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2.
Med. infant ; 30(2): 114-121, Junio 2023. Ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1443459

ABSTRACT

Las Leucemias y linfomas constituyen las enfermedades oncológicas más frecuentes en pediatría y las bacteriemias representan infecciones graves en estos pacientes. Objetivos: describir los microorganismos aislados de sangre en pacientes con leucemia aguda o linfoma pediátrico; comparar la incidencia de aislamientos según enfermedad de base; detallar las variaciones en la incidencia de dichos aislamientos y la evolución de su resistencia antimicrobiana. Estudio retrospectivo, observacional. Se incluyeron 823 episodios de bacteriemia en 467 pacientes pediátricos, entre julio-2016 y junio-2022, dividido en tres períodos (período-1: años 2016- 2018, período-2: años 2018-2020, período-3: años 2020-2022). Se aislaron 880 microorganismos: 55,3% gram negativos (GN), 40% gram positivos (GP) y 4,7% levaduras. En GN predominaron: enterobacterias (72%) y en GP: estreptococos del grupo viridans (SGV) (34,1%). Se encontró asociación entre LLA-enterobacterias (p=0,009) y LMA-SGV (p<0,001). Hubo aumento de GN entre los períodos 1 y 3 (p=0,02) y 2 y 3 (p=0,002) y disminución de GP entre 2 y 3 (p=0,01). Se registraron los siguientes mecanismos de resistencia: BLEE (16,4%), carbapenemasas: KPC (2,5%); MBL (2,7%) y OXA (0,2%); meticilinorresistencia en Staphylococcus aureus (20%) y estafilococos coagulasa negativos (95%), vancomicina resistencia en Enterococcus spp. (39%), SGV no sensibles a penicilina (44%) y a cefotaxima (13%). Hubo aumento de MBL entre los períodos 1 y 2 (p=0,02) y una tendencia en disminución de sensibilidad a penicilina en SGV entre el 1 y 3 (p=0,058). El conocimiento dinámico y análisis de estos datos es esencial para generar estadísticas a nivel local, fundamentales para el diseño de guías de tratamientos empíricos (AU)


Leukemias and lymphomas are the most common cancers in children and bacteremia is a severe infection in these patients. Objectives: to describe the microorganisms isolated from blood in pediatric patients with acute leukemia or lymphoma; to compare the incidence of isolates according to the underlying disease; and to detail the variations in the incidence of these isolates and the evolution of their antimicrobial resistance. Retrospective, observational study. We included 823 episodes of bacteremia in 467 pediatric patients seen between July-2016 and June-2022, divided into three periods (period-1: 2016- 2018, period-2: 2018-2020, period-3: 2020-2022). A total of 880 microorganisms were isolated: 55.3% were gram-negative (GN), 40% gram-positive (GP) and 4.7% yeasts. In GN there was a predominance of: enterobacteria (72%) and in GP viridans group streptococci (VGS) (34.1%). An association was found between ALL-enterobacteria (p=0.009) and AML-VGS (p<0.001). There was an increase in GN between periods 1 and 3 (p=0.02) and 2 and 3 (p=0.002) and a decrease in GP between 2 and 3 (p=0.01). The following resistance mechanisms were recorded: BLEE (16.4%), carbapenemases: KPC (2.5%), MBL (2.7%), and OXA (0.2%); methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus (20%) and coagulase negative staphylococci (95%), vancomycin resistance in Enterococcus spp. (39%), VGS resistant to penicillin (44%) and to cefotaxime (13%). There was an increase in MBL between periods 1 and 2 (p=0.02) and a decreasing trend in penicillin sensitivity in VGS between periods 1 and 3 (p=0.058). Dynamic knowledge and analysis of these data is essential to generate statistics at the local level, which is fundamental for the design of empirical treatment guidelines (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/complications , Leukemia, Lymphoid/complications , Follow-Up Studies , Bacteremia/microbiology , Febrile Neutropenia/etiology , Lymphoma/complications , Acute Disease , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Anti-Infective Agents/adverse effects
3.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(2): e202202649, abr. 2023. ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1424954

ABSTRACT

El metotrexato es un fármaco análogo del ácido fólico ampliamente utilizado en el tratamiento de enfermedades autoinmunes, leucemias y linfomas. Su uso puede ocasionar la aparición de múltiples efectos adversos entre los que se encuentran aquellos relacionados con la presencia de toxicidad neurológica, que puede presentarse de forma aguda, subaguda o crónica. La neurotoxicidad subaguda es aquella que ocurre típicamente entre los 2 y los 14 días posteriores a la administración y puede manifestarse con una amplia gama de síntomas neurológicos. En la mayoría de los casos, no recurre con futuras exposiciones al medicamento. Presentamos tres casos de neurotoxicidad subaguda por metotrexato con manifestaciones clínicas diferentes en pacientes oncohematológicos que se internaron entre los años 2018 y 2020. Dos de ellos presentaron recurrencia frente a la nueva administración del fármaco y todos evidenciaron lesiones en resonancia magnética nuclear.


Methotrexate is a folic acid analogue widely used in the treatment of autoimmune diseases, leukemias, and lymphomas. Methotrexate use may cause multiple adverse effects, including those related to the presence of neurological toxicity, which may be acute, subacute, or chronic. Subacute neurotoxicity typically occurs between 2 and 14 days after administration and may present as a wide range of neurological symptoms. In most cases, it does not recur with future exposures to the drug. Here we describe 3 cases of subacute methotrexate neurotoxicity with different clinical manifestations in patients with oncohematological disease who were hospitalized between 2018 and 2020. Two of them showed recurrence with a new drug administration. Lesions were observed in the magnetic resonance imaging tests of all of them.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Adolescent , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/etiology , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/pathology , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/drug therapy , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/drug therapy , Lymphoma , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Methotrexate/adverse effects , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/adverse effects
4.
Arq. Ciênc. Vet. Zool. UNIPAR (Online) ; 26(1cont): 251-262, jan.-jun. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1443228

ABSTRACT

Os linfócitos são células de defesa do organismo que funcionam como barreira contra infecções e células cancerígenas, elas circulam pelo sistema linfático e estão presentes por todo o organismo do animal, podem se proliferar de forma maligna, caracterizando o linfoma. Acometem em sua maioria, cães de raças de grande porte, animais de meia idade e idosos. Sendo uma doença de etiologia desconhecida, vários fatores podem contribuir para sua evolução, como deficiências autoimunes, bem como hábitos alimentares ao longo da vida do animal, ou até por predisposição genética. O presente relato de caso, tem o objetivo de mostrar a evolução gradual da doença, quais sinais clínicos o animal poderá apresentar, e como os exames laboratoriais podem nos auxiliar em seu diagnóstico.(AU)


The lymphocytes are defense cells of the body that act as a barrier against infection and cancer cells, they circulate through the lymphatic system and are present throughout the animal's body, and can proliferate in a malignant way, characterizing the lymphoma. They mostly affect large breed dogs, middle-aged and elderly animals. Being a disease of unknown etiology, several factors may contribute to its evolution, such as autoimmune deficiencies, as well as food habits throughout the animal's life, or even genetic predisposition. The present case report has the objective of showing the gradual evolution of the disease, which clinical signs the animal may present, and how laboratory tests can help us in its diagnosis.(AU)


Los linfocitos son células de defensa del organismo que actúan como barrera contra infecciones y células cancerígenas, circulan por el sistema linfático y están presentes en todo el organismo del animal, pudiendo proliferar de forma maligna, caracterizando el linfoma. Afectan sobre todo a perros de razas grandes, animales de mediana edad y ancianos. Siendo una enfermedad de etiología desconocida, varios factores pueden contribuir a su evolución, como deficiencias autoinmunes, así como hábitos alimentarios a lo largo de la vida del animal, o incluso predisposición genética. El presente caso clínico tiene como objetivo mostrar la evolución gradual de la enfermedad, qué signos clínicos puede presentar el animal y cómo las pruebas de laboratorio pueden ayudarnos en su diagnóstico.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Lymphoma/diagnosis , Lymphoma/etiology , Lymphocytes/immunology
5.
Journal of the Philippine Medical Association ; : 29-32, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984459

ABSTRACT

@#Mycosis Fungoides is the most common type of primary cutaneous lymphoma. Early in its course, it usually presents as erythematous patches and plaques similar to a lot of cutaneous conditions. A 68-year-old male presented with a 13-year history of multiple erythematous patches and plaques on the arms and trunk. The lesions were pruritic and chronically relapsing over the years, temporarily relieved by topical corticosteroids. Thereafter, there was onset of multiple nodules on the trunk, extremities and face. Initial biopsy was done by a different dermatologist, revealed Hansen’s Disease, Borderline Borderline spectrum. Fitefaraco stain was positive but no bacillary index was given. The patient was subsequently started on rifamcpicin 600mg/capsule once a day, Ofloxacin 400mg/tablet once a day, and Minocycline 100mg/capsule once a day. The lesions were noted to worsen, eventually developing ulcerations over the trunk and extremities prompting referral to our institution. The biopsy results were as follows: Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma, diffuse cluster of differentiation (CD) 3 staining, focal CD20 staining, and negative FiteFaraco stain. The histopathologic findings combined with the clinical presentation led to the diagnosis of Mycosis Fungoides. He was then referred to medical oncology for proper staging and definitive management. The prognosisof Mycosis Fungoides is generally dependent on the stage as determined by the extent of skin involvement as well as presence of lymph node invasion and/or metastasis.


Subject(s)
Mycosis Fungoides , Lymphoma , T-Lymphocytes
6.
Philippine Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 24-28, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984320

ABSTRACT

@#Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a rare subtype of T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) primarily involving the lymph nodes; however, extra-nodal manifestations are also common. Diagnosis can be confirmed by a combination of histopathology and immunohistochemical staining. Complete workup and staging include imaging and bone marrow examination. This presents a case of a 55-year-old male with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) - negative ALCL presenting with an alar mass. ALCL patients often present with rapidly progressing lymphadenopathy. Extra-nodal manifestations commonly involve the skin, liver, lung, and gastrointestinal tract. Biopsy of the mass showed small to medium-sized anaplastic lymphoid cells that stained positive for CD30, LCA (CD45), CD99, and negative for CD20, ALK (CD246), neuron-specific enolase, CD34, CD5, PAX5, TdT, MPO, CD138, EMA, pancytokeratin, CD3 and synaptophysin. These findings were most compatible with an ALK-negative ALCL. The patient was started on a combination of brentuximab vedotin, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and prednisone (BV + CHP) every 21 days for 6 cycles. There was a progressive decrease in the size of the mass, and a resolution was noted after the 5th cycle. FDG-PET/CT scan was done after the 6th cycle of chemotherapy and 6 months after completion of treatment. Both scans showed no evidence of metabolically active nodal or extra-nodal lymphomatous disease. This case showed a unique extra-nodal manifestation of an ALK-negative ALCL presenting as an alar mass with a good response to BV + CHP. However, more evidence is necessary to further establish the role of BV as the first-line treatment regimen for CD30-positive peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL), including ALK-negative ALCL.


Subject(s)
Lymphoma , Lymphoma, Large-Cell, Anaplastic , Brentuximab Vedotin
7.
Rev. Bras. Cancerol. (Online) ; 69(1)jan.-mar. 2023.
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1512127

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Hematologic malignancies, including lymphomas and leukemias, may be treated with autologous or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. However, these approaches can increase the risk of infection, sepsis, graft-versus-host disease, and nephrotoxicity, possibly resulting in acute kidney injury (AKI). Objective: To evaluate AKI in patients with lymphomas or leukemia submitted to bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Method: Retrospective, observational cohort study of cases from a database of 256 patients (53.9% males) hospitalized for BMT between 2012 and 2014 at a cancer hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. Of these, 79 were selected randomly for analysis. Demographic data, length of hospitalization, and associated morbidities were recorded. AKI was identified according to Kidney Diseases Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria. Results: The most frequent diagnoses for the 79 cases were non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (30.4%), acute myeloid leukemia (26.6%), and Hodgkin's lymphoma (24.1%). The probability of 100 days-survival after BMT was 81%, and three years after BMT was 61%. In-hospital mortality was significantly higher among patients who presented AKI during hospitalization (p<0.001). However, there was no difference in overall life expectancy (p=0.770). Conclusion: A significant prevalence of AKI was found in patients with leukemia or lymphoma while they were hospitalized for BMT, resulting in significantly increased rates of in-hospital mortality. The presence of AKI during hospitalization was not associated with a subsequent reduction in life expectancy.


Introdução: As neoplasias hematológicas, incluindo linfomas e leucemias, podem ser tratadas com transplante autólogo ou halogênico de medula óssea. No entanto, essas abordagens podem aumentar o risco de infecção, sepse, doença do enxerto contra o hospedeiro e nefrotoxicidade, possivelmente resultando em lesão renal aguda (LRA). Objetivo: Avaliar LRA em pacientes com linfomas ou leucemia submetidos a transplante de medula óssea (TMO). Método: Estudo de coorte observacional retrospectivo de casos de um banco de dados de 256 pacientes (53,9% do sexo masculino) internados por TMO entre 2012 e 2014 em um hospital oncológico de São Paulo, Brasil. Destes, 79 prontuários foram selecionados aleatoriamente para análise. Dados demográficos, tempo de internação e morbidades associadas foram registrados. A LRA foi identificada de acordo com os critérios de Kidney Diseases Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO). Resultados: Os diagnósticos mais frequentes da amostra de 79 casos foram linfoma não Hodgkin (30,4%), leucemia mieloide aguda (26,6%) e linfoma de Hodgkin (24,1%). A probabilidade de sobrevivência em 100 dias após o TMO foi de 81% e, em três anos após o TMO, foi de 61%. A mortalidade intra-hospitalar foi significativamente maior entre os pacientes que apresentaram LRA durante a internação (p<0,001). No entanto, não houve diferença na expectativa de vida geral (p=0,770). Conclusão: Neste estudo, observou-se prevalência significativa de LRA em pacientes com leucemia ou linfoma durante a internação por TMO, resultando em aumento significativo das taxas de mortalidade intra-hospitalar. A presença de LRA durante a hospitalização não se associou a uma subsequente redução da expectativa de vida


Introducción: Las neoplasias malignas hematológicas, incluidos los linfomas y las leucemias, pueden tratarse con trasplante autólogo o alogénico de médula ósea. Sin embargo, estos enfoques pueden aumentar el riesgo de infección, sepsis, enfermedad de injerto contra huésped y nefrotoxicidad, lo que posiblemente provoque lesión renal aguda (IRA). Objetivo: Evaluar el FRA en pacientes con linfomas o leucemias sometidos a trasplante de médula ósea (TMO). Método: Se realizó un estudio de cohorte observacional retrospectivo de casos de una base de datos de 256 pacientes (53,9% hombres) hospitalizados por TMO entre 2012 y 2014 en un hospital de cáncer en São Paulo, Brasil. De estos, 79 registros fueron seleccionados aleatoriamente para su análisis. Se registraron los datos demográficos, la duración de la hospitalización y las morbilidades asociadas. La IRA se identificó según los criterios de Kidney Diseases Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO). Resultados: Los diagnósticos más frecuentes en la muestra de 79 casos fueron linfoma no Hodgkin (30,4%), leucemia mieloide aguda (26,6%) y linfoma de Hodgkin (24,1%). La probabilidad de supervivencia 100 días después del BMT fue del 81% y tres años después del BMT fue del 61%. La mortalidad hospitalaria fue significativamente mayor entre los pacientes que presentaron FRA durante la hospitalización (p<0,001). Sin embargo, no hubo diferencia en la esperanza de vida global (p=0,770). Conclusión: En este estudio, se observó una prevalencia significativa de LRA en pacientes con leucemia o linfoma mientras estaban hospitalizados por TMO, lo que resultó en un aumento significativo de las tasas de mortalidad hospitalaria. La presencia de FRA durante la hospitalización no se asoció con una reducción posterior de la esperanza de vida.


Subject(s)
Leukemia , Bone Marrow Transplantation , Acute Kidney Injury , Lymphoma
8.
Rev. Bras. Cancerol. (Online) ; 69(3)jul-set. 2023.
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1512597

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) is the most common cancer type in children and accounts for 80% of pediatric leukemias. Novel targets are necessary to improve survival rates for refractory and relapsed disease. There is accumulating evidence that Toll-like Receptor (TLR) signaling may be associated with outcomes in cancer however little has been described in leukemias. Objective: Analyze the expression and contribution of TLRs to the development of childhood ALL. Method: To evaluate the effect of specific TLR2, TLR3, and TLR4 agonists on the viability and proliferation of childhood ALL cell lines and to analyzed the mRNA expression of these types of TLR in bone marrow blast cells at diagnosis (D0) and induction (D35) in pediatric ALL patients. Results: Treatment with TLR agonists reduced the cell viability of Jurkat and Sup-B15 cell lines. Cell cycle distribution in Jurkat was altered, reducing polyploid cells and increasing sub-G1 phase. Conclusion: It was observed that the cell viability of the cell lines responded with different sensitivities to the agonists. The polyploidy associated with tumor malignancy was reduced, in addition to the increase in the sub-G1 phase indicating an increase in apoptosis. There were differences in TLR expression at D35 between groups at risk of the disease. Patients with high expression of TLR2 and low expression of TLR4 on D35 demonstrated a worse prognosis


Introdução: A leucemia linfoblástica aguda (LLA) é o tipo de câncer mais comum em crianças e representa 80% das leucemias pediátricas. Novos alvos são necessários para melhorar as taxas de sobrevivência para doença refratária e recidivante. Há evidências acumuladas de que a sinalização de receptores Toll-Like (TLR) pode estar associada a resultados em câncer, embora pouco tenha sido descrito em leucemias. Objetivo: Analisar a expressão e a contribuição dos TLR para o desenvolvimento da LLA infantil. Método: Avaliar o efeito de agonistas específicos de TLR2, TLR3 e TLR4 na viabilidade e proliferação de linhagens celulares de LLA infantil e analisar a expressão do RNAm desses tipos de TLR em células blásticas da medula óssea no diagnóstico (D0) e na indução (D35) em pacientes LLA pediátricos. Resultados: O tratamento com agonistas de TLR reduziu a viabilidade celular das linhagens celulares Jurkat e Sup-B15. A distribuição do ciclo celular em Jurkat foi alterada, reduzindo as células poliploides e aumentando a fase sub-G1. Houve aumento na expressão dos receptores entre D0 e D35 em amostras de pacientes. Conclusão: Observou-se que a viabilidade celular das linhagens celulares respondeu com diferentes sensibilidades aos agonistas. A poliploidia associada à malignidade tumoral foi reduzida, além de o aumento da fase sub-G1 indicar aumento da apoptose. Houve diferenças na expressão de TLR em D35 entre os grupos de risco da doença. Pacientes com alta expressão de TLR2 e baixa expressão de TLR4 no D35 demonstraram pior prognóstico.


Introducción: La leucemia linfocítica aguda (LLA) es el tipo de cáncer más común en los niños y representa el 80 % de las leucemias pediátricas. Se necesitan nuevos objetivos para mejorar las tasas de supervivencia de la enfermedad refractaria y recidivante. Cada vez hay más pruebas de que la señalización del receptor Toll-Like (TLR) puede estar asociada con resultados en el cáncer, aunque se ha descrito poco en las leucemias. Objetivo: Analizar la expresión y la contribución de los TLR al desarrollo de la LLA infantil. Método: Evaluar el efecto de agonistas específicos de TLR2, TLR3 y TLR4 en la viabilidad y proliferación de líneas celulares de LLA infantil y analizar la expresión de ARNm de estos tipos de TLR en células blásticas de médula ósea en el momento del diagnóstico (D0) y la inducción (D35) en pacientes pediátricos con LLA. Resultados: El tratamiento con agonistas de TLR redujo la viabilidad celular de las líneas celulares Jurkat y sup-B15. Se alteró la distribución del ciclo celular en Jurkat, reduciendo las células poliploides y aumentando la fase sub-G1. Hubo un aumento en la expresión de los receptores entre D0 y D35 en muestras de pacientes. Conclusión: Se observó que la viabilidad celular de las líneas celulares respondía con distintas sensibilidades a los agonistas. Se redujo la poliploidía asociada con la malignidad del tumor, además de un aumento de la fase sub-G1 que indica un aumento de la apoptosis. Hubo diferencias en la expresión de TLR en D35 entre los grupos de riesgo de enfermedad. Los pacientes con alta expresión de TLR2 y baja expresión de TLR4 en D35 mostraron peor pronóstico


Subject(s)
Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Toll-Like Receptors , Lymphoma
9.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 130-134, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971114

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the diagnostic value of the expression levels of cytokines interleukin-6(IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10) and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand-13 (CXCL-13) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for central nervous system infiltration of lymphoma.@*METHODS@#Forty patients diagnosed as lymphoma or acute lymphoblastic leukemia in General Hospital of Northern Theater Command from July 2020 to July 2021 were collected and recorded their CSF indexes, including pressure, protein, Pandy test, nucleated cell count, glucose and chlorine content in CSF. The levels of cytokines IL-6, IL-10 and CXCL-13 were detected by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.@*RESULTS@#The patients were divided into CNSI (central nervous system infiltration) group and non-CNSI group, the average levels of IL-6, IL-10, CXCL-13 and IL-10/IL-6 ratio in CNSI group were higher than those in non-CNS group, but the difference of IL-10/IL-6 ratio between the two groups was statistically significant (P<0.05). Then the patients were divided into protein elevated(n=14) group and protein normal group(n=26), the levels of IL-6 [ (5.78±2.69) pg/ ml] and CXCL-13 [(0.83±0.59) pg/ml] in protein elevated group were significantly higher than those in the protein normal group [IL-6: (2.41±1.16) pg/ml; CXCL-13: (0.38±0.18) pg/ml] (P<0.05). Further analysis of the expression levels of the cytokines in non-CNSI group (n=32), IL-6, IL-10, CXCL-13 level and IL-10/IL-6 ratio in the protein elevated group (n=12) were higher than those in the protein normal group (n=20), but the difference was not statistically significant.@*CONCLUSION@#The levels of IL-6, IL-10 and CXCL-13 in CSF of lymphoma patients with CNS infiltration were higher than those in non-CNS infiltration group, and those in patients with protein elevated group are higher than those in the protein normal group.


Subject(s)
Humans , Central Nervous System , Cytokines , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-6 , Lymphoma
10.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 125-129, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971113

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the in vivo intervention and relative mechanism of Genistein (GEN) on tumor-associated inflammatory and tumor thrombophilia in lymphoma-bearing mice.@*METHODS@#Forty female Balb/c mice aged 5-6 weeks were injected with murine-derived Pro B-cell lymphoma cell line 38B9 to establish a lymphoma mouse model, which was randomly divided into control group, tumor-bearing group, GEN drug intervention group and cyclophosphamide (CTX)drug intervention group. Histopathologic was used to evaluate the tumorigenesis. Tumor formation was observed, and tumor tissues were collected of HE and immunohistochemical staining. ELISA and flow cytometry were used to detect the expression of inflammatory factors and the changes of thrombus indices in plasma after intervention of GEN and Cyclophosphamide (CTX) respectively. Immunohistochemistry method was used to detect the expression of CD19 in tomor tissues of tummor bearing mice.@*RESULTS@#After 14 days of tumor bearing, the mice were tumorigenic. The lymphoma cells were diffusely distributed in the tumor tissue and the expression of CD19 in the tumor tissue was positive. The inflammatory factors such as IL-6, NETs and CLEC-2, and thrombotic indices such as TF, FIB and D-D in lymphoma-bearing mice were significantly higher than those before tumor-injection and lower than those after drug-intervention (all P<0.05). The levels of CLEC-2 and D-D in GEN group were significantly lower than those in CTX group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Tumor-associated inflammation and thrombophilia exist in lymphoma-bearing mice. GEN shows better anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic effects compared with CTX by interfering with tumor inflammatory factors.


Subject(s)
Mice , Female , Animals , Genistein , Lymphoma , Cyclophosphamide , Thrombophilia , Inflammation , Lectins, C-Type
11.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 104-108, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971109

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the gene polymorphisms of patients with lymphoma-associated hemophagocytic syndrome in Longyan area, Fujian province.@*METHODS@#A total of 125 patients with lymphoma-associated hemophagocytic syndrome in Longyan, Fujian province, admitted to Longyan First Hospital from May 2017 to November 2020 were selected. Peripheral venous blood was collected from all the patients, and the genotypes of perforin 1 (PRF1) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) gene loci were detected by PCR-fluorescence probe method, and the correlation between PRF1 and IL-10 gene polymorphisms and lymphoma-associated hemophagocytic syndrome was analyzed.@*RESULTS@#The mutation frequencies of PRF1 gene loci rs885821 (C>T), rs885822 (C>T), rs1889490 (G>A) in patients with lymphoma-associated hemophagocytic syndrome were 10.40%, 78.8% and 64.4%, respectively. The mutation frequencies of rs1800872 (A>C), rs1800871 (C>T) and rs1800896 (G>A) of IL-10 loci were 56.0%, 45.2% and 77.6%, respectively.@*CONCLUSION@#PRF1 and IL-10 gene loci were polymorphic in patients with lymphoma-associated hemophagocytic syndrome in Longyan area, Fujian province. Alleles C and G of PRF1 and IL-10 were risk factors, and alleles T and A were protective factors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Genotype , Interleukin-10/genetics , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/genetics , Lymphoma/genetics , Perforin/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic
12.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 89-95, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971107

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of lncRNA HOTAIR on the proliferation, invasion and migration of lymphoma cells through target gene miR-20a-5p and its molecular mechanism.@*METHODS@#After synthesizing HOTAIR siRNA and siRNA NC plasmids, they were transfected into lymphoma Raji cells, respectively. The expression of HOTAIR mRNA was detected by RT-qPCR. The proliferation, invasion and migration of lymphoma Raji cells were detected by CCK-8 assay, Transwell assay and cell scratch healing assay, respectively. The target gene of lncRNA HOTAIR was predicted by miRcode software, and the relationship between HOTAIR and target gene was analyzed by dual luciferase assay. After synthesis of miR-20a-5p inhibitor and inhibitor NC, Raji cells were transiently transfected. The expression of miR-20a-5p was detected by RT-qPCR, and the effects of down-regulation of miR-20a-5p on the proliferation, invasion and migration of Raji cells were analyzed. The overexpression plasmid of lncRNA HOTAIR and miR-20a-5p mimics were transfected into Raji cells simultaneously to analyze the proliferation, invasion and migration ability of Raji cells. After overexpression or down-regulation of miR-20a-5p, the expression of JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway related proteins was analyzed.@*RESULTS@#HOTAIR expression in Raji cells was decreased after transfection of HOTAIR siRNA (P<0.01), and miR-20a-5p expression was also decreased after transfection of miR-20a-5p inhibitor (P<0.01). HOTAIR had a targeting and negative regulation relationship with miR-20a-5p (r=-0.826). Silencing HOTAIR promoted the expression of miR-20a-5p and inhibited the proliferation, invasion and migration of Raji cells. Down-regulation of miR-20a-5p expression promoted the proliferation, invasion and migration of Raji cells. Effect of HOTAIR overexpression on the proliferation, invasion and migration of Raji cells could be reversed by up-regulation of miR-20a-5p. Down-regulation of miR-20a-5p expression activated the intracellular JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway.@*CONCLUSION@#HOTAIR affects the proliferation, invasion and migration of lymphoma cells by targeting miR-20a-5p, and its mechanism may be related to the activation of JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement/genetics , Cell Proliferation , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Lymphoma , MicroRNAs/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , RNA, Small Interfering
13.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1188-1197, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980904

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Pneumonia-like primary pulmonary lymphoma (PPL) was commonly misdiagnosed as infectious pneumonia, leading to delayed treatment. The purpose of this study was to establish a computed tomography (CT)-based radiomics model to differentiate pneumonia-like PPL from infectious pneumonia.@*METHODS@#In this retrospective study, 79 patients with pneumonia-like PPL and 176 patients with infectious pneumonia from 12 medical centers were enrolled. Patients from center 1 to center 7 were assigned to the training or validation cohort, and the remaining patients from other centers were used as the external test cohort. Radiomics features were extracted from CT images. A three-step procedure was applied for radiomics feature selection and radiomics signature building, including the inter- and intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs), a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO). Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify the significant clinicoradiological variables and construct a clinical factor model. Two radiologists reviewed the CT images for the external test set. Performance of the radiomics model, clinical factor model, and each radiologist were assessed by receiver operating characteristic, and area under the curve (AUC) was compared.@*RESULTS@#A total of 144 patients (44 with pneumonia-like PPL and 100 infectious pneumonia) were in the training cohort, 38 patients (12 with pneumonia-like PPL and 26 infectious pneumonia) were in the validation cohort, and 73 patients (23 with pneumonia-like PPL and 50 infectious pneumonia) were in the external test cohort. Twenty-three radiomics features were selected to build the radiomics model, which yielded AUCs of 0.95 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.94-0.99), 0.93 (95% CI: 0.85-0.98), and 0.94 (95% CI: 0.87-0.99) in the training, validation, and external test cohort, respectively. The AUCs for the two readers and clinical factor model were 0.74 (95% CI: 0.63-0.83), 0.72 (95% CI: 0.62-0.82), and 0.73 (95% CI: 0.62-0.84) in the external test cohort, respectively. The radiomics model outperformed both the readers' interpretation and clinical factor model ( P <0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The CT-based radiomics model may provide an effective and non-invasive tool to differentiate pneumonia-like PPL from infectious pneumonia, which might provide assistance for clinicians in tailoring precise therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Retrospective Studies , Pneumonia/diagnostic imaging , Analysis of Variance , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Lymphoma/diagnostic imaging
14.
The Philippine Children&rsquo ; s Medical Center Journal;(2): 14-26, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980668

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#The Cancer and Hematology Division of the PCMC receives an average of 24 cases of pediatric intrathoracic masses annually. Comprehensive data on the demographic status, clinical profile, management, and outcome are still not available. This study aims to determine the clinical features, diagnosis, management and outcome of children and adolescents with intrathoracic masses from 2017 to 2019.@*MATERIALS AND METHODS@#Descriptive study design was utilized. Data were collected by doing a chart review. Possible associations between the clinical features and outcome were described.@*RESULTS@#Sixty-eight (68) cases were referred from January 2017 to December 2019. Mean age at diagnosis is 8.8 years with a 2.4:1 male to female ratio. Severe wasting was seen in 21%. All subjects were symptomatic at presentation, 50% with respiratory compromise. Anterior mediastinal lesions are observed at 82% of cases. Elevated LDH was seen in 50% of the patients. Malignant hematologic lesions are the most common etiology. Steroid pretreatment was given in 40% of patients. Only a small percentage (<20%) underwent definitive treatment. Patients were symptomatic for 18 days on average before consult. It took an average of 18 days for a case to be diagnosed definitively, and 10 days from the diagnosis to start of directed treatment. Mortality rate was high at 57.4%@*CONCLUSION@#Patients with intrathoracic mass and malnutrition are 1.4x more likely to die. Diagnosis is the most significant factor associated with death. Observed data can be used as basis to formulate protocols which can streamline the diagnostic and therapeutic approach in these patients.


Subject(s)
Leukemia , Lymphoma
15.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 467-474, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986815

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of patients with small bowel tumors. Methods: This was a retrospective, observational study. We collected clinicopathological data of patients with primary jejunal or ileal tumors who had undergone small bowel resection in the Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University between January 2012 and September 2017. The inclusion criteria included: (1) older than 18 years; (2) had undergone small bowel resection; (3) primary location at jejunum or ileum; (4) postoperative pathological examination confirmed malignancy or malignant potential; and (5) complete clinicopathological and follow-up data. Patients with a history of previous or other concomitant malignancies and those who had undergone exploratory laparotomy with biopsy but no resection were excluded. The clinicopathological characteristics and prognoses of included patients were analyzed. Results: The study cohort comprised 220 patients with small bowel tumors, 136 of which were classified as gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), 47 as adenocarcinomas, and 35 as lymphomas. The median follow-up for all patient was 81.0 months (75.9-86.1). GISTs frequently manifested as gastrointestinal bleeding (61.0%, 83/136) and abdominal pain (38.2%, 52/136). In the patients with GISTs, the rates of lymph node and distant metastasis were 0.7% (1/136) and 11.8% (16/136), respectively. The median follow-up time was 81.0 (75.9-86.1) months. The 3-year overall survival (OS) rate was 96.3%. Multivariate Cox regression-analysis results showed that distant metastasis was the only factor associated with OS of patients with GISTs (HR=23.639, 95% CI: 4.564-122.430, P<0.001). The main clinical manifestations of small bowel adenocarcinoma were abdominal pain (85.1%, 40/47), constipation/diarrhea (61.7%, 29/47), and weight loss (61.7%, 29/47). Rates of lymph node and distant metastasis in patients with small bowel adenocarcinoma were 53.2% (25/47) and 23.4% (11/47), respectively. The 3-year OS rate of patients with small bowel adenocarcinoma was 44.7%. Multivariate Cox regression-analysis results showed that distant metastasis (HR=4.018, 95%CI: 2.108-10.331, P<0.001) and adjuvant chemotherapy (HR=0.291, 95% CI: 0.140-0.609, P=0.001) were independently associated with OS of patients with small bowel adenocarcinoma. Small bowel lymphoma frequently manifested as abdominal pain (68.6%, 24/35) and constipation/diarrhea (31.4%, 11/35); 77.1% (27/35) of small bowel lymphomas were of B-cell origin. The 3-year OS rate of patients with small bowel lymphomas was 60.0%. T/NK cell lymphomas (HR= 6.598, 95% CI: 2.172-20.041, P<0.001) and adjuvant chemotherapy (HR=0.119, 95% CI: 0.015-0.925, P=0.042) were independently associated with OS of patients with small bowel lymphoma. Small bowel GISTs have a better prognosis than small intestinal adenocarcinomas (P<0.001) or lymphomas (P<0.001), and small bowel lymphomas have a better prognosis than small bowel adenocarcinomas (P=0.035). Conclusions: The clinical manifestations of small intestinal tumor are non-specific. Small bowel GISTs are relatively indolent and have a good prognosis, whereas adenocarcinomas and lymphomas (especially T/NK-cell lymphomas) are highly malignant and have a poor prognosis. Adjuvant chemotherapy would likely improve the prognosis of patients with small bowel adenocarcinomas or lymphomas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Prognosis , Intestinal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Duodenal Neoplasms , Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors , Lymphoma , Adenocarcinoma/surgery , Constipation , Abdominal Pain , Retrospective Studies
16.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 112-117, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969685

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the advantages and safety of Plerixafor in combination with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in autologous hematopoietic stem cell mobilization of lymphoma. Methods: Lymphoma patients who received autologous hematopoietic stem cell mobilization with Plerixafor in combination with G-CSF or G-CSF alone were obtained. The clinical data, the success rate of stem cell collection, hematopoietic reconstitution, and treatment-related adverse reactions between the two groups were evaluated retrospectively. Results: A total of 184 lymphoma patients were included in this analysis, including 115 cases of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (62.5%) , 16 cases of classical Hodgkin's lymphoma (8.7%) , 11 cases of follicular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (6.0%) , 10 cases of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (5.4%) , 6 cases of mantle cell lymphoma (3.3%) , and 6 cases of anaplastic large cell lymphoma (3.3%) , 6 cases of NK/T-cell lymphoma (3.3%) , 4 cases of Burkitt's lymphoma (2.2%) , 8 cases of other types of B-cell lymphoma (4.3%) , and 2 cases of other types of T-cell lymphoma (1.1%) ; 31 patients had received radiotherapy (16.8%) . The patients in the two groups were recruited with Plerixafor in combination with G-CSF or G-CSF alone. The baseline clinical characteristics of the two groups were basically similar. The patients in the Plerixafor in combination with the G-CSF mobilization group were older, and the number of recurrences and third-line chemotherapy was higher. 100 patients were mobilized with G-CSF alone. The success rate of the collection was 74.0% for one day and 89.0% for two days. 84 patients in the group of Plerixafor combined with G-CSF were recruited successfully with 85.7% for one day and 97.6% for two days. The success rate of mobilization in the group of Plerixafor combined with G-CSF was substantially higher than that in the group of G-CSF alone (P=0.023) . The median number of CD34(+) cells obtained in the mobilization group of Plerixafor combined with G-CSF was 3.9×10(6)/kg. The median number of CD34(+) cells obtained in the G-CSF Mobilization group alone was 3.2×10(6)/kg. The number of CD34(+) cells collected by Plerixafor combined with G-CSF was considerably higher than that in G-CSF alone (P=0.001) . The prevalent adverse reactions in the group of Plerixafor combined with G-CSF were grade 1-2 gastrointestinal reactions (31.2%) and local skin redness (2.4%) . Conclusion: The success rate of autologous hematopoietic stem cell mobilization in lymphoma patients treated with Plerixafor combined with G-CSF is significantly high. The success rate of collection and the absolute count of CD34(+) stem cells were substantially higher than those in the group treated with G-CSF alone. Even in older patients, second-line collection, recurrence, or multiple chemotherapies, the combined mobilization method also has a high success rate of mobilization.


Subject(s)
Humans , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor/therapeutic use , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Mobilization/methods , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Heterocyclic Compounds/adverse effects , Lymphoma/drug therapy , Lymphoma, T-Cell/therapy , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Transplantation, Autologous
17.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 499-506, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982407

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze recurrence and progression patterns of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) in patients without whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) and assess the value of WBRT in PCNSL treatment.@*METHODS@#This retrospective single-center study included 27 patients with PCNSL, who experienced recurrence/progression after achieving complete remission (CR), partial remission, or stable disease following initial treatments with chemotherapy but without WBRT. The patients were followed up regularly after the treatment for treatment efficacy assessment. By comparing the anatomical location of the lesions on magnetic resonance images (MRI) at the initial diagnosis and at recurrence/progression, we analyzed the patterns of relapse/progression in patients with different treatment responses and different initial status of the lesions.@*RESULTS@#MRI data showed that in 16 (59.26%) of the 27 patients, recurrence/progression occurred in out-field area (outside the simulated clinical target volume [CTV]) but within the simulated WBRT target area in 16 (59.26%) patients, and within the CTV (in-field) in 11 (40.74%) patients. None of the patients had extracranial recurrence of the tumor. Of the 11 patients who achieved CR after the initial treatments, 9 (81.82%) had PCNSL recurrences in the out-field area but within WBRT target area; of the 13 patients with a single lesion at the initial treatment, 11 (84.62%) experienced PCNSL recurrence in the out-field area but within WBRT target area.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Systemic therapy combined with WBRT still remains the standard treatment for PCNSL patients, especially those who achieve CR after treatment or have a single initial lesion. Future prospective studies with larger sample sizes are needed to further explore the role of low-dose WBRT in PCNSL treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lymphoma/radiotherapy , Central Nervous System Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Prospective Studies , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/drug therapy , Combined Modality Therapy , Brain/pathology , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Methotrexate
18.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 746-752, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982125

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the role of a new blood-based, multiomics and multidimensional method for evaluating the efficacy of patients with lymphoma.@*METHODS@#10 ml peripheral blood was extracted from each patient, and the genomic copy number aberrations (CNA) and fragment size (FS) were evaluated by low-depth whole genome sequencing of cfDNA, and the level of a group of plasma tumor marker (PTM) were detected at the same time. The cancer efficacy score (CES) was obtained by standardized transformation of the value of above three numerical indexes, and the changes of CES before and after treatment were compared to evaluate the patient's response to the treatment regimen.@*RESULTS@#A total of 35 patients' baseline data were collected, of which 23 cases (65.7%) had elevated CES values. 18 patients underwent the first time test. The results showed that the CES value of 9 patients with positive baseline CES decreased significantly at the first test, and the efficacy evaluation was PR, which was highly consistent with the imaging evaluation results of the same period. At the same time, the CNA variation spectrum of all patients were evaluated and it was found that 23 patients had partial amplification or deletion of chromosome fragments. The most common amplification site was 8q24.21, which contains important oncogenes such as MYC. The most common deletion sites were 1p36.32, 4q21.23, 6q21, 6q27, 14q32.33, and tumor suppressor-related genes such as PRDM1, ATG5, AIM1, FOXO3 and HACE1 were expressed in the above regions, so these deletions may be related to the occurrence and development of lymphoma.@*CONCLUSION@#With the advantages of more convenience, sensitivity and non-invasive, this multiomics and multidimensional efficacy detection method can evaluate the tumor load of patients with lymphoma at the molecular level, and make more accurate efficacy evaluation, which is expected to serve the clinic better.


Subject(s)
Humans , Multiomics , Lymphoma/genetics , Cell-Free Nucleic Acids , Genomics/methods , DNA Copy Number Variations , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases
19.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 699-706, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982119

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the mechanism of nucleolin (NCL) involved in lymphoma proliferation by regulating thymidine kinase 1 (TK1).@*METHODS@#Twenty-three patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) were selected and divided into initial treatment group (14 cases) and relapsed/refractory group (9 cases). Serum TK1 and C23 protein in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were detected. Cell models of CA46-NCL-KD (CA46-NCL-knockdown) and CA46-NCL-KNC (CA46-NCL-knockdown negative control) were established by lentivirus vector mediated transfection in Burkitt lymphoma cell line CA46. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of CA46-NCL-KD, CA46-NCL-KNC, and CA46 to adriamycin were detected by cell proliferation assay (MTS). The expression of NCL mRNA and protein in CA46-NCL-KD and CA46-NCL-KNC cells were dectected by Q-PCR and Western blot, respectively. The cell cycle of CA46-NCL-KD, CA46-NCL-KNC, and CA46 cells were detected by flow cytometry. The expression of TK1 protein in CA46-NCL-KD and CA46-NCL-KNC cells was detected by an enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL) dot blot assay.@*RESULTS@#The level of serum TK1 in the initial treatment group was 0.43(0-30-1.01) pmol/L, which was lower than 10.56(2.19-14.99) pmol/L in the relapsed/refractory group (P<0-01), and the relative expression level of NCL protein in peripheral blood was also significantly lower. The IC50 of CA46-C23-KD cells to adriamycin was (0.147±0.02) μg/ml, which was significantly lower than (0.301±0.04) μg/ml of CA46-C23-KNC cells and (0.338±0.05) μg/ml of CA46 cells (P<0.05). Compared with CA46-NCL-KNC cells, the expression of NCL mRNA and protein, TK1 protein decreased in CA46-NCL-KD cells, and the proportion of S phase and G2/M phase also decreased, while G0/G1 phase increased in cell cycle.@*CONCLUSION@#The increased expression of NCL in DLBCL and CA46 cells indicates low sensitivity to drug. NCL may participate in regulation of lymphoma proliferation by affecting TK1 expression, thereby affecting the drug sensitivity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Apoptosis , Cell Line, Tumor , Lymphoma , Thymidine Kinase/pharmacology , Doxorubicin/pharmacology , Cell Division , RNA, Messenger/genetics
20.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 389-395, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982071

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the risk and location of multiple malignancies in patients with hematologic malignancies who were followed up for 9 years in Jiangsu Province Hospital and to evaluate the impact of the second primary malignancy on survival of patients.@*METHODS@#The incidence and survival of multiple malignancies in 7 921 patients with hematologic malignancies from 2009 to 2017 were analyzed retrospectively.@*RESULTS@#A total of 180 (2.3%, 180/7 921) patients developed second malignancy, of whom 58 patients were diagnosed with hematologic malignancies as the first primary malignancy, and 98 patients developed hematologic malignancies as second primary malignancy, and the other 24 cases were diagnosed with the second malignancy within 6 months after the first primary malignancy was diagnosed, which was difined as multiple malignancies occurring simultaneously. In 180 patients, 18 cases developed two hematologic malignancies successively, and 11 patients developed more than 3 primary cancers (among them, 2 female patients were diagnosed with 4 primary cancers). Patients with lymphoma and multiple myeloma (MM) as the second primary malignancy had poorer survival than patients with lymphoma and MM as the first primary malignancy. Patients with chronic myeloid leukemia as the second primary malignancy were also associated with inferior overall survival.@*CONCLUSION@#In this study, 2.3% of hematologic malignancy patients had multiple mali-gnancies, lymphoma and MM as the second primary malignancy had poor survival.


Subject(s)
Humans , East Asian People , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Lymphoma/complications , Multiple Myeloma/complications , Neoplasms, Second Primary , Retrospective Studies , Survival Analysis
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