require extra cost and time to evaluate.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Prognosis , Stromal Cells/pathology , Receptor, ErbB-2 , Disease-Free Survival , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology
5.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 712-716, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940930

ABSTRACT

Esophageal cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors of digestive tract, lymph node metastasis is a frequently encountered metastasis in the esophageal cancer patients. The number of lymph node metastasis is reported as an important prognostic factor, and it also affects the choice of postoperative treatments in the esophageal cancer. It was reported that the recurrent laryngeal nerve lymph nodes are the most common sites of nodal metastasis and need to be completely dissected during the esophagectomy for thoracic esophageal cancers. Dissection of the lymph nodes along bilateral recurrent laryngeal nerves not only improves the accuracy of staging, but also improves postoperative survival of esophageal cancer patients due to reducing the local recurrence. However, it also brings problems such as injury of laryngeal recurrent nerves, and increases postoperative complications such as pulmonary complications and malnutrition due to aspiration and coughing. Therefore, it is necessary to preserve the structure and function of bilateral recurrent laryngeal nerves during esophagectomy through careful manipulations, and minimize the impact of complications in prognosis and quality of life from injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve.


Subject(s)
Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Esophagectomy/adverse effects , Humans , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes/surgery , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Quality of Life , Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve/pathology , Thoracic Neoplasms/pathology
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936086

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the association of No.11p posterior lymph node metastasis with clinicopathological features and its prognostic significance in gastric cancer. Methods: A single-center retrospective cohort study was conducted. Clinicopathological data of patients with primary gastric cancers undergoing No.11p posterior lymph node dissection from January 2016 to December 2020 were retrieved from the Database of Gastric Cancer, West China Hospital, Sichuan University. Case inclusion criteria: (1) gastric cancer proved by pathology; (2) radical resection with intraoperative No.11p posterior lymph node dissection; (3) operations performed by the same surgical team; (4) no previous history of other malignant tumors and no concurrent malignant tumors. Those with stump gastric cancer, history of gastrectomy, neoadjuvant chemotherapy, incomplete clinicopathological data and lost to follow-up were excluded. During the operation, the upper edge of the pancreas was retracted forward to expose the area between the upper edge of the pancreas and the splenic vessels. The proximal segment of the splenic artery was skeletonized to remove lymphatic tissue anterior and superior to the splenic artery for No.11p lymph node dissection. For patients with lymphadenopathy in the area between the splenic artery and the splenic vein, dissection was performed. The enlarged lymph nodes were labeled with titanium clips and named as No.11p posterior lymph node. Pathological examination was performed separately after the specimen was isolated. Statistical analysis was performed using R software. Results: A total of 127 gastric cancer patients, who underwent No.11p posterior lymph nodes dissection were included in this study, of which 120 patients without No.11p posterior lymph nodes metastasis (No.11p posterior lymph nodes negative) and 7 patients with No.11p posterior lymph nodes metastasis (No.11p posterior lymph nodes positive). A total of 8 metastatic No.11p posterior lymph nodes were detected in 7 patients, metastasis rate and with a ratio of 5.5% (7/127) and 6.8% (8/127), respectively. In the subgroup analysis of T3-4 stage patients, the metastasis rate and ratio of No.11p posterior lymph nodes were 9.0% (7/78) and 10.7% (8/75), respectively. Compared to negative cases, patients with No.11p posterior lymph nodes metastasis had larger tumor (P=0.002), higher proportion of Borrmann type Ⅲ and Ⅳ tumors (P=0.005), more metastatic lymph nodes (P<0.001), more advanced T stage (P=0.043), N stage (P=0.004) and TNM stage (P=0.015). In survival analysis, patients with No.11p posterior lymph node metastasis had a significantly worse prognosis than those without metastasis after adjusting for TNM stage (hazard ratio=3.009, 95% confidence interval: 1.824-4.964, P<0.001). Conclusions: The No.11p posterior lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer is associated with worse prognosis. For patients of T3-4 stage gastric cancer, No.11p posterior lymph node dissection should be emphasized during radical operation.


Subject(s)
Gastrectomy , Humans , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology
7.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 410-415, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935229

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the independent risk factors of internal mammary lymph nodes (IMN) metastasis and the risk assessment method of IMN metastasis preoperatively in breast cancer patients with negative IMN in imaging examination, and guide the radiotherapy of IMN in patients with different risk stratification of IMN metastasis. Methods: The clinical and pathological data of 301 breast cancer patients who underwent internal mammary sentinel node biopsy(IM-SLNB) and/or IMN dissection in Shandong Cancer Hospital with negative IMN on CT and/or MRI from January 2010 to October 2019 were analyzed retrospectively. The independent risk factors were analyzed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression, and the independent risk factors of IMN metastasis were used to risk stratification. Results: Among the 301 patients, 43 patients had IMN metastasis, and the rate of IMN metastasis was 14.3%. Univariate analysis showed that vascular tumor thrombus, progesterone receptor (PR) expression, T stage and N stage were associated with IMN metastasis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that tumor located in medial quadrant, positive PR and axillary lymph node metastasis were independent risk factors for IMN metastasis. The risk of IMN metastasis was assessed according to the independent risk factors of the patients: low-risk group is including 0 risk factor, medium-risk group is including 1 risk factor, and high-risk group is including 2-3 risk factors. According to this evaluation criteria, 301 patients with breast cancer were divided into low-risk group (with 0 risk factors), medium-risk group (with 1 risk factor) and high-risk group (with 2-3 risk factors). The IMN metastasis rates were 0 (0/34), 4.3% (6/140) and 29.1% (37/127), respectively. Conclusions: The risk stratification of IMN metastasis according to three independent risk factors of IMN metastasis including tumor located in medial quadrant, positive PR and axillary lymph node metastasis in breast cancer patients can guide the radiotherapy of IMN in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients. For N1 patients, radiotherapy of IMN is strongly recommended when the primary tumor is located in the medial quadrant and/or PR positive.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Female , Humans , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Neoplasms, Second Primary/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy/methods
8.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 377-381, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935224

ABSTRACT

Cervical cancer is the most common gynecological malignant carcinoma in Chinese women, which seriously threatens women's health. Lymph node metastasis is the most important factor affecting the prognosis and adjuvant treatment of patients with early cervical cancer. Conventional systematic lymphadenectomy has always been a reliable method to detect lymph node metastasis. However, this procedure may affect the quality of life of patients because of high risks of complications. Recently, sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has been researched aiming to assess the status of pelvic lymph node metastasis intraoperatively, avoid unnecessary lymphadenectomy and achieve the goal of individualized diagnosis and treatment. Exploring efficient tracing methods and pathological ultra-staging is the key to the clinical application of SLNB for cervical cancer, and understanding the latest relevant clinical research progress will help SLNB to be applied in the clinic as soon as possible to benefit patients with cervical cancer.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Lymph Node Excision/methods , Lymph Nodes/surgery , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Neoplasm Staging , Quality of Life , Sentinel Lymph Node/surgery , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy/methods , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/surgery
9.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 160-166, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935196

ABSTRACT

Objective: To develop a predictive model for pathologic complete response (pCR) of ipsilateral supraclavicular lymph nodes (ISLN) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer and guide the local treatment. Methods: Two hundred and eleven consecutive breast cancer patients with first diagnosis of ipsilateral supraclavicular lymph node metastasis who underwent ipsilateral supraclavicular lymph node dissection and treated in the Breast Department of Henan Cancer Hospital from September 2012 to May 2019 were included. One hundred and forty two cases were divided into the training set while other 69 cases into the validation set. The factors affecting ipsilateral supraclavicular lymph node pCR (ispCR)of breast cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy were analyzed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses, and a nomogram prediction model of ispCR was established. Internal and external validation evaluation of the nomogram prediction model were conducted by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and plotting calibration curves. Results: Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that Ki-67 index, number of axillary lymph node metastases, breast pCR, axillary pCR, and ISLN size after neoadjuvant chemotherapy were associated with ispCR of breast cancerafter neoadjuvant chemotherapy (P<0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the number of axillary lymph node metastases (OR=5.035, 95%CI: 1.722-14.721, P=0.003), breast pCR (OR=4.662, 95%CI: 1.456-14.922, P=0.010) and ISLN size after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (OR=4.231, 95%CI: 1.194-14.985, P=0.025) were independent predictors of ispCR of breast cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. A nomogram prediction model of ispCR of breast cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy was constructed using five factors: number of axillary lymph node metastases, Ki-67 index, breast pCR, axillary pCR and size of ISLN after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The areas under the ROC curve for the nomogram prediction model in the training and validation sets were 0.855 and 0.838, respectively, and the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.755). The 3-year disease-free survival rates of patients in the ispCR and non-ispCR groups after neoadjuvant chemotherapy were 64.3% and 54.8%, respectively, with statistically significant differences (P=0.024), the 3-year overall survival rates were 83.8% and 70.2%, respectively, without statistically significant difference (P=0.087). Conclusions: Disease free survival is significantly improved in breast cancer patients with ispCR after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The constructed nomogram prediction model of ispCR of breast cancer patients after neoadjuvant chemotherapy is well fitted. Application of this prediction model can assist the development of local management strategies for the ipsilateral supraclavicular region after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and predict the long-term prognosis of breast cancer patients.


Subject(s)
Axilla/pathology , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Female , Humans , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Nomograms , Retrospective Studies
10.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 155-159, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935195

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the relationship between the examined number of lymph nodes at the N1 station and the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of patients with pT1-3N0M0 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: A total of 337 patients with pT1-3N0M0 NSCLC who underwent radical lung cancer surgery at the Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University from January 2013 to March 2015 were selected. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to determine the optimal cut-off value for predicting 5-year survival in pT1-3N0M0 NSCLC patients by the examined number of lymph nodes at the N1 station. The relationships between the examined number of lymph nodes at the N1 station and the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of patients with pT1-3N0M0 NSCLC were analyzed according to the optimal cut-off group. Results: A total of 1 321 lymph nodes at N1 station were examined in 337 patients, with a mean of 3.9 nodes per patient. The median survival time was 42.0 months, with 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates of 82.2%, 57.1% and 24.9%, respectively. ROC curve analysis showed that the optimal cut-off value of 4.5 lymph nodes examined at the N1 station was used to predict 5-year survival in patients with pT1-3N0M0 NSCLC. After rounding off the number, the number of lymph nodes examined at the N1 station was 5 as the cut-off value, and the patients were divided into the group with <5 lymph nodes examined (212 cases) and the group with ≥5 lymph nodes examined (125 cases). The proportion of patients received adjuvant chemotherapy was 19.2% in the group with ≥5 lymph nodes examined, which was higher than 9.0% in the group with <5 lymph nodes examined (P=0.007), and the differences in other clinicopathological characteristics between the two groups were not statistically significant (P>0.05). The median survival time for patients in the group with <5 lymph nodes examined was 38.0 months, with 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates of 80.1%, 52.5% and 15.6%, respectively. The median survival time for patients in the group with ≥5 lymph nodes examined was 48.0 months, and the 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates were 85.6%, 64.0% and 36.0%, respectively. The survival rate of patients in the group with ≥5 lymph nodes examined was better than that in the group with <5 lymph nodes examined (P=0.002). Multifactorial Cox regression analysis showed that T stage (OR=1.408, 95% CI: 1.118-1.670) and the examined number of lymph nodes at N1 station (OR=0.670, 95% CI: 0.526-0.853) were independent influence factors for the prognosis of pT1-3N0M0 NSCLC patients. Conclusion: The examined number of lymph nodes at the N1 station is associated with the prognosis of patients with pT1-3N0M0 NSCLC, and the examination of at least 5 lymph nodes at N1 station at the time of postoperative pathological examination improves the 5-year survival rate of patients.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/surgery , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/surgery , Lymph Nodes/surgery , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Neoplasm Staging , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936235

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the clinical features and prognoses of patients with oropharyngeal or hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) with and without retropharyngeal lymph node metastases. Methods: PubMed, Cochrane, Web of Science, CNKI, VIP and Wanfang databases were searched for published literatures on retropharyngeal lymph node metastasis of oropharyngeal or hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (1900, 2021), and outcome indicators such as survival rate and related clinical features were extracted. The quality evaluation of the included literatures was carried out. RevMan 5.4 and Stata 16.0 software were used for data analysis. Results: A total of 18 literatures were included. Meta analysis showed that 3-year and 5-year survival rates and 5-year disease-specific survival rate of patients with oropharyngeal or hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma with retropharyngeal lymph node metastases were lower than those without metastases, 46.1% vs. 53.0%, 40.8% vs. 62.5% and 35.9% vs. 53.1%, respectively, and the differences were statistically significant (OR values were 0.26, 0.38, 0.38, and 95%CI were 0.10-0.69, 0.28-0.51, 0.23-0.65, respectively, all P values<0.05). There were statistically significant differences in clinical stage (III-IV), T stage (T3+T4), N stage (N2), positive cervical lymph node metastases and number of lymph node metastases (≥3) between the two groups (OR values were 4.28, 2.20, 2.88, 10.83, 6.53, and 95%CI were 1.70-10.74, 1.35-3.58, 1.90-4.34, 3.57-32.95, 1.75-24.38, respectively, all P<0.05). The sensitivity and specificity of preoperative imaging for diagnosing retropharyngeal lymph nodes metastases were respectively 0.72 (95%CI=0.54-0.85) and 0.98 (95%CI=0.74-1.00), and the area under curve (AUC) of summary receiver operating characteristic curve (SROC) was 0.84 (95%CI=0.80-0.87). Conclusions: The survival rate of patients with oropharyngeal or hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma with retropharyngeal lymph node metastasis is significantly reduced, the clinical stage and T stage are late, and the cervical lymph node metastasis rate is high. Retropharyngeal lymph node metastasis is more insidious, the sensitivity of preoperative imaging diagnosis is not high.


Subject(s)
Head and Neck Neoplasms/pathology , Humans , Hypopharyngeal Neoplasms/pathology , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Neoplasm Staging , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck
12.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 14(2): 77-80, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283556

ABSTRACT

El carcinoma oculto de tiroides está poco reportado. Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 59 años. Durante un control por hipotiroidismo se solicitó ecografía cervical, la que mostró áreas hipoecogénicas en lóbulo derecho, una formación nodular hiperecogénica circunscrita no sospechosa de 8 mm y una adenopatía cervical periglandular derecha de 20 x 12 x 8 mm con áreas quísticas y microcalcificaciones, asociadas a hipervascularización. Se solicitó punción aspirativa por aguja fina del ganglio linfático, con resultado de citología negativa para células neoplásicas. El examen microscópico es compatible con tiroiditis, por lo que no es posible descartar metástasis. Se realizó biopsia del ganglio linfático, el que se informa como metástasis ganglionar linfática de 1.3 cm, histología de carcinoma papilar variedad folicular, sin invasión extracapsular. Se realizó tiroidectomía total y disección cervical derecha. El estudio anatomopatológico reportó una tiroiditis crónica de Hashimoto con un nódulo fibroso hialinizado de 0,4 cm negativo para tumor maligno y metástasis en 4 de 28 ganglios linfáticos, sin invasión extracapsular. El tamaño de la metástasis fue de 0,3 a 0,9 cm. Posteriormente se administró 100 mci de radioyodo. Actualmente, la paciente está en buenas condiciones y mantiene controles con ecografía y tiroglobulina periódicos.


Occult thyroid carcinoma is under-reported. The case of a 59-year-old woman is presented. During a check-up for hypothyroidism, a cervical ultrasound was requested, which showed hypoechogenic areas in the right lobe, an 8 mm nonsuspicious circumscribed hyperechogenic nodular formation and a 20 x 12 x 8 mm right cervical periglandular lymphadenopathy with cystic areas and microcalcifications, associated with hypervascularisation. Fine needle aspiration of the lymph node was requested, with negative cytology results for neoplastic cells. Microscopic examination was compatible with thyroiditis, so metastasis could not be ruled out. A biopsy of the lymph node was performed, which was reported as a 1.3 cm lymph node metastasis, histology of papillary carcinoma of the follicular variety, without extracapsular invasion. Total thyroidectomy and right cervical dissection were performed. The anatomopathological study reported chronic Hashimoto's thyroiditis with a 0.4 cm hyalinised fibrous nodule negative for malignant tumour and metastases in 4 of 28 lymph nodes, without extracapsular invasion. The size of the metastasis was 0.3 to 0.9 cm. Subsequently, 100 mci of radioiodine was administered. The patient is currently in good condition and maintains regular ultrasound and thyroglobulin monitoring.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/secondary , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Lymph Nodes/pathology
13.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2021335, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345354

ABSTRACT

Mucinous adenocarcinoma of the appendix is a rare neoplasm with a low propensity for lymph node metastasis. The present case refers to an appendicular mucinous adenocarcinoma with inguinal lymph node metastasis. A 71-year-old woman underwent an appendectomy due to a clinical presentation of acute appendicitis. However, the histological examination of the surgical specimen revealed a mucinous adenocarcinoma of the appendix. After staging, the patient underwent a right hemicolectomy and was proposed for adjuvant chemotherapy. At the 3rd year of follow-up, inguinal lymphadenopathy was diagnosed, which biopsy confirmed inguinal node metastases from primary colorectal cancer, with areas of extracellular mucin. Restaging revealed liver and peritoneal metastasis, and the patient was proposed for palliative chemotherapy. Appendicular neoplasms, due to their rarity, represent a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. This clinical case depicts an unusual metastasis pathway for an unusual neoplasm.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Aged , Appendiceal Neoplasms/pathology , Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Appendectomy , Lymphadenopathy/complications
14.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(4): e9290, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089356

ABSTRACT

This study was designed to investigate the expression of RBM8A protein in patients with gastric cancer (GC) and to explore its correlation with clinical pathological features as well as prognosis. One hundred pairs of gastric carcinoma tissues and adjacent tissues from patients undergoing gastrectomy for GC were included in this study. The protein expression level of RBM8A was determined by immunohistochemistry using tissue microarrays. We also detected the mRNA expression level of RBM8A in 16 pairs of gastric carcinoma tissues and adjacent tissues. Meanwhile, we predicted the potential correlation between RBM8A and tumor stages as well as survival condition in patents with GC based on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. The correlation of RBM8A with the clinical pathological features and prognosis of the 100 patients with GC was also elucidated. The expression level of RBM8A was significantly higher in gastric carcinoma tissues compared to the adjacent tissues. The protein level of RBM8A was correlated with tumor size (P=0.031), depth of invasion (P<0.001), lymph node metastasis (P<0.001), TNM stage (<0.001), and distant metastasis (P=0.001). Patients with increased RBM8A expression (P<0.0018, 95%CI=0.322−0.871), higher TNM stage (P<0.001, 95%CI=4.990−11.283), and lymph node metastasis (P<0.001, 95%CI=2.873−4.002) had a lower overall survival. Taken together, our study demonstrated that RBM8A may act as a proto-oncogene, which could be a promising biomarker and therapeutic target in the diagnosis and treatment of GC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Stomach Neoplasms/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Prognosis , Stomach Neoplasms/genetics , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Survival Analysis , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , Gastric Mucosa/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neoplasm Staging
15.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(6): 1270-1274, Nov.-Dec. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056328

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Bladder cancer is a common cancer that may present as superficial, invasive, or metastatic disease. Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) represents the majority of bladder cancer diagnoses, but represents a spectrum of disease with a variable clinical course, notably for significant risk of recurrence and potential for progression. NMIBC metastasis to distant organs without local invasion or regional metastasis is a very rare occurrence, so there are limited case reports about early metastasis in the literature.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma/secondary , Head and Neck Neoplasms/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Carcinoma/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Ultrasonography , Fatal Outcome , Head and Neck Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Lymphatic Metastasis/diagnostic imaging
16.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 85(3): 297-302, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011631

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Ultrasonography is the easiest non-invasive method to diagnose lymph node metastases in patients with head and neck cancer. However, since CT scans are often preferred in the evaluation of primary tumours of these patients, information about lymphatic metastases may also available in these patients. Therefore, ultrasound is not routinely employed in the evaluation of these patients. However, elastography technique, a recent development in ultrasound technology, could make use of ultrasonography in these patients even more widespread, even though it is still not widely used today. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of sonographic elastography in the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis of head and neck cancer. Methods: Twenty-three patients diagnosed with head and neck cancer and scheduled for surgical treatment including neck dissection were included in the study. All patients underwent neck examination by palpation, ultrasound elastography and computerized tomography with contrast. To compare the diagnostic performance of palpation, ultrasound elastography and computerized tomography, the findings of each examination method were compared with the histopathological examination results of neck specimens. Results: 15 (65.2%) patients had a primary tumour in the larynx; 7 (30.4%) in the oral cavity; and 1 (4.3%) in the parotid. 7 (30.4%) out of 23 patients underwent bilateral neck dissection. In total, 30 neck dissections were hereby taken into account during study. Ultrasound elastography showed higher accuracy (83.3%) and higher sensitivity (82.4%) than palpation and computerized tomography, but the specificity of ultrasound elastography was lower (84.6%) than palpation and computerized tomography. Conclusions: Ultrasound elastography is helpful for the diagnosis of lymph node metastases in patients with head and neck cancer. Due to its non-invasive character, it can be used safety in combination with other radiological techniques to support or improve their diagnostic performance.


Resumo Introdução: A ultrassonografia é o método mais fácil e não invasivo para diagnosticar metástases em linfonodos em pacientes com câncer de cabeça e pescoço. No entanto, como as tomografias computadorizadas são frequentemente preferidas na avaliação de tumores primários desses pacientes, as informações sobre metástases linfáticas também se tornam disponíveis. Portanto, a ultrassonografia não faz parte da avaliação de rotina desses pacientes. Entretanto, a técnica de elastografia, um desenvolvimento mais recente na tecnologia de ultrassom, poderia tornar o uso da ultrassonografia mais difundido nesses pacientes, embora atualmente ainda não seja amplamente usado. Objetivo: Avaliar o papel da elastografia ultrassonográfica no diagnóstico de metástases em linfonodos em casos de câncer de cabeça e pescoço. Método: Foram incluídos no estudo 23 pacientes diagnosticados com câncer de cabeça e pescoço e com tratamento cirúrgico programado, inclusive esvaziamento cervical. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a exame cervical por palpação, elastografia ultrassonográfica e tomografia computadorizada com contraste. Para comparar o desempenho diagnóstico da palpação, elastografia ultrassonográfica e tomografia computadorizada, os achados de cada método de exame foram comparados com os resultados do exame histopatológico de amostras obtidas do pescoço. Resultados: Dos pacientes, 15 (65,2%) apresentaram tumor primário na laringe; sete (30,4%) na cavidade oral; e um (4,3%) na parótida. Sete (30,4%) dos 23 pacientes foram submetidos a esvaziamento cervical bilateral. Foram considerados durante o estudo 30 pescoços. A elastografia ultrassonográfica mostrou maior acurácia (83,3%) e maior sensibilidade (82,4%) do que a palpação e a tomografia computadorizada, mas a especificidade da elastografia ultrassonográfica foi menor (84,6%) do que a palpação e a tomografia computadorizada. Conclusões: A elastografia ultrassonográfica é útil para o diagnóstico de metástases de linfonodos em pacientes com câncer de cabeça e pescoço. Graças ao seu caráter não invasivo, pode ser usada com segurança em combinação com outras técnicas radiológicas para apoiar ou melhorar o desempenho diagnóstico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Head and Neck Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Lymphatic Metastasis/diagnostic imaging , Cross-Sectional Studies , Predictive Value of Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Head and Neck Neoplasms/pathology , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Neoplasm Staging
17.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(1): 47-51, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983750

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Background: Sentinel lymph node biopsy in thin invasive primary cutaneous melanoma (up to 1mm thick) is a controversial subject. The presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes could be a factor to be considered in the decision to perform this procedure. Objective: To evaluate the association between the presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and lymph node metastases caused by thin primary cutaneous melanoma. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 137 records of thin invasive primary cutaneous melanoma submitted to sentinel lymph node biopsy from 2003 to 2015. The clinical variables considered were age, sex and topography of the lesion. The histopathological variables assessed were: tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, melanoma subtype, Breslow thickness, Clark levels, number of mitoses per mm2, ulceration, regression and satellitosis. Univariate analyzes and logistic regression tests were performed as well the odds ratio and statistical relevance was considered when p <0.05. Results: Among the 137 cases of thin primary cutaneous melanoma submitted to sentinel lymph node biopsy, 10 (7.3%) had metastatic involvement. Ulceration on histopathology was positively associated with the presence of metastatic lymph node, with odds ratio =12.8 (2.77-59.4 95% CI, p=0.001). The presence of moderate/marked tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes was shown to be a protective factor for the presence of metastatic lymph node, with OR=0.20 (0.05-0.72 95% CI, p=0.014). The other variables - clinical and histopathological - were not associated with the outcome. Study limitations: The relatively small number of positive sentinel lymph node biopsy may explain such an expressive association of ulceration with metastatization. Conclusions: In patients with thin invasive primary cutaneous melanoma, few or absent tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, as well as ulceration, represent independent risk factors for lymph node metastasis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating/pathology , Sentinel Lymph Node/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Melanoma/pathology , Logistic Models , Cross-Sectional Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Risk Factors , ROC Curve , Sex Distribution , Statistics, Nonparametric , Risk Assessment , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy/methods
18.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 32(1): e1425, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983674

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Traditionally, total omentectomy is performed along with gastric resection and extended lymphadenectomy in gastric cancer (GC) surgery. However, solid evidences regarding its oncologic benefit is still scarce. Aim: To evaluate the incidence of metastatic omental lymph nodes (LN) in patients undergoing curative gastrectomy for GC, as well as its risk factors and patients' outcomes. Methods: All consecutive patients submitted to D2/modified D2 gastrectomy due to gastric adenocarcinoma from March 2009 to April 2016 were retrospectively reviewed from a prospective collected database. Results: Of 284 patients included, five (1.8%) patients had metastatic omental LN (one: pT3N3bM0; two: pT4aN3bM0; one: pT4aN2M0 and one pT4bN3bM0). Four of them deceased and one was under palliative chemotherapy due relapse. LN metastases in the greater omentum significantly correlated with tumor's size (p=0.018), N stage (p<0.001), clinical stage (p=0.022), venous invasion growth (p=0.003), recurrence (p=0.006), site of recurrence (peritoneum: p=0.008; liver: p=0.023; ovary: p=0.035) and death (p=0.008). Conclusion: The incidence of metastatic omental LN of patients undergoing radical gastrectomy due to GC is extremely low. Total omentectomy may be avoided in tumors smaller than 5.25 cm and T1/T2 tumors. However, the presence of lymph node metastases in the greater omentum is associated with recurrence in the peritoneum, liver, ovary and death.


RESUMO Racional: Tradicionalmente a omentectomia total é realizada juntamente com a ressecção gástrica associada à linfadenectomia na cirurgia do câncer gástrico. No entanto, evidências sólidas em relação ao seu benefício oncológico são escassas . Objetivo: Avaliar a incidência de metástases em linfonodos do omento maior em pacientes submetidos à gastrectomia potencialmente curativa por câncer gástrico, assim como, avaliar os fatores de risco para a ocorrência e a evolução dos pacientes. Métodos: Pacientes consecutivos submetidos à gastrectomia D2/D2 modificada devido ao adenocarcinoma gástrico foram analisados retrospectivamente a partir de um banco de dados. Resultados: Dos 284 pacientes, cinco (1,8%) tinham linfonodos metastáticos no omento maior (um pT3N3bM0; dois pT4aN3bM0; um pT4aN2M0 e um pT4bN3bM0). Quatro faleceram e um estava em tratamento paliativo com quimioterapia devido à recidiva da doença. Os linfonodos metastáticos no omento maior tiveram correlação significativa com o tamanho do tumor (p=0,018), estádio N (p<0,001), estádio clínico (p=0,022), invasão venosa (p=0,003), recorrência (p=0,006), local de recorrência (peritônio p=0,008; fígado p=0,023; ovário p=0,035) e óbito (p=0,008). Conclusão: A incidência de linfonodos metastático no omento maior de pacientes submetidos à gastrectomia radical por câncer gástrico é baixa. A omentectomia total pode ser evitada em tumores menores que 5,25 cm e estádios T1/T2. Entretanto, a presença de metástases linfonodais no omento maior está associada à recidiva no peritônio, fígado, ovário e óbito.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Omentum/pathology , Stomach Neoplasms/surgery , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Gastrectomy , Neoplasm Staging
19.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e085, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019611

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunoexpression of human leukocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR) in actinic cheilitis (AC) and lower lip squamous cell carcinoma (LLSCC), and to correlate the findings with clinical (tumor size/extent, regional lymph node metastasis, and clinical stage) and histopathological (grade of epithelial dysplasia and inflammatory infiltrate for AC and histopathological grade of malignancy for LLSCC) parameters. Twenty-four AC and 48 LLSCC cases (24 with regional nodal metastasis and 24 without regional nodal metastasis) were selected. The scores of immunopositive cells for HLA-DR in the epithelial component of the lesions were assessed and the results were analyzed statistically using the nonparametric Mann-Whitney test. Epithelial expression of HLA-DR was observed in only five (20.8%) cases of AC (two low-grade and three high-grade lesions), with a very low median score of immunopositivity. By contrast, expression of HLA-DR was found in most LLSCC (97.9%), with a relatively high median score of positive cells. The score of HLA-DR-positive cells tended to be higher in tumors with regional lymph node metastasis, tumors in advanced clinical stages, and low-grade tumors, but the difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). In addition, there was a tendency towards higher expression of HLA-DR in highly/moderately keratinized tumors, and tumors with little/moderate nuclear pleomorphism (p > 0.05). The results suggest a potential role of HLA-DR in lip carcinogenesis, particularly in the development and progression of LLSCC. The expression of this protein can be related to the degree of cell differentiation in these tumors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Lip Neoplasms/immunology , HLA-DR Antigens/immunology , Cheilitis/immunology , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/immunology , Lip Neoplasms/pathology , Lip Neoplasms/secondary , Cheilitis/pathology , Neoplasm Grading , Carcinogenesis/immunology , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/pathology , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/secondary , Inflammation/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging
20.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 136(6): 586-590, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-991690

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Malignant transformation of endometriosis in the abdominal wall is a rare and still poorly understood event. Less than 30 cases have been reported in the worldwide literature. Most cases of solid tumors are report in a previous abdominal scar with malignant transformation of a focus of endometriosis. Presence of lymph node metastases in nearby chains is frequent and is associated with poor prognosis. CASE REPORT: We report a case of a 42-year-old woman with a history of abdominal surgery (Pfannenstiel) to resect abdominal wall endometriosis. Physical examination revealed a solid mass of approximately 10 cm x 6 cm in the anterior wall of the abdomen. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen and pelvis showed a heterogeneous, predominantly hypoattenuating expansive formation measuring 10.6 cm x 4.7 cm x 8.3 cm. The patient underwent exploratory incisional laparotomy, block resection of the abdominal mass and lymphadenectomy of the external and inguinal iliac chains. The abdominal wall was reconstructed using a semi-absorbable tissue-separating screen to reconstitute the defect caused by resection of the tumor. Histological evaluation revealed infiltration by malignant epithelioid neoplasia, thus confirming the immunohistochemical profile of adenocarcinoma with clear cell components. Lymphadenectomy showed metastatic involvement of an external iliac chain lymph node. CONCLUSION: Resection of the mass along with the abdominal wall, with wall margins, is the most effective treatment. Reconstruction is a challenge for surgeons. The patient has been followed up postoperatively for eight months, without any evidence of disease to date.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/pathology , Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell/etiology , Endometriosis/complications , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Abdominal Neoplasms/etiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell/surgery , Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell/pathology , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Abdominal Wall/surgery , Lymph Node Excision , Abdominal Neoplasms/surgery , Abdominal Neoplasms/pathology
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