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1.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(3): 598-604, May-June 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278360

ABSTRACT

The objective of the study was to evaluate the antiparasitic resistance against horse nematodes in the South of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The results concerning the tests of anthelmintic efficacy on horses, stored in the database of the Parasitic Diseases Study Group (GEEP) - Veterinary Faculty, at the Federal University of Pelotas (UFPel), were carried out in the laboratory from 2018 to 2019. Stool samples were received from farms with breeding of adult female and male Criollo horses naturally infected, located in municipalities in the country's southern region. The antiparasitic agents tested were Triclorfon + Fenbendazole, Closantel + Albendazole, Ivermectin + Praziquantel, Fenbendazole, Ivermectin, Doramectin, Mebendazole and Moxidectin. Techniques such as Gordon and Whitlock, Coproculture and Fecal Egg Count Reduction Test were performed. Of all the antiparasitic drugs tested, it was observed that only treatments with Ivermectin 2% showed desired values. The observed results indicate that resistance to macrocyclic lactones is usual in equine parasites in this Brazilian region, despite the results with isolated Ivermectin.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar a resistência antiparasitária contra nematodeos de equinos no sul do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Os resultados referentes aos testes de eficácia anti-helmíntica em cavalos, armazenados no banco de dados do Grupo de Estudos de Doenças Parasitárias (GEEP) - Faculdade de Veterinária, da Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), foram realizados em laboratório, no período de 2018 a 2019. Amostras de fezes foram recebidas de fazendas com criação de cavalos Crioulos adultos fêmeas e machos naturalmente infectados, localizadas em municípios da região Sul do país. Os agentes antiparasitários testados foram triclorfon + fenbendazol, closantel + ivermectina + praziquantel, fenbendazol, ivermectina, doramectina, mebendazol e moxidectina. Técnicas como Gordon e Whitlock, coprocultura e teste de redução da contagem de ovos fecais foram realizadas. De todos os antiparasitários testados, observou-se que apenas os tratamentos com ivermectina 2% apresentaram os valores desejados. Os resultados indicam que a resistência às lactonas macrocíclicas é comum em parasitas equinos nessa região brasileira, apesar dos resultados com ivermectina isolada.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Macrolides/analysis , Horses/parasitology , Anthelmintics/analysis , Parasite Egg Count/veterinary , Brazil , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests/veterinary , Antiparasitic Agents/analysis
2.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3129-3141, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921411

ABSTRACT

Macrolide antibiotics are a class of broad-spectrum antibiotics with the macrolide as core nucleus. Recently, antibiotic pollution has become an important environmental problem due to the irregular production and abuse of macrolide antibiotics. Microbial degradation is one of the most effective methods to deal with antibiotic pollution. This review summarizes the current status of environmental pollution caused by macrolide antibiotics, the degradation strains, the degradation enzymes, the degradation pathways and the microbial processes for degrading macrolide antibiotics. Moreover, the critical challenges on the biodegradation of macrolide antibiotics were also discussed.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Biodegradation, Environmental , Macrolides
3.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1737-1747, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878664

ABSTRACT

14- to 16-membered macrolide antibiotics (MA) are clinically important anti-infective drugs. With the rapid emergence of bacterial resistance, there is an urgent need to develop novel MA to counter drug-resistant bacteria. The targeted optimization of MA can be guided by analyzing the interaction between the MA and its ribosomal targets, and the desired MA derivatives can be obtained efficiently when combining with the rapidly developed metabolic engineering approaches. In the past 30 years, metabolic engineering approaches have shown great advantages in engineering the biosynthesis of MA to create new derivatives and to improve their production. These metabolic engineering approaches include modification of the structural domains of the polyketide synthase (PKS) and post-PKS modification enzymes as well as combinatorial biosynthesis. In addition, the R&D (including the evaluation of its antimicrobial activities and the optimization through metabolic engineering) of carrimycin, a new 16-membered macrolide drug, are described in details in this review.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Bacteria/genetics , Macrolides , Metabolic Engineering , Polyketide Synthases
4.
Medwave ; 20(11)dic. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146034

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO Proporcionar un resumen oportuno, riguroso y continuamente actualizado de la evidencia disponible sobre el papel de los macrólidos para el tratamiento de pacientes con COVID-19. DIDEÑO Revisión Sistemática Viva. BASE DE DATOS: La búsqueda de evidencia se realizó en el repositorio centralizado L·OVE (Living OVerview of Evidence) COVID-19; una plataforma que mapea las preguntas PICO para identificar la evidencia en la base de datos Epistemonikos. En respuesta a la emergencia de COVID-19, L·OVE se adaptó para ampliar el rango de evidencia que cubre y hoy se mantiene a través de búsquedas regulares en 39 bases de datos. MÉTODOS: Se incluyeron estudios experimentales que evaluaban el efecto de los macrólidos, como monoterapia o en combinación con otros fármacos, versus placebo o ningún tratamiento en pacientes con sospecha o confirmación de COVID-19. Se buscó identificar experimentos clínicos aleatorizados que evaluaran macrólidos en infecciones causadas por otros coronavirus, como MERS-CoV y SARS-CoV. Dos revisores examinaron de forma independiente la elegibilidad de cada estudio, extrajeron los datos y evaluaron el riesgo de sesgo. Se evaluó el efecto de los macrólidos sobre la mortalidad por todas las causas; necesidad de ventilación mecánica invasiva; oxigenación por membrana extracorpórea, duración de la estancia hospitalaria, insuficiencia respiratoria, eventos adversos graves, tiempo hasta la negatividad de la RT-PCR del SARS-CoV-2. La certeza de la evidencia para cada desenlace se evaluó siguiendo la aproximación GRADE. Esta revisión se mantendrá viva y disponible abiertamente durante la pandemia de COVID-19. Se someterán actualizaciones de su publicación cada vez que cambien las conclusiones o cuando haya actualizaciones sustanciales. RESULTADOS: Se identificó un experimento clínico aleatorio que evaluó el uso de azitromicina en combinación con hidroxicloroquina en comparación con el uso de hidroxicloroquina sola, en pacientes hospitalizados por COVID 19. Las estimaciones para todos los resultados evaluados resultaron en un poder estadístico insuficiente para llegar a conclusiones válidas. La calidad de la evidencia para los resultados principales fue baja a muy baja. CONCLUSIONES: El uso de macrólidos en el tratamiento de pacientes con COVID 19 no ha mostrado efectos beneficiosos en comparación con el tratamiento estándar. La evidencia para todos los desenlaces no es concluyente. Se necesitan estudios sobre un mayor número de pacientes con COVID 19, para determinar los efectos del uso de macrólidos sobre los desenlaces relacionados con la enfermedad.


OBJECTIVE This living, systematic review aims to provide a timely, rigorous, and continuously updated summary of the evidence available on the role of macrolides for treating patients with COVID-19. DESIGN: a living, systematic review. DATABASE: We conducted searches in the centralized repository L·OVE (Living OVerview of Evidence). L·OVE is a platform that maps PICO questions to evidence from the Epistemonikos database. In response to the COVID-19 emergency, L·OVE was adapted to expand the range of evidence it covers and customized to group all COVID-19 evidence in one place. Today it is maintained through regular searches in 39 databases.METHODS: We included randomized trials evaluating the effect of macrolides ­ as monotherapy or in combination with other drugs ­ versus placebo or no treatment in patients with COVID-19. Randomized trials evaluating macrolides in infections caused by other coronaviruses, such as MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV, and non-randomized studies in COVID-19 were searched in case we found no direct evidence from randomized trials. Two reviewers independently screened each study for eligibility, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias. Measures included all-cause mortality; the need for invasive mechanical ventilation; extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, length of hospital stay, respiratory failure, serious adverse events, time to SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR negativity. We applied the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of the evidence for each outcome. A living, web-based version of this review will be openly available during the COVID-19 pandemic. We will resubmit it every time the conclusions change or whenever there are substantial updates. RESULTS: The search in the L·OVE platform retrieved 424 references. We considered 260 as potentially eligible and were reviewed in full texts. We included one randomized clinical trial that evaluated the use of azithromycin in combination with hydroxychloroquine compared to hydroxychloroquine alone in hospitalized patients with COVID 19. The estimates for all outcomes evaluated resulted in insufficient power to draw conclusions. The quality of the evidence for the main outcomes was low to very low. CONCLUSIONS: Macrolides in the management of patients with COVID 19 showed no beneficial effects compared to standard of care. The evidence for all outcomes is inconclusive. Larger trials are needed to determine the effects of macrolides on pulmonary and other outcomes in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Macrolides/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Treatment Outcome , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification
5.
Acta méd. colomb ; 45(2): 1-5, Jan.-June 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1130684

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction and objectives: macrolides are widely used antibiotics for which a greater frequency of cardiovascular events related to increased arrhythmias has been reported. This study seeks to describe some cardiovascular complications of the use of macrolides in ICU patients. Materials and methods: this was a descriptive cross-sectional study which included adult patients admitted to the Medical Intensive Care Unit at the Fundación Cardioinfantil who received antibiotic treatment with clarithromycin in 2013 and 2015. Results: the collected sample was 38 patients. The median age was 64 years, and clarithromycin was most frequently used for treating community-acquired infections, with pneumonia being the most common diagnosis. The frequency of atrial fibrillation or flutter was 7.89%, and ventricular tachycardia 2.63%. The most frequently used concomitant medication was quetiapine at 28.95%. The main cause of death was respiratory failure. Conclusions: the frequency of arrhythmias was high in our study, although the most frequent cause of death was respiratory failure. (Acta Med Colomb 2020; 45. DOI:https://doi.org/10.36104/amc.2020.1336).


Resumen Introducción y objetivos: los macrólidos son antibióticos ampliamente utilizados con los cuales se ha reportado una mayor frecuencia de eventos cardiovasculares relacionados con aumento de arritmias. Mediante este estudio, se busca describir algunas complicaciones cardiovasculares con el uso de macrólidos en pacientes en UCI. Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal en el que se incluyeron pacientes adultos que ingresaron a la unidad de cuidado intensivo médico de la Fundación Cardioinfantil y que recibieron tratamiento antibiótico con claritromicina durante los años 2013 y 2015. Resultados: la muestra recolectada fue de 38 pacientes, la mediana de edad fue de 64 años y la claritromicina se usó más frecuentemente en el tratamiento de infecciones adquiridas en la comunidad, siendo la neumonía el diagnóstico más común. La frecuencia de arritmias tipo fibrilación o flutter auricular fue de 7.89% y de taquicardia ventricular 2.63%. El medicamento concomitante más frecuentemente usado fue la quetiapina con 28.95%. La principal causa de muerte fue falla respiratoria. Conclusiones: la frecuencia de arritmias fue alta en nuestro, aunque la causa de muerte más frecuente fue falla respiratoria.(Acta Med Colomb 2020; 45. DOI:https://doi.org/10.36104/amc.2020.1336).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Macrolides , Pneumonia , Clarithromycin , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Intensive Care Units
6.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(1): 17-28, Jan. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1091657

ABSTRACT

The early use of antimicrobial therapy has been introduced in many farms to prevent diarrhea and respiratory disease in young calves; however, there is controversy about whether this practice has a beneficial effect on the health of these animals. This study evaluated the influence of the early use of antimicrobials on the health and performance of neonatal Holstein calves. Twenty-six Holstein calves were screened and divided into two groups, according to the administration (ATB+), or not (ATB-) of tulathromycin (2.5mg/kg, subcutaneously) within the first 12 hours of life. Calves were evaluated by general clinical examination, fecal score, respiratory score, and external palpation of the umbilical region, besides fecal output of dry matter. Anemia was determined by using an automatic system and, also, using a commercial kit for iron dosage. Diarrhea was diagnosed by a centrifuge-flotation technique using a sugar solution (Cryptosporidium) and multiplex semi-nested RT-PCR (rotavirus/coronavirus). The performance of the calves was estimated by Daily Weight Gain (DWG). The young dairy calves were evaluated within 12 hours of birth (≤12h) and at 3-5th (D3-5), 7-9th (D7-9), 13-15th (D13-15), 20-23rd (D20-23), and 27-30th (D27-30) days of life. No difference was noted between the ATB+ and ATB- groups concerning heart rate, respiratory frequency, and rectal temperature. Erythrogram showed a higher frequency of anemia in ATB- group (P=0.016) at the D3-5 check-up; lower values of serum iron were also observed simultaneously (P=0.051). Thirteen cases of respiratory disease were detected during this study; however, no significant difference was observed between the groups in this regard. The frequency of diarrhea (fecal score 2-3) was high in both groups, peaking at D13-D15. No differences were noted between the groups regarding the frequency of diarrhea when considering the dry fecal matter. The predominant etiological agent for diarrhea was Cryptosporidium spp.. The DWG was similar between groups, with maximum weight reduction on D13-15. The administration of tulathromycin in prophylactic dose (2.5mg/kg) at birth decreased the frequency of anemia but did not influence weight gain or the prevalence of diarrhea.(AU)


O uso precoce de antimicrobianos tem sido adotado em muitas fazendas para profilaxia das diarreias e doença respiratória em bezerras, no entanto existem controvérsias sobre os beneficios desta prática na saúde desses animais. Esta pesquisa avaliou a influência do uso precoce de antimicrobiano na sanidade e desempenho de bezerras holandesas recém-nascidas. Para tanto foram selecionadas 26 bezerras Holandesas distribuídas de acordo com a aplicação (ATB+) ou não (ATB-) de tulatromicina (2,5mg/Kg) por via subcutânea até 12h de vida. As bezerras foram examinadas por meio de exame clínico geral, escore fecal, escore respiratório e palpação externa da região umbilical, além da matéria seca fecal. A presença de anemias foi determinada pelo eritrograma utilizando sistema automático e além da dosagem de ferro utilizando kit comercial. O diagnóstico etiológico das diarreias foi investigado por meio da técnica de flutuação em solução saturada de sacarose (Cryptosporidium) e multiplex semi-nested RT-PCR (rotavírus/coronavírus). O desempenho das bezerras foi estimado pelo ganho de peso. As bezerras foram avaliadas até doze horas após o nascimento (≤12h); 3-5º (D3-5); 7-9º (D7-9); 13-15º (D13-15); 20-23º (D20-23); e 27-30º dias de vida (D27-30). Não foram encontradas diferenças entre os grupos ATB+ e ATB- em relação à frequência cardíaca, frequência respiratória e temperatura retal. O eritrograma revelou maior frequência de anemias no grupo ATB- (P=0,016) no D3-5. Neste momento também foram observados menores valores de ferro sérico (P=0,051). Foram detectados treze casos de doença respiratória durante o estudo, no entanto não foi possível detectar diferença entre os grupos. A frequência de diarreias (escore fecal 2 e 3) foi alta em ambos os grupos, observando-se pico no D13-15 (ATB+=92,3%; ATB-=92,3%). Não observamos diferenças entre os grupos em relação a frequência de diarreia considerando-se a matéria seca fecal. O agente etiológico predominante nas diarreias foi o Cryptosporidium. O ganho de peso diário foi igual entre grupos, com intensa redução no GPD no D13-15. A administração de tulatromicina na dose profilática (2,5mg/Kg) ao nascimento diminuiu a frequência de anemias e não influenciou no ganho de peso e prevalência de diarreias.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Rotavirus Infections/veterinary , Macrolides/therapeutic use , Dysentery/etiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/etiology , Anemia/prevention & control , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus, Bovine , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Cryptosporidiosis
7.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 51(4): 345-353, dic. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057399

ABSTRACT

Abstract A novel microbiological system in microtiter plates consisting of five bioassays is presented for the detection and classification of antibiotic residues in milk. The bioassays were optimized for the detection of beta-lactams (Bioassay B: Geobacillus stearothermophilus), macrolides (Bioassay M: Bacillus megaterium with fusidic acid), tetracyclines (Bioassay T: B. megaterium with chloramphenicol), quinolones (Bioassay Q: Bacillus licheniformis) and sulfamides (Bioassay QS: B. licheniformis with trimethoprim) at levels near the maximum residue limits (MRL). The response of each bioassay was interpreted visually (positive or negative) after 4-5.5h of incubation. The system detects and classifies beta-lactams (5 pg/l of amoxicillin, 4 pg/l of ampicillin, 36 pg/l of cloxacillin, 22 pg/l of amoxicillin, 3 pg/l of penicillin, 114 pg/l of cephalexin, 89pg/l of cefoperazone and 116 pg/l of ceftiofur), tetracyclines (98 pg/l of chlortetracycline, 92 pg/l of oxytetracycline and 88 pg/l of tetracycline), macrolides (33 pg/l of erythromycin, 44 pg/l of tilmicosin and 50 pg/l of tylosin), sulfonamides (76 pg/l of sulfadiazine, 85 pg/l of sulfadimethoxine, 77 pg/l of sulfamethoxazole and 87pg/l of sulfathiazole) and quinolones (94 pg/l of ciprofloxacin, 98 pg/l of enrofloxacin and 79 pg/l marbofloxacin). In addition, the specificity values were high for B, T, Q (99.4%), M (98.8%) and QS (98.1%) bioassays. The control of antibiotics through this system can contribute to improving the quality and safety of dairy products.


Resumen Se presenta un novedoso sistema microbiológico en placas de microtitulación compuesto por 5 bioensayos para la detección y clasificación de residuos de antibióticos en leche. Los bioensayos fueron optimizados para la detección de betalactámicos (bioensayo B: Geobacillus stearothermophilus), macrólidos (bioensayo M: Bacillus megaterium con ácido fusídico), tetraciclinas (bioensayo T: Bacillus megaterium con cloranfenicol), quinolonas (bioensayo Q: Bacillus licheniformis) y sulfamidas (bioensayo QS: Bacillus licheniformis con trimetoprima), a niveles cercanos a los límites máximos de residuos (LMR). La respuesta de cada bioensayo se interpretó visualmente (positiva o negativa) después de 4 a 5,5 h de incubación. El sistema detecta y clasifica betalactámicos (5 pg/l de amoxicilina, 4 pg/l de ampicilina, 36 pg/l de cloxacilina, 22 pg/l de amoxicilina, 3 pg/l de penicilina, 114 pg/l de cefalexina, 89 pg/l de cefoperazona y 116 pg/l de ceftiofur), tetraciclinas (98 pg/l de clortetraciclina, 92 pg/l de oxitetraciclina y 88 pg/l de tetraciclina), macrólidos (33 pg/l de eritromicina, 44 pg/l de tilmi-cosina y 50 pg/l de tilosina), sulfamidas (76 pg/l de sulfadiacina, 85 pg/l de sulfadimetoxina, 77 pg/l de sulfametoxazol y 87 pg/l de sulfatiazol) y quinolonas (94 pg/l de ciprofloxacina, 98 pg/l de enrofloxacina y 79pg/l de marbofloxacina). Además, los valores de especificidad fueron altos para los bioensayos B, T, Q (99,4%), M (98,8%) y QS (98,1%). El control de residuos de antibióticos mediante este sistema puede contribuir a mejorar la calidad e inocuidad de los productos lácteos.


Subject(s)
Biological Assay/methods , Food Microbiology/methods , Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Sulfonamides/analysis , Tetracycline/analysis , Quinolones/analysis , Macrolides/analysis , Dairy Products , beta-Lactams/analysis
8.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 14(2): 86-91, jul. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1015004

ABSTRACT

Bronchiectasis is a suppurative lung disease with heterogeneous phenotypic characteristics. It is defined as abnormal dilation of the bronchi, losing the existing relationship between bronchial sizes and accompanying artery. According to their form, they can be cylindrical, varicose, saccular or cystic. According to its location, they could be diffuse or localized. The diagnosis of bronchiectasis is usually suspected in patients with chronic cough, mucopurulent bronchorrea, and recurrent respiratory infections. The etiology can be varied, being able to classify in cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis, when there is cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) gene mutation and not cystic fibrosis, being post infectious the most frequent. Its relationship with childhood is unknown. Severe respiratory infections can predispose in a susceptible subject the so-called theory of the "vicious circle" and the development of these. Persistent bacterial bronchitis in children has been described as a probable cause of not cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis in adults. The treatment is based on the management of symptoms and the prevention of exacerbations. The evidence is poor and many treatments are extrapolated from cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. We are going to describe the diagnostic and therapeutic approach of non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis in adults.


La bronquiectasia es una enfermedad pulmonar supurativa con características fenotípicas heterogéneas. Se define como la dilatación anormal de los bronquios, perdiendo la relación existente entre tamaño bronquial y arteria que acompaña. Según su forma, pueden ser clasificadas en cilíndricas, varicosas, saculares o quísticas y según su etiología presentarse de forma difusa o localizada. El diagnóstico de bronquiectasias se sospecha generalmente en pacientes con tos crónica, broncorrea mucosa, mucupurulenta e infecciones respiratorias recurrentes. La etiología es variada, pudiendo clasificarse en bronquiectasias fibrosis quística, aquellas que se encuentran en el contexto de la mutación del gen regulador transmembrana de fibrosis quística (CFTR) y no fibrosis quística, de etiologías diversas, siendo post infecciosas la gran mayoría. No se conoce con certeza su relación con la infancia, es sabido que infecciones respiratorias severas pueden predisponer en un sujeto susceptible, a la llamada teoría del "circulo vicioso" y el desarrollo de estas. La bronquitis bacteriana persistente en niños se ha descrito como una causa probable del desarrollo de bronquiectasias no fibrosis quística en adultos. El tratamiento se basa en el manejo de los síntomas y la prevención de las exacerbaciones. La evidencia es escasa y la mayoría de las terapias se han investigado en las bronquiectasias tipo fibrosis quística. En este trabajo se explicará el enfrentamiento diagnóstico y terapéutico de los adultos portadores de bronquiectasias no fibrosis quística.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Adult , Aspergillosis, Allergic Bronchopulmonary/diagnosis , Aspergillosis, Allergic Bronchopulmonary/therapy , Bronchiectasis/physiopathology , Bronchiectasis/therapy , Cystic Fibrosis/diagnosis , Aspergillosis, Allergic Bronchopulmonary/diagnostic imaging , Bronchiectasis/diagnosis , Bronchiectasis/etiology , Bronchiectasis/epidemiology , Radiography, Thoracic , Macrolides/therapeutic use , Cystic Fibrosis/therapy , Cystic Fibrosis/epidemiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
9.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 84(1): 49-54, feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003722

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN OBJETIVO: Ureaplasma urealyticum es el agente más frecuentemente aislado en infección intraamniótica. Los macrólidos son los antimicrobianos de primera elección en embarazadas. Se ha descrito el aumento de resistencia, pudiendo limitar las opciones terapéuticas durante la gestación. El propósito del estudio es evaluar susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de Ureaplasma urealyticum aislado en mujeres en edad fértil, que se atienden en Clínica Alemana Temuco, Araucanía, Chile. METODO: Se estudian todas las muestras de orina y flujo vaginal para cultivo de U. urealyticum, de pacientes entre 18 y 40 años, recibidas en el Laboratorio de Microbiología Clínica Alemana Temuco, en período Abril 2013 a Enero 2015. Se procesan las muestras con kit Mycoplasma IST 2 de Biomerieux. En las que resultan positivas, se estudia susceptibilidad a macrólidos, tetraciclinas y quinolonas. RESULTADOS: 426 muestras de orina y flujo vaginal (390 pacientes). 197 pacientes resultaron positivas para U. urealyticum. (50,5%). La susceptibilidad fue 88,4% (174 pctes) a Eritromicina, 87,9% (173 pctes) a Claritromicina y 91,9% (181 pctes) a Azitromicina (NS). 15 de 197 pacientes (7,6%) fueron resistentes a los 3 macrólidos. La susceptibilidad a Quinolonas fue 55,3% a Ciprofloxacino, y 94% a Ofloxacino. El 100% resultó susceptible a Tetraciclinas. CONCLUSIONES: Cerca del 10% de U. urealyticum aislados en nuestra serie son resistentes a macrólidos, contribuyendo a la no erradicación de la infección en tratamientos empíricos. Dentro de ellos, azitromicina aparece con la mayor efectividad. El aumento de resistencia limitará opciones terapéuticas, con gran impacto perinatal en futuro. La vigilancia de susceptibilidad en cada hospital es fundamental para elección terapéutica.


ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Ureaplasma urealyticum is the most frequently isolated microorganism in intra-amniotic infection. The macrolides are the first choice antimicrobials for treat this infection in pregnancy. The increasing resistance has been described worldwide, seriously limiting therapeutic options in pregnancy. The aim of the study is to evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility of U. urealyticum aislated in fertile-age women in Clínica Alemana Temuco, Araucania region, Chile. METHOD: Urine and vaginal samples were analyzed for U. urealyticum, from every 18 to 40 years old patients, received at Microbiology Laboratory of Clínica Alemana Temuco, between April 2013 to January 2015. The samples are processed with Mycoplasma IST 2 kit of Biomerieux. If they became positives, susceptibility to macrolides, tetracyclines and quinolones was studied. RESULTS: 426 urine and vaginal samples were collected (390 patients). 197 patients were positive for U. urealyticum (50.5%). The susceptibility was 88.4% (174 pts) to Erythromicyn, 87.9% (173 pts) to Clarithromycin and 91.9% (181 pts) to Azithromycin (NS). Resistance to all macrolides was observed in 15 out of 197 patients (7.6%). The susceptibility to Quinolones was 55.3% to Ciprofloxacin, and 94% to Ofloxacin. The 100% was susceptible to Tetracyclines. DISCUSSION: Near to 10% of isolated Ureaplasma spp in our serie were resistant to some macrolide, being a factor for failing to eradicate the infection in empirical treatment. Azithromycin was the most effective. The increasing resistance will limit therapeutic options, with great perinatal impact in the future. Susceptibility surveillance in each hospital is very important for therapeutic options.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Ureaplasma urealyticum/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Tetracycline/pharmacology , Urine/microbiology , Urogenital System/microbiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Erythromycin/pharmacology , Ureaplasma urealyticum/isolation & purification , Azithromycin/pharmacology , Quinolones/pharmacology , Macrolides/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial
10.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 343-352, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759949

ABSTRACT

Mycobacterium abscessus is the second most important pathogen in pulmonary disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), following Mycobacterium avium. Mycobacterium abscessus is classified into three subspecies: M. abscessus subsp. abscessus, M. abscessus subsp. massiliense, and M. abscessus subsp. bolletii. Mycobacterium abscessus is the most difficult to treat NTM due to its resistance to many antibiotics. Treatment should include an initial regimen of 2–3 injectable and oral antibiotics for several weeks or months, followed by inhaled amikacin and 1–3 oral antibiotics, depending on the subspecies and drug susceptibility patterns, including macrolide susceptibility. The continuation phase should be continued for a minimum of 12 months after culture conversion. Suitable injectable antibiotics include amikacin, imipenem, cefoxitin, and tigecycline, while oral antibiotics include macrolides (azithromycin or clarithromycin), clofazimine, linezolid, and moxifloxacin. Surgery can be a useful adjunctive therapy for some patients with refractory disease. However, the overall treatment prognosis is still unsatisfactory. Therefore, novel and more effective interventions are required for the treatment of M. abscessus pulmonary disease.


Subject(s)
Amikacin , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Cefoxitin , Clofazimine , Humans , Imipenem , Linezolid , Lung Diseases , Macrolides , Mycobacterium avium , Mycobacterium , Nontuberculous Mycobacteria , Prognosis
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760216

ABSTRACT

Although Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) has been generally susceptible to macrolides, the emergence of macrolide-resistant MPP (MRMP) has made its treatment challenging. MRMP rapidly spread after the 2000s, especially in East Asia. MRMP is more common in children and adolescents than in adults, which is likely related to the frequent use of macrolides for treating M. pneumoniae infections in children. MRMP is unlikely to be related to clinical, laboratory, or radiological severity, although it likely prolongs the persistence of symptoms and the length of hospital stay. Thereby, it causes an increased burden of the disease and poor quality of life for the patient as well as a societal socioeconomic burden. To date, the only alternative treatments for MRMP are secondary antimicrobials such as tetracyclines (TCs) or fluoroquinolones (FQs) or systemic corticosteroids; however, the former are contraindicated in children because of concerns about potential adverse events (i.e., tooth discoloration or tendinopathy). A few guidelines recommended TCs or FQs as the second-line drug of choice for treating MRMP. However, there have been no evidence-based guidelines. Furthermore, safety issues have not yet been resolved. Therefore, this article aimed to review the benefits and risks of therapeutic alternatives for treating MRMP in children and review the recommendations of international or regional guidelines and specific considerations for their practical application.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Adult , Child , Drug Resistance , Far East , Fluoroquinolones , Humans , Length of Stay , Macrolides , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Mycoplasma , Pneumonia , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma , Quality of Life , Risk Assessment , Tetracycline , Tetracyclines , Tooth Discoloration
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719621

ABSTRACT

The pathogen Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is the most common cause of nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease worldwide. The decision to initiate long-term antibiotic treatment is difficult for the physician due to inconsistent disease progression and adverse effects associated with the antibiotic treatment. The prognostic factors for the progression of MAC pulmonary disease are low body mass index, poor nutritional status, presence of cavitary lesion(s), extensive disease, and a positive acid-fast bacilli smear. A regimen consisting of macrolides (clarithromycin or azithromycin) with rifampin and ethambutol has been recommended; this regimen significantly improves the treatment of MAC pulmonary disease and should be maintained for at least 12 months after negative sputum culture conversion. However, the rates of default and disease recurrence after treatment completion are still high. Moreover, treatment failure or macrolide resistance can occur, although in some refractory cases, surgical lung resection can improve treatment outcomes. However, surgical resection should be carefully performed in a well-equipped center and be based on a rigorous risk-benefit analysis in a multidisciplinary setting. New therapies, including clofazimine, inhaled amikacin, and bedaquiline, have shown promising results for the treatment of MAC pulmonary disease, especially in patients with treatment failure or macrolide-resistant MAC pulmonary disease. However, further evidence of the efficacy and safety of these new treatment regimens is needed. Also, a new consensus is needed for treatment outcome definitions as widespread use of these definitions could increase the quality of evidence for the treatment of MAC pulmonary disease.


Subject(s)
Amikacin , Body Mass Index , Clofazimine , Consensus , Disease Progression , Ethambutol , Humans , Lung , Lung Diseases , Macrolides , Mycobacterium avium Complex , Mycobacterium avium , Mycobacterium , Nontuberculous Mycobacteria , Nutritional Status , Recurrence , Rifampin , Sputum , Treatment Failure , Treatment Outcome
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741765

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Genetic determinants conferring resistance to macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin B (MLSB) via ribosomal modification such as, erm, msrA/B and ereA/B genes are distributed in bacteria. The main goals of this work were to evaluate the dissemination of MLSB resistance phenotypes and genotypes in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates collected from clinical samples. METHODS: A total of 106 MRSA isolates were studied. Isolates were recovered from 3 hospitals in Tehran between May 2016 to July 2017. The prevalence of MLSB-resistant strains were determined by D-test, and then M-PCR was performed to identify genes encoding resistance to macrolides, lincosamides, and streptogramins in the tested isolates. RESULTS: The frequency of constitutive resistance MLSB, inducible resistance MLSB and MSB resistance were 56.2%, 22.9%, and 16.6%, respectively. Of 11 isolates with the inducible resistance MLSB phenotype, ermC, ermB, ermA and ereA were positive in 81.8%, 63.6%, 54.5% and 18.2% of these isolates, respectively. In isolates with the constitutive resistance MLSB phenotype, the prevalence of ermA, ermB, ermC, msrA, msrB, ereA and ereB were 25.9%, 18.5%, 44.4%, 0.0%, 0.0%, 11.1% and 0.0%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Clindamycin is commonly administered in severe MRSA infections depending upon the antimicrobial susceptibility findings. This study showed that the D-test should be used as an obligatory method in routine disk diffusion assay to detect inducible clindamycin resistance in MRSA so that effective antibiotic treatment can be provided.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Clindamycin , Diffusion , Drug Resistance , Genotype , Lincosamides , Macrolides , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Methods , Phenotype , Prevalence , Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcus , Streptogramin B , Streptogramins
14.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1662-1675, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771764

ABSTRACT

The fcl gene encodes GDP-fucose synthase, which catalyzes two-step differential isomerase and reductase reactions in the synthesis of GDP-L-fucose from GDP-D-mannose. It also participates in the biosynthesis of amino sugar and ribose sugar, and is one of the key enzymes to regulate the metabolism of sugar and nucleotides in organisms. The presence of fcl gene in Saccharopolyspora pogona was found through sequencing result of genome. The mutant S. pogona-fcl and S. pogona-Δfcl were constructed by gene engineering technology. The results showed that the gene had an effects on growth and development, protein expression and transcriptional level, insecticidal activity, and biosynthesis of butenyl-spinosyn of Saccharopolyspora pogona. The results of HPLC analysis showed that the yield of butenyl-spinosyn in S. pogona-Δfcl was 130% compared with that in S. pogona, which reduced by 25% in S. pogona-fcl. The results of determination of insecticidal activity showed that S. pogona-Δfcl had a stronger insecticidal activity against Helicoverpa armigera than that of S. pogona, while the S. pogona-fcl had a lower insecticidal activity against Helicoverpa armigera compared with S. pogona. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the morphology of the mycelia. It was found that the surface of the S. pogona-Δfcl was wrinkled, and the mycelium showed a short rod shape. There was no significant difference in mycelial morphology between S. pogona-fcl and S. pogona. Aboved all showed that deletion of fcl gene in S. pogona hindered the growth and development of mycelia, but was beneficial to increase the biosynthesis of butenyl-spinosyn and improve insecticidal activity. Whereas the fcl gene over-expression was not conducive to the biosynthesis of butenyl-spinosyn and reduced their insecticidal activity. SDS-PAGE results showed that the difference of protein expression among the three strains was most obvious at 96 hours, which was identified by real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction, the results showed that there were significant differences of related genes in transcriptional levels among the three strains. Based on the results of the study, a network metabolic control map was constructed to analyze the effect of fcl gene on growth and the regulation pathway of butenyl-spinosyn biosynthesis, which provided an experimental basis for revealing the regulation mechanism of butenyl-spinosyn biosynthesis and related follow-up studies.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Proteins , Genetic Engineering , Insecticides , Macrolides , Saccharopolyspora
15.
DST j. bras. doenças sex. transm ; 30(1): 25-29, 30-03-2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1122865

ABSTRACT

Syphilis represents a global public health problem. The resistance of Treponema pallidum to macrolides is related to the mutation in the 23S rRNA gene (A2058G). We reported a case of secondary syphilis in a 52-year-old man presenting two profiles: the first one of susceptibility, and the other one of resistance, when we analyzed the 23S rRNA gene sequence from two different clinical specimens of the same infectious episode. DNA from T. pallidum from skin biopsy presented resistance profile, whereas T. pallidum DNA from blood presented a profile of susceptibility to macrolides. These results suggest it was mixed infection or reinfection.


A sífilis representa um problema de saúde pública mundial. A resistência de Treponema pallidum aos macrolídeos está relacionada à mutação no gene 23S rRNA (A2058G). Relatamos um caso de sífilis secundária, em um homem de 52 anos, com um perfil de suscetibilidade e outro de resistência, ao analisarmos a sequência do gene 23S rRNA de dois espécimes clínicos diferentes, do mesmo episódio infeccioso. A amostra de DNA de T. pallidum proveniente de raspado dérmico da lesão apresentou um perfil de resistência, enquanto aquele que derivou de sangue apresentou perfil de suscetibilidade aos macrolídeos. Esses resultados sugerem tratar-se de infecção mista ou de reinfecção.


Subject(s)
Humans , Treponema pallidum , Syphilis , Macrolides , Wounds and Injuries , DNA , Disease Susceptibility
16.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 27(1): 90-93, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042461

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cyathostomins are the most prevalent nematodes of horses, and multidrug resistance has been reported worldwide. There is a need to implement alternative drug monitoring analytical tests. The objective of this study was to determine the consistency (5 repetitions) of the larval migration on agar test (LMAT) using ivermectin, moxidectin, pyrantel or albendazole against cyathostomin infective-stage larvae in eight different concentrations. LMAT showed a strong coefficient of determination (R2 > 0.91), between the test repetitions (n=5). The average 50% effective concentration (EC50) for ivermectin, moxidectin, pyrantel and albendazole were 0.0404, 0.0558, 0.0864 and 0.0988 nMol, respectively. The results of the EC50 for albendazole showed the greatest range of concentration. Ivermectin and moxidectin had the lowest in between-test variation. In the future, internationally certified susceptible isolates could be used for screening new drug candidates, or to follow up the pattern of drug efficacy from field populations.


Resumo Ciatostomíneos são os nematodas mais prevalentes em equinos e a resistência múltipla foi relatada em todo o mundo. Existe a necessidade de implementar o monitoramento dos produtos com testes analíticos alternativos. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a consistência (5 repetições) do teste de migração larval em ágar (TMLA) usando ivermectina, moxidectina, pirantel e albendazole contra larvas infectantes de ciatostomíneos em oito concentrações diferentes. O TMLA demonstrou um coeficiente de determinação (R2) acima de 0,91 entre as repetições do teste. A concentração efetiva para 50% (CE50) para ivermectina, moxidectina, pirantel e albendazole foi de 0,0404; 0,0558; 0,0864 e 0,0988 nMol, respectivamente. A CE50 do albendazole demonstrou a maior amplitude entre os testes. A ivermectina e a moxidectina tiveram as menores variações das doses entre as repetições. No futuro, isolados certificados susceptíveis poderão ser testados com o TMLA para indicação de novos produtos e mesmo para acompanhar o perfil de eficácia de populações do campo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Horses/parasitology , Nematoda/drug effects , Antiparasitic Agents/pharmacology , Parasitology/methods , Pyrantel/pharmacology , Ivermectin/pharmacology , Albendazole/pharmacology , Macrolides/pharmacology , Larva/drug effects
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766460

ABSTRACT

Acne vulgaris is a very common condition affecting up of about 80% to 90% of adolescents. The patients with acne have been shown to be adversely impacted by the effect of acne on their quality of life. Four factors are believed to play a key role in the development of acne lesions: excess sebum production, disturbed keratinization within the follicle, colonization of the pilosebaceous duct by Propionibacterium acnes, and the release of inflammatory mediators into the skin. Consequently, the target for acne therapy is these well-known pathogenic factors responsible for this disease state. Topical retinoids correct abnormal keratinization, but it should be applied cautiously because of irritation. Benzoyl peroxide is an effective bactericidal agent against P. acnes. Main topical antibiotics are erythromycin and clindamycin. Fixed combination topical products with retinoids, benzoyl peroxide and antibiotics have been introduced. Use of systemic antibiotics, including tetracyclines and macrolides rapidly improves inflammatory acne lesions. Oral isotretinoin is effective against all of the main pathogenic features of acne but is contraindicated in pregnant women and has been associated with cheilitis and dry skin. Hormonal therapy has been found to improve acne in some selective patients and should be considered for appropriate candidates. This review will present the general aspects of the pharmacological treatments for acne.


Subject(s)
Acne Vulgaris , Adolescent , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Benzoyl Peroxide , Cheilitis , Clindamycin , Colon , Drug Therapy , Erythromycin , Female , Humans , Isotretinoin , Macrolides , Pregnant Women , Propionibacterium acnes , Quality of Life , Retinoids , Sebum , Skin , Tetracyclines
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739502

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Refractory Mycoplasma pneumonia (RMP) has been increasing not only in Korea but worldwide. We investigated the incidence of M. pneumonia resistant to macrolides and risk factors for RMP. METHODS: From October 2015 to May 2016, 62 pediatric patients who were admitted due to pneumonia diagnosed on the basis of chest x-ray with respiratory symptoms and positive for M. pneumoniae in polymerase chain reaction with no evidence of other bacterial or viral infections were included. Sequence analysis of the 23S rRNA gene in M. pneumoniae was performed to identify macrolide resistance. Patients with congenital anomalies, history of pulmonary disease, and unclear information on antibiotic use were excluded. RESULTS: Mutations in the 23S rRNA gene were detected in 50 of 62 patients (80.6%). Risk factors were analyzed in only 45 patients. The RMP group consisted of 26 patients (57.8%) who had fever lasting more than 5 days and deteriorating chest x-ray findings. The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were significantly higher in the RMP group than in the non-RMP group (LDH: 300±79 U/L vs. 469±206 U/L, CRP: 4.9±4.3 mg/dL vs. 2.5±1.7 mg/dL; P = 0.04 vs. P = 0.026). In univariate analysis, the RMP group was significantly associated with 23S rRNA gene mutation, lobar pneumonia, and pleural effusion (odds ration [OR]: 10.8, 4.1, 5.3; P = 0.004, P = 0.036, P = 0.046). The presence of macrolide resistance was found to be only a significant risk factor in logistic regression (OR; 8.827; 95% confidence interval, 1.376–56.622; P = 0.022). CONCLUSION: Macrolide resistance was a significant risk factor in patients with RMP and identification of macrolide resistance might be helpful in predicting RMP and establishing target therapy for RMP.


Subject(s)
C-Reactive Protein , Child , Fever , Genes, rRNA , Humans , Incidence , Korea , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Logistic Models , Lung Diseases , Macrolides , Mycoplasma , Pleural Effusion , Pneumonia , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk Factors , Sequence Analysis , Thorax
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717598

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to compare the therapeutic efficacy of prolonged macrolide (PMC), corticosteroids (CST), doxycycline (DXC), and levofloxacin (LFX) against macrolide-unresponsive Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) pneumonia in children and to evaluate the safety of the secondary treatment agents. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the data of patients with MP pneumonia hospitalized between January 2015 and April 2017. Macrolide-unresponsiveness was clinically defined with a persistent fever of ≥ 38.0°C at ≥ 72 hours after macrolide treatment. The cases were divided into four groups: PMC, CST, DXC, and LFX. We compared the time to defervescence (TTD) after secondary treatment and the TTD after initial macrolide treatment in each group with adjustment using propensity score-matching analysis. RESULTS: Among 1,165 cases of MP pneumonia, 190 (16.3%) were unresponsive to macrolides. The proportion of patients who achieved defervescence within 48 hours in CST, DXC, and LFX groups were 96.9% (31/33), 85.7% (12/14), and 83.3% (5/6), respectively. The TTD after initial macrolide treatment did not differ between PMC and CST groups (5.1 vs. 4.2 days, P = 0.085), PMC and DXC groups (4.9 vs. 5.7 days, P = 0.453), and PMC and LFX groups (4.4 vs. 5.0 days, P = 0.283). No side effects were observed in the CST, DXC, and LFX groups. CONCLUSION: The change to secondary treatment did not show better efficacy compared to PMC in children with macrolide-unresponsive MP pneumonia. Further studies are needed to guide appropriate treatment in children with MP pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Child , Doxycycline , Fever , Humans , Levofloxacin , Macrolides , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Mycoplasma , Pneumonia , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma , Retrospective Studies
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742432

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Asthma is a disease of chronic airway inflammation with heterogeneous features. Neutrophilic asthma is corticosteroid-insensitive asthma related to absence or suppression of TH2 process and increased TH1 and/or TH17 process. Macrolides are immunomodulatory drug that reduce airway inflammation, but their role in asthma is not fully known. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of macrolides in neutrophilic asthma and compare their effects with those of corticosteroids. METHODS: C57BL/6 female mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) and lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Clarithromycin (CAM) and/or dexamethasone (DXM) were administered at days 14, 15, 21, 22, and 23. At day 24, the mice were sacrificed. RESULTS: Airway resistance in the OVA+LPS exposed mice was elevated but was more attenuated after treatment with CAM+DXM compared with the monotherapy group (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01). In bronchoalveolar lavage fluid study, total cells and neutrophil counts in OVA+LPS mice were elevated but decreased after CAM+DXM treatment. In hematoxylin and eosin stain, the CAM+DXM-treated group showed less inflammation additively than the monotherapy group. There was less total protein, interleukin 17 (IL-17), interferon γ, and tumor necrosis factor α in the CAM+DXM group than in the monotherapy group (p < 0.001, p < 0.05, and p < 0.001). More histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) activity was recovered in the DXM and CAM+DXM challenged groups than in the control group (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Decreased IL-17 and recovered relative HDAC2 activity correlated with airway resistance and inflammation in a neutrophilic asthma mouse model. This result suggests macrolides as a potential corticosteroid-sparing agent in neutrophilic asthma.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Airway Resistance , Animals , Asthma , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Clarithromycin , Dexamethasone , Eosine Yellowish-(YS) , Female , Hematoxylin , Histone Deacetylase 2 , Histone Deacetylases , Humans , Inflammation , Interferons , Interleukin-17 , Lipopolysaccharides , Macrolides , Mice , Neutrophils , Ovalbumin , Th17 Cells , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
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