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1.
J. bras. pneumol ; 47(2): e20200055, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1180801

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Evaluation of enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes is crucial for patient management. Malignant lymphoma and sarcoidosis are often difficult to differentiate. Our objective was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of MRI for differentiating between sarcoidosis and malignant lymphoma. Methods: This was a retrospective study involving 47 patients who underwent chest MRI and were diagnosed with one of the diseases between 2017 and 2019. T1, T2, and diffusion-weighted signal intensity were measured. Apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) and T2 ratios were calculated. The diagnostic performance of MRI was determined by ROC analysis. Results: Mean T2 ratio was significantly lower in the sarcoidosis group than in the lymphoma group (p = 0.009). The T2-ratio cutoff value that best differentiated between lymphoma-related and sarcoidosis-related enlarged lymph nodes was 7.1, with a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of 58.3%, 95.6%, 76.5%, 93.3%, and 68.7%, respectively. The mean ADC was significantly lower in the lymphoma group than in the sarcoidosis group (p = 0.002). The ADC cutoff value that best differentiated between lymphoma-related and sarcoidosis-related enlarged lymph nodes was 1.205, with a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of 87.5%, 82.6%, 85.1%, 84.0% and 86.3%, respectively. No significant differences were found between the two groups regarding T1 signal intensity, T2 signal intensity, and lymph node diameter. Conclusions: MRI parameters such as ADC, diffusion, and T2 ratio can be useful in the differentiation between sarcoidosis and lymphoma in the evaluation of enlarged lymph nodes.


RESUMO Objetivo: A avaliação de linfonodomegalias mediastinais é crucial para o manejo dos pacientes. O linfoma maligno e a sarcoidose costumam ser difíceis de diferenciar. Nosso objetivo foi determinar a precisão diagnóstica da RMN para diferenciar sarcoidose de linfoma maligno. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo com 47 pacientes submetidos a RMN de tórax e diagnosticados com uma das doenças entre 2017 e 2019. Foi medida a intensidade do sinal em T1, T2 e difusão. Foram calculados o coeficiente de difusão aparente (ADC, do inglês apparent diffusion coefficient) e a razão T2. O desempenho diagnóstico da RMN foi determinado pela análise da curva ROC. Resultados: A média da razão T2 foi significativamente menor no grupo sarcoidose que no grupo linfoma (p = 0,009). A razão T2 = 7,1 foi o melhor valor de corte para diferenciar linfonodomegalias relacionadas com linfoma daquelas relacionadas com sarcoidose, com sensibilidade, especificidade, valor preditivo positivo, valor preditivo negativo e precisão de 58,3%, 95,6%, 76,5%, 93,3% e 68,7%, respectivamente. A média do ADC foi significativamente menor no grupo linfoma que no grupo sarcoidose (p = 0,002). O ADC = 1,205 foi o melhor valor de corte para diferenciar linfonodomegalias relacionadas com linfoma daquelas relacionadas com sarcoidose, com sensibilidade, especificidade, valor preditivo positivo, valor preditivo negativo e precisão de 87,5%, 82,6%, 85,1%, 84,0% e 86,3%, respectivamente. Não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos quanto à intensidade do sinal em T1, intensidade do sinal em T2 e diâmetro dos linfonodos. Conclusões: Parâmetros de RMN como ADC, difusão e razão T2 podem ser úteis na diferenciação entre sarcoidose e linfoma na avaliação de linfonodomegalias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sarcoidosis/diagnostic imaging , Lymphoma/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Lymphatic Metastasis
2.
Rev. ANACEM (Impresa) ; 15(1): 49-54, 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1281435

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Los tumores de mediastino constituyen una entidad clínica poco frecuente, generalmente asintomática. Se pueden desarrollar desde estructuras que se ubican en el compartimento anterior, medio y posterior, siendo la primera, la ubicación más usual. En los adultos, timomas y linfomas (Hodgkin y no Hodgkin) son las masas más comunes del mediastino anterior, junto al bocio endotorácico y los teratomas; todas en su conjunto son conocidas como las "4 T del Mediastino Anterior". Casos clínicos: Se exponen tres casos clínicos de tumores de mediastino anterior, intervenidos en nuestro centro. Discusión: Las masas mediastínicas constituyen una entidad clínica infrecuente. La tomografía computada de tórax con y sin contraste intravenoso es utilizada para evaluar estas anormalidades descubiertas radiográficamente. El diagnóstico definitivo generalmente requiere una muestra de tejido que se obtiene mediante biopsia antes del tratamiento o como parte de una resección terapéutica planificada de toda la masa. En Chile, existen pocos trabajos recientes que muestren las características clínicas de pacientes que presentan timomas o linfomas; es por esto que se hace importante la presentación de estos casos que constituyen un aporte al conocimiento nacional.


INTRODUCTION: Mediastinal tumours constitute a clinical entity infrequent, generally asymptomatic. It can develop from structures localized on anterior compartment, middle and posterior, where structure localized on anterior compartment is usual. Adults tend to have thymomas and lymphomas more common in anterior mediastinal within intrathoracic goiter and teratomas. They are known as a "4T of anterior mediastinal mass". Clinical cases: Three clinical cases of anterior mediastinal tumours are exposed in our centre. Discussion: Mediastinal mass constitutes a clinical entity infrequent. The computed Tomography of the thorax with intravenous contrast and without intravenous contrast are used to evaluate abnormalities discover by radiography. The final diagnosis requires a fabric sample which is obtained by a biopsy before the treatment or as a part of a planned therapeutic recession. In Chile exist a few recently studies that shows clinical characteristics of patients which presents thymus and lymphomas as a result is important to present this kind of cases due to these cases constitute to the national knowledge.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Thymoma/diagnostic imaging , Lymphoma/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinal Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Hodgkin Disease , Thoracotomy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Hospitals, Public , Lymphoma/therapy , Mediastinal Neoplasms/surgery
4.
Rev. méd. panacea ; 9(2): 90-97, mayo-ago. 2020. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LIPECS, LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1121163

ABSTRACT

Los linfomas son el conjunto de enfermedades neoplásicas de los linfocitos. El diagnóstico se fundamenta en la anamnesis, examen físico, biopsia ganglionar y estudios imagenológicos que permiten valorar la enfermedad para su estadiación y tratamiento. Objetivo: Caracterizar a partir de indicadores clínico-histo-imagenológico en casos con linfomas de localización mediastinal atendidos en el Instituto Nacional de Oncología y Radiobiología de Septiembre de 2017 a Diciembre de 2019. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio preliminar, descriptivo, prospectivo en una población de 167 casos y una muestra de 43 pacientes con linfomas de localización mediastinal. Se estudiaron las variables: sexo, edad, índice de masa corporal, síntomas y signos, tipo de tumor, subtipo histológico, estadiación por criterios de Ann-Arbor, tamaño ganglionar y localización mediastinal. Resultados: El pico de incidencia se observó entre los 25-35 años. La mayor cantidad de casos presentaron sobrepeso (n=10; 23,3%). Predominaron los Linfomas de Hodgkin (n=31; 71,8%) subtipo Esclerosis Nodular (n=22; 51,2%) con estadio IA (LH=14; 32,6%). El tamaño promedio de los ganglios fue de 25,1±17,3 mm. En todos los niveles de la anatomía mediastínica se observaron lesiones ganglionares, a predominio del mediastino superior. Otras características predominantes observadas por TC incluyeron ganglios hipodensos homogéneos (n=34; 79,07%), realce postcontraste con captación homogénea (n=24; 55,81), invasión de estructuras vecinas (n=18; 41,8%) y densidades entre 32-108 UH. Conclusiones: En la valoración de los indicadores imagenológicos por tomografía computarizada contrastada se detectan cambios morfológicos, al tomar como criterio fundamental la afectación ganglionar y el tamaño de las adenopatías en el diagnóstico, estadiamiento y reevaluación de casos con linfomas. (AU)


Lymphomas are the group of neoplastic diseases of lymphocytes. The diagnosis is based on the anamnesis, physical examination, lymph node biopsy and imaging studies that allow the disease to be assessed for its statistics and treatment. Objective: To characterize, with clinical-histological-imaging indicators, cases with lymphomas of mediastinal location treated at the National Institute of Oncology and Radiobiology from September 2017 to December 2019. Materials and methods: A preliminary, descriptive, prospective study was conducted in a population of 167 cases and a sample of 43 patients with lymphomas of mediastinal location. Variables were studied: sex, age, body mass index, symptoms and signs, tumor type, histological subtype, statistics by Ann-Arbor criteria, lymph node size and mediastinal location. Results: The peak incidence was recorded between 25-35 years. The highest number of specific cases of overweight (n = 10; 23.3%). Hodgkin lymphomas (n = 31, 71.8%), Nodular sclerosis subtype (n = 22, 51.2%) with stage IA (LH = 14, 32.6%) predominated. The average size of the nodes was 25.1 ± 17.3 mm. Nodal lesions were observed at all levels of the mediastinal anatomy, a predominance of the upper mediastinum. Other predominant features observed by CT include homogeneous hypodense nodes (n = 34; 79.07%), post-contrast enhancement with homogeneous uptake (n = 24; 55.81), invasion of neighboring structures (n = 18; 41.8%) and densities between 32-108 UH. Conclusions: Morphological changes were detected in the evaluation of the imaging indicators by contrast computed tomography, taking lymph node involvement and the size of lymphadenopathy as a fundamental criterion in the diagnosis, staging and reevaluation of cases with lymphomas. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Lymph Node Excision , Lymphoma/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinal Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prospective Studies
5.
Rev. argent. radiol ; 84(2): 55-60, abr. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125856

ABSTRACT

Resumen La pesquisa incidental de lesiones tímicas ha aumentado. Una adecuada aproximación a esas lesiones en la tomografía computada por emisión de positrones (PET-CT) es fundamental, pues se usa como parte de la mayoría de los procedimientos de planificación oncológica. Se han seleccionado casos representativos respecto de los aspectos más importantes de las imágenes de timo en PET-CT y cómo esa técnica puede contribuir a un diagnóstico preciso o a la planificación del tratamiento. Específicamente, presentamos una descripción general de las lesiones tímicas comunes y los imitadores de enfermedad, con énfasis en los hallazgos en PET-CT, incorporando también ejemplos de resonancia magnética (RM).


Abstract Incidental thymic lesion findings have increased. An adequate characterization of these lesions in positron emission computed tomography (PET-CT) is essential, since it is used as part of most oncological planning procedures. Representative cases have been selected regarding the most important aspects of thymus imaging in PET-CT and how this technique can contribute to an accurate diagnosis or treatment planning. Specifically, we present a general description of common thymic lesions and disease mimics, with an emphasis on PET-CT findings, also incorporating examples of magnetic resonance imaging.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Thymus Gland/diagnostic imaging , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/methods , Thymus Gland/physiology , Thymus Gland/pathology , Thymus Hyperplasia/diagnostic imaging , Thymus Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Lymphoma/diagnostic imaging
6.
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 36(1): e1003, ene.-mar. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126541

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los estudios de imágenes son esenciales para la estadificación de los linfomas. La utilización de la imagen funcional que proporciona la tomografía por emisión de positrones con 18F-2-deoxi-2-fluoro-D-glucosa asociada a la tomografía computarizada ha cambiado fundamentalmente el concepto de estadificación y reestadificación de los linfomas. Constituye una prueba diagnóstica que ha ganado aceptación universal, sobre todo después de la publicación y adopción de las guías de Lugano. Objetivo: Analizar la importancia que tienen las imágenes que proporciona la tomografía por emisión de positrones con 18F-2-deoxi-2-fluoro-D-glucosa asociada a la tomografía computarizada en la estadificación actual de los linfomas. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica, en español y en inglés, de la última década. Se utilizaron los motores de búsqueda de Pubmed, Google y SciELO. Se recolectó y organizó la información siguiendo cronológicamente la aparición de las innovaciones para facilitar la estadificación de los linfomas. Análisis y síntesis de la información: Se hace un recorrido desde la introducción de la tomografía computarizada, la tomografía por emisión de positrones y la asociación de estas, hasta su aplicación en el estudio de los linfomas. Se describe la evolución de los sistemas de clasificación para los linfomas y la utilidad del empleo de la tomografía por emisión de positrones con 18F-2-deoxi-2-fluoro-D-glucosa asociada a la tomografía computarizada en la estadificación de los linfomas. Conclusiones: Es de gran importancia que, en el momento actual, el manejo óptimo de un paciente con linfoma ávido de 18F-2-deoxi-2-fluoro-D-glucosa incluya la estadificación inicial con tomografía por emisión de positrones asociada con tomografía computarizada. Esto permitirá hacer más precisa la etapificación inicial del paciente, optimizar su tratamiento y evaluación de la terapia implementada; así como un mejor pronóstico y evitar estudios invasivos(AU)


Introduction: Imaging studies are essential for staging of lymphomas. The usage of functional imaging provided by positron emission tomography with 18F-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose combined with computed tomography has fundamentally changed the concept of staging and re-staging of lymphomas. It constitutes a diagnostic test that has gained universal acceptance, especially after the publication and adoption of the Lugano guidelines. Objective: To analyze the importance of the images provided by positron emission tomography with 18F-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose combined with computed tomography in current staging of lymphomas. Methods: A bibliographic review was carried out, in Spanish and in English, within the last decade. We used the search engines of Pubmed, Google, and SciELO. The information was collected and organized by chronologically following the origin of the innovations that facilitate the staging of lymphomas. Information analysis and synthesis: An analysis is carried out from the introduction of computed tomography, positron emission tomography, and the combination of both, to their application in the study of lymphomas. We described the evolution of lymphoma classification systems and the usefulness of positron emission tomography with 18F-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose combined with computed tomography for the staging of lymphomas. Conclusions: At the present time, it is of great importance for a patient with lymphoma needing 18F-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose to receive optimal management of his or her condition, including initial staging with positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography. This will allow to make the initial staging of the patient more precise, to optimize his or her treatment and evaluation of the implemented therapy, as well as to obtain a better prognosis, avoiding invasive studies(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/methods , Lymphoma/diagnostic imaging , Neoplasm Staging/standards
8.
Geriatr., Gerontol. Aging (Impr.) ; 13(4): 230-233, out-.dez.2019. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1097142

ABSTRACT

As demências rapidamente progressivas são condições que impactam a vida do paciente, entretanto nem sempre são consideradas durante a investigação da síndrome demencial. Este relato descreve uma paciente portadora de artrite reumatoide em uso crônico de corticoterapia que evoluiu com um quadro de demência rapidamente progressiva no período de cinco meses. Durante a investigação, evidenciou-se o linfoma primário de sistema nervoso central como causa de sua síndrome demencial. Faz-se importante destacar que o uso prolongado de corticoide pode estar associado a um estado de imunossupressão, o que é fator de risco para o surgimento do linfoma de sistema nervoso central.


Rapidly progressive dementias are conditions that worsening the patient's life; however they are not always considered during the investigation of dementia syndrome. This report describes the case of a patient with rheumatoid arthritis and chronic use of corticosteroid therapy, who developed rapidly progressive dementia within 5 months. During the investigation, the primary lymphoma of the central nervous system was evidenced as the cause of its dementia syndrome. Importantly, prolonged use of corticosteroids may be associated with a state of immunosuppression, which is a risk factor for the onset of central nervous system lymphoma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Lymphoma, B-Cell/complications , Dementia/complications , Dementia/diagnosis , Lymphoma/diagnostic imaging , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Central Nervous System Neoplasms , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Mental Status and Dementia Tests
10.
Rev. chil. radiol ; 23(3): 91-97, 2017. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-900113

ABSTRACT

Objective: To describe visible nodal and extra-nodal involvement using PET/CT in the different types and subtypes of lymphoma in staging. Patients and method: PET/CT with F18-FDG were reviewed in patients with lymphoma staging, determining frequency and location of nodal and extra-nodal involvement, and intensity of F18-FDG uptake measured by SUVmax. Results: Of the 102 patients with NHL (average SUVmax 13.0 ± 9.7), 86.3% had nodal involvement (51.9% on both sides of the diaphragm, 24.5% only above the diaphragm), and 66.7% extra-nodal compromise (42.6% bone marrow, 22.1% muscle, 16.2% renal). Of the 30 patients with HL (average SUVmax 14.6 ± 6.0), 100% had nodal involvement (63.3% only above the diaphragm, 36.7% above and below the diaphragm), and 30% had extra-nodal involvement (66.7% bone marrow, 22.2% lung). Conclusion: PET/CT is the method of choice in the staging of lymphoma, allowing the detection of nodal and extra-nodal disease in both HL and NHL.


Objetivo: Describir el compromiso nodal y extranodal visible con PET/CT en los distintos tipos y subtipos de linfoma en etapificación. Pacientes y método: Se revisaron los PET/CT con F18-FDG realizados a pacientes con linfoma en etapificación, determinando frecuencia y localización del compromiso nodal y extranodal, e intensidad de captación de F18-FDG medida mediante SUVmax. Resultados: De los 102 pacientes con LNH (SUVmaxpromedio 13,0±9,7), un 86,3% presentó compromiso nodal (51,9% a ambos lados del diafragma, 24,5% sólo sobre el diafragma) y 66,7% compromiso extranodal (42,6% médula ósea, 22,1% muscular, 16,2% renal). De los 30 pacientes con LH (SUVmax promedio 14,6±6,0), el 100% tuvo compromiso nodal (63,3% sólo sobre el diafragma, 36,7% sobre y bajo el diafragma), y 30% compromiso extranodal (66,7% médula ósea, 22,2% pulmón). Conclusión: El PET/CT es el método de elección en la etapificación del linfoma, permitiendo detectar enfermedad nodal y extranodal, tanto en LH como en LNH.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Lymphoma , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Hodgkin Disease , Lymphoma/diagnostic imaging , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/statistics & numerical data
11.
Rev. argent. radiol ; 80(2): 112-121, jun. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-843222

ABSTRACT

El linfoma primario del sistema nervioso central (LPSNC) tiene una presentación predecible en las imágenes convencionales, tanto en pacientes inmunocompetentes como inmunodeprimidos. Analizamos las características imagenológicas que nos permiten reconocer ambos casos y realizamos una revisión de las formas clínicas más relevantes del LPSNC, así como su aspecto en las imágenes obtenidas con técnicas convencionales del Diagnóstico por Imágenes, basándonos en un análisis retrospectivo de nuestros archivos institucionales y la literatura actual. La revisión abarca todas las presentaciones relevantes de esta enfermedad poco frecuente para permitir un diagnóstico temprano, crucial para el adecuado tratamiento.


Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) has a predictable imaging appearance on conventional imaging in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. The imaging features that enable both types of patients are discussed. The extensive imaging review presented here of the most relevant PCNSL clinical presentations and their imaging appearances using conventional imaging techniques is based on a retrospective analysis of our institutional files and on the current literature. The review covers all of the relevant appearances of this uncommon disease to enable early diagnosis, which is crucial for proper patient management.


Subject(s)
Humans , Central Nervous System Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Lymphoma/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Central Nervous System/diagnostic imaging , Cerebellar Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Central Nervous System Neoplasms/pathology
12.
Gac. méd. espirit ; 15(3): 317-323, sep.-dic. 2013.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-696670

ABSTRACT

Fundamento: en el bazo se pueden observar diferentes tipos de tumores, dentro de los cuales están los linfomas primarios del mismo, enfermedad infrecuente, de ahí la importancia de su presentación. Presentación de caso: paciente femenina de 66 años, raza blanca, con antecedentes de hipertensión arterial, lobectomía derecha del tiroides, que refiere venía presentando desde hacía más de un año dolor abdominal alto izquierdo que se hacía más intenso tras el esfuerzo físico, tos, presentando toma del estado general por lo que se ingresa en el servicio de cirugía. Se toman muestras para biopsia, después de ser intervenido quirúrgicamente de una esplenectomía, dando como resultado un Linfoma no Hodgkin de células grandes CD20 positivo, sin infiltración hepática, ganglionar ni epiplóica. Se realizó esplenectomía y quimioterapia. La paciente ha evolucionado favorablemente. Conclusiones: el linfoma primario de bazo es una entidad infrecuente y su diagnóstico es aún más raro en pacientes por encima de los 60 años, como ocurrió en el caso presentado. A medida que casos como este se divulguen entre los profesionales de la salud permitirán una aproximación diagnóstica más precisa a esta enfermedad poco común.


Background: in the spleen you can see different types of tumors; primary lymphomas are an example of them. This is an infrequent disease, hence the importance of its presentation. Case presentation: 66 year old white female patient with history of hypertension, thyroid right lobectomy that refers to have been suffering from high left abdominal pain for a year that became more intense after physical exertion, cough, presenting general malaise by what is admitted to the surgical service. Some samples for biopsy are taken, after being surgically operated of a splenectomy, showing as a result a non-Hodkin lymphoma of big cells resulting cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma CD20 Positive, without hepatic, ganglionic or epiploic infiltration. Splenectomy and chemotherapy were made. The patient has improved favorably. Conclusions: primary lymphoma of the spleen is a rare entity and its diagnosis is still rarer in patients over 60 years, as it happened in the case presented. As cases like these are disseminated among health professionals will allow a more accurate diagnostic approach to this rare disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lymphoma/diagnostic imaging , Neoplasms/surgery , Splenectomy/instrumentation , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin/chemistry
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-218262

ABSTRACT

We present an interesting case of incidental diffuse fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake at PET in her left breast, related to atypical breastfeeding practice. Clinically, differential diagnoses of diffuse intense FDG uptake in unilateral breast include advanced breast cancer, breast lymphoma and inflammatory condition. However, normal physiologic lactation may also show increased FDG uptake in the breasts. Therefore, if we encounter that finding in daily practice, we should question the patient regarding unilateral breastfeeding. In addition, mammography and ultrasound would be helpful to confirm the diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Adult , Breast/metabolism , Breast Feeding/methods , Breast Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Humans , Lactation/metabolism , Lymphoma/diagnostic imaging , Mammography , Positron-Emission Tomography , Radiopharmaceuticals , Ultrasonography, Mammary
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-19291

ABSTRACT

Gastric lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma is a rare carcinoma among gastric malignant tumor but has a good prognosis. The carcinoma has histologic feature characterized by small nest of cancer cells mixed with lymphoid stroma. We report a case with lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of stomach initially presenting as panperitonitis because of spontaneous tumor perforation. A 56-year-old man visited our emergency room because of epigastric pain. A preoperative abdominal CT scan showed a massive pneumoperitoneum in the upper abdomen, and the presence of gastric cancer in the lesser curvature of the stomach. An emergent laparotomy was performed followed by radical subtotal gastrectomy. Pathologic examination revealed that the tumor was a lymphoepithelioma-like gastric carcinoma.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma/diagnosis , Combined Modality Therapy , Humans , Lymphoma/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumoperitoneum/etiology , Rupture, Spontaneous , Stomach Neoplasms/complications , Stomach Rupture/complications , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
16.
Iranian Journal of Nuclear Medicine. 2011; 19 (2): 13-19
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-178334

ABSTRACT

Despite widespread use of [67]Gallium for lymphoma evaluation, timing of imaging after injection is a matter of controversy and to the extent of our knowledge no direct comparison has been made between early and delayed gallium images. We aimed to compare 24 and 48 hours post injection planar gallium imaging for evaluation of lymphoma recurrence. 255 patients suspicious of recurrent lymphoma were included in the study. Twenty four and 48 hours post injection [10 mCi] whole body Gallium imaging was performed. Semi-quantitative evaluation [background corrected] was carried out in positive whole body [67]Gallium scans. Diagnosis of recurrence was made by combination of clinical or pathologic examination if possible. In 59 patients the final diagnosis was made by tissue biopsy. In case of uncertain diagnosis, follow up of the patients [mean duration of 13 months] was used. The diagnosis was finally made by the referring hematologist. Whole body gallium scintigraphy was positive in 115 out of 150 patients with recurrence [sensitivity of 76%]. Comparison of the 24 and 48 hour images did not show any new lesion in the 48 hour images. However, delayed 48 hours images were required for definite detection of the gallium avid lesions in the abdominal and pelvic areas in 40 patients. Semi-quantitative evaluation of the lesion showed higher lesion to background ratio for 48 compared to the 24 hour images [p<0.001]. Considering higher lesion to background activity in the 48 hour images, delayed whole body [67]Gallium imaging may be more desirable for diagnosis of recurrent lymphoma, however 24 hour images may be sufficient. Delayed imaging can be reserved for suspicious activities [such as in abdominal images]. The strategy can save time and is more convenient for the imaging centers


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Male , Gallium Radioisotopes , Recurrence , Radionuclide Imaging , Lymphoma/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon
17.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-124933

ABSTRACT

Primary hepatic lymphoma (PHL) is a rare condition. It is the most common hepatic neoplasm in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). We report a case of PHL in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and describe the imaging findings on biphasic multidetector CT (MDCT).


Subject(s)
HIV Infections/complications , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Lymphoma/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
18.
Tunisie Medicale [La]. 2008; 86 (2): 105-113
in French | IMEMR | ID: emr-90563

ABSTRACT

Thoracic manifestations of lymphomas are frequent and various. They are frequently described as secondary than as a primary manifestation. This work aims to analyze the clinical, radiological, and prognostic characteristics of initial thoracic features of lymphomas. The authors stress the diagnosis and therapeutic difficulties which they encountered. We report a retrospective work of initial thoracic involvement of lymphomas and their radiologic features observed in 17 patients hospitalized in pneumology service of Sfax. There were 10 cases of non Hodgkin's lymphoma and 7 cases of Hodgkin disease. For the patients with non Hodgkin's lymphoma, the mediastinal involvement was present in 8 cases. The parenchymal involvement was noted among 2 patients such as nodules or masses, with concomitant mediastinal lymph nodes. The pleural effusion such as pleurisy or solid mass was seen in 3 cases. Pericardial and parietal involvements were noted in one case. For the patients with Hodgkin's disease, the mediastinal lymph nodes were seen among 6 patients. The parenchymal involvement was noted in one case. One case of primary thymic lymphoma involvement and one case of tracheal involvement were noted. No case of pleural effusion was deplored. Initial thoracic involvements, rarely described, cause a variety of features which are often nonspecific. The diagnosis, often difficult, has beneficiated, from imaging and endoscopy's progress. However, treatment should be optimized in order to improve the prognosis which is also reserved particularly in non Hodgkin lymphoma


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Lymphoma/diagnostic imaging , Hodgkin Disease , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin , Thorax , Retrospective Studies , Lymph Nodes , Mediastinum , Pleural Effusion , Pleurisy , Prognosis
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-211220

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the optimal threshold for the attenuation values in unenhanced computed tomography (CT) and assess the value of the size criteria for differentiating between an adrenal adenoma and a nonadenoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The unenhanced CT images of 45 patients at our institution, who underwent a surgical resection of an adrenal masses between January 2001 and July 2005, were retrospectively reviewed. Forty-five adrenal masses included 25 cortical adenomas, 12 pheochromocytomas, three lymphomas, and five metastases confirmed by pathology were examined. The CT images were obtained at a slice thickness of 2 mm to 3 mm. The mAs were varied from 100 to 160 and 200 to 280, while the 120 KVp was maintained in all cases. The mean attenuation values of an adrenal adenoma and nonadenoma were compared using an unpaired t test. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy at thresholds of 10 HU, 20 HU, and 25 HU were compared. The diagnostic accuracy according to the size criteria from 2 cm to 6 cm was also compared. RESULTS: The twenty-five adenomas showed significantly lower (p 90% but a specificity < 70%. Size criteria of 2 or 3 cm had a high specificity of 100% and 80% but a low sensitivity of 20% and 60%. CONCLUSION: The threshold attenuation values of 20 or 25 HU in the unenhanced CT appear optimal for discriminating an adrenal adenoma from a nonadenoma. The size criteria are of little value in differentiating adrenal masses because of their low specificity or low sensitivity.


Subject(s)
Adenoma/diagnostic imaging , Adolescent , Adrenal Gland Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Adrenalectomy , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Lymphoma/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Pheochromocytoma/diagnostic imaging , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-211219

ABSTRACT

CT and MRI are utilized to differentiate between different types of masses and to determine the extent of lesions involving the lacrimal gland and the fossa. Although many diseases that affect the lacrimal gland and fossa are specifically diagnosed by imaging, it is frequently very difficult to differentiate each specific disease on the basis of image characteristics alone due to intrinsic similarities. In lacrimal gland epithelial tumors, benign pleomorphic adenomas are seen most commonly with a well defined benign appearance, and a malignant adenoid cystic carcinoma is seen with a typical invasive malignant appearance. However, a malignant myoepithelial carcinoma is seen with a benign looking appearance. Lymphomatous lesions of the lacrimal gland include a broad spectrum ranging from reactive hyperplasia to malignant lymphoma. These lesions can be very difficult to differentiate both radiologically and pathologically. Generally, lymphomas tend to occur in older patients. The developmental cystic lesions found in the lacrimal fossa such as dermoid and epidermoid cysts can be diagnosed when the cyst involves the superior temporal quadrant of the orbit and manifests as a non-enhancing cystic mass and, in case of a lipoma, it is diagnosed as a total fatty mass. However, masses of granulocytic sarcoma and xanthogranuloma, as well as vascular masses, such as a hemangiopericytoma, are difficult to diagnose correctly on the basis of preoperative imaging findings alone. A careful clinical evaluation and moreover, a pathologic verification, are needed. In this pictorial review, the various imaging spectrums of pathologic masses involving the lacrimal gland and fossa are presented, along with appropriate anatomy and pathology reviews.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/diagnostic imaging , Conjunctival Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Cysts/diagnostic imaging , Eye Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Hemangiopericytoma/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Lacrimal Apparatus/pathology , Lacrimal Apparatus Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Lipoma/diagnostic imaging , Lymphoma/diagnostic imaging , Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial/diagnostic imaging , Neurofibroma/diagnostic imaging , Sarcoma, Myeloid/diagnostic imaging
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