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1.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 53(5): 247-253, Sept.-Oct. 2011. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-602359

ABSTRACT

Twelve strains of Trypanosoma cruzi isolated from wild reservoirs, triatomines, and chronic chagasic patients in the state of Paraná, southern Brazil, and classified as T. cruzi I and II, were used to test the correlation between genetic and biological diversity. The Phagocytic Index (PI) and nitric-oxide (NO) production in vitro were used as biological parameters. The PI of the T. cruzi I and II strains did not differ significantly, nor did the PI of the T. cruzi strains isolated from humans, triatomines, or wild reservoirs. There was a statistical difference in the inhibition of NO production between T. cruzi I and II and between parasites isolated from humans and the strains isolated from triatomines and wild reservoirs, but there was no correlation between genetics and biology when the strains were analyzed independently of the lineages or hosts from which the strains were isolated. There were significant correlations for Randomly Amplified Polymorphic Deoxyribonucleic acid (RAPD) and biological parameters for T. cruzi I and II, and for humans or wild reservoirs when the lineages or hosts were considered individually.


Doze cepas de Trypanosoma cruzi isoladas de reservatórios silvestres, triatomíneos e de pacientes chagásicos crônicos do Estado do Paraná, Brasil, classificadas como Tc I e II foram usadas para avaliar a correlação entre genética e diversidade biológica. Índice fagocítico (IF) e produção de óxido nítrico (ON) in vitro foram os parâmetros biológicos utilizados. O IF de cepas T. cruzi I e II não diferiram significativamente assim como o IF de cepas isoladas de humanos, triatomíneos ou de reservatórios silvestres. Há diferença estatística na inibição da produção de ON entre T. cruzi I e II e entre parasitos isolados de humanos e de cepas isoladas de triatomíneos e reservatórios silvestres, mas não foi observada correlação entre genética e biologia quando as cepas foram analisadas independentemente da linhagem ou hospedeiros das quais elas foram isoladas. Observou-se correlação significativa para amplificação aleatória do DNA polimórfico e parâmetros biológicos de Tc I ou II e para os seres humanos ou reservatório silvestre quando linhagens ou hospedeiros são consideradas separadamente.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Mice , Genetic Variation/genetics , Macrophages, Peritoneal/parasitology , Nitric Oxide/biosynthesis , Phagocytosis/physiology , Trypanosoma cruzi/genetics , Disease Reservoirs/parasitology , Host-Parasite Interactions , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Macrophages, Peritoneal/cytology , Triatominae/parasitology , Trypanosoma cruzi/classification , Trypanosoma cruzi/physiology
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-17407

ABSTRACT

In this work, we used a preparation of diminazene, which belongs to the group of aromatic diamidines. This compound acts on the causative agents of blood protozoan diseases produced by both flagellated protozoa (Trypanosoma) and members of the class Piroplasmida (Babesia, Theileria, and Cytauxzoon) in various domestic and wild animals, and it is widely used in veterinary medicine. We examined the behavior of water-disperse diminazene (immobilized in Tween 80 micelles) at the cellular and organismal levels. We assessed the interaction of an aqueous and a water-disperse preparation with cells of the reticuloendothelial system. We compared the kinetic parameters of aqueous and water-disperse diminazene in sheep erythrocytes and plasma. The therapeutic properties of these two preparations were also compared. We found that the surface-active substances improved intracellular penetration of the active substance through interaction with the cell membrane. In sheep blood erythrocytes, micellar diminazene accumulated more than its aqueous analog. This form was also more effective therapeutically than the aqueous analog. Our findings demonstrate that use of micellar diminazene allows the injection dose to be reduced by 30%.


Subject(s)
Animals , Babesiosis/drug therapy , Diminazene/metabolism , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Macrophages, Peritoneal/cytology , Male , Micelles , Polysorbates , Rats , Sheep/blood , Sheep Diseases/drug therapy , Trypanocidal Agents/pharmacokinetics
3.
São Paulo; s.n; 16 dez. 2008. 137[22] p. ilus, graf, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-512972

ABSTRACT

A cavidade peritoneal de camundongos abriga uma variedade de células do sistema imune. Inicialmente, devido as limitações metodológicas, acreditava-se que, aproximadamente, 90% das células peritoneais era representada por macrófagos. Em seguida, graças aos extensos estudos com células peritoneais, observou-se que, além dos macrófagos, o peritônio abrigava muitos Linfócitos B, principalmente do subtipo B-1. Utilizando metodologias contemporâneas de FACS - citometria de fluxo, este trabalho mostra que, aproximadamente, 30% das células peritoneais são macrófagos, 55% são Iinfócitos B-1, dos quais 40% pertencem ao subtipo B-1a e 15% ao subtipo B-1b. Os 15% - 20% restantes representam outros subtipos celulares, como linfócitos T, linfócitos B-2, linfócitos NK, eosinófilos, além da presença de outras populações de células que não foram possíveis de ser identificadas com os marcadores de superfície utilizados neste trabalho. Em contraste com a literatura, nossos estudos mostraram que os macrófagos da cavidade peritoneal de camundongos representam uma população heterogênea...


Subject(s)
Mice , Peritoneal Cavity/cytology , In Vitro Techniques , B-Lymphocytes/cytology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Macrophages, Peritoneal/cytology , Macrophages, Peritoneal/immunology , Phenotype , Biological Assay/methods , Flow Cytometry , Microscopy, Confocal/methods , Microscopy, Electron/methods
4.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2005 Jun; 43(6): 503-8
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-62329

ABSTRACT

Present study was conducted to observe the effect of cholesterol and oxidized cholesterol (7beta-hydroxycholesterol,7beta-OH) on the nitric oxide (NO) production and the redox ratio by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages. Dose-dependent decrease in NO levels was seen with both cholesterol and 7beta-OH at different incubation intervals (6,12,18,24 hr) and concentrations (2.5,5,7.5microg/ml). On comparison, a significant decrease in the NO was observed at 24 hr interval in 7beta-OH exposed cells with all respective concentrations of cholesterol. Incubation with 7beta-OH also resulted in significant increase in levels of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH), while cholesterol showed no effect on GSSG levels. Moreover, GSH levels were lowered only at highest concentration (7.5microg/ml), and at longer incubation intervals (18,24 hr) with cholesterol exposure. This altered the redox status in both cholesterol/7beta-OH treated macrophages. Increased redox ratio and decreased NO levels indicated increased oxidative stress and decreased vasodilation by 7beta-OH compared to cholesterol.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cholesterol/chemistry , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Glutathione/chemistry , Hydroxycholesterols/chemistry , Lipopolysaccharides/chemistry , Macrophages, Peritoneal/cytology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Nitric Oxide/chemistry , Nitric Oxide Synthase/metabolism , Oxidation-Reduction , Oxidative Stress , Oxygen/chemistry , Time Factors
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-147187

ABSTRACT

The anticarcinogenic effects and mechanisms of the biotechnological drugs of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer cultivated in Russia, bioginseng, panaxel and panaxel- 5, were studied. Bioginseng was produced from a tissue culture of ginseng root cultured on standard medium, whereas panaxel and panaxel-5 were produced from ginseng tissue root cultures using standard mediums enriched with 2-carboxyethylgermanium sesquioxide and 1-hydroxygermatran-monohydrate respectively. All three ginseng drugs inhibited the development of mammary tumors induced by intramammary injections of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) in rats, the development of the brain and spinal cord tumors induced by transplacental administration of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) in rats, and the development of uterine, cervical and vaginal tumors induced by intravaginal applications of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) in mice. The ginseng drugs induced the cytotoxic activity of macrophages in mice, enhanced T-lymphocyte rosette formation in guinea pigs exposed to cyclophosphamide, and stimulated the production of thyroid hormones in rats. These mechanisms may contribute to the anticarcinogenic action of the ginseng drugs. The organic germanium compounds present in panaxel and panaxel-5 did not potentiate the anticarcinogenic or immuno- stimulatory effects as much as biogeinseng. Preliminary clinical trials with panaxel and bioginseng were carried out in patients with precancerous lesions of the esophagus and endometrium. Panaxel was found to have a strong therapeutic effect in patients suffering from chronic erosive esophagitis. Bioginseng induced the regression of adenomatous-cystic hyperplasia of the endometrium in some patients. Thus, we conclude that the drugs of ginseng appear to hold considerable promise for future cancer chemoprevention.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma/chemically induced , Adult , Animals , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/therapeutic use , Cells, Cultured , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/chemically induced , Clinical Trials as Topic , Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic , Disease Models, Animal , Endometrial Neoplasms/pathology , Endometrium/pathology , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Esophagus/pathology , Estradiol/blood , Female , Fibroadenoma/chemically induced , Humans , Macrophages, Peritoneal/cytology , Male , Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental/chemically induced , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Neoplasms, Experimental/chemically induced , Nervous System Neoplasms/chemically induced , Panax/metabolism , Precancerous Conditions/pathology , Rats , Culture Techniques , Uterine Neoplasms/chemically induced , Vaginal Neoplasms/chemically induced
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-119578

ABSTRACT

In this study, we investigated whether retinal soluble proteins, such as interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein(IRBP), play a role in the induction of nitric oxide by macrophages in vitro. Cells from the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 and rat and rabbit peritoneal macrophages were incubated in the presence of retinal soluble protein. The nitrite level in the cultured supernatant was evaluated for nitric oxide production using the Griess reaction. IRBP induced significant, dose-dependent nitrite production in both RAW 264.7 and rat peritoneal macrophages. Induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) by retinal proteins was inhibited by the iNOS-specific inhibitor, aminoguanidine, and the tyrosine inhibitor, genistein. These results show that soluble retinal proteins significantly induce nitric acid production by macrophages. Increased production of reactive oxygen species by macrophages in the presence of this soluble retinal protein in vivo may accelerate photoreceptor degeneration in uveitis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Line , Comparative Study , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Eye Proteins/pharmacology , Guanidines/pharmacology , Macrophages, Peritoneal/metabolism , Macrophages, Peritoneal/drug effects , Macrophages, Peritoneal/cytology , Nitric Oxide/biosynthesis , Nitric Oxide Synthase/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase/antagonists & inhibitors , Rabbits , Rats , Rats, Inbred Lew , Retinol-Binding Proteins/pharmacology
7.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 1996 Apr; 33(2): 116-21
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-29061

ABSTRACT

The characteristics of protein kinase C activity present in guinea pig alveolar and peritoneal macrophages have been compared and examined. The activity is predominantly cytosolic with preference for phosphatidyl serine as cofactor over other phospholipids. K(m) of protein kinase C for ATP is 30.30 and 54.05 microM in alveolar and peritoneal macrophages respectively. Scatchard plot analysis shows heterogenous binding sites for [3H]PDBu in alveolar macrophages in contrast to peritoneal macrophages showing homogeneous type of binding sites. PMA activates protein kinase C in a dose-dependent manner and shows downregulation at higher concentration in both alveolar and peritoneal macrophages. Endogenous proteins of molecular masses 77, 47, 37 and 16.5 kDa in alveolar macrophages and 77, 47, 38 and 15.5 kDa in pertioneal macrophages are phosphorylated by PKC. These findings suggest that alveolar and peritoneal macrophages possess two different types of protein kinase C activities but phosphorylate similar proteins and exhibit functional similarities in these cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Communication/physiology , Enzyme Activation , Guinea Pigs , Macrophages, Alveolar/cytology , Macrophages, Peritoneal/cytology , Protein Kinase C/metabolism
8.
Bauru; s.n; 1996. 142 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-250288

ABSTRACT

A citotoxicidade de cinco cimentos obturadores de canais radiculares, à base de hidróxido de cálcio (Sealapex, CRCS, Apexit e Sealer 26), e à base de óxido de zinco e eugenol (Fill Canal), foi avaliada em culturas de macrófagos peritoniais de camundongos. Utilizaram-se duas metodologias em culturas de macrófagos. A primeira relacionada à alteraçäo morfológica das células em contato com os cimentos após presa e a segunda, à liberaçäo de H2O2 pelas células em contato com os cimentos solubilizados. Os resultados permitiram concluir, revelando as limitaçöes metodológicas, que: 1) Na avaliaçäo da citotoxicidade através da alteraçäo morfológica dos macrófagos frente aos cimentos endodônticos, os mais citotóxicos foram em ordem crescente Fill Canal, CRCS, Sealer 26, Apexit e Sealapex. 2) Na avaliaçäo da resposta celular bioquímica dos macrófagos frente a esses cimentos, tendo-se como parâmetro o nível de H2O2 no meio de cultura dessas células, os mais citotóxicos, em ordem crescente foram CRCS, Sealapex, Apexit, Fill Canal e Sealer 26. 3) A avaliaçäo comparativa entre as metodologias mostrou a viabilidade de ambas como método de avaliaçäo citotóxica entre materiais de solubilidade semelhante


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Infant , Mice , Dental Cements/toxicity , Macrophages, Peritoneal/cytology , Zinc Oxide-Eugenol Cement/toxicity , Calcium Hydroxide/toxicity , Biocompatible Materials/toxicity , Dental Materials/toxicity , Hydrogen Peroxide/toxicity
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