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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928675


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the clinical features of acute myeloid leukemia patients with hemophagocytic syndrome.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 2 patients with acute myeloid leukemia complicated with hemophagocytic syndrome were collected, and the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#There were two patients with acute myeloid leukemia, including 1 male and 1 female,aged for 67 and 40 years old,respectively. Hemophagocytic syndrome occurred in one patient after induction therapy for acute myeloid leukemia and one patient after consolidation therapy. Both of the patients with hemophagocytic syndrome showed fever, hemocytopenia, high ferritin, high titer sCD25 levels and hemophagocytes in bone marrow. After achieved anti-infection, glucocorticoid, human immunoglobulin and etoposide regimens treatment, hemophagocytic syndrome was controlled in both of the two patients. One patient failed to induce acute myeloid leukemia and one patient achieved complete remission.@*CONCLUSION@#Acute myeloid leukemia complicated with hemophagocytic syndrome is rare. Early identification, early anti-infection combined with HLH94 regimen can control hemophagocytosis and improve prognosis.

Aged , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Bone Marrow , Female , Humans , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/drug therapy , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/complications , Male , Prognosis , Treatment Outcome
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928595


OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the efficacy and application value of plasma exchange as an adjuvant therapy in children with hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS).@*METHODS@#A prospective randomized controlled trial was designed. Forty children with severe HPS were enrolled, who were treated in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of Hunan Children's Hospital from October 2018 to October 2020. The children were randomly divided into a plasma exchange group and a conventional treatment group using a random number table, with 20 children in each group. The children in the conventional treatment group received etiological treatment and conventional symptomatic supportive treatment, and those in the plasma exchange group received plasma exchange in addition to the treatment in the conventional treatment group. The two groups were compared in terms of general information, clinical symptoms and signs before and after treatment, main laboratory markers, treatment outcome, and prognosis.@*RESULTS@#Before treatment, there were no significant differences between the two groups in gender, age, course of the disease before admission, etiological composition, pediatric critical illness score, involvement of organ or system functions, and laboratory markers (P>0.05). After 7 days of treatment, both groups had remission and improvement in clinical symptoms and signs. After treatment, the plasma exchange group had significantly lower levels of C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and serum protein levels than the conventional treatment group (P<0.05). The plasma exchange group also had significantly lower levels of alanine aminotransferase and total bilirubin than the conventional treatment group (P<0.05). The length of stay in the PICU in the plasma exchange group was significantly shorter than that in the conventional treatment group (P<0.05). The plasma exchange group had a significantly higher treatment response rate than the conventional treatment group (P<0.05). There were no significant differences between the two groups in the total length of hospital stay and 3-month mortality rate (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Plasma exchange as an adjuvant therapy is effective for children with severe HPS. It can improve clinical symptoms and signs and some laboratory markers and shorten the length of stay in the PICU, and therefore, it may become an optional adjuvant therapy for children with severe HPS.

Child , Humans , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/therapy , Plasma Exchange , Plasmapheresis , Prospective Studies
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939716


Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening disease caused by uncontrolled proliferation of activated macrophage, and secreting high amounts of inflammatory cytokines which lead to multi-organ dysfunction syndrome. HLH patients often show different clinical characteristics during the disease was progressed, in which coagulopathy were the most common, including thrombocytopenia and hypofibrinogenemia, those are the major cause of death in patients, and the clinicians should increase awareness of the mechanisms, clinical characteristics, prognosis and treatment. In this review, the above problems are briefly summarized, to deepen understanding of the HLH related coagulation dysfunctions, and early identification and treatment to reduce mortality, so as to provide more opportunities for HLH patients to recieve subsequent treatment.

Afibrinogenemia , Blood Coagulation Disorders/therapy , Humans , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/therapy , Prognosis , Thrombocytopenia
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 209-214, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935672


Objective: To summarize the clinical features of Streptococcus pneumoniae-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (SP-HLH), and the serotypes and drug-resistant characteristics of the isolated strains. Methods: There were 15 children with SP-HLH admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) of Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University from January 2013 to December 2020 were included in this study. Clinical data including children's general characteristics, clinical features, laboratory examinations, treatments, prognosis and the outcomes of follow-up by May 2021 were analyzed retrospectively. The serotypes and drug resistance of the isolated strains were identified. All children were divided into the clinical improvement group and the death group. Mann-Whitney U test, Fisher's exact test were used to compare the data of the two groups. Results: Among the 15 children with SP-HLH, 8 were males and 7 were females. The age of these children was 1.0 (1.0, 2.5) years. Regarding the primary infection, there were 9 cases of severe pneumonia, 3 cases of meningitis and 3 cases of blood stream infection. None of these children had received pneumoniae conjugate vaccine (PCV) and all of them were admitted to the PICU. Respiratory failure was observed in 10 patients, acute renal injury in 5, and hemolytic uremic syndrome in 3 patients. All children received glucocorticoids and high-dose intravenous immunogloblin (IVIG) in addition to anti-infective treatment. Eight of the children were cured while the other 7 died. The neutrophil count in the death group was lower than that in the clinical improvement group ((5.0 (1.7, 9.3) × 109 vs. 5.2 (3.4, 10.5) ×109/L, Z =-2.43, P<0.015), and the length of hospital stay and days of PICU stay in the death group were both shorter than those in the improvement group statistically (3 (1, 11) vs. 39 (34, 48) d, 2 (1, 4) vs. 19 (12, 31) d, Z=-3.25, -3.24, both P=0.001). Ten serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae were identified, including 4 strains of 19F, 3 of 19A, 1 of 23F, 1 of 15A and 1 of 14, among which 9 strains (9/10) were covered by PCV13. All strains were resistant to erythromycin yet sensitive to vancomycin and linezolid. Conclusions: SP-HLH is more common in children under the age of 3, with a high mortality rate. The death cases have lower neutrophil count and rapid disease progression. The comprehensive treatment is anti-infective combined with glucocorticoids and high-dose IVIG. The predominant serotypes are 19F and 19A and all isolated strains were susceptible to vancomycin and linezolid.

Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Child , Female , Humans , Infant , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/drug therapy , Male , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pneumococcal Infections/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Serogroup , Streptococcus pneumoniae
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 128-133, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929544


Objective: To explore the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with non-Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (IAHLH) . Methods: Clinical data of 48 patients diagnosed with non-EBV IAHLH in Beijing Friendship Hospital from January 2015 to March 2021 were collected, and the clinical characteristics, treatment, curative effect and prognosis of the patients were analyzed retrospectively. Results: This study included 48 patients, 28 males and 20 females, with a median (range) age of 34.5 (2-74) years. Pathogens that cause IAHLH were as follows: virus (16 cases, 33.3%) , bacteria (17 cases, 35.4%) , parasitic agents (13 cases, 27.1%) , and fungi (2 cases, 4.2%) . The median time from onset to diagnosis of hemophagocytic syndrome (HLH) was 40 (10-160) days. The median (range) time duration from prodrome to the definite diagnosis of IAHLH was 67 (23-270) days. The clinical characteristics were fever (48 cases, 100%) , splenomegaly (34 cases, 70.8%) , cytopenia (38 cases, 79.1%) , elevated ferritin (45 cases, 93.8%) , elevated fasting triglyceride levels (7 cases, 14.6%) , hypofibrinogenemia (17 cases, 35.4%) , decrease natural killer cell activity (26 in 44 cases, 59.1%) , and elevated sCD25 (35 cases, 74.5%) . Twenty-five patients (52.1%) had adenopathy. Once a certain pathogen was identified as the causative factor of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) , cytotoxic agents and glucocorticoids were withdrawn, and specific pathogen-directed treatment was initiated. After treatment, 36 cases (75.0%) achieved complete response, and 14 of 15 patients (93.3%) with parasitic and fungal HLH got a response; however, the response rate of patient with bacterial and viral HLH was only 66.7% (22 of 33 patients) . The estimated 5-year overall survival rate was 72.3% (95%CI 50.3%-69.8%) . The adverse prognostic factors were total bilirubin over the upper limit of normal (OR=20.0, 95%CI 1.1-378.3, P=0.046) and pathogenic infection not fully controlled (OR=19.9, 95%CI 2.9-134.5, P=0.002) . Conclusion: Non-EBV IAHLH has a good prognosis. When diagnosed, cytotoxic agents and glucocorticoids should be tapered off, and pathogen-targeted therapy should be critically administered to clear the triggering infection.

Adult , Aged , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/complications , Female , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Humans , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
Ludovica pediátr ; 24(2): 35-39, dic.2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, Redbvs, BINACIS, ARGMSAL | ID: biblio-1363149


El síndrome hemofagocítico (SHF) es un trastorno caracterizado por la activación y proliferación no maligna del sistema inmune. Puede ser primario o secundario. La forma primaria está ligada a factores genéticos autosómicos recesivos y la secundaria se presenta subsiguiente a otras enfermedades. La leishmaniasis es la parasitosis que más comúnmente lo gatilla y tiene la característica que resuelve con su tratamiento específico, sin el cual la mor- talidad alcanza el 100 %. Se presenta el caso de un niño de 7 meses, oriundo de Paraguay, que ingresa a nuestro Hospital por fiebre y hepatoesplenomegalia, que luego de arribar al diagnóstico y realizar tratamiento específico, evolucionó favorablemente

Hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) is a disorder characterized by non-malignant activation and proliferation of the immune system. It can be primary or secondary. The primary form is linked to autosomal recessive genetic factors and the secondary form occurs subsequent to other diseases. Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease with a wide worldwide distribution caused by different species of Leishmania. It is the protozoan that most commonly triggers it and it resolves with its specific treatment.Without it, the mortality rate is 100 %. We report the case of a 7-month-old boy, born in Paraguay, who was admitted at our Hospital with fever and hepatosplenomegaly, who after reaching the diagnosis, received specific treatment and developed a favorable clinical outcome

Leishmaniasis , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic , Child
Rev. chil. infectol ; 38(3): 423-431, jun. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388244


INTRODUCCIÓN: La linfohistiocitosis hemofagocítica (HLH en inglés) es un síndrome clínico grave, potencialmente fatal, caracterizado por una activación patológica del sistema inmune y una respuesta hiperinflamatoria extrema. Según su etiología se clasifica en primario (genético o familiar) y secundario (gatillado por causas infecciosas, oncológicas o reumatológicas). OBJETIVOS: Describir y analizar las características clínicas y laboratorio, tratamiento recibido y seguimiento en pacientes pediátricos con diagnóstico de HLH. PACIENTES Y MÉTODOS: Se describió una cohorte pediátrica en pacientes hospitalizados con diagnóstico de HLH en un centro terciario universitario entre enero de 2000 y febrero de 2019. RESULTADOS: Se reclutaron 23 pacientes pediátricos con una mediana de edad de 36 meses. Los hallazgos clínicos y de laboratorio más frecuentes fueron fiebre, citopenias e hiperferritinemia. La etiología más frecuente fue infecciosa (virus Epstein Barr/citomegalovirus) e inmunológica/reumatológica. La mortalidad global fue de 35%, sin diferencias significativas según etiología. DISCUSIÓN: Dada su alta mortalidad es relevante un alto índice de sospecha que permita instaurar terapia de forma precoz. Son necesarios estudios multicéntricos para determinar predictores clínicos y de laboratorio con valor pronóstico.

BACKGROUND: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a severe syndrome, potentially lethal, with a pathological activation of the immune system and an extreme hyperinflammatory response. The etiology is classified in primary HLH (familiar or genetic) and secondary (infectious, oncological, and rheumatological diseases). AIM: To analyze clinical and laboratory characteristics, treatment, and follow-up rates in pediatric patients with HLH. METHODS: A pediatric cohort of patients with HLH diagnosis attending in a tertiary hospital between January 2000 to February 2019 was analysed. RESULTS: 23 hospitalized patients were recruited with a median of 36 months of age. The most frequent clinical and laboratory findings were fever, cytopenias, and hyperferritinemia. The most frequent aetiologies were infectious (Epstein Barr virus and citomegalovirus) and rheumatological diseases. The global mortality was 35%, there was no significant difference between etiologies. DISCUSSION: Considering the high mortality of HLH it is very important to have a high grade of suspicion that allows treating at an early stage. It would be important to determine clinical and laboratory predictors in multicentric studies.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/diagnosis , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/etiology , Follow-Up Studies , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Tertiary Care Centers
Rev. chil. infectol ; 38(2): 271-278, abr. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388230


INTRODUCCIÓN: La liberación excesiva de citoquinas en COVID-19 grave se asemeja a la linfohistiocitosis hemofagocítica secundaria (sHLH). OBJETIVO: Comparar las características clínicas y de laboratorio entre sHLH y el síndrome de liberación de citoquinas (CRS) en COVID-19. MÉTODOS: Se realizó una revisión de artículos en la base de datos PubMed, a través de las siguientes palabras clave "HLH and COVID", "HScore in COVID". Se incluyeron las publicaciones disponibles hasta el 16 julio 2020. RESULTADOS: Se elaboró un cuadro comparativo basado en los criterios diagnósticos del protocolo HLH 2004, HScore y características del CRS-COVID-19. Se utilizaron 18 variables para la comparación. DISCUSIÓN: El CRS en COVID-19 grave presenta similitud con el CRS del sHLH; sin embargo, no se puede afirmar que se traten de la misma entidad. Los reportes de sHLH en COVID-19 son escasos. HScore es una herramienta que podría orientar el diagnóstico de HLH secundario a COVID-19 de una manera más práctica que los criterios HLH-2004; sin embargo, su aplicación en COVID-19 se encuentra limitada debido a la ausencia de características claves del estado hiperinflamatorio de COVID-19 que sí destacan en HLH. CONCLUSIONES: El CRS-COVID-19 no es sinónimo de sHLH. Aunque esta última entidad podría o no estar presente en COVID-19 grave.

BACKGROUND: Excessive release of cytokines in severe COVID-19 resembles secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH). AIM: To compare the clinical and laboratory characteristics between sHLH and cytokine release syndrome (CRS) in COVID-19. METHODS: A review of articles in the PubMed database was performed, using the following keywords "HLH and COVID", "HScore in COVID". Articles available until July 16, 2020 were included. RESULTS: A comparative table was prepared based on the diagnostic criteria of the HLH 2004 protocol, HScore and characteristics of the CRS-COVID-19. Eighteen variables are used for comparison. DISCUSSION: The CRS in COVID-19 presented similarity with the CRS of sHLH; however, it cannot be stated that they are the same entity. Case reports of sHLH in COVID-19 are small. HScore is a tool that could guide the diagnosis of sHLH in the context of CRS-COVID-19, in a more practical way than the classic criteria described in HLH-2004; however, its application in COVID-19 is limited due to the absence of key features of the hyperinflammatory state of COVID-19 that are included in HLH. CONCLUSIONS: CRS-COVID-19 is not synonymous with sHLH. Although this last entity may or may not be present in the severe COVID-19.

Humans , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/diagnosis , COVID-19 , Cytokine Release Syndrome , SARS-CoV-2
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(3): 395-401, Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248865


Resumo Fundamento: A síndrome hemofagocítica (SHF) é uma síndrome hiperinflamatória debilitante. O status da insuficiência cardíaca (IC) com fração de ejeção preservada (ICFEP) está intimamente relacionado ao aumento da inflamação sistêmica e intramiocárdica. Objetivos: este estudo pretende determinar os preditores de mortalidade e os parâmetros de monitoramento confiáveis nos casos de SHF que desenvolveram a ICFEP durante seu curso clínico. Métodos: Trinta e nove pacientes, diagnosticados com SHF de acordo com os critérios diagnósticos do estudo HLH 2004 com Hscore ≥169, e com aspiração ou biópsia de medula óssea comprovada, foram recrutados retrospectivamente. Foram investigados retrospectivamente os fatores de risco tradicionais, como proteína C reativa sérica, níveis de albumina e ferritina com contagens de linfócitos e plaquetas, e fatores não tradicionais, como relação neutrófilolinfócito (NLR), relação linfócito-monócito (MLR), volume plaquetário médio (MPV) e pró-peptídeo natriurético cerebral N-terminal (NTproBNP). Analisou-se a relação entre os valores laboratoriais alterados ao longo do tempo entre si e com a mortalidade. O nível de significância geral foi de 5%. Resultados: Foi demonstrado que a alteração temporal dos níveis de índice cardiotorácico (ICT), NTproBNP sérico, ferritina, PCR e albumina foram detectados como sendo preditores de mortalidade (p<0,05, para todos) em análise univariada. As contagens de linfócitos e plaquetas com valores de NLR e MPV também foram significativos (p<0,05). A relação entre NT-proBNP e o aumento dos marcadores inflamatórios sistêmicos também foi considerada significativa. Além de fatores de risco tradicionais, os níveis de ferritina sérica, e os níveis de NLR, MLR e MPV foram considerados significativamente correlacionados entre si. Conclusão: Acompanhado de parâmetros de monitoramento confiáveis, o diagnóstico rápido e o tratamento antiinflamatório agressivo com controle rígido de volume podem salvar vidas de pacientes com SHF que sofrem de complicações por ICFEP. O monitoramento rígido da inflamação pode prever o resultado do paciente que sofre de ICFEP.

Abstract Background: Hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) ia s devastating hyperinflammatory syndrome. Heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) status is closely correlated with increased inflammation, both systemic and intramyocardial. Objectives: This study sought to determine mortality predictors and reliable follow-up parameters in HPS that developed HFpEF during the clinical course. Method: Thirty-nine patients, diagnosed as HPS, according to HLH 2004 diagnostic criteria, with an HScore of ≥169 and proven bone marrow aspiration or biopsy, were recruited retrospectively. Both traditional, serum C-reactive protein, albumin and ferritin levels with lymphocyte, and platelet counts, as well as non-traditional risk factors, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte count (NLR), monocyte-to-lymphocyte count (MLR), mean platelet volume (MPV), and N-Terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP), were investigated retrospectively. The relationship between time-changed laboratory values both among themselves and with mortality. The overall significance level was set at 5%. Results: This study showed that temporal change of cardiothoracic ratio (CTR), serum NTproBNP, ferritin, CRP, and albumin levels were detected as mortality predictors (p<0.05, for all) in the univariate analysis. Lymphocyte and platelet counts with NLR and MPV values were also significant (p<0.05). The relationship between NT-proBNP and increased systemic inflammatory markers proved to be significant. In addition to traditional risk factors, serum ferritin levels, NLR, MLR, and MPV levels also proved to be significantly correlated with each other. Conclusion: Accompanied by reliable follow-up parameters, rapid diagnosis and aggressive anti-inflammatory treatment with tight volume control can be life-saving in HPS patients who suffer from HFpEF. Close monitoring of inflammation may predict the outcome of patients suffering from HFpEF.

Humans , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic , Heart Failure , Peptide Fragments , Prognosis , Stroke Volume , Biomarkers , Retrospective Studies , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain , Mean Platelet Volume
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2021243, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285402


Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare and potentially fatal syndrome resulting from a hyperactivated immune system. Diverse patient profiles and clinical presentations often result in misdiagnosis. This article describes the varied clinical presentations and autopsy findings in three patients with this entity. The etiopathogenesis of HLH, its disparate and confounding clinical features, the diagnostic criteria, and management principles are also briefly reviewed.

Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/pathology , Autopsy , Hypertriglyceridemia , Macrophage Activation Syndrome , Ferritins , Immune System
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2021285, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249016


Acquired Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis is a rare and deadly syndrome resulting from an overactive immune system, with uncontrolled activation of macrophages and lymphocytes, hypercytokinemia, and systemic inflammatory response. A 75-year-old male presented with typical anginal pain and was diagnosed with the acute coronary syndrome, which required a percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. Instead of resolving the symptoms, the patient began to exhibit pyrexia and worsening altered sensorium with progressing renal failure, anemia, thrombocytopenia and respiratory failure. This constellation of symptoms caused the patient to require mechanical ventilation and hemodialysis. Upon laboratory analysis, hyperferritinemia provided an indication to the diagnosis of acquired hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. After the initiation of dexamethasone, the patient made a significant recovery and was discharged from the hospital.

Humans , Male , Aged , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/complications , Hyperferritinemia/diagnosis , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Acute Coronary Syndrome/complications , Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency
Rev. chil. reumatol ; 37(1): 18-22, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1400374


El síndrome de activación macrofágica (SAM) presenta criterios clínicos y de laboratorio establecidos. Presentamos el caso de un adolescente varón con debut de Lupus eritematoso generalizado pediátrico grave, donde su manifestación principal fue un SAM y el receptor de interleucina 2 soluble en suero (IL-2rs) o CD25 soluble (CD25s) aumentado resultó clave en la confirmación diagnóstica, en el tratamiento y pronóstico de su enfermedad. Sin embargo, este receptor de citocinas no se mide habitualmente en la práctica clínica.

Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) presents established clinical and laboratory criteria. We present the case of a male adolescent with the onset of severe pediatric systemic Lupus erythematosus, manifested mainly by MAS and how a laboratory marker, serum soluble interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2rs) or altered soluble CD25(CD25s), played a key role in treatment and prognosis of the disease. However, this cytokine receptor is rarely measured in clinical practice.

Humans , Male , Child , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/diagnosis , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/therapy , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/diagnosis , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/therapy , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Receptors, Interleukin-2 , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/pathology , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880176


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the changes in function of CD8@*METHODS@#Flow cytometry was used to detect the expressions of PD-1, TIM-3, and LAG-3, which were the markers of exhausted CD8@*RESULTS@#The expressions of inhibitory receptors (PD-1, TIM3 and LAG-3) on CD8@*CONCLUSION@#The exhausted CD8

CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 2 , Humans , Interferon-gamma , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880064


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the difference in the therapeutic effect of plasma exchange and continuous renal replacement therapy (PE+CRRT) combined with chemotherapy in the treatment of children with severe Epstein-Barr virus-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (EBV-HLH) and non-EBV-HLH.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 21 cases of all children with severe HLH treated by PE+CRRT combined with chemotherapy from January 2017 to January 2020 were collected and retrospectively analyzed. According to the presence of EBV infection, the children were divided into EBV@*RESULTS@#Among the 21 children, 14 were divided into the EBV@*CONCLUSION@#PE+CRRT combined with chemotherapy can reduce serum ferritin quickly, then improve organ function, and increase the overall survival rate of severe HLH, and it is a good effect on children with severe EBV-HLH and non-EBV-HLH.

Child , Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/complications , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Humans , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic , Plasma Exchange , Retrospective Studies
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880063


OBJECTIVE@#To present one patient initially diagnosed with dermatomyositis(DM) who was eventually revealed to be diffuse large B-cell lymphoma(DLBCL) complicated with hemophagocytic syndrome(HPS), and to improve the understanding of the disease.@*METHODS@#The clinical characteristics, diagnostic approach, treatment of the patient were retrospectively analyzed, and some related literatures were reviewed.@*RESULTS@#A 52-year-old female patient suffered from muscle weakness, elevated serum creatine kinase activity, electromyography changes and characteristic skin rashes and diagnosed as DM. The patient was treated with glucocorticoid therapy and the muscle strength, skin rashes, and creatine kinas index turns into remission. Subsequently, subcutaneous nodules appeared during treatment, and the patient was confirmed as DLBCL based on pathological biopsy; And the patient was considered HPS because of presenting with repeated fever, splenomegaly, cytopenias, hypofibrinogenemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperferritinemia, high levels of sCD25, low NK-cell activity and hemophagocytosis in bone marrow. But the patient refused chemotherapy, and only treated with "DXM+VP-16" to control hemophagocytic syndrome, and unfortunately died due to the disease progression.@*CONCLUSION@#Cutaneous involvement in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and hemophagocytic syndrome patients with first presentation of dermatomyositis is relatively rare. Malignacy screening should be performed as soon as possible after newly diagnosed DM, so that the patient can get early diagnosis and effective treatment to improve survival rate.

Dermatomyositis/complications , Etoposide , Female , Humans , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/diagnosis , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/complications , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1957-1962, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922231


OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the risk factors affecting prognosis of children with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH).@*METHODS@#The clinical manifestations and laboratory data of 143 HLH children who met the HLH-2004 diagnostic criteria in Shenzhen Children's Hospital from January 2009 to May 2017 were retrospectively analyzed, and the independent factors affecting prognosis were also analyzed.@*RESULTS@#The median age of 143 HLH children was 1.9 (0.1-14.3) years old, and the median follow-up time was 6.7 years (1 day - 11.9 years). The overall survival rate of 1 month, 1 year, and 10 years was (87.4±5.5)%, (81.1±6.5)%, and (81.1±6.5)%, respectively. The deaths occurred within 1 year after onset. Multivariate analysis showed that central nervous system (CNS) involvement (P=0.047), low hemoglobin (P=0.002), prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) (P<0.001), high triglyceride (P=0.005) were all the independent risk factors affecting survival of the children. Receiver operating characteristic curve indicated that APTT (AUC=0.753, P<0.001) was more valuable than other risk factors in predicting death of the children. The cut-off value of APTT was 56.6 s, and the sensitivity and specificity of which was 55.6% and 89.7%, respectively.@*CONCLUSION@#Hypohemoglobinemia, prolonged APTT, hypertriglyceridemia, and CNS involvement the risk factors affecting prognosis of HLH, and prolonged APTT shows a strong predictive value for death.

Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Survival Rate
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136755


ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the case of a child who presented hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) associated with acute monocytic leukemia after chemotherapy, with hemophagocytosis caused by leukemic cells. Case description: In a university hospital in Southern Brazil, a 3-year-old female was diagnosed with acute monocytic leukemia with normal karyotype. The chemotherapy regimen was initiated, and she achieved complete remission six months later, relapsing after four months with a complex karyotype involving chromosomes 8p and 16q. The bone marrow showed vacuolated blasts with a monocytic aspect and evidence of hemophagocytosis. The child presented progressive clinical deterioration and died two months after the relapse. Comments: HLH is a rare and aggressive inflammatory condition characterized by cytopenias, hepatosplenomegaly, fever, and hemophagocytosis in the bone marrow, lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. Although rare, malignancy-associated HLH (M-HLH) is fatal. The patient in this case report met five out of the eight established criteria for HLH. The evolution of the patient's karyotype, regardless of the diagnostic profile, seemed secondary to the treatment for acute monocytic leukemia. In this case, the cytogenetic instability might have influenced the abnormal behavior of leukemic cells. This is a rare case of HLH in a child with acute monocytic leukemia.

RESUMO Objetivo: Descrever um caso de um paciente pediátrico que apresentou linfo-histiocitose hemofagocítica (LHH) associada à leucemia monocítica aguda pós-quimioterapia, com hemofagocitose causada pelas próprias células leucêmicas. Descrição do caso: Em um hospital universitário do Sul do Brasil, uma menina de três anos foi diagnosticada com leucemia monocítica aguda com cariótipo normal. Após receber protocolo quimioterápico, atingiu remissão seis meses depois do início do tratamento, recaíndo quatro meses após com um cariótipo complexo envolvendo ambos os cromossomos, 8p e 16q. A medula óssea mostrava-se infiltrada por células blásticas vacuolizadas com aspecto monocítico, com evidências de hemofagocitose. A criança apresentou um declínio clínico progressivo e dois meses após a recaída foi a óbito. Comentários: A LHH é uma condição inflamatória rara e agressiva caracterizada por citopenias, hepatoesplenomegalia, febre e hemofagocitose na medula óssea, linfonodos, baço e fígado. A LHH associada a doenças malignas, embora seja uma condição rara, é potencialmente fatal. A paciente deste caso apresentou cinco dos oito critérios estabelecidos para o diagnóstico de LHH. A evolução do cariótipo do paciente, independentemente do perfil do diagnóstico, pareceu ser secundária ao tratamento da leucemia monocítica aguda, sendo que a instabilidade citogenética pode ter influenciado o comportamento atípico observado nas células leucêmicas. Este é um dos raros casos de LHH em uma criança com leucemia monocítica aguda.

Humans , Female , Child, Preschool , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/adverse effects , Leukemia, Monocytic, Acute/drug therapy , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/etiology , Brazil , Leukemia, Monocytic, Acute/diagnosis , Leukemia, Monocytic, Acute/genetics , Leukemia, Monocytic, Acute/pathology , Fatal Outcome , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/diagnosis , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/immunology , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/pathology