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1.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 74 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378473

ABSTRACT

O neuroblastoma é um tumor sólido muito comum em crianças. O estágio mais avançado da doença é altamente agressivo e invasivo, além de pouco responsivo à terapia, que é limitada por mecanismos de resistência e reincidência relacionados à metástase. Muitos estudos tem sido feitos para identificar mecanismos de invasão e quimioresistência de células tumorais, afim de aumentar a sobrevida dos pacientes com câncer. Nesse trabalho, nós estudamos o efeito dos macrófagos, as células imunes mais abundantes no microambiente tumoral, os TAMs (do inglês tumor-associated macrophage) e do receptor P2X7, um purinoreceptor acionado por ATP, nesses processos. Os TAMs respondem e atuam de acordo com a miríade de fatores que encontram, podendo gerar populações heterogêneas e com funções distintas, tanto antitumorais, como pró-tumorais. Altos níveis de ATP extracelular são encontrados no microambiente tumoral, podendo então ativar o receptor P2X7. Este receptor tem sido relacionado tanto a funções inflamatórias como funções na resolução da inflamação de macrófagos. Além disso, o receptor P2X7 está envolvido em uma variedade de eventos celulares, incluindo a secreção de mediadores pró-inflamatórios, a proliferação celular e a apoptose de células tumorais. Primeiramente, foi avaliado o papel do receptor P2X7 na polarização de macrófagos da derivados medula óssea de camundongos wild-type e nocaute para o P2X7 na presença e ausência de fatores secretados por células de neuroblastoma, e então foi estudada a influência desses diferentes macrófagos polarizados em eventos celulares de grande relevância clínica para o neuroblastoma: a invasividade e quimiorresistência. Os resultados demonstraram que, apesar do reconhecido envolvimento do receptor P2X7 na inflamação, a ausência deste receptor não atenua a expressão de marcadores característicos do fenótipo inflamatório, M1. O aumento da expressão do receptor P2Y2, também envolvido na inflamação, nessas células, sugere um mecanismo genético de compensação para não atenuação da inflamação em macrófagos que não expressam o receptor P2X7. Contudo, a ausência do receptor P2X7 levou a alterações no fenótipo alternativo, M2, de modo que a expressão de Tnf, marcador de M2, não foi reprimido. TAMs noucates para P2X7 tiveram a expressão de arg1, marcador de M2, suprimida, reforçando a importância do receptor P2X7 no estabelecimento de fenótipos ativados alternativamente. Nossos dados também sugerem que ausência do receptor P2X7 em TAMs permite a aquisição de um fenótipo capaz de tornar as células de neuroblastoma que expressam P2X7 mais invasivas e mais quimioresistentes à vincristina. Por outro lado, TAMs, independentemente da presença ou ausência do receptor P2X7, induziram a proliferação e quimioresistência das células de neuroblastoma silenciadas para o receptor P2X7, o que nos leva a concluir que o receptor P2X7 em TAMs é desfavorável à progressão de tumores expressando P2X7


Neuroblastoma is a highly common childhood solid tumor. The most advanced stage of the disease is highly aggressive and invasive, besides from being poorly responsive to therapies, which are limited by resistance and recurrence mechanisms related to metastasis. Several studies attempt to identify invasion and resistance mechanisms of the tumor cells in order to increase overall survival of the patients. On the present work, we investigated the effect of macrophages, the most abundant immune cells on the tumor microenvironment, called TAMs (tumor-associated macrophages), and of the P2X7 receptor, an ATP-gated purinoceptor, on these processes. TAMs and cancer cells crosstalk, and behave accordingly to a miriad of factors present at the TME, generating heterogeneous populations with distinct functionalities, either pro- or antitumor. High extracellular levels of ATP are found in the TME, being able to activate the P2X7 receptor. This receptor mediates both pro- and anti-inflammatory functions in macrophages. In addition, it is involved in several cellular events, including the secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators, cell proliferation and tumor cell apoptosis. At first, we evaluated the role of the P2X7 receptor on the polarization of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM), either wild-type or knockout for the P2X7 receptor, in presence or absence or factors secreted by neuroblastoma cells. Next, we investigated the influence of the polarized macrophages in highly relevant cellular events for neuroblastoma, such as invasiveness and chemoresistance. Our results showed that, despite the known involvement of P2X7 receptor on inflammation, its absence did not decrease the expression if inflammatory markers of M1 macrophage populations. An increase in the expression of the P2Y2 receptor, also involved in inflammation, on these cells suggest a genetic compensation mechanism for preventing attenuation of inflammation when P2X7 is lacking. However, P2X7 receptor absence did compromise the M2 phenotype, driving the expression of Tnf. TAMs knockout for the P2X7 receptor were not able to express arg1, also an M2 marker, reinforcing a role of the P2X7 receptor on establishing alternative macrophage phenotypes. Our data also suggest that TAMs lacking the P2X7 receptor acquire a phenotype capable of turning P2X7R-expressing neuroblastoma cells more invasive and chemoresistant to vincristine. On the other hand, TAMs, independently on the presence of the P2X7 receptor, induced proliferation and resistance of neuroblastoma cells silenced for P2X7 receptor expression, leading us to the conclusion that the P2X7 receptor in TAMs is unfavorable for the progression of P2X7R-expressing tumors


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Mice , Receptors, Purinergic P2X7/analysis , Receptors, Purinergic P2Y2/analysis , Tumor-Associated Macrophages/pathology , Macrophages/drug effects , Neuroblastoma/pathology , Training Support/classification , Bone Marrow , Cells/chemistry , Inflammation
2.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 141 p. graf, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1379329

ABSTRACT

Vários estudos epidemiológicos estabelecem correlação positiva entre os níveis de ácido úrico sérico e o aumento do risco para doenças cardiovasculares. Fatores dietéticos e socioeconômicos, além da presença de comorbidades estão diretamente associados aos níveis séricos de ácido úrico. Países desenvolvidos apresentam maior incidência e prevalência da gota e alguns grupos étnicos são particularmente susceptíveis à hiperuricemia. Cristais de ácido úrico são descritos por iniciar e perpetuar resposta inflamatória, e sinalizar um padrão de resposta molecular associado ao dano (DAMP), permitindo a diferenciação de macrófagos para perfis pró-inflamatórios. Por outro lado, os efeitos do ácido úrico em sua forma solúvel ainda carecem de estudos. Macrófagos derivados de precursores monocíticos apresentam diferenciação específica e respondem a um conjunto de fatores extrínsecos, resultando em perfis distintos, um fenômeno conhecido como polarização. Assim, os macrófagos podem ser classicamente ativados para uma resposta Th1 (T helper 1) e polarizados a um perfil pró- inflamatório (M1, resposta Th1) ou a um perfil alternativo e oposto, um perfil de resolução da inflamação (M2, resposta Th2, T helper 2). Nesse sentindo, buscamos analisar os efeitos do ácido úrico solúvel sobre vias de modulação da polarização fenotípica de macrófagos e modificação redox. Utilizamos a linhagem monocítica humana THP-1, a qual foi diferenciada em macrófagossímile por acetato miristato de forbol (PMA; 5 ng.mL-1) por 48 h, seguidas da incubação com ácido úrico em meio ausente de tióis e soro fetal bovino por 8h ou 24h (0-1000 µM). A expressão de fatores de transcrição e marcadores de polarização foi realizada através de citometria de fluxo, western-blotting e por microscopia de fluorescência com alto conteúdo de imagens (HCI). Em concentrações fisiológicas, verificamos que o ácido úrico solúvel regulou positivamente a frequência de células para receptor manose CD206, um marcador clássico de perfil alternativo/M2 e regulou negativamente a expressão óxido nítrico sintase induzível (iNOS), um marcador M1, sugerindo inicialmente uma modulação para o perfil de polarização M2. Além disso, as proteínas redoxsensíveis, heme oxigenase-1 (HO-1) e tiorredoxina (Trx) tiveram sua expressão reduzida e aumentada, respectivamente, pelo tratamento com ácido úrico. Os fatores de transcrição Nrf2 e STAT3 tiveram regulação negativa após a exposição ao ácido úrico solúvel. Os resultados apresentados nesta tese sugerem uma função do urato no priming de macrófagos através da alteração da polarização destas células


Several epidemiological studies have established a positive correlation between high serum uric acid levels and increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. Developed countries have a higher incidence and prevalence of gout and some ethnic groups are particularly susceptible to hyperuricemia. Although hyperuricemia is a prevalent condition, it has still controversy biological consequences. Uric acid crystals are described as capable of initiating and perpetuating inflammatory responses, by activating the damage-associated molecular response pattern (DAMP) cascade, allowing macrophage differentiation to inflammatory profiles. In spite of that, biological response to soluble uric acid are not completely understood. Monocyte-derived macrophages respond to a set of extrinsic factors that result in different profiles and can be polarized to a proinflammatory (M1) or anti-inflammatory (M2) profile. In this thesis, we analyzed the effects of soluble uric acid on redox-modulated pathways and the phenotypic polarization of macrophages. We used human monocytic THP-1 cell line, differentiated into macrophage by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA; 5 ng.mL-1) for 48 h. After differentiation, cells were incubated with soluble uric acid in medium without thiols and fetal bovine serum for 8 h and 24 h (0-1000 µM). The expression of transcription factors and polarization markers were assessed by flow cytometry, western-blotting and fluorescence microscopy with high content imaging (HCI). At physiological concentrations, soluble uric acid positively regulated the frequency of cells for mannose receptor CD206, a classic marker of the anti-inflammatory M2 profile and negatively regulated the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, a proinflammatory M1 marker, suggesting that the soluble uric acid changes the polarization profile to M2 profile. In addition, the redox-sensitive proteins heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and thioredoxin (Trx) had their expression decreased and increased, respectively, after exposure to urate. STAT3 and Nrf2 transcription factors were downregulated upon soluble uric acid exposure. The results presented in this thesis suggest a role of uric acid in macrophage priming through the alteration of cell polarization


Subject(s)
Uric Acid/analysis , THP-1 Cells/classification , THP-1 Cells/chemistry , Inflammation/classification , Macrophages/chemistry , Sulfhydryl Compounds/agonists , Cardiovascular Diseases , Epidemiologic Studies , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/antagonists & inhibitors , Flow Cytometry/methods , Microscopy, Fluorescence/methods
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(5): 1236-1241, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405279

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Statins inhibit cholesterol synthesis, but also have other pleiotropic effects. There are indications that they affect macrophage survival trough the regulation of apoptosis. We analyzed 50 samples of aortic wall, selected based on statins in patients' therapy (n=25, Th-S group) or statin-free therapy (n=25, Th-nonS group). Each group had 5 samples of healthy aortic tissue, 10 samples of mild and 10 samples of severe atherosclerotic changes in aortic wall. Tissue was stained with hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemical methods (anti-Bcl-2 antibody). Presence of Bcl2-positive macrophages (Bcl-2+ MP) was determined semiquantitatively, and data were processed in Microsoft Excell and IMB SPSS 23 Statistics. 60 % of patients in the Th-S group had a mild increase of Bcl-2+ MP The use of statins leads to a significantly more frequent increase in Bcl2+ macrophages in the intima of the healthy aortic tissue. Analysis of all aortic samples with pathohistological diagnosis showed that statin therapy was statistically significantly more often leading to a markedly increased presence of Bcl-2+ MP. In the media, all samples of the Th-S group have a mild increase of Bcl-2+ MP, and in adventitia 40 % of patients. The use of statins more often leads to a markedly increased presence of Bcl-2+ MP in aortic tissue with diagnosed mild and severe atherosclerosis. In samples of severe atherosclerosis, statins lead to a markedly increased presence of Bcl-2+ MP in the parts of the plaque towards the intima and towards the media. Statins lead to an increased presence of Bcl-2+ macrophages, prolong their life, both in healthy and atherosclerotic altered aortic tissue. This indicates potentiation of inflammation and damage to the aortic wall, and calls into question the positive effect of statins on the aortic wall with atherosclerosis.


RESUMEN: Las estatinas inhiben la síntesis de colesterol, pero también tienen otros efectos pleiotrópicos. Hay indicios de que afectan la supervivencia de los macrófagos a través de la regulación de la apoptosis.Se analizaron 50 muestras de pared aórtica, seleccionadas en base a estatinas en tratamiento de pacientes (n=25, grupo Th-S) o en tratamiento libre de estatinas (n=25, grupo Th- nonS). Cada grupo tenía 5 muestras de tejido aórtico sano, 10 muestras de cambios ateroscleróticos leves y 10 muestras de cambios ateroscleróticos severos en la pared aórtica. El tejido se tiñó con hematoxilina-eosina y métodos inmunohistoquímicos (anticuerpo anti-Bcl-2). La presencia de macrófagos positivos para Bcl2 (Bcl- 2+ MP) se determinó semicuantitativamente y los datos se procesaron en Microsoft Excell e IMB SPSS 23 Statistics. El 60 % de los pacientes del grupo Th-S tuvo un aumento leve de Bcl-2+ MP. El uso de estatinas conduce a un aumento significativamente más frecuente de macrófagos Bcl2+ en la íntima del tejido aórtico sano. El análisis de todas las muestras aórticas con diagnóstico anatomopatológico mostró que la terapia con estatinas fue significativamente más frecuente desde el punto de vista estadístico, lo que condujo a una presencia marcadamente mayor de Bcl-2+ MP. En los medios, todas las muestras del grupo Th-S tienen un leve aumento de Bcl-2+ MP, y en adventicia en el 40 % de los pacientes. El uso de estatinas con mayor frecuencia conduce a una presencia marcadamente mayor de MP Bcl-2+ en el tejido aórtico con aterosclerosis leve y grave diagnosticada. En muestras de aterosclerosis severa, las estatinas conducen a una presencia aumentada de Bcl-2+ MP en las partes de la placa hacia la íntima y hacia la media. Las estatinas conducen a una mayor presencia de macrófagos Bcl-2+, prolongan su vida, tanto en tejido aórtico sano como aterosclerótico alterado. Esto indica la potenciación de la inflamación y el daño a la pared aórtica y pone en duda el efecto positivo de las estatinas en la pared aórtica con aterosclerosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Atherosclerosis/metabolism , Aorta/drug effects , Risk Factors , Apoptosis/drug effects , Risk Assessment , Genes, bcl-2/physiology , Atherosclerosis/drug therapy , bcl-X Protein/metabolism , Plaque, Atherosclerotic , Macrophages/drug effects
4.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20152, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403756

ABSTRACT

Abstract Sporothrix spp. are the major dimorphic fungus associated with a type of subcutaneous mycosis, sporotrichosis. The limitation of antifungal availability and the past reports of in vitro resistance of Sporothrix spp. clinical isolates makes it important to search for new compounds with antifungal activities. In this study, we therefore evaluate the in vitro activities of complexes coordinated with Co(II) and cobalt chloride hexahydrate against clinical isolates of Sporothrix spp. Broth microdilution test was performed as per M38-A2 from CLSI (2008) in duplicate for 31 clinical isolates of Sporothrix spp. (27 S. brasiliensis e 04 S. schenckii stricto sensu). The antifungal activities of the complexes coordinated with Co(II) and cobalt chloride hexahydrate were detected at a concentration range of 32-128 µg/mL for all isolates. None of the compounds demonstrated any cytotoxicity (to macrophage cells) at the concentration of 200 µg/mL. The activity against Sporothrix spp. recorded in this study instigate the continuity of experimental studies with Co(II) to search for the mechanisms of antifungal action as well as to evaluate its interaction with the commercial antifungal drugs.


Subject(s)
In Vitro Techniques/instrumentation , Macrophages/classification , Sporotrichosis/drug therapy , Sporothrix/classification , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Chlorides/agonists , Fungi
5.
Acta cir. bras ; 37(2): e370205, 2022. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1374067

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To explore the potential immunomodulatory effects of total extract and different polar parts from Blaps rynchopetera Fairmaire. Methods: Phagocytic activity was evaluated by neutral red assay, and the effect of the immune function was investigated by normal and immunocompromised mice models. Results: In vitro, total extract, as well as chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water fractions could individually enhance the phagocytic ability of mouse peritoneal macrophages; in addition, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions had an increasing tendency when combined stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In vivo, ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) could enhance the immune organ index, increase the serum hemolysin level and peripheral blood immune cells of immunocompromised mice, while for normal mice, the effect was inconspicuous. Conclusions: Blaps rynchopetera extracts had noteworthy immunomodulatory effect, especially for individuals with immune disorders.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Coleoptera/chemistry , Immunocompromised Host , Immunologic Factors/analysis , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Macrophages
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936300

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effect of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) on toluene diisocyanate (TDI)-induced allergic airway inflammation in mice.@*METHODS@#Thirty-two mice were randomly divided into AOO group, AOO+5Z-7-Oxozeaenol group, TDI group, and TDI+5Z-7-Oxozeaenol group. Another 32 mice were randomly divided into AOO group, TDI group, TDI +5Z-7-Oxozeaenol group, and TDI +5Z-7-Oxozeaenol + Necrostatin-1 group. TAK1 inhibitor (5Z-7-Oxozeaenol, 5 mg/kg) and/or RIPK1 inhibitor (Necrostatin-1, 5 mg/kg) were used before each challenge. Airway responsiveness, airway inflammation and airway remodeling were assessed after the treatments. We also examined the effect of TDI-human serum albumin (TDI-HSA) conjugate combined with TAK1 inhibitor on the viability of mouse mononuclear macrophages (RAW264.7) using CCK8 assay. The expressions of TAK1, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and receptor interacting serine/threonine protease 1 (RIPK1) signal pathway in the treated cells were detected with Western blotting. The effects of RIPK1 inhibitor on the viability of RAW264.7 cells and airway inflammation of the mouse models of TDI-induced asthma were evaluated.@*RESULTS@#TAK1 inhibitor aggravated TDI-induced airway inflammation, airway hyper responsiveness and airway remodeling in the mouse models (P < 0.05). Treatment with TAK1 inhibitor significantly decreased the viability of RAW264.7 cells, which was further decreased by co-treatment with TDI-HSA (P < 0.05). TAK1 inhibitor significantly decreased the level of TAK1 phosphorylation and activation of MAPK signal pathway induced by TDI-HSA (P < 0.05). Co-treatment with TAK1 inhibitor and TDI-HSA obviously increased the level of RIPK1 phosphorylation and caused persistent activation of caspase 8 (P < 0.05). RIPK1 inhibitor significantly inhibited the reduction of cell viability caused by TAK1 inhibitor and TDI-HSA (P < 0.05) and alleviated the aggravation of airway inflammation induced by TAK1 inhibitors in TDI-induced mouse models (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Inhibition of TAK1 aggravates TDI-induced airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness and may increase the death of macrophages by enhancing the activity of RIPK1 and causing persistent activation of caspase 8.


Subject(s)
Animals , Asthma/chemically induced , Inflammation , Macrophages , Mice , Receptor-Interacting Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases , Respiratory System , Toluene 2,4-Diisocyanate/adverse effects
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936215

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate ferroptosis in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) and its regulation by M2 macrophage-derived exosomes. Methods: LSCC and adjacent noncancerous tissue samples were collected from 32 patients treated in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin between September 2018 and April 2021, including 26 males and 6 females, aged 43-79 years. The expressions of ferroptosis marker glutathione peroxidase 4(GPX4) in LSCC and adjacent noncancerous tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR). The correlations between GPX4 expression and clinicopathological factors in LSCC were analyzed. Biological changes of TU212 cells after treated with ferroptosis-induced agent erastin were detected by transmission electron microscope, cell counting kit-8(CCK-8), clone test, reactive oxygen species(ROS), malondialdehyde(MDA), glutathione(GSH), JC-1, RT-PCR and western blot. Exosomes were isolated from the supernatant of M0/M2 macrophages (M0-exos/M2-exos) and co-incubated with erastin-treated TU212 cells to detect the change of ferroptosis in cells of each group. The data were analyzed by SPSS software of version19.0. Results: GPX4 expression in LSCC tissues was significantly higher than that in adjacent noncancerous tissues (2.04±0.65 vs. 0.99±0.09, F=30.36, P<0.001), and was closely related to T stage and clinical stage (Ⅰ-Ⅱvs.Ⅲ-Ⅳ: 1.75±0.39 vs. 2.18±0.71, F=2.25, P<0.05; T1-2 vs. T3-4: 1.71±0.42 vs. 2.20±0.69, F=2.06, P<0.05). In TU212 cells treated with erastin, mitochondrial crest became smaller, membrane density increased, proliferation rate decreased, intracellular ROS level increased, mitochondrial membrane potential depolarized, GSH content decreased, intracellular MDA level increased and expressions of GPX4 mRNA and protein decreased. Change of M0 into M2 macrophages was induced by IL-4 stimulation. When erastin-treated TU212 cells were incubated with M2-exos, cell proliferation was partially restored and GPX4 expression was enhanced, and also with the recoveries of levels of ROS, MDA and GSH (all P<0.05). Conclusions: Ferroptosis is one of the cell death ways of LSCC. M2-exos may inhibit ferroptosis of LSCC cells.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Exosomes , Female , Ferroptosis , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Humans , Macrophages , Male , Middle Aged , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929258

ABSTRACT

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most lethal cancer and leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. A key driver of CRC development is colon inflammatory responses especially in patients with inflammatory bowl disease (IBD). It has been proved that Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) have anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-tumor effects. The chemopreventive and immunomodulatory functions of PNS on colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC) have not been evaluated.This present study was designed to study the potential protective effects of PNS on AOM/DSS-induced CAC mice to explore the possible mechanism of PNS against CAC. Our study showed that PNS significantly alleviated colitis severity and prevented the occurrence of CAC. Functional assays revealed that PNS relieved immunosuppression of Treg cells in the CAC microenvironment by inhibiting the expression of IDO1 mediated directly by signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) rather than phosphorylated STAT1. Ultimately, Rh1, one of the PNS metabolites, exhibited the best inhibitory effect on IDO1 enzyme activity. Our study showed that PNS exerted significant chemopreventive function and immunomodulatory properties on CAC. It could reduce macrophages accumulation and Treg cells differentiation to reshape the immune microenvironment of CAC. These findings provided a promising approach for CAC intervention.


Subject(s)
Animals , Colitis/drug therapy , Colitis-Associated Neoplasms/drug therapy , Humans , Macrophages , Mice , Panax notoginseng , Saponins/therapeutic use , Tumor Microenvironment
9.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 274-280, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929222

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Acute lung injury (ALI) is a serious respiratory dysfunction caused by pathogen or physical invasion. The strong induced inflammation often causes death. Tanshinone IIA (Tan-IIA) is the major constituent of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge and has been shown to display anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of Tan-IIA on ALI.@*METHODS@#A murine model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI was used. The lungs and serum samples of mice were extracted at 3 days after treatment. ALI-induced inflammatory damages were confirmed from cytokine detections and histomorphology observations. Effects of Tan-IIA were investigated using in vivo and in vitro ALI models. Tan-IIA mechanisms were investigated by performing Western blot and flow cytometry experiments. A wound-healing assay was performed to confirm the Tan-IIA function.@*RESULTS@#The cytokine storm induced by LPS treatment was detected at 3 days after LPS treatment, and alveolar epithelial damage and lymphocyte aggregation were observed. Tan-IIA treatment attenuated the LPS-induced inflammation and reduced the levels of inflammatory cytokines released not only by inhibiting neutrophils, but also by macrophage. Moreover, we found that macrophage activation and polarization after LPS treatment were abrogated after applying the Tan-IIA treatment. An in vitro assay also confirmed that including the Tan-IIA supplement increased the relative amount of the M2 subtype and decreased that of M1. Rebalanced macrophages and Tan-IIA inhibited activations of the nuclear factor-κB and hypoxia-inducible factor pathways. Including Tan-IIA and macrophages also improved alveolar epithelial repair by regulating macrophage polarization.@*CONCLUSION@#This study found that while an LPS-induced cytokine storm exacerbated ALI, including Tan-IIA could prevent ALI-induced inflammation and improve the alveolar epithelial repair, and do so by regulating macrophage polarization.


Subject(s)
Abietanes , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Animals , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Cytokines , Inflammation/drug therapy , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Macrophage Activation , Macrophages , Mice , Triacetoneamine-N-Oxyl/pharmacology
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929070

ABSTRACT

Macrophages are widely distributed immune cells that contribute to tissue homeostasis. Human THP-1 cells have been widely used in various macrophage-associated studies, especially those involving pro-inflammatory M1 and anti-inflammatory M2 phenotypes. However, the molecular characterization of four M2 subtypes (M2a, M2b, M2c, and M2d) derived from THP-1 has not been fully investigated. In this study, we systematically analyzed the protein expression profiles of human THP-1-derived macrophages (M0, M1, M2a, M2b, M2c, and M2d) using quantitative proteomics approaches. The commonly and specially regulated proteins of the four M2 subtypes and their potential biological functions were further investigated. The results showed that M2a and M2b, and M2c and M2d have very similar protein expression profiles. These data could serve as an important resource for studies of macrophages using THP-1 cells, and provide a reference to distinguish different M2 subtypes in macrophage-associated diseases for subsequent clinical research.


Subject(s)
Humans , Macrophages/metabolism , Phenotype , Proteomics , THP-1 Cells
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929041

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to characterize the chemical composition of a new sulfated polysaccharide from the red alga Gracilaria chouae and evaluate its activation effects on RAW264.7 macrophages. It showed that the obtained G. chouae polysaccharide (GCP-3A) was a sulfated acidic polysaccharide with a molecular weight of 11.87 kDa. GCP-3A was composed of xylose, galactose, glucose, and mannose with a molar ratio of 3.00:29.28:0.63:0.45, and it contained α,β‍-glycosidic linkages. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a Congo red test showed that it was a heterogeneous polysaccharide with irregular interwoven sheets and rods, and did not have a triple-helix conform‍ation. Furthermore, GCP-3A significantly promoted the proliferation of RAW264.7 macrophages and the secretion of nitric oxide (NO) in tests of 3-‍(4,‍5-dimethylthiahiazo-2-yl)‍-2,‍5-diphenytetrazoliumromide(MTT) and NO.


Subject(s)
Gracilaria/chemistry , Macrophages , Molecular Weight , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , Sulfates/pharmacology
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940946

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the dynamic changes of macrophage numbers and apoptosis during Schistosoma japonicum infection, and to investigate the possible mechanisms of macrophage apoptosis induced by S. japonicum soluble egg antigen (SEA).@*METHODS@#C57BL/6 mice at ages of 6~8 weeks were randomly divided into 4 groups, including three experimental groups and a normal control group. Each mouse in the experimental groups was infected with (12 ± 1) cercariae of S. japonicum via the abdominal skin, and all mice in an experimental group were sacrificed 3, 5, 8 weeks post-infection, respectively, while mice in the control group were not infected with S. japonicum cercariae and sacrificed on the day of S. japonicum infection in the experimental group. Mouse liver specimens and peritoneal exudation cells were sampled in each group, and the dynamic changes of macrophage numbers and apoptosis were detected. Mouse peritoneal macrophages were isolated, purified and treated with S. japonicum SEA, PBS and ovalbumin (OVA) in vitro, and the macrophage apoptosis was detected using flow cytometry. The mRNA and protein expression of BCL-2 protein family members were determined in macrophages using real-time quantitative PCR (qP-CR) and Western blotting assays, and the activation of caspase 3 was determined using flow cytometry and Western blotting. In addition, macrophages were in vitro treated with S. japonicum SEA in presence of a caspase inhibitor, H2O2 or N-acetyl-L-cysteine, and the apoptosis of macrophages was detected using flow cytometry.@*RESULTS@#The total macrophage numbers continued to increase in mouse liver [(0.873 ± 0.106) × 106, (2.737 ± 0.460) × 106 and (3.107 ± 0.367) × 106 cells, respectively; F = 81.900, P < 0.01] and peritoneal specimens [(5.282 ± 1.136) × 105, (7.500 ± 1.200) × 105 and (12.800 ± 0.800) × 105 cells, respectively; F = 55.720, P < 0.01] 3, 5 and 8 weeks post-infection with S. japonicum, and the numbers of apoptotic macrophages also continued to increase in mouse liver [(0.092 ± 0.018) × 106, (0.186 ± 0.025) × 106 and (0.173 ± 0.0270) × 106 cells; F = 57.780, P < 0.01] and peritoneal specimens [(0.335 ± 0.022) × 105, (0.771 ± 0.099) × 105 and (1.094 ± 0.051) × 105 cells; F = 49.460, P < 0.01] 3, 5 and 8 weeks post-infection with S. japonicum. The apoptotic rate of SEA-treated macrophages [(24.330 ± 0.784)%] was significantly higher than that of PBS-[(18.500 ± 1.077)%] and OVA-treated macrophages [(18.900 ± 1.350)%] (both P values < 0.01). There were no significant differences in the mRNA or protein expression of Bcl-2 [Bcl - 2 mRNA expression: (1.662 ± 0.943) vs. (1.000 ± 0.000), t = 1.215, P > 0.05; BCL protein expression: (0.068 ± 0.004) vs. (0.070 ± 0.005), t = 0.699, P > 0.05], Bax [Bax mRNA expression: (0.711 ± 0.200) vs. (1.000 ± 0.000), t = 2.507, P > 0.05; BAX protein expression: (0.089 ± 0.005) vs. (0.097 ± 0.003), t = 2.232, P > 0.05] and Bak [Bak mRNA expression: (1.255 ± 0.049) vs. (1.00 ± 0.00), t = 0.897, P > 0.05; BAK protein expression: (0.439 ± 0.048) vs. (0.571 ± 0.091), t = 2.231, P > 0.05] between in SEA- and PBS-treated macrophages. S. japonicum SEA induced macrophage apoptosis in the presence of a caspase inhibitor (F = 0.411, P > 0.05); however, SEA failed to induce macrophage apoptosis in the presence of H2O2 or NAC (F = 11.880 and 9.897, both P values < 0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#S. japonicum SEA may induce macrophage apoptosis through promoting reactive oxygen species expression during S. japonicum infections in mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Caspases , Hydrogen Peroxide , Macrophages , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , RNA, Messenger , Schistosoma japonicum , Schistosomiasis japonica , bcl-2-Associated X Protein
13.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 728-736, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940933

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the role and mechanism of tumor-derived mesenchymal stem cells in regulating the M2 polarization of macrophages within gastric cancer microenvironment. Methods: Gastric cancer tissues and the adjacent non-cancerous tissues were collected from patients underwent gastric cancer resection in the First People's Hospital of Lianyungang during 2018. In our study, THP-1-differentiated macrophages were co-cultured with gastric cancer-derived mesenchymal stem cells (GC-MSCs). Then, the M2 subtype-related gene, the markers expressed on cell surface and the cytokine profile were analyzed by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), flow cytometry and Luminex liquid chip, respectively. The key cytokines mediating the inducing effect of GC-MSCs on macrophage polarization into the M2 subtype were detected and screened by Luminex liquid chip, which were further confirmed by the neutralizing antibody test. The expressions of macrophage proteins involved in M2 polarization-related signaling pathways under the different co-culture conditions of GC-MSCs were detected by western blot. Results: In Mac+ GC-MSC-culture medium (CM) group, the expression levels of Ym-1 and Fizz-1 (1.53±0.32 and 13.22±1.05, respectively), which are markers for M2 subtype, were both significantly higher than those of Mac group (1.00±0.05 and 1.21±0.38, respectively, P<0.05). The level of iNOS in Mac+ GC-MSC-CM group (0.60±0.41) was significantly lower than that of Mac group (1.06±0.38, P=0.023). In Mac+ GC-MSC-Transwell (TW) group, the expression levels of Ym-1 and Fizz-1 (1.47±0.09 and 13.16±2.77, respectively) were both significantly higher than those of Mac group (1.00±0.05 and 1.21±0.38, respectively, P<0.05). The level of iNOS in Mac+ GC-MSC-CM group (0.56±0.03) was significantly lower than that of Mac group (1.06±0.38, P=0.026). The ratios of CD163(+) /CD204(+) cells in Mac+ GC-MSC-CM and Mac+ GC-MSC-TW groups (3.80% and 4.40%, respectively) were both remarkably higher than that of Mac group (0.60%, P<0.05). The expression levels of IL-10, IL-6, MCP-1 and VEGF in Mac+ GC-MSC-CM group were (592.60±87.52), (1 346.80±64.70), (11 256.00±29.03) and (1 463.90±66.67) pg/ml, respectively, which were significantly higher than those of Mac group [(41.03±2.59), (17.35±1.79), (5 213.30±523.71) and (267.12±12.06) pg/ml, respectively, P<0.05]. The levels of TNF-α, IP-10, RANTES and MIP-1α were (95.57±9.34), (410.48±40.68), (6 967.30±1.29) and (1 538.70±283.04) pg/ml, which were significantly lower than those of Mac group [(138.01±24.31, (1 298.60±310.50), (14 631.00±4.21) and (6 633.20±1.47) pg/ml, respectively, P<0.05]. The levels of IL-6 and IL-8 in GC-MSCs [(11 185.02±2.82) and (12 718.03±370.17) pg/ml, respectively] were both strikingly higher than those of MSCs from adjacent non-cancerous gastric cancer tissues [(270.71±59.38) and (106.04±32.84) pg/ml, repectively, P<0.05]. The ratios of CD86(+) cells in Mac+ IL-6-blocked-GC-MSC-CM and Mac+ IL-8-blocked-GC-MSC-CM groups (28.80% and 31.40%, respectively) were both higher than that of Mac+ GC-MSC-CM group (24.70%). Compared to Mac+ GC-MSC-CM group (13.70%), the ratios of CD204(+) cells in Mac+ IL-6-blocked-GC-MSC-CM and Mac+ IL-8-blocked-GC-MSC-CM groups (9.90% and 8.70%, separately) were reduced. The expression levels of p-JAK2 and p-STAT3, which are proteins of macrophage M2 polarization-related signaling pathway, in Mac+ GC-MSC-CM group (0.86±0.01 and 1.08±0.01, respectively) were significantly higher than those of Mac group (0.50±0.01 and 0.82±0.01, respectively, P<0.05). The expression levels of p-JAK2 in Mac+ IL-6-blocked-GC-MSC-CM group (0.47±0.02) were significantly lower those that of Mac+ GC-MSC-CM group (0.86±0.01, P<0.05). The expression levels of p-JAK2 and p-STAT3 in Mac+ IL-8-blocked-GC-MSC-CM group (0.50±0.01 and 0.85±0.01, respectively) were both significantly lower than those of Mac+ GC-MSC-CM group (0.86±0.01 and 1.08±0.01, P<0.05). The expression levels of p-JAK2 and p-STAT3 in Mac+ IL-6/IL-8-blocked-GC-MSC-CM group (0.37±0.01 and 0.65±0.01, respectively) were both significantly lower than those of Mac+ GC-MSC-CM group (0.86±0.01 and 1.08±0.01, P<0.05). Conclusion: GC-MSCs promote the activation of JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway in macrophages via high secretions of IL-6 and IL-8, which subsequently induce the macrophage polarization into a pro-tumor M2 subtype within gastric cancer microenvironment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-8/pharmacology , Janus Kinase 2/metabolism , Macrophages/metabolism , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , STAT3 Transcription Factor/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Tumor Microenvironment
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939820

ABSTRACT

The negative effects of low temperature can readily induce a variety of diseases. We sought to understand the reasons why cold stress induces disease by studying the mechanisms of fine-tuning in macrophages following cold exposure. We found that cold stress triggers increased macrophage activation accompanied by metabolic reprogramming of aerobic glycolysis. The discovery, by genome-wide RNA sequencing, of defective mitochondria in mice macrophages following cold exposure indicated that mitochondrial defects may contribute to this process. In addition, changes in metabolism drive the differentiation of macrophages by affecting histone modifications. Finally, we showed that histone acetylation and lactylation are modulators of macrophage differentiation following cold exposure. Collectively, metabolism-related epigenetic modifications are essential for the differentiation of macrophages in cold-stressed mice, and the regulation of metabolism may be crucial for alleviating the harm induced by cold stress.


Subject(s)
Acetylation , Animals , Cold-Shock Response , Epigenesis, Genetic , Macrophages/metabolism , Mice , Mitochondria/metabolism
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936135

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the correlation between immune cell infiltration in colorectal cancer tissue and clinical prognosis and to explore the levels of some immune cell genes for predicting the prognosis of patients with glioma colorectal cancer.@*METHODS@#In this study, we extracted colorectal cancer data from the cancer genome atlas (TCGA). Based on a deconvolution algorithm (called CIBERSORT) and clinically annotated expression profiles, the analysis assessed the infiltration patterns of 22 immune cells in colorectal cancer tissue to determine the association between each cell type and survival. Differences in five-year survival rate effectively illustrate the clinical prognostic value of each immune cell proportion in colorectal cancer, using a bar graph, correlation-based heatmap to represent the proportion of immune cells in each colorectal cancer sample.@*RESULTS@#A total of 473 colorectal cancer tissues and 41 normal control tissues were extracted from the TCGA database, and the comparative analysis showed that there were differences in the proportion of various TIICs in colorectal cancer tissues, which could characterize individual differences and have prognostic value. Among the cell subsets studied, the proportions of memory B cells, plasma cells, CD4+ T cells, natural killer (NK) cells, M0 macrophages, M2 macrophages, and activated mast cells were significantly different between normal and cancer tissues. Resting NK cells, CD8+ T cells, and plasma cells were associated with T phase, activated dendritic cells were associated with N phase, and eosinophils, M1 macrophages, and activated mast cells were associated with M phase. Survival analysis showed that activated dendritic cells were positively associated with five-year survival rate in colorectal cancer patients. Naive CD4+ T cells were inversely associated with five-year survival rate.@*CONCLUSION@#There are different degrees of immune cell infiltration in colorectal cancer tissues, and these differences may be important determinants of prognosis and treatment response. We conducted a new gene expression-based study of immune cell subtype levels and prognosis in colorectal cancer, which has potential clinical prognostic value in colorectal cancer patients.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , Glioma , Humans , Macrophages , Prognosis
16.
Chinese Journal of Stomatology ; (12): 390-396, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935878

ABSTRACT

Objective: To study the effect of microRNA-126 (miR-126) on the polarization of human monocyte-derived macrophages stimulated by Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Methods: Macrophages derived from human myeloid leukemia mononuclear cells were stimulated by Pg-LPS (5 mg/L) and by Pg-LPS (5 mg/L) after 24 h-transfection of miR-126 mimic or negative control RNA for 48 h, respectively. Real-time quantitative-PCR (qRT-PCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blotting were conducted to detect the changes in miR-126, pro-inflammatory factor tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), anti-inflammatory factors interleukin-10 (IL-10), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), arginase-1 (Arg-1) and M1 polarization-related pathways such as nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. Results: Compared with non-LPS stimulation group (TNF-α: 1.000±0.020, iNOS: 1.125±0.064, miR-126: 1.004±0.113, IL-10: 1.003±0.053, Arg-1: 1.130±0.061), the mRNA levels of TNF-α (3.105±0.278) and iNOS (4.296±0.003) increased significantly (t=6.53, P=0.003; t=42.63, P<0.001, respectively), while miR-126, IL-10 and Arg-1 expressions (0.451±0.038, 0.545±0.004 and 0.253±0.017) decreased significantly (t=7.95, P=0.001; t=7.36, P=0.002; t=11.94, P<0.001, respectively) after Pg-LPS stimulated by human-derived macrophages for 48 h. The protein expression of iNOS, TNF-α, Arg-1 and IL-10 were consistent at mRNA levels. Meanwhile, the expressions of phospho-NF-κB p65 (p-p65), phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) and phospho-p38 MAPK (p-p38) increased significantly, while the expression of Arg-1 decreased significantly. Compared with the negative controls (scramble RNA) (TNF-α: 1.141±0.197, iNOS: 1.173±0.115, IL-10: 1.032±0.138, Arg-1: 0.933±0.044), the mRNA levels of TNF-α (0.342±0.022) and iNOS (0.588±0.085) expressions significantly decreased (t=5.35, P=0.006; t=5.05, P=0.007), while IL-10 (1.786±0.221) and Arg-1 expressions (2.152±0.229) significantly increased (t=3.71, P=0.021; t=6.21, P=0.003) after Pg-LPS stimulation with miR-126 mimic transfection. The relative protein expressions of iNOS, p-p65, p-ERK and p-p38 significantly decreased (t=13.00, P<0.001; t=6.98, P=0.002; t=10.86, P<0.001; t=8.32, P=0.001), while the protein level of Arg-1 significantly increased (t=12.08, P<0.001). Conclusions: Pg-LPS could promote M1 polarization of macrophages. miR-126 might inhibit the effect of Pg-LPS on the M1 polarization of macrophages through down-regulating NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
Cell Polarity , Humans , Interleukin-10/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Macrophage Activation , Macrophages/drug effects , MicroRNAs/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Porphyromonas gingivalis , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927639

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#This study aimed to investigate the effects of caprylic acid (C8:0) on lipid metabolism and inflammation, and examine the mechanisms underlying these effects in mice and cells.@*METHODS@#Fifty-six 6-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were randomly allocated to four groups fed a high-fat diet (HFD) without or with 2% C8:0, palmitic acid (C16:0) or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). RAW246.7 cells were randomly divided into five groups: normal, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), LPS+C8:0, LPS+EPA and LPS+cAMP. The serum lipid profiles, inflammatory biomolecules, and ABCA1 and JAK2/STAT3 mRNA and protein expression were measured.@*RESULTS@#C8:0 decreased TC and LDL-C, and increased the HDL-C/LDL-C ratio after injection of LPS. Without LPS, it decreased TC in mice ( P < 0.05). Moreover, C8:0 decreased the inflammatory response after LPS treatment in both mice and cells ( P < 0.05). Mechanistic investigations in C57BL/6J mouse aortas after injection of LPS indicated that C8:0 resulted in higher ABCA1 and JAK2/STAT3 expression than that with HFD, C16:0 and EPA, and resulted in lower TNF-α, NF-κB mRNA expression than that with HFD ( P < 0.05). In RAW 264.7 cells, C8:0 resulted in lower expression of pNF-κBP65 than that in the LPS group, and higher protein expression of ABCA1, p-JAK2 and p-STAT3 than that in the LPS and LPS+cAMP groups ( P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Our studies demonstrated that C8:0 may play an important role in lipid metabolism and the inflammatory response, and the mechanism may be associated with ABCA1 and the p-JAK2/p-STAT3 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
ATP Binding Cassette Transporter 1/immunology , Animals , Caprylates/chemistry , Cholesterol/metabolism , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Humans , Inflammation/metabolism , Janus Kinase 2/immunology , Lipid Metabolism/drug effects , Macrophages/immunology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , STAT3 Transcription Factor/immunology , Signal Transduction
18.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 28-38, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927578

ABSTRACT

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common critical clinical disease characterized by a sharp decline of renal function. Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) is one of the main causes of AKI. The mortality of AKI remains high due to the lack of early diagnosis and cause specific treatment. IR rapidly initiates innate immune responses, activates complement and innate immune cells, releasing a large number of injury-related molecules such as high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), inflammatory mediators such as caspase-3, and then recruits immune inflammatory cells including M1 macrophages (Mϕ) to the microenvironment of injury, causing apoptosis and necrosis of renal tubular epithelial cells (TECs). Dead cells and associated inflammation further activate the adaptive immune system, which not only aggravates tissue damage, but also initiates M2 Mϕ participated inflammatory clearance, tissue repair and regeneration. Mϕ, professional phagocytes, and TECs, semi-professional phagocytes, can phagocytose around damaged cells including apoptotic Mϕ and TECs, which are key innate immune cells to regulate the outcome of injury, repair or fibrosis. In recent years, it has been found that erythropoietin (EPO) not only binds to the homodimeric receptor (EPOR)2 to induce erythropoiesis, but also binds to the heterodimeric receptor EPOR/βcR, also known as innate repair receptor, which plays renoprotective roles. Properdin is the only positive regulator in the complement activation of alternative pathway. It also can effectively identify and bind to early apoptotic T cells and facilitate phagocytic clearing by Mϕ through a non-complement activation-dependent mechanism. Our previous studies have shown that Mϕ and TECs associated with EPO and its receptors and properdin are involved in IR injury and repair, but the underlying mechanism needs to be further explored. As an important carrier of cell-to-cell signal transmission, exosomes participate in the occurrence and development of a variety of renal diseases. The role of exosomes involved in the interaction between Mϕ and TECs in IR-induced AKI is not fully defined. Based on the available results in the role of Mϕ and TECs in renal IR-induced AKI, this review discussed the role of Mϕ polarization and interaction with TECs in renal IR injury, as well as the participation of EPO and its receptors, properdin and exosomes.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/metabolism , Animals , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Ischemia/metabolism , Kidney , Macrophages/physiology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Reperfusion , Reperfusion Injury
19.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 757-766, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927566

ABSTRACT

Acute kidney injury (AKI), characterized by acute renal dysfunction, is an increasingly common clinical problem and an important risk factor in the subsequent development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Regardless of the initial insults, the progression of CKD after AKI involves multiple types of cells, including renal resident cells and immune cells such as macrophages. Recently, the involvements of macrophages in AKI-to-CKD transition have garnered significant attention. Furthermore, substantial progress has also been made in elucidating the pathophysiological functions of macrophages from the acute kidney to repair or fibrosis. In this review, we highlight current knowledge regarding the roles and mechanisms of macrophage activation and phenotypic polarization, and transdifferentiation in the development of AKI-to-CKD transition. In addition, the potential of macrophage-based therapy for preventing AKI-to-CKD transition is also discussed.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Disease Progression , Humans , Kidney , Macrophages , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927402

ABSTRACT

To explore the possible new mechanism of acupuncture in the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM) based on the islet inflammatory response. Islet macrophages, pancreatic adipose cells and islet β cells all participate in the pathogenesis of T2DM, and the three could form a network interaction. Acupuncture could regulate the functional phenotype of islet macrophages, improve the ectopic deposition of pancreatic adipose and repair the function of islet β cells, and play a unique advantage of overall regulation. It is suggested that acupuncture can be a potential treatment strategy for T2DM.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Humans , Insulin-Secreting Cells/pathology , Islets of Langerhans/pathology , Macrophages
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