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1.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e200417, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154880

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Toxoplasma gondii causes toxoplasmosis and is controlled by activated macrophages. However, infection of macrophages by tachyzoites induces TGF-β signaling (TGF-s) inhibiting nitric oxide (NO) production. NO inhibition may be a general escape mechanism of distinct T. gondii strains. OBJECTIVES To evaluate in activated macrophages the capacity of T. gondii strains of different virulence and genetics (RH, type I; ME-49, type II; VEG, type III; P-Br, recombinant) to evade the NO microbicidal defense system and determine LC3 loading to the parasitophorous vacuole. METHODS Activated peritoneal macrophages were infected with the different T. gondii strains, NO-production was evaluated by the Griess reagent, and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, TGF-s, and LC3 localisation assayed by immunofluorescence. FINDINGS Only RH persisted in macrophages, while VEG was more resistant than P-Br and ME-49. All strains induced TGF-s, degradation of inducible nitric oxide synthase, and NO-production inhibition from 2 to 24 h of infection, but only RH sustained these alterations for 48 h. By 24 h of infection, TGF-s lowered in macrophages infected by ME-49, and P-Br, and NO-production recovered, while VEG sustained TGF-s and NO-production inhibition longer. LC3 loading to parasitophorous vacuole was strain-dependent: higher for ME-49, P-Br and VEG, lower for RH. All strains inhibited NO-production, but only RH sustained this effect probably because it persisted in macrophages due to additional evasive mechanisms as lower LC3 loading to parasitophorous vacuole. MAIN CONCLUSIONS These results support that T. gondii can escape the NO microbicidal defense system at the initial phase of the infection, but only the virulent strain sustain this evasion mechanism.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Toxoplasma/physiology , Macrophages, Peritoneal/parasitology , Nitric Oxide Synthase/metabolism , Macrophages/parasitology , Nitric Oxide/biosynthesis , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/parasitology , Macrophages/metabolism
2.
Chonnam Medical Journal ; : 12-19, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787279

ABSTRACT

The macrophage displays functional and phenotypic diversity, which appears, in no small part, to stem from the ability of macrophages to adapt functionally to changes in their tissue microenvironment. Here, we describe the differential activity of peritoneal macrophages with or without the presence of thioglycollate (TG), an inflammatory drug that encouraged the recruitment of macrophages, during aging. The peritoneal-resident macrophages dramatically reduced in phagocytosis and pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion with aging, whereas the functions of macrophages recruited by TG were not significantly changed with aging. These results suggest that macrophages may be changed by their environment in advanced age, and could provide possible explanations for the controversial results regarding differential changes in macrophages in other papers.


Subject(s)
Aging , Cytokines , Inflammation , Macrophages , Macrophages, Peritoneal , Phagocytosis
3.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190147, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040618

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Calpains are proteins belonging to the multi-gene family of calcium-dependent cysteine peptidases that undergo tight on/off regulation, and uncontrolled proteolysis of calpains is associated with severe human pathologies. Calpain orthologues are expanded and diversified in the trypanosomatids genome. OBJECTIVES Here, we characterised calpains in Leishmania braziliensis, the main causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil. METHODS/FINDINGS In total, 34 predicted calpain-like genes were identified. After domain structure evaluation, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) during in vitro metacyclogenesis revealed (i) five genes with enhanced expression in the procyclic stage, (ii) one augmented gene in the metacyclic stage, and (iii) one procyclic-exclusive transcript. Western blot analysis revealed that an antibody against a consensus-conserved peptide reacted with multiple calpain-like proteins, which is consistent with the multi-gene family characteristic. Flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry analyses revealed the presence of calpain-like molecules mainly in the cytoplasm, to a lesser extent in the plasma membrane, and negligible levels in the nucleus, which are all consistent with calpain localisation. Eventually, the calpain inhibitor MDL28170 was used for functional studies revealing (i) a leishmaniostatic effect, (ii) a reduction in the association index in mouse macrophages, (iii) ultra-structural alterations conceivable with autophagy, and (iv) an enhanced expression of the virulence factor GP63. CONCLUSION This report adds novel insights into the domain structure, expression, and localisation of L. braziliensis calpain-like molecules.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Leishmania braziliensis/chemistry , Calpain/genetics , Macrophages, Peritoneal/metabolism , Genome, Protozoan/genetics , Leishmania braziliensis/genetics , Leishmania braziliensis/metabolism , Leishmania braziliensis/ultrastructure , Immunohistochemistry , Calpain/drug effects , Calpain/metabolism , Calpain/ultrastructure , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Gene Expression Regulation , Blotting, Western , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Virulence Factors , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Dipeptides/pharmacology , Flow Cytometry , Mice, Inbred BALB C
4.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e17561, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039065

ABSTRACT

Obesity is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects millions of people worldwide. Most studies observe the effects of a high-fat diet (HFD) in 10-12 weeks. This work investigated the effects induced by a HFD administered for 6 weeks on the nutritional status of mice and some aspects of the inflammatory response in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Male Swiss Webster mice, 2-3 months of age, were fed a control diet or HFD for 6 weeks. After this period, the mice were euthanized, and peritoneal macrophages were collected for immunoassays and assessment of biochemical parameters. A HFD was associated with increased cholesterol, insulin resistance, C-reactive protein (CRP), leptin, and serum resistin levels. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- stimulated adipocyte cultures of animals subjected to a HFD showed increased production of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 (IL-1), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). However, peritoneal macrophages of the HFD group showed no changes in the levels of these cytokines. LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophages from HFD-treated animals showed a reduction in mRNA expression of TNF-α and IL-6, as well as a decrease in expression of the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB). In conclusion, HFD treatment for 6 weeks induces similar signs to metabolic syndrome and decreases the capacity of peritoneal macrophages to develop an appropriate inflammatory response to a bacterial component


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Macrophages, Peritoneal/classification , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , NF-kappa B/pharmacokinetics , Metabolic Syndrome
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761814

ABSTRACT

Macrophage-associated inflammation is crucial for the pathogenesis of diverse diseases including metabolic disorders. Rhodanthpyrone (Rho) is an active component of Gentiana rhodantha, which has been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat inflammation. Although synthesis procedures of RhoA and RhoB were reported, the biological effects of the specific compounds have never been explored. In this study, the anti-inflammatory activity and mechanisms of action of RhoA and RhoB were studied in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages. Pretreatment with RhoA and RhoB decreased inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expressions in RAW 264.7 cells and in thioglycollate-elicited mouse peritoneal macrophages. In addition, it downregulated transcript levels of several inflammatory genes in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, including inflammatory cytokines/chemokines (Tnfa, Il6, and Ccl2) and inflammatory mediators (Nos2 and Ptgs2). Macrophage chemotaxis was also inhibited by treatment with the compounds. Mechanistic studies revealed that RhoA and RhoB suppressed the nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathway, but not the canonical mitogen activated protein kinase pathway, in LPS-stimulated condition. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of RhoA and RhoB on inflammatory gene expressions was attenuated by treatment with an NF-κB inhibitor. Our findings suggest that RhoA and RhoB play an anti-inflammatory role at least in part by suppressing the NF-κB pathway during macrophage-mediated inflammation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chemotaxis , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Gene Expression , Gentiana , Inflammation , Interleukin-6 , Macrophages , Macrophages, Peritoneal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Mice , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II , Protein Kinases
6.
Immune Network ; : e15-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764016

ABSTRACT

To this date, the criteria to distinguish peritoneal macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) are not clear. Here we delineate the subsets of myeloid mononuclear cells in the mouse peritoneal cavity. Considering phenotypical, functional, and ontogenic features, peritoneal myeloid mononuclear cells are divided into 5 subsets: large peritoneal macrophages (LPMs), small peritoneal macrophages (SPMs), DCs, and 2 MHCII⁺CD11c⁺CD115⁺ subpopulations (i.e., MHCII⁺CD11c⁺CD115⁺CD14⁻CD206⁻ and MHCII⁺CD11c⁺CD115⁺CD14⁺CD206⁺). Among them, 2 subsets of competent Ag presenting cells are demonstrated with distinct functional characteristics, one being DCs and the other being MHCII⁺CD11c⁺CD115⁺CD14⁻CD206⁻ cells. DCs are able to promote fully activated T cells and superior in expanding cytokine producing inflammatory T cells, whereas MHCII⁺CD11c⁺CD115⁺CD14⁻CD206⁻ cells generate partially activated T cells and possess a greater ability to induce Treg under TGF-β and retinoic acid conditions. While the development of DCs and MHCII⁺CD11c⁺CD115⁺CD14⁻CD206⁻ cells are responsive to the treatment of FLT3 ligand and GM-CSF, the number of LPMs, SPMs, and MHCII⁺CD11c⁺CD115⁺CD14⁺CD206⁺ cells are only influenced by the injection of GM-CSF. In addition, the analysis of gene expression profiles among MHCII⁺ peritoneal myeloid mononuclear cells reveals that MHCII⁺CD11c⁺CD115⁺CD14⁺CD206⁺ cells share high similarity with SPMs, whereas MHCII⁺CD11c⁺CD115⁺CD14⁻CD206⁻ cells are related to peritoneal DC2s. Collectively, our study identifies 2 distinct subpopulations of MHCII⁺CD11c⁺CD115⁺ cells, 1) MHCII⁺CD11c⁺CD115⁺CD14⁻CD206⁻ cells closely related to peritoneal DC2s and 2) MHCII⁺CD11c⁺CD115⁺CD14⁺CD206⁺ cells to SPMs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antigen Presentation , Dendritic Cells , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Macrophages , Macrophages, Peritoneal , Mice , Peritoneal Cavity , T-Lymphocytes , Transcriptome , Tretinoin
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785832

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Perivascular stem cells (PVCs) have been identified as precursors of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that offer promising prospects for application in the development of cellular therapies. Although PVCs have been demonstrated to have greater therapeutic potential compared to bone marrow and adipose tissue-derived MSCs in various diseases, the regulatory role of PVCs on inflammasome activation during macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses has not been investigated.METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, we found that the PVC secretome effectively alleviates secretion of both caspase-1 and interleukin-1β in lipopolysaccharide-primed and activated human and murine macrophages by blocking inflammasome activation and attenuating the production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). We further showed that the PVC secretome significantly reduces inflammatory responses and endoplasmic reticulum stress in peritoneal macrophages in a mouse model of monosodium urate-induced peritonitis. A cytokine antibody array analysis revealed that the PVC secretome contains high levels of serpin E1 and angiogenin, which may be responsible for the inhibitory effects on mitochondrial ROS generation as well as on inflammasome activation.CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that PVCs may be therapeutically useful for the treatment of macrophage- and inflammation-mediated diseases by paracrine action via the secretion of various biological factors.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biological Factors , Bone Marrow , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Humans , Inflammasomes , Inflammation , Macrophages , Macrophages, Peritoneal , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Mice , Peritonitis , Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 , Reactive Oxygen Species , Stem Cells
8.
Nutrire Rev. Soc. Bras. Aliment. Nutr ; 43: 1-2, Mar. 2018. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-881552

ABSTRACT

The original version of this article [1], published on 28 June 2016, contains a mistake. The part labels in Fig. 1 are missing. The corrected version of Fig. 1 is given below.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Diet, High-Fat , Diet, Protein-Restricted , Macrophages, Peritoneal/metabolism
9.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 24: 21, 2018. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954855

ABSTRACT

Lipid metabolites play an important role in parasite differentiation and virulence. Studies have revealed that Leishmania sp. uses prostaglandins to evade innate barriers, thus enabling the parasites to survive inside immune cells. Despite the role of the enzyme Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) in prostaglandins production, few studies have investigated the role of parasite PLA2 during the interaction between L. (L.) amazonensis and the host (in vitro and in vivo) immune cells. Methods: In the present work, the leishmanicidal effect of PLA2 inhibitors, methyl arachidonyl fluorophosphonate (MAFP), bromoenol lactone (BEL) and aristolochic acid (AA) were investigated in vitro (promastigote and intracellular amastigote forms of L. (L.) amazonensis) and during in vivo infection using BALB/c mice. Results: The aforementioned inhibitors were deleterious to promastigote and amastigote forms of the L. (L.) amazonensis and were non-toxic to peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice. L. (L.) amazonensis-infected BALB/c mice treated with the inhibitor BEL presented decreased lesion size and skin parasitism; however, BEL treatment induced hepatotoxicity in BALB/c mice. Conclusions: Results presented herein suggested that PLA2 inhibitors altered L. (L.) amazonensis viability. In spite of liver toxicity, treatment with BEL was the most selective compound in vitro, as well in vivo, resulting in lower skin parasitism in the infected mice. These findings corroborate the role of PLA2 in parasite virulence and maintenance in vertebrate hosts, and suggest that molecules structurally related to BEL should be considered when planning compounds against Leishmania sp.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Phospholipase A2 Inhibitors/pharmacology , Leishmania/drug effects , Leishmania/parasitology , In Vitro Techniques , Macrophages, Peritoneal/drug effects , Lactones/antagonists & inhibitors , Mice, Inbred BALB C
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772601

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#: To investigate the effect of polysaccharides (LBPs) on TLR/NF-κB independent pathway and serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) level in diabetic MyD88-knockout mice.@*METHODS@#: Diabetes was induced by feeding high-fat/high-sugar diet and injection of low-dose streptozotocin in MyD88-knockout mice. The diabetic mice were randomly divided into model group, positive control group and LBPs group. The expressions of TRAM, TRIF, TRAF6, RIP1 and TNF-α mRNA and proteins in mouse peritoneal macrophages were detected by real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting after LBPs treatment for 3 month. Serum TNF-α was determined with ELISA kit.@*RESULTS@#: Real time RT-PCR showed that compared with model group, the relative expressions of and mRNA in macrophages of LBPs group were significantly decreased and expression of was significantly increased (all 0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#: LBPs may not inhibit serum TNF-α level through TLR/NF-κB independent pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Gene Expression Regulation , Macrophages, Peritoneal , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88 , Genetics , NF-kappa B , Genetics , Random Allocation , Signal Transduction , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Blood , Metabolism
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713262

ABSTRACT

Intestinal microbiota is involved in the atherosclerotic process by development of an atheromatous core with foam cells in carotid arteries. It has reported that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli localizes in human atherosclerotic plaque and causes inflammation via interaction with toll like receptor 4. However, there is no evidence that whether LPS-activated macrophages regulate endothelial cell (EC) function. We evaluated whether LPS-activated macrophage acts as one of the stimulants activating EC and its underlying signaling pathways. Using Western blotting and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), we confirmed that intraperitoneal injection with LPS increases iNOS protein and inflammatory cytokine, TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA expressions. To determine whether LPS-mediated macrophage inflammatory condition affects EC activation and inflammation, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were incubated with isolated peritoneal macrophages from LPS-injected mice. Interestingly, p90RSK Serine 380 phosphorylation and protein expression were significantly increased by macrophage treatment in EC. Messenger RNA levels of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 and p90RSK was increased, but endothelial nitric oxide synthase was decreased. In addition, NF-κB promoter activity, which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammation, was strongly enhanced by the macrophage treatment in EC. We further evaluated the effects of LPS on EC function in the mouse aorta using en face staining. In agreement with in vitro result, p90RSK expression was strongly increased in the steady laminar flow region of the mouse aorta in mice injected with LPS. Together, our study demonstrates that p90RSK might be a one of the major therapeutic candidates for the prevention of vascular diseases mediated by LPS.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aorta , Atherosclerosis , Blotting, Western , Carotid Arteries , Endothelial Cells , Escherichia coli , Foam Cells , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Inflammation , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Interleukin-6 , Macrophage Activation , Macrophages , Macrophages, Peritoneal , Mice , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III , Phosphorylation , Plaque, Atherosclerotic , RNA, Messenger , Serine , Toll-Like Receptor 4 , Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 , Vascular Diseases
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716597

ABSTRACT

Adiponectin, a hormone predominantly originated from adipose tissue, has exhibited potent anti-inflammatory properties. Accumulating evidence suggests that autophagy induction plays a crucial role in anti-inflammatory responses by adiponectin. However, underlying molecular mechanisms are still largely unknown. Association of Bcl-2 with Beclin-1, an autophagy activating protein, prevents autophagy induction. We have previously shown that adiponectin-induced autophagy activation is mediated through inhibition of interaction between Bcl-2 and Beclin-1. In the present study, we examined the molecular mechanisms by which adiponectin modulates association of Bcl-2 and Beclin-1 in macrophages. Herein, we demonstrated that globular adiponectin (gAcrp) induced increase in the expression of AUF1 and ZFP36L1, which act as mRNA destabilizing proteins, both in RAW 264.7 macrophages and primary peritoneal macrophages. In addition, gene silencing of AUF1 and ZFP36L1 caused restoration of decrease in Bcl-2 expression and Bcl-2 mRNA half-life by gAcrp, indicating crucial roles of AUF1 and ZFP36L1 induction in Bcl-2 mRNA destabilization by gAcrp. Moreover, knock-down of AUF1 and ZFP36L1 enhanced interaction of Bcl-2 with Beclin-1, and subsequently prevented gAcrp-induced autophagy activation, suggesting that AUF1 and ZFP36L1 induction mediates gAcrp-induced autophagy activation via Bcl-2 mRNA destabilization. Furthermore, suppressive effects of gAcrp on LPS-stimulated inflammatory mediators expression were prevented by gene silencing of AUF1 and ZFP36L1 in macrophages. Taken together, these results suggest that AUF1 and ZFP36L1 induction critically contributes to autophagy induction by gAcrp and are promising targets for anti-inflammatory responses by gAcrp.


Subject(s)
Adiponectin , Adipose Tissue , Autophagy , Gene Silencing , Half-Life , Inflammation , Macrophages , Macrophages, Peritoneal , RNA, Messenger
13.
Braz. j. biol ; 77(4): 848-855, Nov. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888827

ABSTRACT

Abstract Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is grown all over the world as seasoning and medicinal vegetable since 3,000 BC. Allicin is the main component of garlic, being attributed to it the most of its biological activities, such as bactericidal, antifungal and antiviral actions. However, other compounds of garlic present antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic, vasodilator activities, protective action against different types of cancer, and immunomodulatory. Fungal infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality in people mainly in immunosuppressed ones. Sporothrix schenckii, the causing agent of Sporotrichosis (most common subcutaneous mycosis in Latin America), is dimorphic fungus, of saprophytic life in soil or plants, infecting people and animals mainly through skin injuries and bruises. The main of this work was to evaluate the influence of garlic consuming on immune modulation of healthy and infected Swiss mice in induced way by S. schenckii, since these animals functioning of peritoneal macrophages as well as the nitric oxide and cytokines' production (IL-1β, IL-10 and IL-12) and to evaluate the antifungal potential of garlic with S. schenckii through minimum inhibitory concentration test and colony-forming units. The results showed that garlic offers antifungal potential with S. schenckii. The oral taking of garlic extracts influences the releasing of cytokines by macrophages, regular consuming shows anti-inflammatory effect, and its acute use may take to an inflammatory response. Mice that consumed garlic responded more effectively to fight against the infection.


Resumo O alho (Allium sativum L.) é cultivado em todo o mundo como hortaliça condimentar e medicinal desde 3.000 a. C. A alicina é o principal componente do alho, sendo atribuída a ela a maior parte das suas atividades biológicas, dentre elas as ações bactericida, antifúngica e antiviral. Porém, outros compostos do alho apresentam atividade antioxidante, hipocolesterolemiante, vasodilatadora, ação protetora contra diversos tipos de câncer e imunomoduladora. As infecções por fungos são causas importantes de morbidade e mortalidade no homem principalmente em indivíduos imunossuprimidos. O Sporothrix schenckii, agente causal da esporotricose (micose subcutânea mais comum na América Latina), é fungo dimórfico, de vida saprofítica no solo ou em vegetais, infectando homens e os animais principalmente através de lesões e arranhões na pele. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a influência do consumo de alho na imunomodulação de camundongos Swiss saudáveis e infectados de forma induzida por S. schenckii, a partir do estado funcional dos macrófagos peritoneais desses animais quanto à produção de óxido nítrico e das citocinas (IL-1β, IL-10 e IL-12) e avaliar o potencial antifúngico do alho frente ao S. schenckii por meio de teste de concentração inibitória mínima e unidades formadoras de colônia. Os resultados demonstraram que o alho apresenta potencial antifúngico frente S. schenckii. A administração oral de extratos de alho influencia a liberação de citocinas por macrófagos, o consumo regular apresenta efeito anti-inflamatório, e seu uso agudo pode gerar uma resposta inflamatória. Camundongos que consumiram alho responderam de forma mais efetiva no combate da infecção.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Sporotrichosis/drug therapy , Sporothrix/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Macrophages, Peritoneal/immunology , Garlic/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Cytokines/metabolism , Macrophages, Peritoneal/drug effects , Immunomodulation
14.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 49(2): 196-203, Mar.-Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-782098

ABSTRACT

Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by the protozoan Leishmania that resides mainly in mononuclear phagocytic system tissues. Pentavalent antimonials are the main treatment option, although these drugs have toxic side effects and high resistance rates. A potentially alternative and more effective therapeutic strategy is to use liposomes as carriers of the antileishmanial agents. The aims of this study were to develop antimonial drugs entrapped into phosphatidylserine liposomes and to analyze their biological and physicochemical characteristics. METHODS: Liposomes containing meglumine antimoniate (MA) or pentavalent antimony salt (Sb) were obtained through filter extrusion (FEL) and characterized by transmission electron microscopy. Promastigotes of Leishmania infantum were incubated with the drugs and the viability was determined with a tetrazolium dye (MTT assay). The effects of these drugs against intracellular amastigotes were also evaluated by optical microscopy, and mammalian cytotoxicity was determined by an MTT assay. RESULTS: Liposomes had an average diameter of 162nm. MA-FEL showed inhibitory activity against intracellular L. infantum amastigotes, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.9μg/mL, whereas that of MA was 60μg/mL. Sb-FEL showed an IC50 value of 0.2μg/mL, whereas that of free Sb was 9μg/mL. MA-FEL and Sb-FEL had strong in vitro activity that was 63-fold and 39-fold more effective than their respective free drugs. MA-FEL tested at a ten-times higher concentration than Sb-FEL did not show cytotoxicity to mammalian cells, resulting in a higher selectivity index. CONCLUSIONS: Antimonial drug-containing liposomes are more effective against Leishmania-infected macrophages than the non-liposomal drugs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Organometallic Compounds/pharmacology , Phosphatidylserines/pharmacology , Macrophages, Peritoneal/parasitology , Leishmania infantum/drug effects , Antimony Sodium Gluconate/pharmacology , Meglumine/pharmacology , Antiprotozoal Agents/pharmacology , Organometallic Compounds/chemistry , Phosphatidylserines/chemistry , Cricetinae , Antimony Sodium Gluconate/chemistry , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Meglumine Antimoniate , Liposomes , Meglumine/chemistry , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Antiprotozoal Agents/chemistry
15.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 49(1): 68-73, Jan.-Feb. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-776538

ABSTRACT

Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Leishmaniasis is a zoonotic disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania . Cutaneous leishmaniasis is the most common form, with millions of new cases worldwide each year. Treatments are ineffective due to the toxicity of existing drugs and the resistance acquired by certain strains of the parasite. METHODS: We evaluated the activity of sodium nitroprusside in macrophages infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis . Phagocytic and microbicidal activity were evaluated by phagocytosis assay and promastigote recovery, respectively, while cytokine production and nitrite levels were determined by ELISA and by the Griess method. Levels of iNOS and 3-nitrotyrosine were measured by immunocytochemistry. RESULTS: Sodium nitroprusside exhibited in vitro antileishmanial activity at both concentrations tested, reducing the number of amastigotes and recovered promastigotes in macrophages infected with L. amazonensis . At 1.5µg/mL, sodium nitroprusside stimulated levels of TNF-α and nitric oxide, but not IFN-γ. The compound also increased levels of 3-nitrotyrosine, but not expression of iNOS, suggesting that the drug acts as an exogenous source of nitric oxide. CONCLUSIONS: Sodium nitroprusside enhances microbicidal activity in Leishmania -infected macrophages by boosting nitric oxide and 3-nitrotyrosine.


Subject(s)
Animals , Tyrosine/analogs & derivatives , Trypanocidal Agents/pharmacology , Nitroprusside/pharmacology , Macrophages, Peritoneal/parasitology , Nitric Oxide/biosynthesis , Tyrosine/biosynthesis , Tyrosine/drug effects , Immunohistochemistry , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C
16.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 282-286, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-146015

ABSTRACT

Cyanidin-3β-D-glycoside (C3G), which is widely distributed in herbal medicines and functional foods, exhibits anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-scratching behavioral effects. Orally administered C3G is metabolized to protocatechuic acid (PA) by gut microbiota. Therefore, we compared the anti-colitic effect of C3G to that of PA in mice with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis. Orally administered C3G and PA preventively and curatively ameliorated TNBS-induced colitis parameters, including macroscopic colitis score, colon shortening, and increase of myeloperoxidase activity. Treatment with C3G or PA also inhibited the expression of cyclooxygenase-2, inducible NO synthatase, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α and the activation of NF-κB in the colon of mice with TNBS-induced colitis. Furthermore, these also inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced NF-κB activation and TNF-α expression in peritoneal macrophages. The anti-colitic effect of PA was more effective than C3G. Orally administered PA more potently attenuate colitis than C3G by inhibiting NF-κB activation and the anti-colitic efficacy of C3G may be dependent on the biotransformation of C3G to PA by gut microbiota.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biotransformation , Colitis , Colon , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Functional Food , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Interleukin-6 , Macrophages, Peritoneal , Mice , Peroxidase
17.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(8): 1024-1034, Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769826

ABSTRACT

The herbaceous shrub Tetradenia riparia has been traditionally used to treat inflammatory and infectious diseases. Recently, a study showed that T. riparia essential oil (TrEO) obtained in summer has antileishmanial effects, although these results could be influenced by seasonal variation. This study evaluated the activity of the TrEO obtained in different seasons against Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, in vitro and in vivo. The compounds in the TrEO were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; terpenoids were present and oxygenated sesquiterpenes were the majority compounds (55.28%). The cytotoxicity and nitric oxide (NO) production were also tested after TrEO treatment. The TrEO from all seasons showed a 50% growth inhibitory concentration for promastigotes of about 15 ng/mL; at 30 ng/mL and 3 ng/mL, the TrEO reduced intracellular amastigote infection, independently of season. The TrEO from plants harvested in summer had the highest 50% cytotoxic concentration, 1,476 ng/mL for J774.A1 macrophages, and in spring (90.94 ng/mL) for murine macrophages. NO production did not change in samples of the TrEO from different seasons. The antileishmanial effect in vivo consisted of a reduction of the parasite load in the spleen. These results suggest that the TrEO has potential effects on L. (L.) amazonensis, consonant with its traditional use to treat parasitic diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Antiprotozoal Agents/pharmacology , Lamiaceae/chemistry , Leishmania/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Antiprotozoal Agents/isolation & purification , Cytotoxins/pharmacology , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Growth Inhibitors/pharmacology , In Vitro Techniques , Leishmania/classification , Lymph Nodes/parasitology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Macrophages, Peritoneal/drug effects , Macrophages, Peritoneal/parasitology , Nitric Oxide/analysis , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Parasite Load , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Seasons , Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Spleen/parasitology , Time Factors
18.
Immune Network ; : 232-240, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-73367

ABSTRACT

The triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM) family, which is abundantly expressed in myeloid lineage cells, plays a pivotal role in innate and adaptive immune response. In this study, we aimed to identify a novel receptor expressed on hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) by using in silico bioinformatics and to characterize the identified receptor. We thus found the TREM-like transcript (TLT)-6, a new member of TREM family. TLT-6 has a single immunoglobulin domain in the extracellular region and a long cytoplasmic region containing 2 immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif-like domains. TLT-6 transcript was expressed in HSCs, monocytes and macrophages. TLT-6 protein was up-regulated on the surface of bone marrow-derived and peritoneal macrophages by lipopolysaccharide stimulation. TLT-6 exerted anti-proliferative effects in macrophages. Our results demonstrate that TLT-6 may regulate the activation and proliferation of macrophages.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity , Computational Biology , Computer Simulation , Cytoplasm , Hematopoietic Stem Cells , Humans , Immunoglobulins , Macrophages , Macrophages, Peritoneal , Monocytes , Myeloid Cells
19.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 440-446, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-251760

ABSTRACT

ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI/CLA-1) are the key proteins in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). The high expression of ABCA1 and SR-BI/CLA-1 can decrease the danger of atherosclerosis. The purpose of the study is to find ABCA1 and CLA-1up-regulators for treating atherosclerosis by using cell-based high throughput screening models. Among 20 000 compounds screened, E0869 [1-(3, 4-dimethylphenyl)-1-oxopropan-2-yll4-((methylsulfonyl)methyl)benzoate] was found as the positive hit. The up-regulated activities of E0869 in ABCAl1-LUC and bCA-l1-LUC HepG2 cell were 160% and 175%, respectively. The EC50 values of E0869 in ABCAl1-LUC and CLA-l1-LUC HepG2 cell were 3.79 and 1.42 pμol- x ,(-1) respectively. E0869 could upregulate the mRNA and protein levels of ABCA1, SR-BI/CLA-1 and ABCGJ1genes in HepG2 and RAW264.7 cells by Real-Time Quantitative PCR and Western blotting analysis, but could not influence the expression of FAS, SREBP-l1 and CD36. Foam cell assay showed that E0869 could inhibit lipids accumulation in mouse peritoneal macrophages RAW264.7. Cholesterol efflux assay showed that E0869 could induce HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux in mouse peritoneal macrophages RAW264.7. In conclusion, E0869 could up-regulate ABCA1 and CLA-1 activity, and had good anti-atherosclerotic activity in vitro.


Subject(s)
ATP Binding Cassette Transporter 1 , Metabolism , Animals , Atherosclerosis , Drug Therapy , Biological Transport , Cholesterol , Hep G2 Cells , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Humans , Macrophages, Peritoneal , Mice , RNA, Messenger , Scavenger Receptors, Class B , Metabolism , Up-Regulation
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-250436

ABSTRACT

This work was mainly studied the effects of the four alkaloids from Coptidis Rhizoma on the mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro and preliminarily discussed the regulating mechanisms. The effect of alkaloids from Coptidis Rhizoma on the vitality of macrophages was measured by the MTT assay. The effect of alkaloids on the phagocytosis of macrophages was determined by neutral red trial and respiratory burst activity was tested by NBT. The expressions of respiratory-burst-associated genes influenced by alkaloids were detected by qRT-PCR. The conformation change of membrane protein in macrophages by the impact of alkaloids was studied by fluorospectro-photometer. Results showed that the four alkaloids from Coptidis Rhizoma could increase the phagocytosis of macrophages in different level and berberine had the best effect. Berberine, coptisine and palmatine had up-regulation effects on respiratory burst activity of mouse peritoneal macrophages stimulated by PMA and regulatory activity on the mRNA expression of PKC, p40phox or p47phox, whereas the epiberberine had no significant influence on respiratory burst. Moreover, alkaloids from Coptidis Rhizoma could change the conformation of membrane protein and the berberine showed the strongest activity. The results suggested that the four alkaloids from Coptidis Rhizoma might activate macrophages through changing the conformation of membrane protein of macrophages and then enhanced the phagocytosis and respiratory burst activity of macrophages. Furthermore, the regulatory mechanism of alkaloids on the respiratory burst activity of macrophages may be also related to the expression level of PKC, p40phox and p47phox.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Pharmacology , Animals , Cells, Cultured , Coptis , Chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Female , Gene Expression , Macrophages, Peritoneal , Mice , Phosphoproteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Protein Kinase C , Genetics , Metabolism , Rhizome , Chemistry
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