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1.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 328-338, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981009

ABSTRACT

The purpose of the present study was to determine the role of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor 3 (IP3R3) in renal cyst development in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). 2-aminoethoxy-diphenyl borate (2-APB) and shRNA were used to suppress the expression of IP3R3. The effect of IP3R3 on cyst growth was investigated in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cyst model, embryonic kidney cyst model and kidney specific Pkd1 knockout (PKD) mouse model. The underlying mechanism of IP3R3 in promoting renal cyst development was investigated by Western blot and immunofluorescence staining. The results showed that the expression level of IP3R3 was significantly increased in the kidneys of PKD mice. Inhibiting IP3R3 by 2-APB or shRNA significantly retarded cyst expansion in MDCK cyst model and embryonic kidney cyst model. Western blot and immunofluorescence staining results showed that hyperactivated cAMP-PKA signaling pathway in the growth process of ADPKD cyst promoted the expression of IP3R3, which was accompanied by a subcellular redistribution process in which IP3R3 was translocated from endoplasmic reticulum to intercellular junction. The abnormal expression and subcellular localization of IP3R3 further promoted cyst epithelial cell proliferation by activating MAPK and mTOR signaling pathways and accelerating cell cycle. These results suggest that the expression and subcellular distribution of IP3R3 are involved in promoting renal cyst development, which implies IP3R3 as a potential therapeutic target of ADPKD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Mice , Cysts/genetics , Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptors/pharmacology , Kidney/metabolism , Polycystic Kidney Diseases/metabolism , Polycystic Kidney, Autosomal Dominant/drug therapy , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells
2.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20459, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403730

ABSTRACT

Abstract Free-living amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeba are the causative agents of granulomatous encephalitis and keratitis, severe human infections. Bioactive compounds from plants are recognized as an alternative source for the development of new drugs. The Amaryllidaceae is a botanical family able to synthesize a very specific and consistent group of biologically active isoquinoline-like alkaloids. The alkaloidal fractions from the Brazilian species Hippeastrum canastrense, H. diniz-cruziae, H. puniceum, and Crinum x amabile, along with the alkaloid lycorine, were investigated against Acanthamoeba castellanii. The in vitro assays were performed with distinct concentrations of lycorine and alkaloidal fractions, while the cell viability was evaluated by the MTT method upon MDCK cells. Chlorhexidine 0.02% was used as the positive control. The effect of alkaloid fractions was concentration dependent, and 2000 µg mL-1 of H. canastrense and H. diniz-cruziae provided a 100% inhibition. At concentrations of 250, 500, and 1000 µg mL-1, the H. diniz-cruziae alkaloidal fraction showed the lowest cytotoxic effect (5%-7%) and remarkable anti-amoebic activity, demonstrating values of IC50 285.61 µg mL-1, low cytotoxicity (5%-7%), and selectivity index (7.0). Taken together, the results are indicative of the great potential that the alkaloids from H. diniz-cruziae have as new candidates for anti-amoebicidal compounds


Subject(s)
Acanthamoeba castellanii/classification , Alkaloids/administration & dosage , Amaryllidaceae/classification , Biological Products , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Phytochemicals
3.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1124-1137, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927768

ABSTRACT

Transglutaminase 2 (TGM2) is a ubiquitous multifunctional protein, which is related to the adhesion of different cells and tumor formation. Previous studies found that TGM2 is involved in the interaction between host cells and viruses, but the effect of TGM2 on the proliferation of influenza virus in cells has not been reported. To explore the effect of TGM2 during H1N1 subtype influenza virus infection, a stable MDCK cell line with TGM2 overexpression and a knockout cell line were constructed. The mRNA and protein expression levels of NP and NS1 as well as the virus titer were measured at 48 hours after pot-infection with H1N1 subtype influenza virus. The results showed that overexpression of TGM2 effectively inhibited the expression of NP and NS1 genes of H1N1 subtype influenza virus, while knockout of TGM2 up-regulated the expression of the NP and NS1 genes, and the expression of the NP at protein level was consistent with that at mRNA level. Virus proliferation curve showed that the titer of H1N1 subtype influenza virus decreased significantly upon TGM2 overexpression. On the contrary, the virus titer in TGM2 knockout cells reached the peak at 48 h, which further proved that TGM2 was involved in the inhibition of H1N1 subtype influenza virus proliferation in MDCK cells. By analyzing the expression of genes downstream of influenza virus response signaling pathway, we found that TGM2 may inhibit the proliferation of H1N1 subtype influenza virus by promoting the activation of JAK-STAT molecular pathway and inhibiting RIG-1 signaling pathway. The above findings are of great significance for revealing the mechanism underlying the interactions between host cells and virus and establishing a genetically engineering cell line for high-yield influenza vaccine production of influenza virus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Humans , Cell Proliferation , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/genetics , Influenza, Human , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Protein Glutamine gamma Glutamyltransferase 2
4.
Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research ; : 40-47, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-782293

ABSTRACT

0.05). Dogs inoculated with the former vaccine developed a significantly higher immune titer than non-vaccinated dogs.CONCLUSION: The Cabopol-adjuvanted, inactivated CAV-2 vaccine was safe and induced a high VNA titer in dogs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Adenoviruses, Canine , Amino Acids , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Formaldehyde , Guinea Pigs , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Urea , Vaccines
5.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 894-914, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880885

ABSTRACT

Tripartite motif (TRIM) family proteins are important effectors of innate immunity against viral infections. Here we identified TRIM35 as a regulator of TRAF3 activation. Deficiency in or inhibition of TRIM35 suppressed the production of type I interferon (IFN) in response to viral infection. Trim35-deficient mice were more susceptible to influenza A virus (IAV) infection than were wild-type mice. TRIM35 promoted the RIG-I-mediated signaling by catalyzing Lys63-linked polyubiquitination of TRAF3 and the subsequent formation of a signaling complex with VISA and TBK1. IAV PB2 polymerase countered the innate antiviral immune response by impeding the Lys63-linked polyubiquitination and activation of TRAF3. TRIM35 mediated Lys48-linked polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of IAV PB2, thereby antagonizing its suppression of TRAF3 activation. Our in vitro and in vivo findings thus reveal novel roles of TRIM35, through catalyzing Lys63- or Lys48-linked polyubiquitination, in RIG-I antiviral immunity and mechanism of defense against IAV infection.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Humans , Mice , A549 Cells , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/immunology , DEAD Box Protein 58/immunology , HEK293 Cells , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/immunology , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Mice, Knockout , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/pathology , Proteolysis , Signal Transduction/immunology , THP-1 Cells , TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 3/immunology , Ubiquitination/immunology , Viral Proteins/immunology
6.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 273-281, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010457

ABSTRACT

Hesperetin, an abundant bioactive component of citrus fruits, is poorly water-soluble, resulting in low oral bioavailability. We developed new formulations to improve the water solubility, antioxidant activity, and oral absorption of hesperetin. Two nano-based formulations were developed, namely hesperetin-TPGS (D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate) micelles and hesperetin-phosphatidylcholine (PC) complexes. These two formulations were prepared by a simple technique called solvent dispersion, using US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved excipients for drugs. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) were used to characterize the formulations' physical properties. Cytotoxicity analysis, cellular antioxidant activity assay, and a pharmacokinetic study were performed to evaluate the biological properties of these two formulations. The final weight ratios of both hesperetin to TPGS and hesperetin to PC were 1:12 based on their water solubility, which increased to 21.5- and 20.7-fold, respectively. The hesperetin-TPGS micelles had a small particle size of 26.19 nm, whereas the hesperetin-PC complexes exhibited a larger particle size of 219.15 nm. In addition, the cellular antioxidant activity assay indicated that both hesperetin-TPGS micelles and hesperetin-PC complexes increased the antioxidant activity of hesperetin to 4.2- and 3.9-fold, respectively. Importantly, the in vivo oral absorption study on rats indicated that the micelles and complexes significantly increased the peak plasma concentration (Cmax) from 2.64 μg/mL to 20.67 and 33.09 μg/mL and also increased the area under the concentration-time curve of hesperetin after oral administration to 16.2- and 18.0-fold, respectively. The micelles and complexes increased the solubility and remarkably improved the in vitro antioxidant activity and in vivo oral absorption of hesperetin, indicating these formulations' potential applications in drugs and healthcare products.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Female , Humans , Rats , Administration, Oral , Antioxidants/chemistry , Biological Availability , Calorimetry, Differential Scanning , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Carriers , Hep G2 Cells , Hesperidin/chemistry , Light , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Micelles , Phosphatidylcholines/chemistry , Polyethylene Glycols/chemistry , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Scattering, Radiation , Solubility , Solvents , Vitamin E/chemistry , Water/chemistry , alpha-Tocopherol/chemistry
7.
Journal of Bacteriology and Virology ; : 124-132, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764239

ABSTRACT

Canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1) infection results in hepatitis in dogs. In this study, we investigated the biologic and genetic characteristics of the CAV-1 vaccine strain (CAV1V) to improve quality control about CAV vaccine. The identity of CAV1V as CAV-1 was confirmed based on its cytopathic effects and the results of hemagglutination (HA) and immunofluorescence assays, and electron microscopy. The CAV1V strain reached 10(7.5) TCID(50)/mL in MDCK cells at 4 days post-inoculation and exhibited hemmagglutination activity of 256 U using guinea pig erythrocytes. Intranuclear fluorescence in the infected cells was observed and typical adenoviruses were observed in electon microscope. CAV1V strain was identified as a CAV-1 strain by nucleotide sequence analysis. In a comparison of the nucleotide sequences of the fiber genes of several CAV strains, CAV1V showed the highest similarity (99.8%) with the GLAXO strain, which was isolated in Canada. Our biological characterization of CAV1V will facilitate quality control of the canine hepatitis vaccine.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Adenoviridae , Adenoviruses, Canine , Base Sequence , Canada , Erythrocytes , Fluorescence , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Guinea Pigs , Hemagglutination , Hepatitis , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Microscopy, Electron , Quality Control
8.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(10): e7417, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951710

ABSTRACT

It is well known that the aminoglycoside antibiotic gentamicin is capable of causing damage to kidney cells. Given the known involvement of Ca2+ in the nephrotoxic action of gentamicin, the purpose of this study was to establish a relationship between the concentration of intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) and cellular cytotoxicity using MDCK-C11 cells, a clone that has several properties that resemble those of intercalated cells of the distal nephron. Changes in [Ca2+]i was determined using fluorescence microscopy. Cell viability was evaluated by the neutral red method, and cell cytotoxicity by the MTT method. The [Ca2+]i gradually increased when cells were exposed to 0.1 mM gentamicin for 10, 20, and 30 min. The presence of extracellular Ca2+ was found to be necessary to stimulate the increase in [Ca2+]i induced by gentamicin, since this stimulus disappeared by using 1.8 mM EGTA (a Ca2+ chelator). Morphological changes were observed with scanning electron microscopy in epithelial cells exposed to the antibiotic. Furthermore, with the MTT method, a decrease in metabolic activity induced by gentamicin was observed, which indicates a cytotoxic effect. In conclusion, gentamicin was able to alter [Ca2+]i, change the morphology of MDCK-C11 cells, and promote cytotoxicity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Gentamicins/toxicity , Calcium/metabolism , Toxicity Tests/methods , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/toxicity , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Cell Survival/drug effects , Clone Cells , Models, Animal , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells/metabolism , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells/ultrastructure , Nephrons/cytology , Nephrons/drug effects
9.
Korean Journal of Veterinary Research ; : 177-182, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741522

ABSTRACT

Canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) infection results in significant respiratory illness in dogs. Isolating and culturing CAV-2 allows for investigations into its pathogenesis and the development of vaccines and diagnostic assays. In this study, we successfully isolated a virus from a naturally infected dog in Gyeonggi-do, Korea. The virus was propagated in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) and Vero cells and showed a specific cytopathic morphology that appeared similar to a bunch of grapes. The virus was first confirmed as CAV-2 based on these cytopathic effects, an immunofluorescence assay, hemagglutination assay, and electron microscopy. The viral titer of the isolate designated APQA1601 reached 10(6.5) 50% tissue culture infections dose per mL in MDCK cells and exhibited no hemagglutination units with erythrocytes from guinea pig. The virus was also confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and next-generation sequencing. The APQA1601 strain had the highest similarity (~99.9%) with the Toronto A26/61 strain, which was isolated in Canada in 1976 when the nucleotide sequences of the full genome of the APQA1601 strain were compared with those of other CAV strains. Isolating CAV-2 will help elucidate the biological properties of CAV-2 circulating in Korean dogs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Adenoviruses, Canine , Base Sequence , Canada , Erythrocytes , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Genome , Guinea Pigs , Hemagglutination , Kidney , Korea , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Microscopy, Electron , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Vaccines , Vero Cells , Vitis
10.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 563-570, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771700

ABSTRACT

To study the effect and underlying mechanism of Mahuang Tang against influenza A virus , the influenza virus-infected Madin-Darby canine kidney(MDCK) cells were used as the carrier in this study to detect the median tissue culture-infective dose(TCID₅₀) of influenza A virus strains(A/PR8/34) on MDCK cells with cytopathic effect(CPE) assay. Blocking influenza virus invading host cells and anti-influenza virus biosynthesis were used as two different administration methods, and then the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium(MTT) assay was utilized to determine the antiviral effective rate(ER), median efficacious concentration(EC₅₀) and therapeutic index(TI) of Mahuang Tang. The quantitative Real-time polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR) was used to measure virus load and the mRNA expression levels of TLR4, TLR7, MyD88 and TRAF6 in MDCK cells at 24, 48 h after the treatment. The experiment results indicated that TCID₅₀ of A/PR8/34 for MDCK cells was 1×10-4.32/mL. The EC₅₀ values of two different treatment methods were 4.92,1.59 g·L⁻¹ respectively, the TI values were 12.53, 38.78 respectively, and when the concentration of Mahuang Tang was 5.00 g·L⁻¹, ER values were 50.21%, 98.41% respectively, showing that Mahuang Tang can block influenza virus into the host cells and significantly inhibit their biosynthesis. Meanwhile, as compared with the virus group, the virus load was significantly inhibited in Mahuang Tang groups, and Mahuang Tang high and middle doses had the significant effect on decreasing the mRNA expression of TLR4, TLR7,MyD88 and TRAF6 at 24, 48 h after the treatment. It can be demonstrated that the mechanisms of Mahuang Tang against influenza A virus are related to the inhibition of influenza virus replication and the mRNA expression of correlative genes in TLR4 and TLR7 signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Antiviral Agents , Pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Physiology , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Orthomyxoviridae Infections , Toll-Like Receptor 4 , Metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 7 , Metabolism , Virus Replication
11.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2017. 407 p. tab, ilus, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-881505

ABSTRACT

Para fármacos administrados por via oral, o controle da extensão e da velocidade de absorção depende basicamente de duas importantes etapas: solubilidade do fármaco nos líquidos fisiológicos e sua permeabilidade através das membranas biológicas. Assim, o Sistema de Classificação Biofarmacêutica (SCB) foi proposto como uma ferramenta para o desenvolvimento de novos fármacos, de novas formulações e para auxiliar nos processos de bioisenção. No entanto, outro fator relacionado à biodisponibilidade e que deve ser considerado nos estudos biofarmacêuticos é o metabolismo. Desta forma, o Sistema de Classificação Biofarmacêutica de Distribuição de Fármacos (SCBDF) foi proposto com a finalidade de classificar os fármacos de acordo com suas características de solubilidade e de metabolismo de modo que seja possível avaliar e predizer o comportamento do fármaco in vivo. O metabolismo tem sido amplamente investigado, sobretudo as enzimas do citocromo P450, as quais estão presentes também nos enterócitos. Além disso, o SCBDF oferece um suporte quanto à avaliação dos mecanismos de permeabilidade envolvidos nos processos de absorção, interações fármaco-fármaco e interações fármaco-alimento. Assim, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo elucidar os mecanismos envolvidos na permeabilidade de fármacos antirretrovirais por meio dos modelos ex vivo (câmaras de difusão vertical tipo Franz) e in vitro (PAMPA, MDCK-MDR1 e microssomas) considerando os aspectos relacionados ao metabolismo intestinal e ao efluxo destes fármacos. Dada a importância da utilização de fármacos antirretrovirais na terapia medicamentosa contra a Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida (SIDA) e que estes medicamentos são normalmente administrados cronicamente, a compreensão dos mecanismos envolvidos na permeabilidade é de suma importância, uma vez que estes não estão totalmente esclarecidos e poucas informações são encontradas na literatura. Além disso, a biodisponibilidade de fármacos como estavudina, lamivudina e zidovudina indica variação na permeabilidade, necessitando de uma investigação científica mais aprofundada dos processos absortivos. Assim, segmentos de jejuno provenientes de ratos machos Wistar foram utilizados para a avaliação da permeabilidade intestinal dos referidos antirretrovirais considerando a avaliação de efluxo pela glicoproteína-P e o metabolismo intestinal pela CYP3A. De maneira complementar, estudos in vitro com o emprego de membranas artificiais paralelas (PAMPA) e culturas celulares de MDCK-MDR1 foram realizados com a finalidade de auxiliar na elucidação dos mecanismos de permeabilidade dos fármacos antirretrovirais. Além disso, a avaliação do metabolismo dos referidos fármacos foi realizada com o emprego de microssomas a fim de verificar se tais substâncias são substratos de enzimas da família CYP3A e, assim, verificar o impacto do metabolismo intestinal na absorção. Os resultados de permeabilidade obtidos em PAMPA foram: 0,74±0,11 x 10-6 cm/s para a estavudina, 0,25±0,12 x 10-6 cm/s para a lamivudina e 1,14±0,25 x 10-6 cm/s para a zidovudina. Já no modelo ex vivo com o emprego de câmaras de difusão vertical tipo Franz, os resultados foram: 1,56±0,32 x 10-5 cm/s para a estavudina, 1,26±0,27 x 10-5 cm/s para a lamivudina e 2,54±0,49 x 10-5 cm/s para a zidovudina. Portanto, com base nos resultados obtidos a partir dos dois métodos empregados, sugere-se que 30 outro mecanismo de transporte que não envolva a permeabilidade por difusão transcelular passiva possa estar relacionado à permeabilidade dos fármacos antirretrovirais. Com relação aos estudos de efluxo, os resultados obtidos a partir dos experimentos realizados em câmaras de difusão vertical tipo Franz demonstraram o aumento significativo da permeabilidade dos três antirretrovirais quando o inibidor de P-gp foi empregado, sendo: de 15,6 x 10-6 para 42,5 x 10-6 cm/s para a estavudina, de 12,6 x 10-6 para 37,5 x 10-6 cm/s para a lamivudina e de 25,4 x 10-6 para 56,6 x 10-6 cm/s para a zidovudina. Em culturas celulares MDCK-MDR1, os resultados de permeabilidade foram utilizados para a obtenção das razões entre as direções B→A e A→B. Os valores de Papp na condição inibida para os fármacos estudados apresentaram razão menor do que 1. Já a razão B→A/A→B para cada fármaco nos ensaios sem inibidor apresentou-se igual ou maior que 2, evidenciando a interação fármaco-transportador. Com base nisso, o modelo ex vivo com o emprego de segmentos intestinais em câmaras de difusão vertical tipo Franz apresentou-se adequado na avaliação do mecanismo de efluxo dos fármacos antirretrovirais, o que foi confirmado com os estudos realizados em MDCK-MDR1. Assim, os fármacos antirretrovirais estudados apresentaram interação significativa com a P-gp. Em relação aos estudos de metabolismo realizados em câmaras de difusão vertical tipo Franz, os resultados demonstraram grande variação na permeabilidade dos três antirretrovirais quando o inibidor de CYP3A foi empregado, sendo: de 15,6 x 10-6 para 23,5 x 10-6 cm/s para a estavudina, de 12,6 x 10-6 para 27,3 x 10-6 cm/s para a lamivudina e de 25,4 x 10-6 para 40,5 x 10-6 cm/s para a zidovudina. Já no modelo que emprega microssomas, os resultados de metabolização na ausência e na presença de inibidor de CYP3A foram: de 16,56% para 19,79% para a estavudina, de 14,56% para 15,55% para a lamivudina e de 17,85% para 16,48% para a zidovudina. Com base nisso, sugerese o emprego de microssomas para a determinação de metabolismo, uma vez que o método ex vivo empregado demonstrou grande variação entre os valores obtidos. Desta forma, observou-se que, para cada fármaco, não houve influência significativa no metabolismo pré-sistêmico relacionado às enzimas do complexo CYP3A, o que indica que a absorção oral das referidas substâncias não é limitada por tais enzimas. Portanto, a utilização dos diferentes métodos empregados no desenvolvimento do presente trabalho permitiu compreender os mecanismos envolvidos no transporte dos fármacos antirretrovirais, o que se torna de grande relevância nas etapas de desenvolvimento farmacêutico de novas moléculas e na compreensão de eventos clínicos ainda não esclarecidos atualmente


For orally administered drugs, control of the extent and rate of absorption depends on two important steps: solubility of the drug in physiological liquids and their permeability across biological membranes. Thus, the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) has been proposed as a tool for the development of new drugs, new formulations and aid in the biowaiver processes. However, another factor related to bioavailability that should be considered in biopharmaceutic studies is the metabolism. Thus, the Biopharmaceutics Drug Disposition Classification System (BDDCS) has been proposed for drug classification according to their solubility and metabolism characteristics, so it is possible to evaluate and predict the in vivo behavior of a compound. Metabolism has been extensively investigated, especially cytochrome P450 enzymes, which are also expressed in enterocytes. Besides, BDDCS provides support in evaluating the permeability mechanisms involved in the absorption processes, drug-drug interactions and drug-food interactions. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the mechanisms of permeability of antiretroviral drugs through the ex vivo (Franz cells) and in vitro (PAMPA, MDCK-MDR1 and microsomes) models considering aspects related to the intestinal metabolism and efflux of these drugs. Given the importance of the use of antiretroviral drugs in drug therapy against Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and that these drugs are usually administered in a long-term way, understanding the mechanisms involved in the permeability is of a great importance, since they are not totally elucidated and no information is found in the literature. In addition, drugs as stavudine, lamivudine and zidovudine indicate variation in the permeability, which require further scientific investigation of absorptive processes. Thus, jejunum segments from rats were used to evaluate the intestinal permeability of these antiretroviral drugs, considering the evaluation of efflux by P-glycoprotein and intestinal metabolism by CYP3A. In a complementary manner, in vitro studies using parallel artificial membranes (PAMPA) and cell cultures MDCK-MDR1 were performed to aid in the elucidation of the permeability mechanisms of antiretroviral drugs. Also, the evaluation of the metabolism was carried out using microsomes to verify if such substances are substrates of CYP3A, and verify the impact of the intestinal metabolism in the absorption. The permeability results obtained in PAMPA were: 0.74±0.11x10-6 cm/s for stavudine, 0.25±0.12x10-6 cm/s for lamivudine and 1.14±0.25x10-6 cm/s for zidovudine. In ex vivo method using the intestinal segments in Franz cells, the results were: 1.56±0.32x10-5 cm/s for stavudine, 1.26±0.27x10-5 cm/s for lamivudine and 2.54±0.49x10-5 cm/s for zidovudine. Thus, based on the results obtained from these two methods, it is suggested that the antiretroviral drugs present other transport mechanism that is different from transcellular passive diffusion. For efflux studies, results obtained from experiments performed in Franz cells shown the increase of the permeability of the three antiretroviral drugs when the P-gp inhibitor was used: from 15.6x10-6 to 42,5x10-6 cm/s for stavudine, from 12.6x10-6 cm/s to 37.5x10-6 cm/s for lamivudine, and 25.4x10-6 to 56.6x10-6 cm/s for zidovudine. In MDCK-MDR1, the permeability results were used for obtaining ratio values between the directions B→A and A→B. The Papp values obtained with 33 inhibitor shown a ratio less than 1. For ratio B→A/A→B for each drug in experiments without inhibitor, the values obtained was equal or greater than 2, which shows the interaction between drug and transporter. Based on that, the ex vivo model using intestinal segments in Franz cells seems to be adequate for evaluation of efflux mechanism of antiretroviral drugs, which was confirmed by MDCK-MDR1 studies. Thus, the antiretroviral drugs presented interaction with P-gp. For metabolism studies in intestinal segments in Franz cells, a wide range of standard deviation was observed for the three antiretroviral drugs when the CYP3A inhibitor was used: from 15.6x10-6 cm/s to 23.5x10-6 cm/s for stavudine, from 12.6x10-6 cm/s to 27.3x10-6 cm/s for lamivudine, and from 25.4x10-6 cm/s to 40.5x10-6 cm/s for zidovudine. In experiments in microsomes, the results of metabolization in the absence and presence of CYP3A inhibitor were: from 16.56 to 19.79% for stavudine, from 14.56 to 15.55% for lamivudine and from 17.85 to 16.48% for zidovudine. Based on that, it is suggested the use of microsomes for metabolism evaluation, since the ex vivo method presented high variability between the results obtained. For each drug, no significative influence in pre-systemic metabolism related to CYP3A enzymes was observed, which indicates that the oral absorption of the drugs is not limited by these enzymes. The use of different methods in this work allowed to understand the mechanisms involved in the transport of antiretroviral drugs, which is of a great relevance in drug development and in the understanding of clinical events currently not clarified


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Permeability , Anti-Retroviral Agents/analysis , Metabolism , Diffusion Chambers, Culture , Laboratory and Fieldwork Analytical Methods/methods , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily B, Member 1/pharmacology , Caco-2 Cells , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A/analysis , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Oral Mucosal Absorption
12.
Immune Network ; : 103-109, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-51911

ABSTRACT

The pathophysiology of glandular dysfunction in Sjögren's syndrome (SS) has not been fully elucidated. Previously, we reported the presence of autoantibodies to AQP-5 in patients with SS, which was associated with a low resting salivary flow. The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of anti-AQP1 autoantibodies. To detect anti-AQP1 autoantibodies, cell-based indirect immunofluorescence assay was developed using MDCK cells that overexpressed human AQP1. By screening 112 SS and 52 control sera, anti-AQP1 autoantibodies were detected in 27.7% of the SS but in none of the control sera. Interestingly, the sera that were positive for anti-AQP1 autoantibodies also contained anti-AQP5 autoantibodies in the previous study. Different from anti-AQP5 autoantibodies, the presence of anti-AQP1 autoantibodies was not associated with the salivary flow rate. Although anti-AQP1 autoantibodies are not useful as a diagnostic marker, the presence of autoantibodies to AQP1 may be an obstacle to AQP1 gene therapy for SS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aquaporin 1 , Autoantibodies , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect , Genetic Therapy , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Mass Screening
13.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 375-383, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812103

ABSTRACT

Ginkgolic acids (GAs), primarily found in the leaves, nuts, and testa of ginkgo biloba, have been identified with suspected allergenic, genotoxic and cytotoxic properties. However, little information is available about GAs toxicity in kidneys and the underlying mechanism has not been thoroughly elucidated so far. Instead of GAs extract, the renal cytotoxicity of GA (15 : 1), which was isolated from the testa of Ginkgo biloba, was assessed in vitro by using MDCK cells. The action of GA (15 : 1) on cell viability was evaluated by the MTT and neutral red uptake assays. Compared with the control, the cytotoxicity of GA (15 : 1) on MDCK cells displayed a time- and dose-dependent manner, suggesting the cells mitochondria and lysosomes were damaged. It was confirmed that GA (15 : 1) resulted in the loss of cells mitochondrial trans-membrane potential (ΔΨm). In propidium iodide (PI) staining analysis, GA (15 : 1) induced cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 and G2/M phases, influencing on the DNA synthesis and cell mitosis. Characteristics of necrotic cell death were observed in MDCK cells at the experimental conditions, as a result of DNA agarose gel electrophoresis and morphological observation of MDCK cells. In conclusion, these findings might provide useful information for a better understanding of the GA (15 : 1) induced renal toxicity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Apoptosis , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Cell Survival , Ginkgo biloba , Chemistry , Toxicity , Lysosomes , Metabolism , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Mitochondria , Metabolism , Necrosis , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Plant Extracts , Toxicity , Salicylates , Chemistry , Toxicity
14.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 305-311, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-251779

ABSTRACT

To study the transport mechanisms of drugs for transplacental treatment of fetal tachyarrhythmia, MDCKII-BCRP and MDCKII cell models was used. MDCKII-BCRP and MDCKII cell monolayer model was used to investigate the bi-direction transport of sotalol, propranolol, propafenone, procainamide and flecainide. Drug concentrations were measured by HPLC-UV or chemiluminescence. The apparent permeability coefficient (P(app)), efflux rate (R(E)) and net efflux rate (R(net)) were calculated. Drugs with R(net) greater than 1.5 were further investigated using cellular accumulation experiments with or without a BCRP inhibitor. The R(net) of sotalol, propranolol, propafenone and procainamide were less than 1.5, while R(net) of flecainide with concentrations of 20 and 5 μmol x L(-1) were 1.6 and 1.9, respectively. The results showed that the transport of flecainide on MDCKII-BCRP cell monolayer could be mediated by BCRP; and the affinity increased when the concentration of flecainide decreased. Cellular accumulation experiments further suggested that accumulation of flecainide in MDCKII-BCRP cells was significantly lower than that in MDCKII cells in a concentration-dependent manner. BCRP inhibitor quercetin (50 μmol x L(-1)) significantly increased the accumulation of flecainide in MDCKII-BCRP cells (P < 0.05). Our preliminary data showed that flecainide but not sotalol, propranolol, propafenone or procainamide can be a substrate of BCRP. Thus the effect of flecainide may be affected by the BCRP in the maternal placental trophoblast membrane layer when treating fetal tachyarrhythmia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Female , Pregnancy , Biological Transport , Cell Membrane Permeability , Flecainide , Metabolism , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Metabolism , Placenta , Physiology , Tachycardia , Drug Therapy
15.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 842-847, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-257058

ABSTRACT

To establish single- and double-transfected transgenic cells stably expressing hMATE1, hMATE1 cDNA was cloned by RT-PCR from human cryopreserved kidney tissue, and subcloned into pcDNA3.1(+) plasmid by virtue of both HindIII and Kpn I restriction enzyme sites. Subsequently, the recombined pcDNA3.1(+)- hMATE1 plasmid was transfected into MDCK, MDCK-hOCT1 or MDCK-hOCT2 cells using Lipofectamine 2000 Reagent. After a 14-day-cultivation with hygromycin B at the concentration of 400 µg · mL(-1), all clones were screened with DAPI and MPP+ as substrates to identify the best candidate. The mRNA content of hMATE1, the cellular accumulation of metformin with or without cimetidine as inhibitor, or transportation of cimetidine was further valuated. The results showed that all of the three cell models over expressed hMATE1 mRNA. The cellular accumulation of metformin in MDCK-hMATE1 was 17.6 folds of the control cell, which was significantly inhibited by 100 µmol · L(-1) cimetidine. The transcellular transport parameter net efflux ratios of cimetidine across MDCK-hOCT1/hMATE1 and MDCK-hOCT2/hMATE1 monolayer were 17.5 and 3.65, respectively. In conclusion, cell models with good hMATE1 function have been established successfully, which can be applied to study the drug transport or drug-drug interaction involving hMATE1 alone or together with hOCT1/2 in vitro.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Humans , Biological Transport , Cimetidine , Pharmacology , DNA, Complementary , Drug Interactions , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Metformin , Pharmacology , Organic Cation Transport Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Transfection
16.
Chinese Journal of Virology ; (6): 404-409, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-296270

ABSTRACT

To analyze the molecular basis of the variation of the pathogenicity of the influenza B virus, we rescued a recombinant virus with a deletion in the carboxyl terminal of the NS1 protein using reverse genetics based on the parental virus B-S9 of B/Yamagata/16/88. A mutant strain with a deletion of 171 amino acids in the carboxyl terminal of the NS1 protein was named "B-L5". BALB/c mice were inoculated with 3 X 105 EID50 of B-L5 and the parental virus B-S9, respectively. Then, weight changes, survival, and viral titers were documented. During 3 days post-inoculation (dpi) to 7 dpi, the weight of mice infected with B-S9 decreased. However, the weight of mice infected with B-L5 showed weight decreases only at 2 dpi, and quickly recovered at 3 dpi. B-S9 and B-L5 could replicate in the lungs of BALB/c mice. However, viral titers in the lungs of mice infected with B-L5 were 7900-times lower than those of mice infected with B-S9 at 3 dpi. Viral titers in the lungs of mice infected with B-L5 were not detected at 6 dpi. These results showed that, compared with the parent virus B-S9, the mutant virus B-L5 showed lower pathogenicity in BALB/c mice. Our study suggests that deletion of the carboxyl terminal of the NS1 protein decreases the pathogenicity of the influenza B virus. Establishment of a reverse-genetics system for the B influenza virus will provide a platform for studying its pathogenesis, and mechanism of transmission, and for developing live-attenuated influenza B virus vaccines.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Female , Humans , Mice , Body Weight , HEK293 Cells , Influenza B virus , Genetics , Virulence , Physiology , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Sequence Deletion , Survival Analysis , Viral Load , Genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins , Chemistry , Genetics , Virulence
17.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4194-4199, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-279263

ABSTRACT

To establish HPLC specific chromatogram and its correlation with the protection effect of Shuanghuanglian on MDCK (Madin-Darby canine kidney) cell injury induced by influenza A virus( H1N1). Nine recipes of Shuanghuanglian based on the official prescription were prepared according to orthogonal test for HPLC analysis and MDCK cells protection experiment separately (cytopathic effect (CPE) method was used for observing the virus infectivity and MTT staining results were used as the determining indexes for drug concentration selection and analyzing cell viability). The results suggested that all the other Shuang-Huang-Lian recipes except recipe1 demonstrate protecting effect on MDCK cell injury induced by influenza A virus (P < 0.01, P < 0.001). Stepwise regression analysis was used for analyzing the relationships between HPLC fingerprint and the protecting effect of Shuanghuanglian on influenza A virus induced MDCK cell injury. Peak 2, 3, 6, 8 and 12 were found to be strongly related with anti-influenza A virus efficacy. Stepwise regression analysis of recipes data and efficacy data showed that Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and Forsythiae Fructus were positively associated with the protecting effect of cells injury. From HPLC fingerprints, we found that peak 2, 3, 12 were from Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and peak 6, 8 were from Forsythiae Fructus. Four peaks were identified through comparing the retention time between the standard and Shuanghuanglian recipes, and they were chlorogenicacid, cryptochlorogenic acid, forsythoside B and 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid respectively. Caffeic acid derivatives in Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and Forsythiae Fructus were found to be greatly correlated with anti-influenza A virus efficacy and maybe the substance basis of Shuanghuanglian.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Antiviral Agents , Pharmacology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Forsythia , Chemistry , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Physiology , Lonicera , Chemistry , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Scutellaria baicalensis , Chemistry
18.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 789-794, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-355282

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the inhibitory activities of 3-O-β-chacotriosyl benzyl ursolate and its derivatives as potential new anti-influenza virus agents against the entry of H5N1 influenza viruses into the target cells.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Four target compounds were designed and synthesized, which were structurally related to the lead compound 3-O-β-chacotriosyl methyl ursolate (1). The inhibitory activities of these compounds were tested at a cellular level psuedovirus system targeting H5N1 influenza viruse entry.</p><p><b>RESULTS AND CONCLUSION</b>The compounds 1b, 1c and 1d showed potent inhibitory activities against the entry of A/Thailand/Kan353/2004 pseudovirus into the target cells, and among them compound 1d showed the strongest inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 0.96 ± 0.10 µmol/L. The structure-activity relationship analysis of these compounds indicated that when 17-COOH of ursolic acid was esterified, introduction of Me groups rather than aryl groups more strongly enhanced the inhibitory activity. Changing 17-COOH of ursolic acid into amide could increase the antiviral activity and decrease the cytotoxicity of the compounds in MDCK cells.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Antiviral Agents , Chemistry , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype , Physiology , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Structure-Activity Relationship , Triterpenes , Chemistry , Virus Internalization
19.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 376-383, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-310865

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the preventive effects of Qiangzhi Decoction (, QZD) on influenza A pneumonia through inhibition of inflammatory cytokine storm in vivo and in vitro.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>One hundred ICR mice were randomly divided into the virus control, the Tamiflu control and the QZD high-, medium-, and low-dose groups. Mice were infected intranasally with influenza virus (H1N1) at 10 median lethal dose (LD50). QZD and Tamiflu were administered intragastrically twice daily from day 0 to day 7 after infection. The virus control group was treated with distilled water alone under the same condition. The number of surviving mice was recorded daily for 14 days after viral infection. The histological damage and viral replication and the expression of inflammatory cytokines were monitored. Additionally, the suppression capacity on the secretion of regulated on activation normal T cells expressed and secreted (RANTES) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in epithelial and macrophage cell-lines were evaluated.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared with the virus control group, the survival rate of the QZD groups significantly improved in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05), the viral titers in lung tissue was inhibited (P<0.05), and the production of inflammatory cytokines interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-6 (IL-6), TNF-α, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) were suppressed (P<0.05). Meanwhile, the secretion of RANTETS and TNF-α by epithelial and macrophage cell-lines was inhibited with the treatment of QZD respectively in vitro (p<0.05) CONCLUSIONS: The preventive effects of QZD on influenza virus infection might be due to its unique cytokine inhibition mechanism. QZD may have significant therapeutic potential in combination with antiviral drugs.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Humans , Cell Line , Cell Survival , Chemokine CCL5 , Metabolism , Chemokines , Metabolism , Cytokines , Metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Hemagglutination, Viral , Inflammation , Pathology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Physiology , Influenza A Virus, H1N2 Subtype , Lung , Pathology , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Mice, Inbred ICR , Orthomyxoviridae Infections , Pathology , Pneumonia , Pathology , Protective Agents , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Survival Rate , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Pharmacology
20.
Journal of Biomedical Research ; : 6-12, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-65508

ABSTRACT

Kidney cells of canine embryos were separated into single cells using collagenase and dispase. Primary culture was conducted using these cells. To remove fibroblasts, these cells were treated with edetate disodium dihydrate (Na2EDDA), and pure epithelial cells were separated. Recombinant retrovirus particles that manifest teromerase were produced and inoculated into primary culture cells to produce immortalized canine cell strains (JNUCK-1 and JNUCK-2). To examine the characteristics of the produced cell strains, the growth curve, maximum cultured households, and expressed proteins (keratin) were identified. The JNUCK-1 and JNUCK-2 cell lines showed division ability until the 30th generation without growth retardation. JNUCK-1 and JNUCK-2 cell lines clearly expressed telomerase until the 25th generation. The canine distemper virus (CDV) was inoculated into the JNUCK-1 and JNUCK-2 cell lines, as well as in the Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell line. The maximum titer of CDV from the JNUCK-1 cell strain was about 200 times higher than that from the MDCK cell strain. However, the JNUCK-2 cell strain produced a lower titer than the MDCK cell strain. We established a new canine kidney epithelial cell line (JNUCK-1) that could produce CDV with high titer.


Subject(s)
Cell Line , Collagenases , Distemper Virus, Canine , Embryonic Structures , Epithelial Cells , Family Characteristics , Fibroblasts , Kidney , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Retroviridae , Telomerase
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