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1.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(1): 189-199, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889209

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Nine Legionella pneumophila strains isolated from cooling towers and a standard strain (L. pneumophila serogroup 1, ATCC 33152, Philadelphia 1) were analyzed and compared in terms of motility, flagella structure, ability to form biofilms, enzymatic activities (hemolysin, nucleases, protease, phospholipase A, phospholipase C, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase and lipase), hemagglutination capabilities, and pathogenicity in various host cells (Acanthamoeba castellanii ATCC 30234, mouse peritoneal macrophages and human peripheral monocytes). All the isolates of bacteria appeared to be motile and polar-flagellated and possessed the type-IV fimbria. Upon the evaluation of virulence factors, isolate 4 was found to be the most pathogenic strain, while 6 out of the 9 isolates (the isolates 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7) were more virulent than the ATCC 33152 strain. The different bacterial strains exhibited differences in properties such as adhesion, penetration and reproduction in the hosts, and preferred host type. To our knowledge, this is the first study to compare the virulence of environmental L. pneumophila strains isolated in Turkey, and it provides important information relevant for understanding the epidemiology of L. pneumophila.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Mice , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Legionella pneumophila/metabolism , Virulence Factors/metabolism , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Turkey/epidemiology , Legionnaires' Disease/microbiology , Legionella pneumophila/isolation & purification , Legionella pneumophila/genetics , Virulence Factors/genetics , Environmental Microbiology , Macrophages/microbiology , Mice, Inbred BALB C
2.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(11): e180267, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040585

ABSTRACT

The Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine comprises a family of genetically different strains derived by the loss of genomic regions (RDs) and other mutations. In BCG Moreau, loss of RD16 inactivates rv3405c * , encoding a transcriptional repressor that negatively regulates the expression of Rv3406, an alkyl sulfatase. To evaluate the impact of this loss on the BCG and host cell viability and the cytokine profile, THP-1 cells were infected with BCG Moreau (harbouring the empty vector) and a complemented strain carrying a functional copy of rv3405c. Viability of the host cells and bacteria as well as the pattern of cytokine secretion were evaluated. Our results show that the viability of BCG Moreau is higher than that of the complemented strain in an axenic medium, suggesting a possible functional gain associated with the constitutive expression of Rv3406. Viability of the host cells did not vary significantly between recombinant strains, but differences in the profiles of the cytokine secretion (IL-1β and IL-6) were observed. Our results suggest an example of a functional gain due to gene loss contributing to the elucidation of the impact of RD16 on the physiology of BCG Moreau.


Subject(s)
Humans , Transcription, Genetic/genetics , BCG Vaccine/pharmacology , Cell Survival/genetics , Cytokines/drug effects , Gain of Function Mutation/genetics , Macrophages/microbiology , Mycobacterium bovis/genetics , Time Factors , Transcription, Genetic/drug effects , Tumor Cells, Cultured/drug effects , Tumor Cells, Cultured/microbiology , BCG Vaccine/genetics , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cytokines/genetics , Gain of Function Mutation/drug effects , Mycobacterium bovis/physiology
3.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(11): 785-789, Nov. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040564

ABSTRACT

Cytidine deaminase (MtCDA), encoded by cdd gene (Rv3315c), is the only enzyme identified in nucleotide biosynthesis pathway of Mycobacterium tuberculosis that is able to recycle cytidine and deoxycytidine. An M. tuberculosis knockout strain for cdd gene was obtained by allelic replacement. Evaluation of mRNA expression validated cdd deletion and showed the absence of polar effect. MudPIT LC-MS/MS data indicated thymidine phosphorylase expression was decreased in knockout and complemented strains. The cdd disruption does not affect M. tuberculosis growth both in Mid- dlebrook 7H9 and in RAW 264.7 cells, which indicates that cdd is not important for macrophage invasion and virulence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cytidine Deaminase/genetics , Deoxycytidine/genetics , Macrophages/microbiology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/pathogenicity , Time Factors , Cytidine Deaminase/biosynthesis , Deoxycytidine/biosynthesis , Gene Knockout Techniques , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/growth & development , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/enzymology
4.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 21(4): 386-390, July-Aug. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888886

ABSTRACT

Abstract Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) adopts a special survival strategy to overcome the killing mechanism(s) of host immune system. Amongst the many known factors, small heat shock protein 16.3 (sHSP16.3) of MTB encoded by gene hspX has been reported to be critical for the survival of MTB. In the present study, the effect of recombinant murine interferon-gamma (rmIFN-γ) and recombinant murine interleukin-10 (rmIL-10) on the expression of gene hspX of MTB in murine macrophage RAW264.7 has been investigated. By real-time RT-PCR, it was observed that three increasing concentrations (5, 25 and 50 ng/ml) of rmIFN-γ significantly up-regulated the expression of hspX whereas similar concentrations of rmIL-10 (5, 25 and 50 ng/ml) significantly down-regulated the hspX expression. This effect was not only dependent on the concentration of the stimulus but this was time-dependent as well. A contrasting pattern of hspX expression was observed against combinations of two different concentrations of rmIFN-γ and rmIL-10. The study results suggest that rIL-10 mediated down-regulation of hspX expression, in the presence of low concentration of rIFN-γ, could be used as an important strategy to decrease the dormancy of MTB in its host and thus making MTB susceptible to the standard anti-mycobacterial therapy used for treating tuberculosis. However, as these are only preliminary results in the murine cell line model, this hypothesis needs to be first validated in human cell lines and subsequently in animal models mimicking the latent infection using clinical isolates of MTB before considering the development of modified regimens for humans.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial/physiology , Interferon-gamma/pharmacology , Interleukin-10/pharmacology , Macrophages/microbiology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Antigens, Bacterial/metabolism , Time Factors , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/pharmacology , Down-Regulation/drug effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Antigens, Bacterial/genetics
5.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(3): 203-208, Mar. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-841772

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused mainly by the bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The better understanding of important metabolic pathways from M. tuberculosis can contribute to the development of novel therapeutic and prophylactic strategies to combat TB. Nucleoside hydrolase (MtIAGU-NH), encoded by iunH gene (Rv3393), is an enzyme from purine salvage pathway in M. tuberculosis. MtIAGU-NH accepts inosine, adenosine, guanosine, and uridine as substrates, which may point to a pivotal metabolic role. OBJECTIVES Our aim was to construct a M. tuberculosis knockout strain for iunH gene, to evaluate in vitro growth and the effect of iunH deletion in M. tuberculosis in non-activated and activated macrophages models of infection. METHODS A M. tuberculosis knockout strain for iunH gene was obtained by allelic replacement, using pPR27xylE plasmid. The complemented strain was constructed by the transformation of the knockout strain with pNIP40::iunH. MtIAGU-NH expression was analysed by Western blot and LC-MS/MS. In vitro growth was evaluated in Sauton’s medium. Bacterial load of non-activated and interferon-γ activated RAW 264.7 cells infected with knockout strain was compared with wild-type and complemented strains. FINDINGS Western blot and LC-MS/MS validated iunH deletion at protein level. The iunH knockout led to a delay in M. tuberculosis growth kinetics in Sauton’s medium during log phase, but did not affect bases and nucleosides pool in vitro. No significant difference in bacterial load of knockout strain was observed when compared with both wild-type and complemented strains after infection of non-activated and interferon-γ activated RAW 264.7 cells. MAIN CONCLUSION The disruption of iunH gene does not influence M. tuberculosis growth in both non-activated and activated RAW 264.7 cells, which show that iunH gene is not important for macrophage invasion and virulence. Our results indicated that MtIAGU-NH is not a target for drug development.


Subject(s)
Humans , Macrophages/microbiology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/growth & development , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/enzymology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , N-Glycosyl Hydrolases/genetics , Gene Knockout Techniques , Genes, Bacterial
6.
Biol. Res ; 50: 5, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838972

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI)-13 is conserved in many serovars of S. enterica, including S. Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium and S. Gallinarum. However, it is absent in typhoid serovars such as S. Typhi and Paratyphi A, which carry SPI-8 at the same genomic location. Because the interaction with macrophages is a critical step in Salmonella pathogenicity, in this study we investigated the role played by SPI-13 and SPI-8 in the interaction of S. Enteritidis and S. Typhi with cultured murine (RAW264.7) and human (THP-1) macrophages. RESULTS: Our results showed that SPI-13 was required for internalization of S. Enteritidis in murine but not human macrophages. On the other hand, SPI-8 was not required for the interaction of S. Typhi with human or murine macrophages. Of note, the presence of an intact copy of SPI-13 in a S. Typhi mutant carrying a deletion of SPI-8 did not improve its ability to be internalized by, or survive in human or murine macrophages. CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, our results point out to different roles for SPI-13 and SPI-8 during Salmonella infection. While SPI-13 contributes to the interaction of S. Enteritidis with murine macrophages, SPI-8 is not required in the interaction of S. Typhi with murine or human macrophages. We hypothesized that typhoid serovars have lost SPI-13 and maintained SPI-8 to improve their fitness during another phase of human infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mice , Salmonella enteritidis/genetics , Salmonella Infections/microbiology , Salmonella typhi/genetics , Genomic Islands/physiology , Macrophages/microbiology , Species Specificity , Cell Survival , Cells, Cultured , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Analysis of Variance , Genome, Bacterial , Bacterial Physiological Phenomena , Genomic Islands/genetics , Microbial Interactions/genetics , Serogroup , RAW 264.7 Cells , Muridae
7.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 20(1): 48-55, Jan.-Feb. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-776467

ABSTRACT

Abstract In the present context of emergence of resistance aligned with the conventional anti-leishmanial drugs and occasional treatment failure compelled us to continue the search for replaceable therapeutic leads against Leishmaniainfection. Various ginger spices of the Zingiberaceae family are widely used as spices, flavouring agents, and medicines in Southeast Asia because of their unique flavour as well as due to their medicinal properties. Zerumbone, a natural component of Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith, has been studied for its pharmacological potential as antiulcer, antioxidant, anticancer, and antimicrobial. In this study, we have shown that zerumbone could induce ROS mediated apoptosis in Leishmania donovani promastigotes and also found effective in reducing intracellular amastigotes in infected-macrophages. We emphasized the potential of zerumbone to be employed in the development of new therapeutic drugs against L. donovaniinfection and provided the basis for future research on the application of transitional medicinal plants.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis/drug effects , Leishmania donovani/drug effects , Macrophages/microbiology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology , Zingiberaceae/chemistry , Leishmania donovani/ultrastructure , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests , Sesquiterpenes/isolation & purification
8.
Bauru; s.n; 2016. 82 p. tab, ilus, graf.
Thesis in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-881929

ABSTRACT

Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) é um microrganismo presente em lesões endodônticas persistentes, mostrando maior resistência do que outras bactérias ao Hidróxido de Cálcio, um medicamento alcalino que consegue eliminar diversos microrganismos durante o tratamento endodôntico. Assim, os objetivos desse estudo foram: (a) avaliar a resposta de E. faecalis isolados de canal radicular, após estresse alcalino, quanto sobrevivência, crescimento, alteração do pH, resistência/susceptibilidade antimicrobiana e formação de biofilme sobre discos de dentina; (b) avaliar a capacidade fagocítica e produção de óxido nítrico (NO) por macrófagos humanos, frente a bactérias E. faecalis de canais radiculares, submetidas a estresse alcalino; (c) avaliar a expressão de TLR2 e CD14 na superfície dos macrófagos desafiados com as diferentes cepas bacterianas. As cepas utilizadas foram: ATCC4083 (CANAL 1) e uma cepa clínica, obtida por nós, a partir de uma lesão endodôntica primária (CANAL 2), ambas isoladas de canais radiculares; e ATCC29212 isolada de urina (URINA), utilizada como controle. O estresse alcalino foi obtido através da inoculação das bactérias em meio BHIalcalino por 4, 24, 48 e 72 horas. As bactérias alcalino-resistentes foram semeadas em ágar, com ou sem troca do meio, e quantificadas por CFU/mL. A susceptibilidade antimicrobiana das diferentes cepas, estressadas ou não (controle), foi determinada pelo Etest; e o biovolume do biofilme foi quantificado microscopicamente. Para avaliar a capacidade fagocítica, macrófagos obtidos a partir de monócitos do sangue periférico foram desafiados com as diferentes cepas, estressadas ou não em meio BHI-alcalino, por 30 minutos, na proporção 5:1 (bactéria/macrófago), e corados com Laranja de Acridina. Foi contado o total de macrófagos com bactérias internalizadas, considerando o número de bactérias internalizadas por célula (<5 e =5). A concentração de NO foi medida em sobrenadantes, através da reação de Griess, e a expressão de TLR2 e CD14 pelos macrófagos foi analisada por citometria de fluxo. Os resultados revelaram que Enterococcus oriundos de canal radicular foram menos resistentes ao estresse alcalino e mais susceptíveis aos antibióticos testados, do que as bactérias oriundas de urina. A falta de nutrientes foi um fator determinante para o crescimento bacteriano de todas as cepas. O biovolume dos biofilmes foi semelhante para todas as cepas estudadas, e não foi alterado após exposição ao BHI-alcalino. Na presença de bactérias submetidas ao estresse alcalino, houve um menor número de macrófagos com bactérias internalizadas, em comparação ao controle. No entanto, a produção de NO e a expressão de TLR2 e CD14 não foram alteradas. Independentemente da cepa utilizada e da presença de estresse alcalino, a maioria dos macrófagos apresentavam-se com =5 bactérias internalizadas por célula. Na ausência de estresse, as cepas de urina resultaram em maior produção de NO que aquelas oriundas do canal radicular; entretanto, a produção deste gás foi semelhante entre as cepas após estresse alcalino. A partir desses resultados, podemos concluir que bactérias E. faecalis de urina diferem daquelas oriundas do canal radicular, principalmente quanto a susceptibilidade/resistência microbiana; assim sugerimos que estudos envolvendo o campo da Endodontia devam ser realizados com cepas oriundas de canal radicular, preferencialmente que de urina. Concluiu-se ainda que um ambiente alcalino associado a falta de nutrientes pode reduzir o crescimento de E. faecalis. Adicionalmente, o estresse alcalino pode levar a alterações na estrutura da parede de E. faecalis, o que dificulta o seu reconhecimento, reduzindo sua fagocitose, mas não a sua capacidade de ativar a produção de NO, pelos macrófagos. Assim, uma medicação intracanal a base de hidróxido de cálcio associada a restaurações coronais muito bem adaptadas, para se evitar infiltração, é fundamental em tratamentos endodônticos. No entanto, os efeitos do estresse alcalino, nos Enterococcus alcalino-resistentes, podem prejudicar sua fagocitose, contribuindo para sua persistência na doença endodôntica.(AU)


Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) is an microorganism present in persistent endodontic lesions, with greater resistance than other bacteria to the calcium hydroxide, an alkaline intracanal dressing which eliminate several bacterial species during endodontic treatment. The objectives of this study were: (a) to evaluate the response of E. faecalis, isolated from root canal, under alkaline-stress, starvation, antimicrobial resistance/susceptibility and biofilm formation on dentin disks; (b) to evaluate the phagocytic ability and the nitric oxide (NO) concentration of human macrophages against root canal E. faecalis isolates submitted to alkaline stress; (c) to evaluate the intensity of TLR2 and CD14 expression on the surface of macrophages challenged with the different bacterial strains. The bacterial strains used were: ATCC 4083 (CANAL 1) and a clinical strain, obtained by us, from a primary endodontic lesion (CANAL 2), both isolated from pulpless teeth; and ATCC29212, isolated from urine (URINE), was a reference for comparison. All strains were inoculated in alkaline-BHI broth for 4, 24, 48 and 72 hours. The alkalineresistant bacteria were seeded in agar and quantified by CFU/mL. Antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial strains, stressed or not (control) was determined by the Etest and the biovolume after biofilm formation was quantified by microscopy. To evaluate the phagocytic ability, macrophages obtained by culture of peripheral blood monocyte, were challenged with bacterial strains, stressed or not in BHI-alkaline for 30 minutes at 5:1 ratio (bacteria/macrophages) and stained with Acridine Orange. The total of macrophages with internalized bacteria and also the number of internalized bacteria per cell (<5 and =5) were counted. The NO concentration in the supernatants was measured by Griess reaction and the intensity of TLR2 and CD14 expression on the surface of macrophages was also analyzed by flow cytometry. Results shows less resistance to alkaline stress in root canal strains and less resistance to tested antibiotics when compared with urine enterococci. The lack of nutrient was a determining factor for the bacterial growth in all enterococci strains. The biovolume of biofilm formed by all strains were similar, and were not altered after exposure to an alkaline-BHI. In the presence of alkaline-stressed bacteria, there was a smaller number of macrophages with internalized bacteria, when compared to the control. The NO production or the TLR2 and CD14 expression were not altered. Regardless of the strain or alkaline environment, the number of macrophages that showed =5 internalized bacteria per cell was higher. Without an alkaline-stress the NO production results higher in the urine strain, when compared with the root canal strains, however, was not modificated after the exposure of bacteria to alkalinestress. We conclude that root-canal strains have different features when compared with urine enterococci, with the main differences being evident in their resistance/susceptibility to antibiotics; thus, we suggest that researches with aims directed to interpreting responses to endodontic treatment should be conducted with strains from root-canals. Besides, an alkaline environment associated to a starvation condition can reduce bacterial growth. Additionally, alterations in the structure of bacterial cell wall after alkali-stressing possibly made their recognition difficult, reducing their ability to be phagocytized, but not their ability to activate NO production. Therefore, intracanal medication with calcium hidroxyde dressing and coronal restorations, to prevent infiltration, should be critical in treatments of endodontics infections. However, the impact of alkaline stress, in alkaline-resistant enterococci, can impair the phagocytosis, contributing to their persistence in endodontic disease.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects , Enterococcus faecalis/physiology , Macrophages/microbiology , Macrophages/physiology , Phagocytosis/physiology , Biofilms/growth & development , Cell Survival , Cells, Cultured , Colony Count, Microbial , Dental Pulp Cavity/microbiology , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Time Factors , Urine/microbiology
9.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 143(3): 310-319, mar. 2015. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-745628

ABSTRACT

Background: In Chile, colorectal cancer (CRC) is often diagnosed in late stages. Thus, surgical treatment must be complemented with chemotherapy. KRAS mutations and microsatellite instability have been detected in these tumors. However, the response to treatment in patients without KRAS mutations varies and requires a better understanding. Aim: To determine the frequency and distribution of somatic point mutations in KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA genes and microsatellite instability status (MSI) in patients with colon cancer (CC). Material and Methods: A prospective observational study of patients undergoing surgery for colon cancer. Tumor-derived DNA was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the most frequent mutations of KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA. PCR was also used to analyze MSI. Results: Fifty-eight patients with sporadic CC were analyzed, 16 showed KRAS mutations (G12R, G12D, G12V, G13D) and out of the 42 patients that did not show any mutation, 10 had mutations in BRAF (V600E) and PIK3CA (E542K, E545D, E545K, Q546E, H1047R). BRAF mutations alone or in combination with PIK3CA mutations were observed in 27% of high MSI tumors and in 2% of tumors without instability (p < 0.049). A higher percentage of high MSI tumors were located in the right colon (p < 0.001), and showed BRAF mutation (p < 0.020). Conclusions: The highest percentage of high MSI and BRAF mutations was observed in the right colon. Therefore, this study suggests the presence of different molecular features between right and left colon tumors that should be considered when defining the therapeutic management.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Interferon Type I/immunology , Interferon-gamma/immunology , /immunology , /immunology , Interleukins/immunology , Macrophages/immunology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/immunology , Tuberculosis/immunology , Interferon Type I/genetics , Interferon-gamma/genetics , Interleukin-1beta/immunology , /genetics , /genetics , Interleukins/genetics , Mice, Knockout , Macrophage Activation/immunology , Macrophages/microbiology , Macrophages/pathology , Tuberculosis/genetics , Tuberculosis/pathology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/immunology
10.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2015 Feb; 53(2): 82-92
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158381

ABSTRACT

Toll-like receptors (TLR) are a family of pattern recognition receptors identifying pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). They play a critical role in the innate immune response during the initial interaction between the infecting microorganism and phagocytic cells. Here, we verified the presence of TLR-2 in spleen, lymph node and thymus of Swiss albino mice and their modulation after infection with Staphylococcus aureus and Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. It was seen that TLR-2 gene transcribed to its respective mRNA on S. aureus infection, in thymus, spleen and lymph node of mice but their levels and mode of expression varied. When challenged with LPS no prominent changes in the expression of TLR-2 receptor was observed but its expression increased gradually with time in the thymus, spleen and lymph node of S. aureus infected mice. TLR-2 expression was also found enhanced in infected splenic macrophages. By studying the serum cytokine profile the functionality of the receptor was measured. The results indicate the presence of TLR-2 in thymus, spleen and lymph node of Swiss albino strain of mice and that they are modulated by S. aureus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Cytokines/blood , Cytokines/immunology , Gene Expression/drug effects , Gene Expression/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Lipopolysaccharides/immunology , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Lymph Nodes/immunology , Lymph Nodes/metabolism , Lymph Nodes/microbiology , Macrophages/immunology , Macrophages/metabolism , Macrophages/microbiology , Male , Mice , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Spleen/immunology , Spleen/metabolism , Spleen/microbiology , Staphylococcal Infections/blood , Staphylococcal Infections/immunology , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Staphylococcus aureus/immunology , Staphylococcus aureus/physiology , Thymus Gland/immunology , Thymus Gland/metabolism , Thymus Gland/microbiology , Time Factors , Toll-Like Receptor 2/genetics , Toll-Like Receptor 2/immunology , Toll-Like Receptor 2/metabolism
11.
Biol. Res ; 48: 1-8, 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950798

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) stg operon, encoding a chaperone/usher fimbria (CU), contributes to an increased adherence to human epithelial cells. However, one report suggests that the presence of the Stg fimbria impairs the monocyte-bacteria association, as deduced by the lower level of invasion to macrophage-like cells observed when the stg fimbrial cluster was overexpressed. Nevertheless, since other CU fimbrial structures increase the entry of S. Typhi into macrophages, and considering that transcriptomic analyses revealed that stg operon is indeed expressed in macrophages, we reassessed the role of the stg operon in the interaction between S. Typhi strain STH2370 and human cells, including macrophage-like cells and mononuclear cells directly taken from human peripheral blood. RESULTS: We compared S. Typhi STH2370 WT, a Chilean clinical strain, and the S. Typhi STH2370 Astg mutant with respect to association and invasion using epithelial and macrophage-like cells. We observed that deletion of stg operon reduced the association and invasion of S. Typhi, in both cellular types. The presence of the cloned stg operon restored the WT phenotype in all the cases. Moreover, we compared Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium 14028s (S. Typhimurium, a serovar lacking stg operon) and S. Typhimurium heterologously expressing S. Typhi stg. We found that the latter presents an increased cell disruption of polarized epithelial cells and an increased association in both epithelial and macrophage-like cells. CONCLUSIONS: S. Typhi stg operon encodes a functional adhesin that participates in the interaction bacteria-eukary-otic cells, including epithelial cells and macrophages-like cells. The phenotypes associated to stg operon include increased association and consequent invasion in bacteria-eukaryotic cells, and cell disruption.


Subject(s)
Humans , Operon/physiology , Operon/genetics , Salmonella typhi/genetics , Fimbriae, Bacterial/genetics , Epithelial Cells/microbiology , Macrophages/microbiology , Salmonella typhi/physiology , Cell Adhesion , Fimbriae, Bacterial/physiology
12.
Salvador; s.n; 2015. 139 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1000990

ABSTRACT

A Leishmaniose visceral (LV) apresenta ampla distribuição geográfica e é fatal caso não seja tratada. As manifestações hematológicas são constantes na LV e em casos não tratados os pacientes evoluem à óbito por sangramento maciço ou anemia grave. Neste cenário, mecanismos ligados à morte celular, hemólise, metabolismo do heme e atividade da enzima heme oxigenase podem estar envolvidos na imunopatogênese da LV. A heme oxigenase (HO) tem importantes propriedades regulatórias e está envolvida em processos fisiológicos e patofisiológicos como citoproteção e inflamação. Nesse projeto testamos a hipótese de que a ativação da enzima heme oxigenase-1 (HO-1) favorece a infecção por Leishmania infantum chagasi, principal agente etiológico da LV humana no Brasil e de que mecanismos de morte celular inflamatória induzida por heme estão associados com a resistência ao parasita. Nossas observações nesse trabalho indicam que a enzima HO-1 é induzida em macrófagos durante a infecção por L. chagasi e que a indução farmacológica da HO-1, pela CoPP aumenta a carga parasitária de macrófagos infectados por L. chagasi e reduz a produção de mediadores próinflamatórios. Além disso, a HO-1 favorece um ambiente anti-inflamatório onde prevalece a presença de IL-10...


Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a widespread disease and is fatal if left untreated. Hematological manifestations are common in VL and untreated patients evolve to death from massive bleeding and severe anemia. In this scenario, mechanisms related to cell death pathways, hemolysis, heme metabolism and enzymatic activity of heme oxygenase may be involved in the immunopathogenesis of the disease. Heme oxygenase (HO) has important regulatory properties and is involved in patho-physiological processes such as cytoprotection and inflammation. This project tested the hypothesis that heme oxygenase- 1 (HO-1) activation favors Leishmania infantum chagasi infection, the main etiologic agent of human VL in Brazil, we also tested whether heme induced inflammatory cell death pathways are involved in resistance to Leishmania infection. Our observations indicate that HO-1 is induced in macrophages infected with L. infantum chagasi and pharmacological induction for HO-1 by CoPP increases parasite load of infected macrophages and reduces production on inflammatory mediators. In addition, HO-1 contributes to the anti inflammatory pathway that favors L. chagasi replication through a higher IL-10/TNF-α...


Subject(s)
Humans , Heme/analysis , Heme/physiology , Macrophages/immunology , Macrophages/microbiology , Macrophages/parasitology
13.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Nov; 52(11): 1090-1097
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-153795

ABSTRACT

The present study describes a novel and simple vaccination strategy that involve culturing of M. tuberculosis in the macrophage cells. Isolation of phagosome from macrophage (cell line J774) infected with M. tuberculosis (H37) and M. bovis (BCG) at early and late phase of infection was done ensuing the identification and characterization of these phagosome. In vitro study of apoptosis induced by phagosome infected with (H37) and (BCG) was performed. The vaccine candidate with H37 MOI- 1:10 at 3 h, MOI- 1:20 at 1, 1.5, 2.5 and 3 h and BCG MOI- 1:20 at 3.5 h showed percentage apoptosis as 38.64, 39.93, 34.66, 22.56,34.59 and 37.81% respectively. The results designates that macrophages provide cellular niche during infection and illustrate considerable immunogenic property. Novel antigens expressed or secreted by H37 in infected macrophages can provide evidence to be a successful vaccine candidate as it endures enhanced immune response than BCG.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antigens, Bacterial/immunology , Apoptosis , Cell Line, Tumor , Culture Media , DNA Fragmentation , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin/pathology , Macrophages/microbiology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mycobacterium bovis/growth & development , Mycobacterium bovis/immunology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/growth & development , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/immunology , Phagosomes/immunology , Phagosomes/microbiology , Tuberculosis Vaccines/immunology , Tuberculosis Vaccines/isolation & purification
14.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 47(5): 613-617, Sep-Oct/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-728898

ABSTRACT

Introduction Purpureocillium lilacinum is emerging as a causal agent of hyalohyphomycosis that is refractory to antifungal drugs; however, the pathogenic mechanisms underlying P. lilacinum infection are not understood. In this study, we investigated the interaction of P. lilacinum conidia with human macrophages and dendritic cells in vitro. Methods Spores of a P. lilacinum clinical isolate were obtained by chill-heat shock. Mononuclear cells were isolated from eight healthy individuals. Monocytes were separated by cold aggregation and differentiated into macrophages by incubation for 7 to 10 days at 37°C or into dendritic cells by the addition of the cytokines human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor and interleukin-4. Conidial suspension was added to the human cells at 1:1, 2:1, and 5:1 (conidia:cells) ratios for 1h, 6h, and 24h, and the infection was evaluated by Giemsa staining and light microscopy. Results After 1h interaction, P. lilacinum conidia were internalized by human cells and after 6h contact, some conidia became inflated. After 24h interaction, the conidia produced germ tubes and hyphae, leading to the disruption of macrophage and dendritic cell membranes. The infection rate analyzed after 6h incubation of P. lilacinum conidia with cells at 2:1 and 1:1 ratios was 76.5% and 25.5%, respectively, for macrophages and 54.3% and 19.5%, respectively, for cultured dendritic cells. Conclusions P. lilacinum conidia are capable of infecting and destroying both macrophages and dendritic cells, clearly demonstrating the ability of this pathogenic fungus to invade human phagocytic cells. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Ascomycota/physiology , Dendritic Cells/microbiology , Macrophages/microbiology , Ascomycota/classification , Phagocytosis , Time Factors
15.
Biol. Res ; 47: 1-9, 2014. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950738

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is a respiratory tract disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. M. tuberculosis exploits immune privilege to grow and divide in pleural macrophages. Fibrates are associated with the immune response and control lipid metabolism through glycolysis with ß-oxidation of fatty acids. RESULTS: In this study, we investigated the effect of fibrate pretreatment on the immune response during M. smegmatis infection in U937 cells, a human leukemic monocyte lymphoma cell line. The protein expression of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), an inflammatory marker, and myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88), a toll like receptor adaptor molecule, in the infected group increased at 1 and 6 h after M. smegmatis infection of U937 cells. Acetyl coenzyme A acetyl transferase-1 (ACAT-1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α), TNF-α, and MyD88 decreased in U937 cells treated with fibrates at 12 and 24 h after treatment. More than a 24 h pretreatment with fibrate resulted in similar expression levels of ACAT-1 and PPAR-α between infected vehicle control and infected groups which were pretreated with fibrate for 24 h. However, upon exposure to M. smegmatis, the cellular expression of the TNF-α and MyD88 in the infected groups pretreated with fibrate for 24 h decreased significantly compared to that in the infected vehicle group. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that fibrate pretreatment normalized the levels of inflammatory molecules in Mycobacterium smegmatis-infected U937 cells. Further studies are needed to confirm the findings on pathophysiology and immune defense mechanism of U937 by fibrates during M. tuberculosis infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Mycobacterium smegmatis , Fibric Acids/pharmacology , Macrophages/drug effects , Mycobacterium Infections/metabolism , Acetyl-CoA C-Acetyltransferase/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Blotting, Western , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , U937 Cells , PPAR alpha/metabolism , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/metabolism , Macrophages/metabolism , Macrophages/microbiology
16.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 17(2): 234-238, Mar.-Apr. 2013.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-673203

ABSTRACT

The formula proposed by Rich in 1951 explained the formation in a tuberculous lesion in a period that was unknown cellular functions, cytokines and other immunological aspects involved in granuloma formation by tuberculosis; its components are assembled conceptually to explain the pathogenic mechanisms involved in the granulomatous lesion in tuberculosis. In this manuscript, we report an update of Rich's formula based on the new and old concepts about pathogenic mechanisms involved in the granulomatous lesion in tuberculosis. Current knowledge allows us to conclude that the balance between the characteristics of the bacillus and host protective response is necessary to indicate the outcome of pathogenesis, infection or active disease and the necrosis degree of the tuberculosis lesion.


Subject(s)
Humans , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/immunology , Tuberculosis/pathology , Adaptive Immunity , Bacterial Load , Granuloma/immunology , Granuloma/microbiology , Granuloma/pathology , Immunity, Innate , Models, Biological , Macrophages/cytology , Macrophages/immunology , Macrophages/microbiology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/pathogenicity , Tuberculosis/immunology , Tuberculosis/microbiology , Virulence
17.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 16(3): 262-266, May-June 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-638560

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Plasmid pR ST98 is a hybrid resistance-virulence plasmid isolated from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. typhi). Previous studies demonstrated that pR ST98 could enhance the virulence of its host bacteria. However, the mechanism of pR ST98-increased bacterial virulence is still not fully elucidated. This study was designed to gain further insight into the roles of pR ST98 in host responses. METHODS: Human-derived macrophage-like cell line THP-1 was infected with wild-type (ST8), pR ST98-deletion (ST8-ΔpR ST98), and complemented (ST8-c-pR ST98) S. typhi strains. Macrophage autophagy was performed by extracting the membrane-unbound LC3-I protein from cells, followed by flow cytometric detection of the membrane-associated fraction of LC3-II. Intracellular bacterial growth was determined by colony-forming units (cfu) assay. Macrophage cell death was measured by flow cytometry after propidium iodide (PI) staining. Autophagy activator rapamycin (RAPA) was added to the medium 2 h before infection to investigate the effect of autophagy on intracellular bacterial growth and macrophage cell death after S. typhi infection. RESULTS: Plasmid pR ST98 suppressed autophagy in infected macrophages and enhanced intracellular bacterial growth and S. typhi-induced macrophage cell death. Pretreatment with RAPA effectively restricted intracellular bacterial growth of ST8 and ST8-c-pR ST98, and alleviated ST8 and ST8-c-pR ST98-induced macrophage cell death, but had no significant effect on ST8-ΔpR ST98. CONCLUSIONS: Plasmid pR ST98 enhances intracellular bacterial growth and S. typhi-induced macrophage cell death by suppressing autophagy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Apoptosis/physiology , Autophagy/physiology , Bacterial Proteins/physiology , Macrophages/microbiology , Plasmids/physiology , Salmonella typhi/physiology , Cells, Cultured , Flow Cytometry , Salmonella typhi/growth & development
18.
Salvador; s.n; 2011. 87 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-618628

ABSTRACT

A leishmaniose visceral (LV) apresenta ampla distribuição geográfica e é fatal caso não seja tratada. As manifestações hematológicas são constantes na LV e em casos não tratados os pacientes evoluem à óbito por sangramento maciço ou anemia grave. Neste cenário, mecanismos ligados à hemólise, metabolismo do heme e atividade da enzima heme oxigenase podem estar envolvidos na imunopatogênese da LV, no entanto essa perspectiva ainda não foi explorada. A heme oxigenase (HO) tem importantes propriedades regulatórias e está envolvida em processos fisiológicos e patofisiológicos como citoproteção e inflamação. Apesar de sua sugestiva participação no contexto da infecção por Leishmania, uma rápida pesquisa no PubMed com as palavras heme oxigenase e Leishmania remete a somente três trabalhos até a presente data. Nesse projeto testaremos a hipótese de que a ativação da enzima heme oxigenase-1 (HO-1) favorece a infecção por Leishmania (L) chagasi, principal agente etiológico da LV humana no Brasil. Nossas observações nesse trabalho indicam que a enzima HO-1 é induzida em macrófagos durante a infecção por L. chagasi e que a indução farmacológica da HO-1, pela CoPP aumenta a carga parasitária de macrófagos infectados por L. chagasi e reduz a produção de mediadores pró-inflamatórios frente à estimulação por LPS, tais como TNF, NO, PGE2, MCP-1, IL-1β e IL-6. Além disso, a HO-1 favorece um ambiente anti-inflamatório onde prevalece a presença de IL-10 sobre a de TNF. Macrófagos derivados de medula óssea de camundongos deficientes no gene HO-1 tem menor carga parasitária, quando infectados por L. chagasi em comparação aos macrófagos de camundongos selvagens. Esses achados indicam um potencial deletério para a HO-1 na infecção por L. chagasi, bem como sugerem possíveis mecanismos envolvidos na imunopatogênese da LV.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Infections/pathology , Leishmania infantum/parasitology , Leishmania/pathogenicity , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/parasitology , Macrophages/microbiology
20.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 104(4): 644-648, July 2009. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-523734

ABSTRACT

Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, a thermal dimorphic fungal pathogen, produces a melanin-like pigment in vitro and in vivo. We investigated the involvement of carbohydrates and monoclonal antibody to CD18, on phagocytosis inhibition, involving macrophage receptors and the resistance of melanized fungal cells to chemically generated nitric oxide (NO), reactive oxygen species (ROS), hypochlorite and H2O2. Our results demonstrate that melanized yeast cells were more resistant than nonmelanized yeast cells to chemically generated NO, ROS, hypochlorite and H2O2, in vitro. Phagocytosis of melanized yeast cells was virtually abolished when mannan, N-acetyl glucosamine and anti-CD18 antibody were added together in this system. Intratracheal infection of BALB/c mice, with melanized yeast cells, resulted in higher lung colony forming units, when compared to nonmelanized yeast cells. Therefore, melanin is a virulence factor of P. brasiliensis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Macrophages/microbiology , Melanins/biosynthesis , Oxidants/pharmacology , Phagocytosis , Paracoccidioides/pathogenicity , Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacology , /drug effects , Carbohydrates/pharmacology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Paracoccidioides/drug effects , Paracoccidioides/metabolism , Virulence Factors/physiology
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