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1.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1845-1854, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887615

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has seizure-suppressing effects but the molecular mechanisms underlying its therapeutic action remain unclear. This study aimed to systematically elucidate the mechanisms underlying DBS-induced seizure suppression at a molecular level.@*METHODS@#We established a macaque model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE), and continuous high-frequency hippocampus DBS (hip-DBS) was applied for 3 months. The effects of hip-DBS on hippocampus gene expression were examined using high-throughput microarray analysis followed by bioinformatics analysis. Moreover, the microarray results were validated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot analyses.@*RESULTS@#The results showed that chronic hip-DBS modulated the hippocampal gene expression. We identified 4119 differentially expressed genes and assigned these genes to 16 model profiles. Series test of cluster analysis showed that profiles 5, 3, and 2 were the predominant expression profiles. Moreover, profile 5 was mainly involved in focal adhesion and extracellular matrix-receptor interaction pathway. Nine dysregulated genes (Arhgap5, Col1a2, Itgb1, Pik3r1, Lama4, Fn1, Col3a1, Itga9, and Shc4) and three genes (Col1a2, Itgb1, and Flna) in these two pathways were further validated by qRT-PCR and Western blot analyses, respectively, which showed a concordance.@*CONCLUSION@#Our findings suggest that hip-DBS could markedly reverse mTLE-induced abnormal gene expression. Findings from this study establish the basis for further investigation of the underlying regulatory mechanisms of DBS for mTLE.


Subject(s)
Animals , Deep Brain Stimulation , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe/therapy , Hippocampus , Humans , Macaca , Seizures
2.
Safety and Health at Work ; : 122-124, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761327

ABSTRACT

Simian malaria is a zoonotic disease caused by Plasmodium knowlesi infection. The common natural reservoir of the parasite is the macaque monkey and the vector is the Anopheles mosquito. Human cases of P. knowlesi infection has been reported in all South East Asian countries in the last decade, and it is currently the most common type of malaria seen in Malaysia and Brunei. Between 2007–2017, 73 cases of P. knowlesi infection were notified and confirmed to the Ministry of Health in Brunei. Of these, 15 cases (21%) were documented as work-related, and 28 other cases (38%) were classified as probably related to work (due to incomplete history). The occupations of those with probable and confirmed work related infections were border patrol officers, Armed Forces and security personnel, Department of Forestry officers, boatmen and researchers. The remaining cases classified as most likely not related to work were possibly acquired via peri-domestic transmission. The risk of this zoonotic infection extends to tourists and overseas visitors who have to travel to the jungle in the course of their work. It can be minimised with the recommended use of prophylaxis for those going on duty into the jungles, application of mosquito/insect repellants, and use of repellant impregnated uniforms and bed nets in jungle camp sites.


Subject(s)
Anopheles , Arm , Asians , Brunei , Culicidae , Forestry , Haplorhini , Humans , Macaca , Malaria , Malaysia , Occupations , Parasites , Plasmodium knowlesi , Plasmodium , Zoonoses
3.
Mem. Inst. Invest. Cienc. Salud (Impr.) ; 16(3): 30-34, dic. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-998314

ABSTRACT

En Paraguay, no se han registrado casos autóctonos de malaria desde el 2011. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo observacional transversal en 6 monos y 23 aves que vivían en una región históricamente endémica de Paraguay para buscar presencia de reservorios silvestres de parásitos plasmodios causantes de la malaria. El ADN se extrajo por el método de Chelex a partir de una gota de sangre en un papel de filtro, y la detección del parásito se realizó mediante la PCR múltiple semianidada. Por este método, no se detectaron parásitos en ninguna de las 29 muestras. Se evaluó el riesgo potencial de circulación selvática de los parásitos que causan la malaria. Teniendo en cuenta la presencia de mosquitos anofelinos vectores en la zona, el hecho de que no se hayan observado casos positivos es un buen indicador teniendo en cuenta que nuestro país fue declarado recientemente como país libre de malaria por la OMS(AU)


In Paraguay, autochthonous cases of malaria have not been recorded since 2011. A cross-sectional observational descriptive study was conducted in 6 monkeys and 23 birds living in a historically endemic region of Paraguay to identify wild reservoirs of plasmodium parasites that cause malaria. DNA was extracted by the Chelex method from a blood drop in a filter paper, and parasite detection was performed by the seminested multiplex PCR. By this method, parasites were not detected in any of the 29 samples. The risk of potential sylvatic circulation of the parasites causing malaria was evaluated. Considering the presence of anopheline mosquitoes in the area, the fact that we did not find any positive cases is a good indicator as our country was recently certified as a malaria-free country by the WHO(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Birds/parasitology , Disease Reservoirs , Macaca/parasitology , Malaria/transmission , Paraguay , Cross-Sectional Studies , Endemic Diseases , Malaria/epidemiology
4.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 27(1): 19-25, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-899313

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of the present study was to evaluate the growth rate of Balantidium coli in three xenic media cultures. Between 2013 and 2015, 10 B. coli isolates obtained from feces of Cynomolgus macaques, and 30 isolates from feces of pigs were studied. An inoculum of 500 trophozoites was transferred to tubes containing LES, TYSGM-9 and Pavlova media. These cultures were evaluated at incubation times of 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. In most of strains analyzed wasn't showed significant difference in the growth rate comparing TYSGM-9 and Pavlova media (Wilcoxon p>0.016). In Pavlova medium, the trophozoites showed a maximum growth at 72 hours with significant difference when compared with the times of 24 h and 96 h (Wilcoxon <0.008). In LES, viable trophozoites were observed until 24 hours, with a significant difference (Friedman p<0.05, Wilcoxon p<0.016) in the number of parasite cells compared with Pavlova and TYSGM-9 media cultures. Thus, LES medium seemed to be less adequate than the other media for maintenance of B. coli. Despite the satisfactory results in TYSGM-9, Pavlova medium was considered ideal for the maintenance of this protozoan strain, guaranteeing the viability of the parasite with subculture every three days, presenting lower costs.


Resumo O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a taxa de crescimento de Balantidium coli em três meios de cultura xênicos. Entre 2013 e 2015 foram estudados 10 isolados de B. coli obtidos de Cynomolgus macaques e 30 isolados de suínos. Um inóculo contendo 500 trofozoítos foi transferido para tubos contendo os meios LES, TYSGM-9 e Pavlova. Os cultivos foram avaliados com tempos de incubação de 24, 48, 72 e 96 horas. Na maioria das cepas analisadas não foi observado diferença significativa na taxa de crescimento comparando TYSGM-9 e Pavlova (Wilcoxon p>0,016). Em Pavlova, os trofozoítos apresentaram máximo de crescimento a 72 h com diferença significativa quando se comparou com os tempos de 24 h e 96 h (Wilcoxon <0,008). Em LES observou-se trofozoítos viáveis até 24 horas com diferença significativa (Friedman p<0,05 e Wilcoxon p<0,016), na quantidade de células parasitárias, quando comparado com Pavlova e TYSGM-9. Dessa forma, o meio LES mostrou-se ser menos adequado do que os outros, para a manutenção de B. coli. Apesar do resultado satisfatório em TYSGM-9, Pavlova foi considerado ideal para manutenção do protozoário, por garantir a viabilidade do parasito com subcultivos a cada três dias, além de apresentar menor custo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Balantidium/growth & development , Culture Media , Parasitology/methods , Swine/parasitology , Balantidium/isolation & purification , Macaca/parasitology
5.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 267-271, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-221829

ABSTRACT

Intervertebral disc herniation (IVDH) with nucleus pulposus extrusion, traumatic or not, is a devastating clinical condition accompanied by neurological problems. Here we report a cynomolgus macaque suffering from acute and progressive neurological dysfunction by a blunt trauma due to neck collar, an animal handling device. Tetraplegia, urinary incontinence, decreased proprioception, and imperception of pain were shown on physical and neurological examinations. MRI sagittal T2 weighted sequences revealed an extensive protrusion of disc material between C2 and C3 cervical vertebra, and this protrusion resulted in central stenosis of the spinal cord. Histopathologic findings showed a large number of inflammatory cells infiltrated at sites of spinal cord injury (SCI). This case is the first report of compressive cervical SCI caused by IVDH associated with blunt trauma.


Subject(s)
Animals , Constriction, Pathologic , Intervertebral Disc , Macaca , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neck , Neurologic Examination , Proprioception , Quadriplegia , Spinal Cord , Spinal Cord Diseases , Spinal Cord Injuries , Spine , Urinary Incontinence
6.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 383-389, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-235655

ABSTRACT

This paper is to report the study of the metabolism of forscolin in plasma and liver microsomes for guiding clinical therapy. Forscolin was quantified by HPLC-MS/MS. The metabolic stability of forscolin in rat, Beagle dog, monkey and human plasma and liver microsomes, mediated enzymes of forscolin and its inhibition on cytochrome P450 isoforms in human liver microsomes were studied. Results showed that forscolin was not metabolized in plasma of the four species but metabolized in liver microsomes of the four species. The t1/2 of forscolin in rat, Beagle dog, monkey and human liver microsomes were (52.0 +/- 15.0), (51.2 +/- 5.9), (6.0 +/- 0.2) and (11.9 +/- 1.8) min; CL(int) were (75.6 +/- 18.7), (60.9 +/- 6.8), (513.8 +/- 14.3) and (176.2 +/- 25.6) mL x min(-1) x kg(-1); CL were (34.8 +/- 4.5), (23.3 +/- 1.0), (40.3 +/- 0.5) and (17.9 +/- 0.3) mL x min(-1) x kg(-1), respectively. Forscolin was metabolized by CYP3A4 in human liver microsomes. There was definite inhibition on CYP3A4 at the concentrations of forscolin between 0.1 ng x mL(-1) and 5 microg x mL(-1). Therefore, forscolin is rapidly excreted from liver microsomes. Attention should be paid to the drug interaction when forscolin was used along with other drugs metabolized by CYP3A4 in clinics.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Coleus , Chemistry , Colforsin , Blood , Metabolism , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A , Metabolism , Dogs , Humans , Macaca , Metabolic Clearance Rate , Microsomes, Liver , Metabolism , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Rats , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-819837

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the therapeutic effects of co-transplantation with Schwann cells (SCs) and human embryonic nerve stem cells (NSCs) on macaque Parkinson's disease (PD).@*METHODS@#Macaque autologous SCs and human embryonic NSCs were adopted for the treatment of macaque PD.@*RESULTS@#Six months after transplantation, positron emission computerized tomography showed that (18)F-FP-β-CIT was significantly concentrated in the injured striatum in the co-transplanted group. Immunohistochemical staining of transplanted area tissue showed migration of tyroxine hydroxylase positive cells from the transplant area to the surrounding area was significantly increased in the co-transplanted group.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Co-transplantation of SCs and NSCs could effectively cure PD in macaques. SCs harvested from the autologous peripheral nerves can avoid rejection and the ethics problems, so it is expected to be applied clinically.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cells, Cultured , Corpus Striatum , Metabolism , Dyskinesias , Embryonic Stem Cells , Transplantation , Female , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Macaca , Male , Motor Activity , Multimodal Imaging , Nerve Tissue , Transplantation , Parkinsonian Disorders , Metabolism , General Surgery , Positron-Emission Tomography , Radiopharmaceuticals , Metabolism , Schwann Cells , Transplantation , Stem Cell Transplantation , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Tropanes , Metabolism
8.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 151-154, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-164979

ABSTRACT

Macaque monkeys are good sentinel to humans for environmental pollutions because their similarities in genetic and physiological characteristics. So, their reference values about exposures to heavy metals are required for proper data interpretation. Here, we report several heavy metals concentrations in the hair of rhesus monkeys which are widely used in biomedical research. The hair of 28 imported rhesus monkeys from an animal farm in southwest China were examined for the presence of eight heavy metals (Arsenic, Beryllium, Cadmium, Chromium, Iron, Lead, Mercury, and Selenium). The analyzed data in parts per million (ppm) for hair concentrations of heavy metals in rhesus monkeys were as follow: As (0.654+/-0.331), Be (0.005+/-0.003), Cd (0.034+/-0.022), Cr (11.329+/-4.259), Fe (87.106+/-30.114), Pb (0.656+/-0.613), Hg (0.916+/-0.619), and Se (3.200+/-0.735). The concentrations of Be, Cr, and As showed significant higher in females than in males (P<0.05). We present here the reference values of several heavy metals in healthy China-origin rhesus monkeys. These data may provide valuable information for veterinarians and investigators using rhesus monkeys in experimental studies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Beryllium , Cadmium , China , Chromium , Female , Hair , Haplorhini , Humans , Iron , Macaca , Macaca mulatta , Male , Metals, Heavy , Nitriles , Pyrethrins , Reference Values , Research Personnel , Veterinarians
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-175365

ABSTRACT

Natural habitat fragmentation and reducing habitat quality have resulted in an increased appearance of Japanese macaques, Macaca fuscata (Gray, 1870), in suburban areas in Japan. To investigate the risk of zoonotic infections, a coprological survey of helminth eggs passed by wild Japanese macaques was carried out in 2009 and 2010 in Shiga Prefecture, Japan. Microscopic examination found helminth eggs in high prevalence, and nucleotide sequencing of DNA extracted from the eggs identified Oesophagostomum cf. aculeatum and Trichuris trichiura. A fecal culture also detected infective larvae of Strongyloides fuelleborni. These zoonotic nematodes pose a potential health issue to local people in areas frequented by Japanese macaques.


Subject(s)
Animals , DNA/chemistry , Feces/parasitology , Japan , Macaca , Molecular Sequence Data , Oesophagostomiasis/parasitology , Oesophagostomum/classification , Primate Diseases/parasitology , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Strongyloides/classification , Strongyloidiasis/parasitology , Trichuriasis/parasitology , Trichuris/classification
10.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1132-1136, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-233023

ABSTRACT

This paper is to report the study of the metabolism of lidamycin in vitro including in plasma and microsomes to guide clinical therapy. Lidamycin was quantified by detecting its active ingredient using HPLC-MS/MS. The metabolic stability of lidamycin in rat, Beagle dog, monkey and human plasma and liver microsomes, and its inhibition to cytochrome P450 isoforms in human liver microsomes were studied. Results showed that lidamycin was metabolized in the four species of plasma, and the sequence of metabolic rates in plasma were in rat > in dog > in human > in monkey. But among the four species of liver microsomes, lidamycin was metabolized only in monkey liver microsomes. There was almost no inhibition to cytochrome P450 isoforms at the concentrations of between 0.0005 and 10 ng x mL(-1). Therefore, the property of lidamycin metabolism in human is similar with that in dog, and metabolism of other drugs would not be decreased by cytochrome P450 as used along with lidamycin in clinic.


Subject(s)
Aminoglycosides , Blood , Metabolism , Animals , Antibiotics, Antineoplastic , Blood , Metabolism , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2 , Metabolism , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System , Metabolism , Dogs , Enediynes , Blood , Metabolism , Enzyme Activation , Humans , Macaca , Microsomes, Liver , Metabolism , Rats , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-328635

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the mechanism of new bone formation in the distraction osteogenesis (DO) for correction of cleft palate (CP) in rhesus.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>CP was created by operation in 23 rhesus. The CP was corrected with DO in 21 animals as experimental group. The distraction rate was 0.8 mm per day, two times a day. The bone fragments were fixed after cleft closure, every 3 animals were sacrificed to get specimen after 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24 weeks of fixation. 6 days before sacrifice, tetracycline was administrated for labeling (30 mg/kg).</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The hard and soft tissue def of fixation. At the same time, the bone volume and calcification between the distraction gap increased. The cleft in the control group could not b ect was successfully closed with DO by intramembrane osteogenesis. The new formed bone was remodeling and became maturation during the period e corrected spontaneously.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The DO can successfully correct both the soft and hard tissue defect in CP by intramembrane osteogenesis. The fixation is important for remodeling and maturation of the new formed bone.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Biomarkers , Cleft Palate , Pathology , General Surgery , Macaca , Osteogenesis, Distraction , Palate, Hard , Pathology , Palate, Soft , Pathology
12.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-25478

ABSTRACT

Animal models for testing different vaccine candidates have been developed since a long time for studying tuberculosis. Mice, guinea pigs and rabbits are animals most frequently used. Each model has its own merits for studying human tuberculosis, and none completely mimics the human disease. Different animal models are being used depending upon the availability of the space, trained manpower as well as other resources. Efforts should continue to develop a vaccine which can replace/outperform the presently available vaccine BCG.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Discovery/methods , Guinea Pigs , Macaca , Mice , Rabbits , Tuberculosis/prevention & control , Tuberculosis Vaccines , Animals , Cattle , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Discovery/methods , Guinea Pigs , Macaca , Mice , Rabbits , Tuberculosis/prevention & control , Tuberculosis Vaccines
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-328686

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the osteogenesis mechanism by analysis of the expression of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-1) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in the reconstruction of cleft palate (CP) with distraction osteogenesis (DO) in rhesus.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The CP animal models were established surgically. 21 rhesus in experimental group underwent DO to close the soft and bony defect, followed by consolidations. Every 3 animals were killed and the specimen were taken out after consolidation of 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24 weeks. The mRNA of IGF-1 and ALP were detected with Real-time RT-PCR technique. The expression of IGF-1 and ALP was quantitatively analyzed by ELISA. The results were compared with those in control and sham groups (each of 2 animals), respectively.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Since consolidation, the mRNA of IGF-1 and ALP increased significantly at one week and reached the peak at two weeks, but decrease to control level after 12 weeks of consolidation. The expression of IGF-1 also increased to peak level after two weeks of consolidation. The expression of ALT increased significantly since consolidation and reach the peak value after six weeks. They all decreased to nearly control level after 8-12 weeks.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The palate cleft can be successfully closed with new formed bone after DO. The mechanism of bone consolidation is intramembranous bone formation.</p>


Subject(s)
Alkaline Phosphatase , Metabolism , Animals , Bone Regeneration , Cleft Palate , Metabolism , General Surgery , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I , Metabolism , Macaca , Osteogenesis, Distraction , Postoperative Period
14.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 173-182, 2008.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-264679

ABSTRACT

Similar to the visual dual-pathway model, neurophysiological studies in non-human primates have suggested that the dual-pathway model is also applicable for explaining auditory cortical processing, including the ventral "what" pathway for object identification and the dorsal "where" pathway for spatial localization. This review summarizes evidence from human neuroimaging studies supporting the dual-pathway model for auditory cortical processing in humans.


Subject(s)
Animals , Auditory Cortex , Physiology , Auditory Pathways , Physiology , Auditory Perception , Physiology , Humans , Macaca , Physiology , Models, Neurological , Neurons , Physiology , Pitch Discrimination , Physiology , Sound Localization , Physiology , Space Perception , Physiology
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-283402

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To develop an HPLC-ECD for the determination of monoamine transmitters in serum of macaque.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The analysis was carried out on a ZORBAX SB-C18 column (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm) eluted with a mobile phase of methanol-water (18:82) at a flow rate of 0.9 mL x min(-1).</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The recoveries of NE, E, DA, 5-HT were 97.0%, 97.8%, 99.5%, 100.3%, RSD was 0.22%-0.93%, and the repeatability was good.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The results prove that the method is simple, fast, accurate and can be used to determine simultaneously the concentration of monoamine transmitters in serum of macaque.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Biogenic Monoamines , Blood , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Methods , Dopamine , Blood , Electrochemistry , Methods , Epinephrine , Blood , Female , Humans , Macaca , Norepinephrine , Blood , Premenstrual Syndrome , Blood , Reproducibility of Results , Serotonin , Blood
16.
J Biosci ; 2006 Sep; 31(3): 369-77
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-110695

ABSTRACT

This article reports the structure of dominance and its relationship with social grooming in wild lion-tailed macaque females. The strength of dominance hierarchy was 0.79 on a scale of 0 to 1 indicating a moderate linearity in the ranking system. Dominance scores were converted into an ordinal as well as an interval scale. Grooming scores were also converted into interval scales using standard scores. Grooming received and grooming given correlated positively and negatively respectively with dominance ranks indicating that high ranking females received more and gave less grooming. Grooming was also positively related to encounter rates for dyads of females. More grooming among adjacent ranks, and grooming being more reciprocal, occurred only in the case of dominant females. The grooming patterns, therefore, appeared to be more of despotic than egalitarian nature. While ranking macaques into different Grades of social systems ranging from despotic to egalitarian, Thierry (2004) has placed lion-tailed macaques in Grade 3 corresponding to the 'relaxed' social system. Our results indicate that the grooming and dominance relationships in this species are more despotic, and hence, the Grade for this species requires to be shifted toward 2 or 1.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Grooming , Hierarchy, Social , India , Macaca/physiology , Social Dominance , Social Isolation
17.
In. Schramm, Femin Roland; Braz, Marlene. Bioética e saúde: novos tempos para mulheres e crianças?. Rio de Janeiro, Fiocruz, 2005. p.237-257. (Coleção criança, mulher e saúde).
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-422347
18.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 25(supl.2): 2-5, dez. 2003.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-355606

ABSTRACT

Existem (ou existiram) outras espécies de criaturas simbólicas? Essa questäo tem sido abordada por pesquisadores de diversas áreas e é responsável por uma histórica controvérsia sobre a existência de um limiar entre "criaturas simbólicas" vs "criaturas capazes de produzir formas simples de linguagem". Conforme o mainstream em Etologia e Psicologia Comparada apenas o Homo sapiens está cognitivamente equipado para produzir e interpretar símbolos. Vou introduzir um modelo empiricamente testável de semiose simbólica ("açäo simbólica do signo"), baseada na teoria das categorias lógico-fenomenológicas de C.S.Peirce. Vou sugerir que um padräo específico de comportamento do usuário do signo, observado na comunicaçäo de primatas näo-humanos, indica a transiçäo de uma semiose indexical para uma simbólica


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Language , Primates/psychology , Symbolism , Communication , Macaca
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-281844

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To examine sensitivity of the tree shrews and Macaca assamensis to human hepatitis B virus (HHBV) by serologic methods.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Totally 233 tree shrews and 28 Macaca assamensis were inoculated with human sera containing HBV. After inoculation, the sera were collected weekly from them and HBV markers were detected with HBV ditecting ELISA kits.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Ninety percent of the tree shrews developed acute infection, among them, 44.4 % persisted for over one year, 33.3% of them developed chronic infection persisted for 2 years and one month; the persistence of HBV in Macaca assamensis was much shorter.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>These data clearly indicated that tree shrew may be used as an animal model for study of chronic HBV infection, whereas, Macaca assamensis, showed only a transient sensitivity to HHBV.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Hepatitis B , Blood , Allergy and Immunology , Virology , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Blood , Hepatitis B e Antigens , Blood , Hepatitis B virus , Humans , Macaca , Male , Tupaiidae
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-105186

ABSTRACT

Approximately 90% of freshly imported macaques and other Old World Monkeys are known to be infected with respiratory mites. The lung associated pigments are integral components of pulmonary acariasis in Old World Monkeys; at least three distinctive pigmental bodies are identified in association with lung mite infection. Two major components of pigments are recently identified as silica by using elemental analysis using a high voltage electron microscope and an energy-dispersive X-ray analysis technique. Since a limited number of infected monkey lung tissues and associated pigments can be examined by this tedious procedure, it was important for us to examine much greater number of specimens to verify our initial observation. Ten microincineration technique described provided a unique and practical way to identify the mineral elements in as many 27 histologic sections within a short span of time. Silica and silicates are heat resistant whereas majority of organic materials including lung mite parasites disintegrated under the extreme temperature. Mineral elements were exclusively located within the polarizable white ash. More than 90% of total pigmental bodies identified were found to be related to siliceous materials in 20 incinerated infected monkey lung tissues whereas five noninfected lungs similarly examined did not reveal any pigmental bodies. Other than a small of fine granular mucin substances which were PAS positive, the majority of lung mite associated pigments such as large granules of hemosiderin, needle-like crystals and other fine granules engulfed by macrophages were identified to be siliceous materials as they have persisted even after microincineration. Mite parasites and other organic materials were completely disintegrated. Similar pigmental bodies examined by microscope X-ray analysis were positive for silicate. This finding suggests that lung mite infection in Old Monkeys apparently predisposed silicosis. Therefore, until the link between lung mite infection and silicosis is clarified, expreimental inhalation toxicologic findings in mite-infected Old World monkeys should be interpreted cautiously.


Subject(s)
Animals , Lung/parasitology , Macaca/parasitology , Macaca fascicularis/parasitology , Macaca mulatta/parasitology , Macaca nemestrina/parasitology , Microscopy, Electron , Mite Infestations/veterinary , Mites/chemistry , Papio/parasitology , Primate Diseases/parasitology , Silicon Dioxide/analysis
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