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Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 14(2): 77-80, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283556


El carcinoma oculto de tiroides está poco reportado. Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 59 años. Durante un control por hipotiroidismo se solicitó ecografía cervical, la que mostró áreas hipoecogénicas en lóbulo derecho, una formación nodular hiperecogénica circunscrita no sospechosa de 8 mm y una adenopatía cervical periglandular derecha de 20 x 12 x 8 mm con áreas quísticas y microcalcificaciones, asociadas a hipervascularización. Se solicitó punción aspirativa por aguja fina del ganglio linfático, con resultado de citología negativa para células neoplásicas. El examen microscópico es compatible con tiroiditis, por lo que no es posible descartar metástasis. Se realizó biopsia del ganglio linfático, el que se informa como metástasis ganglionar linfática de 1.3 cm, histología de carcinoma papilar variedad folicular, sin invasión extracapsular. Se realizó tiroidectomía total y disección cervical derecha. El estudio anatomopatológico reportó una tiroiditis crónica de Hashimoto con un nódulo fibroso hialinizado de 0,4 cm negativo para tumor maligno y metástasis en 4 de 28 ganglios linfáticos, sin invasión extracapsular. El tamaño de la metástasis fue de 0,3 a 0,9 cm. Posteriormente se administró 100 mci de radioyodo. Actualmente, la paciente está en buenas condiciones y mantiene controles con ecografía y tiroglobulina periódicos.

Occult thyroid carcinoma is under-reported. The case of a 59-year-old woman is presented. During a check-up for hypothyroidism, a cervical ultrasound was requested, which showed hypoechogenic areas in the right lobe, an 8 mm nonsuspicious circumscribed hyperechogenic nodular formation and a 20 x 12 x 8 mm right cervical periglandular lymphadenopathy with cystic areas and microcalcifications, associated with hypervascularisation. Fine needle aspiration of the lymph node was requested, with negative cytology results for neoplastic cells. Microscopic examination was compatible with thyroiditis, so metastasis could not be ruled out. A biopsy of the lymph node was performed, which was reported as a 1.3 cm lymph node metastasis, histology of papillary carcinoma of the follicular variety, without extracapsular invasion. Total thyroidectomy and right cervical dissection were performed. The anatomopathological study reported chronic Hashimoto's thyroiditis with a 0.4 cm hyalinised fibrous nodule negative for malignant tumour and metastases in 4 of 28 lymph nodes, without extracapsular invasion. The size of the metastasis was 0.3 to 0.9 cm. Subsequently, 100 mci of radioiodine was administered. The patient is currently in good condition and maintains regular ultrasound and thyroglobulin monitoring.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/secondary , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Lymph Nodes/pathology
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(4): e9290, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089356


This study was designed to investigate the expression of RBM8A protein in patients with gastric cancer (GC) and to explore its correlation with clinical pathological features as well as prognosis. One hundred pairs of gastric carcinoma tissues and adjacent tissues from patients undergoing gastrectomy for GC were included in this study. The protein expression level of RBM8A was determined by immunohistochemistry using tissue microarrays. We also detected the mRNA expression level of RBM8A in 16 pairs of gastric carcinoma tissues and adjacent tissues. Meanwhile, we predicted the potential correlation between RBM8A and tumor stages as well as survival condition in patents with GC based on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. The correlation of RBM8A with the clinical pathological features and prognosis of the 100 patients with GC was also elucidated. The expression level of RBM8A was significantly higher in gastric carcinoma tissues compared to the adjacent tissues. The protein level of RBM8A was correlated with tumor size (P=0.031), depth of invasion (P<0.001), lymph node metastasis (P<0.001), TNM stage (<0.001), and distant metastasis (P=0.001). Patients with increased RBM8A expression (P<0.0018, 95%CI=0.322−0.871), higher TNM stage (P<0.001, 95%CI=4.990−11.283), and lymph node metastasis (P<0.001, 95%CI=2.873−4.002) had a lower overall survival. Taken together, our study demonstrated that RBM8A may act as a proto-oncogene, which could be a promising biomarker and therapeutic target in the diagnosis and treatment of GC.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Stomach Neoplasms/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Prognosis , Stomach Neoplasms/genetics , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Survival Analysis , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , Gastric Mucosa/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neoplasm Staging
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(6): 1270-1274, Nov.-Dec. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056328


ABSTRACT Bladder cancer is a common cancer that may present as superficial, invasive, or metastatic disease. Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) represents the majority of bladder cancer diagnoses, but represents a spectrum of disease with a variable clinical course, notably for significant risk of recurrence and potential for progression. NMIBC metastasis to distant organs without local invasion or regional metastasis is a very rare occurrence, so there are limited case reports about early metastasis in the literature.

Humans , Male , Aged , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma/secondary , Head and Neck Neoplasms/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Carcinoma/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Ultrasonography , Fatal Outcome , Head and Neck Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Lymphatic Metastasis/diagnostic imaging
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 85(3): 297-302, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011631


Abstract Introduction: Ultrasonography is the easiest non-invasive method to diagnose lymph node metastases in patients with head and neck cancer. However, since CT scans are often preferred in the evaluation of primary tumours of these patients, information about lymphatic metastases may also available in these patients. Therefore, ultrasound is not routinely employed in the evaluation of these patients. However, elastography technique, a recent development in ultrasound technology, could make use of ultrasonography in these patients even more widespread, even though it is still not widely used today. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of sonographic elastography in the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis of head and neck cancer. Methods: Twenty-three patients diagnosed with head and neck cancer and scheduled for surgical treatment including neck dissection were included in the study. All patients underwent neck examination by palpation, ultrasound elastography and computerized tomography with contrast. To compare the diagnostic performance of palpation, ultrasound elastography and computerized tomography, the findings of each examination method were compared with the histopathological examination results of neck specimens. Results: 15 (65.2%) patients had a primary tumour in the larynx; 7 (30.4%) in the oral cavity; and 1 (4.3%) in the parotid. 7 (30.4%) out of 23 patients underwent bilateral neck dissection. In total, 30 neck dissections were hereby taken into account during study. Ultrasound elastography showed higher accuracy (83.3%) and higher sensitivity (82.4%) than palpation and computerized tomography, but the specificity of ultrasound elastography was lower (84.6%) than palpation and computerized tomography. Conclusions: Ultrasound elastography is helpful for the diagnosis of lymph node metastases in patients with head and neck cancer. Due to its non-invasive character, it can be used safety in combination with other radiological techniques to support or improve their diagnostic performance.

Resumo Introdução: A ultrassonografia é o método mais fácil e não invasivo para diagnosticar metástases em linfonodos em pacientes com câncer de cabeça e pescoço. No entanto, como as tomografias computadorizadas são frequentemente preferidas na avaliação de tumores primários desses pacientes, as informações sobre metástases linfáticas também se tornam disponíveis. Portanto, a ultrassonografia não faz parte da avaliação de rotina desses pacientes. Entretanto, a técnica de elastografia, um desenvolvimento mais recente na tecnologia de ultrassom, poderia tornar o uso da ultrassonografia mais difundido nesses pacientes, embora atualmente ainda não seja amplamente usado. Objetivo: Avaliar o papel da elastografia ultrassonográfica no diagnóstico de metástases em linfonodos em casos de câncer de cabeça e pescoço. Método: Foram incluídos no estudo 23 pacientes diagnosticados com câncer de cabeça e pescoço e com tratamento cirúrgico programado, inclusive esvaziamento cervical. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a exame cervical por palpação, elastografia ultrassonográfica e tomografia computadorizada com contraste. Para comparar o desempenho diagnóstico da palpação, elastografia ultrassonográfica e tomografia computadorizada, os achados de cada método de exame foram comparados com os resultados do exame histopatológico de amostras obtidas do pescoço. Resultados: Dos pacientes, 15 (65,2%) apresentaram tumor primário na laringe; sete (30,4%) na cavidade oral; e um (4,3%) na parótida. Sete (30,4%) dos 23 pacientes foram submetidos a esvaziamento cervical bilateral. Foram considerados durante o estudo 30 pescoços. A elastografia ultrassonográfica mostrou maior acurácia (83,3%) e maior sensibilidade (82,4%) do que a palpação e a tomografia computadorizada, mas a especificidade da elastografia ultrassonográfica foi menor (84,6%) do que a palpação e a tomografia computadorizada. Conclusões: A elastografia ultrassonográfica é útil para o diagnóstico de metástases de linfonodos em pacientes com câncer de cabeça e pescoço. Graças ao seu caráter não invasivo, pode ser usada com segurança em combinação com outras técnicas radiológicas para apoiar ou melhorar o desempenho diagnóstico.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Head and Neck Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Lymphatic Metastasis/diagnostic imaging , Cross-Sectional Studies , Predictive Value of Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Head and Neck Neoplasms/pathology , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Neoplasm Staging
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(1): 47-51, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983750


Abstract: Background: Sentinel lymph node biopsy in thin invasive primary cutaneous melanoma (up to 1mm thick) is a controversial subject. The presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes could be a factor to be considered in the decision to perform this procedure. Objective: To evaluate the association between the presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and lymph node metastases caused by thin primary cutaneous melanoma. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 137 records of thin invasive primary cutaneous melanoma submitted to sentinel lymph node biopsy from 2003 to 2015. The clinical variables considered were age, sex and topography of the lesion. The histopathological variables assessed were: tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, melanoma subtype, Breslow thickness, Clark levels, number of mitoses per mm2, ulceration, regression and satellitosis. Univariate analyzes and logistic regression tests were performed as well the odds ratio and statistical relevance was considered when p <0.05. Results: Among the 137 cases of thin primary cutaneous melanoma submitted to sentinel lymph node biopsy, 10 (7.3%) had metastatic involvement. Ulceration on histopathology was positively associated with the presence of metastatic lymph node, with odds ratio =12.8 (2.77-59.4 95% CI, p=0.001). The presence of moderate/marked tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes was shown to be a protective factor for the presence of metastatic lymph node, with OR=0.20 (0.05-0.72 95% CI, p=0.014). The other variables - clinical and histopathological - were not associated with the outcome. Study limitations: The relatively small number of positive sentinel lymph node biopsy may explain such an expressive association of ulceration with metastatization. Conclusions: In patients with thin invasive primary cutaneous melanoma, few or absent tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, as well as ulceration, represent independent risk factors for lymph node metastasis.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating/pathology , Sentinel Lymph Node/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Melanoma/pathology , Logistic Models , Cross-Sectional Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Risk Factors , ROC Curve , Sex Distribution , Statistics, Nonparametric , Risk Assessment , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy/methods
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 32(1): e1425, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983674


ABSTRACT Background: Traditionally, total omentectomy is performed along with gastric resection and extended lymphadenectomy in gastric cancer (GC) surgery. However, solid evidences regarding its oncologic benefit is still scarce. Aim: To evaluate the incidence of metastatic omental lymph nodes (LN) in patients undergoing curative gastrectomy for GC, as well as its risk factors and patients' outcomes. Methods: All consecutive patients submitted to D2/modified D2 gastrectomy due to gastric adenocarcinoma from March 2009 to April 2016 were retrospectively reviewed from a prospective collected database. Results: Of 284 patients included, five (1.8%) patients had metastatic omental LN (one: pT3N3bM0; two: pT4aN3bM0; one: pT4aN2M0 and one pT4bN3bM0). Four of them deceased and one was under palliative chemotherapy due relapse. LN metastases in the greater omentum significantly correlated with tumor's size (p=0.018), N stage (p<0.001), clinical stage (p=0.022), venous invasion growth (p=0.003), recurrence (p=0.006), site of recurrence (peritoneum: p=0.008; liver: p=0.023; ovary: p=0.035) and death (p=0.008). Conclusion: The incidence of metastatic omental LN of patients undergoing radical gastrectomy due to GC is extremely low. Total omentectomy may be avoided in tumors smaller than 5.25 cm and T1/T2 tumors. However, the presence of lymph node metastases in the greater omentum is associated with recurrence in the peritoneum, liver, ovary and death.

RESUMO Racional: Tradicionalmente a omentectomia total é realizada juntamente com a ressecção gástrica associada à linfadenectomia na cirurgia do câncer gástrico. No entanto, evidências sólidas em relação ao seu benefício oncológico são escassas . Objetivo: Avaliar a incidência de metástases em linfonodos do omento maior em pacientes submetidos à gastrectomia potencialmente curativa por câncer gástrico, assim como, avaliar os fatores de risco para a ocorrência e a evolução dos pacientes. Métodos: Pacientes consecutivos submetidos à gastrectomia D2/D2 modificada devido ao adenocarcinoma gástrico foram analisados retrospectivamente a partir de um banco de dados. Resultados: Dos 284 pacientes, cinco (1,8%) tinham linfonodos metastáticos no omento maior (um pT3N3bM0; dois pT4aN3bM0; um pT4aN2M0 e um pT4bN3bM0). Quatro faleceram e um estava em tratamento paliativo com quimioterapia devido à recidiva da doença. Os linfonodos metastáticos no omento maior tiveram correlação significativa com o tamanho do tumor (p=0,018), estádio N (p<0,001), estádio clínico (p=0,022), invasão venosa (p=0,003), recorrência (p=0,006), local de recorrência (peritônio p=0,008; fígado p=0,023; ovário p=0,035) e óbito (p=0,008). Conclusão: A incidência de linfonodos metastático no omento maior de pacientes submetidos à gastrectomia radical por câncer gástrico é baixa. A omentectomia total pode ser evitada em tumores menores que 5,25 cm e estádios T1/T2. Entretanto, a presença de metástases linfonodais no omento maior está associada à recidiva no peritônio, fígado, ovário e óbito.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Omentum/pathology , Stomach Neoplasms/surgery , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Gastrectomy , Neoplasm Staging
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e085, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019611


Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunoexpression of human leukocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR) in actinic cheilitis (AC) and lower lip squamous cell carcinoma (LLSCC), and to correlate the findings with clinical (tumor size/extent, regional lymph node metastasis, and clinical stage) and histopathological (grade of epithelial dysplasia and inflammatory infiltrate for AC and histopathological grade of malignancy for LLSCC) parameters. Twenty-four AC and 48 LLSCC cases (24 with regional nodal metastasis and 24 without regional nodal metastasis) were selected. The scores of immunopositive cells for HLA-DR in the epithelial component of the lesions were assessed and the results were analyzed statistically using the nonparametric Mann-Whitney test. Epithelial expression of HLA-DR was observed in only five (20.8%) cases of AC (two low-grade and three high-grade lesions), with a very low median score of immunopositivity. By contrast, expression of HLA-DR was found in most LLSCC (97.9%), with a relatively high median score of positive cells. The score of HLA-DR-positive cells tended to be higher in tumors with regional lymph node metastasis, tumors in advanced clinical stages, and low-grade tumors, but the difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). In addition, there was a tendency towards higher expression of HLA-DR in highly/moderately keratinized tumors, and tumors with little/moderate nuclear pleomorphism (p > 0.05). The results suggest a potential role of HLA-DR in lip carcinogenesis, particularly in the development and progression of LLSCC. The expression of this protein can be related to the degree of cell differentiation in these tumors.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Lip Neoplasms/immunology , HLA-DR Antigens/immunology , Cheilitis/immunology , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/immunology , Lip Neoplasms/pathology , Lip Neoplasms/secondary , Cheilitis/pathology , Neoplasm Grading , Carcinogenesis/immunology , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/pathology , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/secondary , Inflammation/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging
Säo Paulo med. j ; 136(6): 586-590, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-991690


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Malignant transformation of endometriosis in the abdominal wall is a rare and still poorly understood event. Less than 30 cases have been reported in the worldwide literature. Most cases of solid tumors are report in a previous abdominal scar with malignant transformation of a focus of endometriosis. Presence of lymph node metastases in nearby chains is frequent and is associated with poor prognosis. CASE REPORT: We report a case of a 42-year-old woman with a history of abdominal surgery (Pfannenstiel) to resect abdominal wall endometriosis. Physical examination revealed a solid mass of approximately 10 cm x 6 cm in the anterior wall of the abdomen. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen and pelvis showed a heterogeneous, predominantly hypoattenuating expansive formation measuring 10.6 cm x 4.7 cm x 8.3 cm. The patient underwent exploratory incisional laparotomy, block resection of the abdominal mass and lymphadenectomy of the external and inguinal iliac chains. The abdominal wall was reconstructed using a semi-absorbable tissue-separating screen to reconstitute the defect caused by resection of the tumor. Histological evaluation revealed infiltration by malignant epithelioid neoplasia, thus confirming the immunohistochemical profile of adenocarcinoma with clear cell components. Lymphadenectomy showed metastatic involvement of an external iliac chain lymph node. CONCLUSION: Resection of the mass along with the abdominal wall, with wall margins, is the most effective treatment. Reconstruction is a challenge for surgeons. The patient has been followed up postoperatively for eight months, without any evidence of disease to date.

Humans , Female , Adult , Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/pathology , Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell/etiology , Endometriosis/complications , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Abdominal Neoplasms/etiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell/surgery , Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell/pathology , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Abdominal Wall/surgery , Lymph Node Excision , Abdominal Neoplasms/surgery , Abdominal Neoplasms/pathology
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 84(5): 566-573, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974348


Abstract Introduction: Soft tissue deposits is tumorous islands apart from lymph nodes and occasionally diagnosed in neck dissection specimens. Their importance has begun to be recognized, however, their value has not been investigated in laryngeal cancer as a single tumor site. Objective: To investigate the prognostic value of soft tissue deposits in patients with laryngeal carcinoma. Methods: Medical records of 194 patients with laryngeal carcinoma who were treated primarily by surgery and neck dissection were reviewed. Prognostic significance of soft tissue deposits was assessed along with other clinical and pathological findings. Recurrence rates, overall and disease-specific survival rates were examined. Results: The incidence of soft tissue deposits was found to be 7.2% in laryngeal carcinoma. N stage was more advanced in patients who had soft tissue deposits. Regional recurrence rate was higher and disease specific and overall survivals rates were significantly lower in patients with soft tissue deposits in univariate analysis. However, in multivariate analysis, soft tissue deposits were not found as an independent risk factor. Conclusion: In laryngeal carcinoma, soft tissue deposits was diagnosed in patients with more advanced neck disease and their significance was lesser than other factors including extranodal extension.

Resumo Introdução: Depósitos de tecido mole são ilhas tumorais diferente dos linfonodos e ocasionalmente diagnosticados em amostras de esvaziamento cervical. Sua importância começou a ser reconhecida, mas seu valor não foi investigado no câncer de laringe como um único local de tumor. Objetivo: Investigar o valor prognóstico do depósito de tecido mole em pacientes com carcinoma laríngeo. Método: Os prontuários de 194 pacientes com carcinoma laríngeo tratados principalmente por cirurgia e esvaziamento cervical foram analisados. O significado prognóstico dos depósitos de tecido mole foi avaliado juntamente com outros achados clínicos e histopatológicos. As taxas de recidiva, as taxas de sobrevida geral e específicas da doença foram avaliadas. Resultados: Observou-se uma incidência de depósitos de tecido mole de 7,2% no carcinoma laríngeo. O estágio N foi mais avançado em pacientes com depósitos de tecido mole. A taxa de recorrência regional foi maior e as taxas de sobrevida geral e específica da doença foram significativamente menores nesses pacientes na análise univariada. No entanto, na análise multivariada, o depósito de tecido mole não foi observado como um fator de risco independente. Conclusão: No carcinoma laríngeo, o depósito de tecido mole foi diagnosticado em pacientes com doença cervical mais avançada, mas sua significância foi menor do que outros fatores, inclusive a extensão extranodal.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Soft Tissue Neoplasms/secondary , Laryngeal Neoplasms/pathology , Prognosis , Neck Dissection , Brazil/epidemiology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/surgery , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Laryngeal Neoplasms/surgery , Laryngeal Neoplasms/mortality , Survival Rate , Risk Factors , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 64(2): 170-174, Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-896438


Summary Objective: To investigate the diagnostic criteria of mediastinal lymph node metastasis (MLNM) in esophageal carcinoma (EC) by comparing the lymph node sizes measured by computed tomography (CT) and obtained by postoperative pathological examination. Method: A total of 305 EC patients were selected. MLNM location, shortest diameter and number were investigated one week before surgery, and then compared with their pathological findings. Results: The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed that the minimum diameters of MLNM in the thoracic cavity was 8 mm (area under curve [AUC] = 0.766, Youden index = 0.424), 5 mm in supraclavicular fossa (AUC = 0.785, Youden index = 0.494), 6 mm in tracheoesophageal groove (AUC = 0.755, Youden index = 0.405); the sensitivity was increased significantly, and the Youden index was increased significantly when compared with 10 mm. Conclusion: The shortest diameter of diagnostic criteria of lymph nodes in EC could be less than 10 mm on CT.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Mediastinal Neoplasms/pathology , Esophageal Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Carcinoma/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity , Lymph Node Excision , Lymphatic Metastasis/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinal Neoplasms/secondary , Middle Aged
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 45(6): e1972, 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-976947


RESUMO Objetivo: descrever a presença de linfonodos e suas relações com características demográficas e antropométricas em uma região específica ainda não descrita pelos compêndios de anatomia, por nós denominada de Recesso Carotídeo Recorrencial (RCR), localizada entre o nervo laríngeo recorrente direito, a artéria carótida comum direita e a artéria tireoidea inferior direita. Métodos: foram dissecadas 32 regiões cervicais à direita de cadáveres com até 24 horas de post mortem. O tecido fibrogorduroso do RCR foi ressecado e preparado com fixação em formol. Em seguida, foi submetido a uma sequência crescente de álcoois (70%, 80% e 90%), posteriormente a uma solução de Xilol e, por fim, a uma solução de Salicilato de Metila, respeitando o tempo necessário de cada etapa. O estudo macroscópico foi realizado na peça diafanizada, observando a presença ou não de linfonodos. Quando presentes, foram fotografados e suas medidas foram aferidas com um paquímetro digital. No estudo microscópico, foi utilizada a coloração hematoxilina-eosina para confirmação do linfonodo. Resultados: observou-se a presença de linfonodos em 22 dos 32 espécimes (68,75%), com o número de linfonodos por cadáver variando de zero a seis (média de 1,56±0,29) e tamanho com média de 7,82mmx3,86mm (diâmetros longitudinal x transversal). Conclusão: a relação entre dados antropométricos e presença de linfonodos no RCR (teste exato de Fischer) foi significante para indivíduos normolíneos (p=0,03) e também significante entre a etnia branca (p=0,04).

ABSTRACT Objective: to describe the presence of lymph nodes and their relationships with demographic and anthropometric characteristics in a specific region, not yet described in anatomy compendiums, called by us Recurrent Carotid Recess (RCR) and located among the right recurrent laryngeal nerve, the right common carotid artery, and the right inferior thyroid artery. Methods: 32 right cervical regions were harvested from cadavers within 24 hours post-mortem. The fibro-fatty tissue of the RCR was resected and prepared with formalin fixation. It was then subjected to an increasing sequence of alcohols (70%, 80%, and 90%), subsequently to a solution of Xylol, and finally to a solution of Methyl Salicylate, respecting the time required for each step. The macroscopic study was carried out on the diaphanized piece, observing the presence or not of lymph nodes. When present, they were photographed and their measurements were gauged with a digital caliper. In the microscopic study, hematoxylin-eosin staining was used to confirm the lymph node. Results: the presence of lymph nodes was observed in 22 (68.75%) of the 32 specimens. The number of lymph nodes ranged from zero to six (mean of 1.56±0.29), per cadaver, and their mean size was 7.82mmx3.86mm (longitudinal x transversal diameters). Conclusion: the relationship between anthropometric data and presence of lymph nodes in the RCR (Fisher's exact test) was significant for medium-height individuals (p=0.03) and also white ones (p=0.04).

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Thyroid Gland/pathology , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Laryngeal Neoplasms/pathology , Carotid Artery, Common/pathology , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Cadaver , Dissection , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Middle Aged
Biol. Res ; 51: e32, 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983948


Minimal residual disease is that not detected by conventional imaging studies and clinically the patient remains disease free. However, with time these dormant cells will awaken and disease progression occurs, resulting in clinically and radiological detectable metastatic disease. This review addresses the concept of tumor cell dissemination from the primary tumor, the micrometastatic niche and tumor cell survival and finally the clinical utility of detecting and characterizing these tumor cells in order to guide management decisions in treating patients with prostate cancer.

Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/therapy , Neoplasm, Residual , Disease Progression , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Models, Biological
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 31(4): e1401, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973372


ABSTRACT Background: Gastric cancer is the 3rd most common cause of death in men and the 5th common in women worldwide. Today, surgery is the only curative therapy. Currently available advanced imaging modalities can predict R0 resection in most patients, but it can only be detected with certainty in the perioperative period. Aim: To determine the role of serum CK18, MMP9, TIMP1 levels in predicting R0 resection in patients with gastric cancer. Methods: Fifty consecutive patients scheduled for curative surgery with gastric adenocarcinoma diagnosed between 2013-2015 were included. One ml of blood was taken from the patients to analyze CK18, MMP9 and TIMP1. Results: CK18, MMP9 and TIMP1 levels were positively correlated with pathological N and the stage (p<0,05). CK-18, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 averages in positive clinical lymph nodes and in clinical stage 3, were found to be higher than the averages of those with negative clinical lymph nodes and in clinical stage 2 (p<0,05). Conclusion: Although serum CK-18, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 preoperatively measured in patients scheduled for curative surgery did not help to evaluate gastric tumor resectability, they were usefull in predicting N3-stage.

RESUMO Racional: Câncer gástrico é a terceira causa mais comum de morte em homens e a quinta em mulheres em todo o mundo. Atualmente a cirurgia é a única terapia curativa. As modalidades de imagem avançadas atualmente disponíveis podem prever a ressecção R0 na maioria dos pacientes, mas ela só pode ser detectada durante o perioperatório. Objetivo: Determinar o papel dos níveis séricos de CK18, MMP9 e TIMP1 na predição da ressecção R0 em pacientes com câncer gástrico. Métodos: Foram incluídos no estudo pacientes consecutivos agendados para operação curativa entre 2013-2015. Foi retirado 1 ml de sangue dos pacientes incluídos para estudar CK18, MMP9 e TIMP1. Resultados: Os níveis de CK18, MMP9 e TIMP1 foram positivamente correlacionados com o N patológico e o estadiamento (p<0,05). As médias CK-18, MMP-9 e TIMP-1 das pessoas com linfonodos positivos e aqueles em estágio clínico 3 foram superiores às médias das pessoas com linfonodos negativos e estágio clínico 2 (p<0,05). Conclusão: Embora as dosagens séricas de CK-18, MMP-9 e TIMP-1 em pacientes agendados para operação curativa por adenocarcinoma gástrico não ajudem a ter ideia de ressecabilidade tumoral, ela foi útil na predição de estadiamento N3.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Stomach Neoplasms/surgery , Stomach Neoplasms/blood , Adenocarcinoma/surgery , Adenocarcinoma/blood , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/blood , Keratin-18/blood , Reference Values , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Biomarkers, Tumor/blood , Logistic Models , Statistics, Nonparametric , Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1/blood , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Neoplasm Staging
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 61(2): 108-114, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838426


ABSTRACT Objectives The presence of thyroglobulin (Tg) in needle washouts of fine needle aspiration biopsy (Tg-FNAB) in neck lymph nodes (LNs) suspected of metastasis has become a cornerstone in the follow-up of patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). However, there are limited data regarding the measurement of anti-Tg antibodies in these washouts (TgAb-FNAB), and it is not clear whether these antibodies interfere with the assessment of Tg-FNAB or whether there are other factors that would more consistently justify the finding of low Tg-FNAB in metastatic LNs. Materials and methods We investigated 232 FNAB samples obtained from suspicious neck LNs of 144 PTC patients. These samples were divided according to the patient’s serum TgAb status: sTgAb- (n = 203 samples) and sTgAb+ (n = 29). The TgAb-FNAB levels were measured using two different assays. Tg-FNAB was also measured using two assays when low levels (< 10 ng/mL) were identified in the first assay of the metastatic LNs from the sTgAb+ samples. Results The TgAb-FNAB results were negative in both assays in all samples. Low levels of Tg-FNAB were identified in 11/16 of the metastatic LNs of the sTgAb+ patients and 16/63 of the sTgAb- patients (p < 0.05) using assay 1. The measurement of the Tg-FNAB levels using assay 2 indicated additional metastases in 5 LNs of the sTgAb+ patients. Conclusions Factors other than the presence of TgAb-FNAB may contribute to the higher number of metastatic LNs with undetectable Tg-FNAB in the sTgAb+ group. In addition, the measurement of Tg-FNAB using different assays was useful to enhance the diagnosis of metastatic LNs, particularly when cytological and Tg-FNAB results are discordant.

Humans , Autoantibodies/blood , Thyroglobulin/blood , Thyroid Neoplasms/blood , Carcinoma/blood , Lymph Nodes/immunology , Reference Values , Carcinoma/immunology , Carcinoma/pathology , Carcinoma, Papillary , Fluoroimmunoassay/methods , Predictive Value of Tests , Biopsy, Fine-Needle/instrumentation , Biopsy, Fine-Needle/methods , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/immunology , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Neck
Biol. Res ; 50: 32, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950881


BACKGROUND: Growing evidence has supported that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) could play vital roles in the development, progression, and prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, little is known about the clinical significance of BRAF-activated non-coding RNA (BANCR) in CRC. The aim of this study is to explore the clinical value of lncRNA BANCR in CRC patients. METHODS: The expression of lncRNA BANCR was measured in 106 CRC tissues and 65 adjacent normal tissues using the quantitative real-time PCR. RESULTS: The study showed that lncRNA BANCR was highly expressed in CRC tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues (P < 0.001). In addition, high expression of lncRNA BANCR was positively correlated with the lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients with high lncRNA BANCR expression had a shorter overall survival (OS) compared with the low lncRNA BANCR expression group (P = 0.001). Interestingly, for the group of patients with the lymph node metastasis, we found the similar result that high lncRNA BANCR expression was related to poor OS (P = 0.004). Furthermore, the multivariate Cox regression model analysis indicated that high expression of lncRNA BANCR was an independent poor prognostic factor in CRC patients (HR 2.24, 95% CI 1.22-4.16, P = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS: Upregulation of lncRNA BANCR may be associated with the lymph node metastasis and poor survival of CRC. LncRNA BANCR could be served as a novel and useful biomarker for CRC lymph node metastasis and prognosis.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Colorectal Neoplasms/metabolism , Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism , Up-Regulation , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Prognosis , Rectum/metabolism , Colorectal Neoplasms/mortality , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Colon/metabolism , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-115239


OBJECTIVE: To identify suitable diagnostic tools and evaluate the efficacy of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy for inguinal lymph node metastasis in vulvar cancer. METHODS: Data from 41 patients with vulvar cancer were evaluated retrospectively, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements, SLN biopsy status, groin lymph node metastasis, and prognosis. RESULTS: SLN biopsy was conducted in 12 patients who had stage I to III disease. Groin lymphadenectomy was omitted in five of the nine patients with negative SLNs. All SLN-negative patients who did not undergo groin lymphadenectomy showed no evidence of disease after treatment. On MRI, the long and short diameters of the inguinal node were significantly longer in metastasis-positive cases, compared with negative cases, in 25 patients whose nodes were evaluated pathologically (long diameter, 12.8 mm vs. 8.8 mm, p=0.025; short diameter, 9.2 mm vs. 6.7 mm, p=0.041). The threshold of >10.0 mm for the long axis gave a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 87.5%, 70.6%, 58.3%, and 92.3%, respectively, using a binary classification test. Decision tree analysis revealed a sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 87.5%, 70.6%, and 76.0%, respectively, with the threshold of >10.0 mm for the long axis on MRI. The criteria of >10.0 mm for the long axis on MRI predicted an advanced stage and poorer prognosis using a validation set of 15 cases (p=0.028). CONCLUSION: Minimally invasive surgery after preoperative evaluation on MRI and SLN biopsy is a feasible strategy for patients with vulvar cancer.

Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Groin , Humans , Lymph Node Excision , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sentinel Lymph Node/pathology , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy/methods , Vulvar Neoplasms/pathology
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 599-605, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-52541


PURPOSE: To correlate tumor stiffness and lymphangiogenesis in breast cancer and to find its clinical implications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 140 breast cancer patients were evaluated. Tumor stiffness was quantitatively measured by shear-wave elastography in preoperative ultrasound examination, calculated as mean elasticity value (kPa). Slides of resected breast cancer specimens were reviewed for most fibrotic area associated with tumor. D2-40 immunohistochemical staining was applied for fibrotic areas to detect the lymphatic spaces. Microlymphatic density, tumor stiffness, and clinicopathologic data were analyzed. RESULTS: Higher elasticity value was associated with invasive size of tumor, microlymphatic density, histologic grade 3, absence of extensive intraductal component, presence of axillary lymph node metastasis, and Ki-67 labeling index (LI) in univariate regression analysis, and associated with Ki-67 LI and axillary lymph node metastasis in multivariate regression analysis. Microlymphatic density was associated histologic grade 3, mean elasticity value, and Ki-67 LI in univariate regression analysis. In multivariate regression analysis, microlymphatic density was correlated with mean elasticity value. CONCLUSION: In breast cancer, tumor stiffness correlates with lymphangiogenesis and poor prognostic factors.

Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Breast/pathology , Breast Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Elasticity Imaging Techniques/methods , Female , Humans , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphangiogenesis/physiology , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Neoplasm Staging , Regression Analysis
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 81(3): 248-254, May-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-751907


INTRODUCTION: Elective neck dissection is recommended in cases of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma without lymph node metastasis because of the risk of occult metastasis. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to evaluate predictive factors for occult lymph node metastasis in patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma treated with elective neck dissection and their impact on overall and disease-free survival. METHODS: Forty surgically treated patients were retrospectively included. RESULTS: Ten cases (25%) had lymphatic metastasis. Of the studied variables, perineural and angiolymphatic invasion in addition to tumor thickness were statistically associated with lymph node metastasis. Only angiolymphatic invasion was identified as an independent risk factor for occult metastasis in the logistic regression (OR = 39.3; p = 0.002). There was no association between overall and disease-free survival with the presence of occult lymph node metastasis. CONCLUSION: Metastatic disease rate was similar to that found in the literature. Perineural and angiolymphatic invasion and tumor thickness were associated with occult metastasis, but only angiolymphatic invasion showed to be an independent risk factor .

INTRODUÇÃO: O esvaziamento cervical eletivo é realizado de maneira sistemática nos casos de carcinoma espinocelular da cavidade oral sem linfonodos clinicamente comprometidos devido à alta incidência de metástases ocultas. OBJETIVO: Avaliar pacientes com carcinoma espinocelular de cavidade oral tratados com esvaziamento cervical eletivo quanto a fatores preditivos para ocorrência de metástases ocultas e o impacto das mesmas na sobrevivência global e livre de progressão destes pacientes. MÉTODO: Quarenta pacientes cirurgicamente tratados foram avaliados em estudo retrospectivo. RESULTADOS: Dez casos (25%) apresentaram metástases ocultas. Das variáveis analisadas, invasão perineural e angiolinfática e também a espessura tumoral foram estatisticamente significantes à análise univariada. Apenas a invasão angiolinfática foi fator independente de risco de metástases ocultas pela regressão logística (OR = 39,3; p = 0,002). A presença de metástase oculta não apresentou diferença estatisticamente significante em relação às taxas de sobrevivência global e livre de progressão. CONCLUSÃO: A incidência de metástase oculta foi semelhante à literatura. A invasão perineural, angiolinfática e a espessura tumoral foram fatores associados à presença de metástase oculta, porém apenas a invasão angiolinfática apresentou-se como um fator de risco independente para ocorrência do fenômeno. .

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/surgery , Elective Surgical Procedures , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Mouth Neoplasms/surgery , Neck Dissection/methods , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/mortality , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Epidemiologic Methods , Lymphatic Metastasis/diagnosis , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Mouth Neoplasms/mortality , Mouth Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasm Staging , Survival Rate
J. bras. pneumol ; 41(3): 219-224, May-Jun/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-751961


OBJECTIVE: Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is a minimally invasive diagnostic test with a high diagnostic yield for suspicious central pulmonary lesions and for mediastinal lymph node staging. The main objective of this study was to describe the diagnostic yield of EBUS-TBNA for mediastinal lymph node staging in patients with suspected lung cancer. METHODS: Prospective study of patients undergoing EBUS-TBNA for diagnosis. Patients ≥ 18 years of age were recruited between July of 2010 and August of 2013. We recorded demographic variables, radiological characteristics provided by axial CT of the chest, location of the lesion in the mediastinum as per the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer classification, and definitive diagnostic result (EBUS with a diagnostic biopsy or a definitive diagnostic method). RESULTS: Our analysis included 354 biopsies, from 145 patients. Of those 145 patients, 54.48% were male. The mean age was 63.75 years. The mean lymph node size was 15.03 mm, and 90 lymph nodes were smaller than 10.0 mm. The EBUS-TBNA method showed a sensitivity of 91.17%, a specificity of 100.0%, and a negative predictive value of 92.9%. The most common histological diagnosis was adenocarcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: EBUS-TBNA is a diagnostic tool that yields satisfactory results in the staging of neoplastic mediastinal lesions. .

OBJETIVO: La ultrasonografía endobronquial con aspiración transbronquial por aguja fina (EBUS-TBNA, por sus siglas en inglés) es una alternativa mínimamente invasiva con un alto rendimiento diagnóstico para lesiones pulmonares centrales sospechosas de cáncer o para etapificación de linfonodos mediastínicos. El objetivo principal de este trabajo es describir el rendimiento de EBUS-TBNA como método de etapificación de linfonodos mediastínicos en pacientes con sospecha de cáncer pulmonar. MÉTODOS: Estudio prospectivo de pacientes sometidos a EBUS-TBNA como método diagnóstico. Se seleccionaron pacientes mayores de 18 años entre julio del 2010 y agosto del 2013. Se registraron variables demográficas, características radiológicas mediante TC axial de tórax, localización mediastínica según clasificación de la International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer y resultado diagnóstico definitivo (EBUS con biopsia diagnóstica o método diagnóstico definitivo). RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron 145 pacientes con un total de 354 biopsias. El 54,48% de los pacientes eran hombres, con edad promedio de 63,75 años. El tamaño promedio de los linfonodos fue de 15,03 mm, y 90 fueron menores de 10,0 mm. El rendimiento diagnóstico fue: sensibilidad, 91,17%; especificidad, 100,0%; y valor predictivo negativo, 92,9%. El diagnóstico histológico más frecuente fue adenocarcinoma. CONCLUSIONES: EBUS-TBNA es una herramienta diagnóstica con buenos resultados en el estudio de etapificación de lesiones neoplásicas en mediastino. .

Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Lung Neoplasms , Lymphatic Metastasis , Mediastinum , Neoplasm Staging , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity