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West Indian med. j ; 69(1): 32-37, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341871


ABSTRACT Objective: To examine the relationship of serum magnesium and high-sensitive C-reactive proteins (hsCRPs) with overweight/obesity, and its association with hypertension in lean versus overweight/obese (O/O), female, adolescent school learners living in Mthatha, Eastern Cape, South Africa. Methods: A case-control study was conducted involving age-matched, non-pregnant and nonlactating lean and O/O females aged 13-17 years. Relevant data on demography, anthropometry (height, weight, and waist and hip circumferences), blood pressure and venous blood samples were collected. Results: A significant inverse correlation was observed between serum magnesium and waist circumference (WC) (r = −0.3153; 95% CI = −3.843, −0.8681; p = 0.0022). Serum hsCRP levels were significantly higher in O/O participants. Participants with a WC > 80 cm had significantly higher mean systolic blood pressure and mean diastolic blood pressure (MDBP). A hip circumference (HC) > 94 cm was associated with higher mean systolic blood pressure (MSBP) and MDBP (120 ± 2 vs 113 ± 2, p = 0.009 and 73 ± 2 vs 68 ± 1, p = 0.003). Both WC and HC were found to be positively correlated with both MSBP (r = 0.2691; 95% CI = 0.042, 0.457; p = 0.018 and r = 0.2758; 95% CI = 0.03184, 0.3001; p = 0.0159) and MDBP (r = 0.2686; 95% CI = 0.0286, 0.320; p = 0.19 and r = 0.2836; 95% CI = 0.05382, 0.4455; p = 0.013), respectively. Conclusion: In our study, low-grade inflammation and early-onset hypertension in O/O adolescent females were consistent with evidence that support the beneficial effect of maintaining lean body habitus. There is an urgent need to prevent overweight/obesity among adolescents.

Humans , Female , Adolescent , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Hypertension/blood , Magnesium/blood , Obesity/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06826, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1250492


Hypomagnesemia is a major cause of death in grazing beef cows in countries of the Southern Hemisphere such as Argentina, Australia and New Zealand. Here we review the literature on hypomagnesemia in beef cattle and describe an outbreak in Uruguay. The disease occurred in late autumn, affecting 6 to 11-year-old Aberdeen Angus and Hereford x Aberdeen Angus lactating multiparous cows in good body condition, grazing on natural grasslands that had been improved by fertilization and sowing of seeds of ryegrass and oat. Approximately 40 out of 225 cows were affected and 24 (10.7%) died. A presumptive diagnosis of hypomagnesemia was established based on sudden death, acute neuromuscular clinical signs, epidemiological data, and the response to Mg administration. The diagnosis was confirmed by detecting low Mg concentrations in serum (0.47-0.57mmol/L), vitreous humor (0.47-0.80mmol/L), aqueous humor (0.66mmol/L) and cerebrospinal fluid (0.59mmol/L). The largest component of the diet corresponding to fast-growing and exuberant forages of ryegrass and oat had high concentrations of K (3.48%), N (4.38%) and P (0.94%), suggesting secondary hypomagnesemia. In addition, the K/(Ca+Mg) ratio was 2.38 in forages of ryegrass and oat (reference value: 2.2), and 0.15 in the soil (reference value: 0.09), which represent risk factors for hypomagnesemia. In conclusion, hypomagnesemia is an important cause of mortality in beef cattle grazing improved natural grasslands in Uruguay and it can be easily prevented by correct seasonal Mg supplementation.(AU)

A hipomagnesemia é uma das principais causas de morte em vacas de corte em pastagem em países do Hemisfério Sul, como Argentina, Austrália e Nova Zelândia. Aqui, revisamos a literatura sobre hipomagnesemia em bovinos de corte e descrevemos um surto no Uruguai. A doença ocorreu no final do outono, afetando vacas Aberdeen Angus e Aberdeen Angus x Hereford de 6-11 anos de idade em boas condições corporais, lactantes, multíparas e pastando em campos naturais que foram melhorados com fertilização e plantio de azevém e aveia. Aproximadamente 40 de 225 vacas foram afetadas e 24 (10,7%) morreram. O diagnóstico presuntivo de hipomagnesemia foi estabelecido com base na morte súbita, sinais clínicos neuromusculares agudos, dados epidemiológicos e a resposta à administração de Mg. O diagnóstico foi confirmado pela detecção de baixos níveis de Mg no soro (0,47-0,57mmol/L), humor vítreo (0,47-0,80mmol/L), humor aquoso (0,66mmol/L) e líquido cefalorraquidiano (0,59mmol/L). O componente mais importante da dieta correspondia a pastagens de azevém e aveia de rápido crescimento, as quais apresentaram altas concentrações de K (3,48%), N (4,38%) e P (0,94%), que sugerem hipomagnesemia secundária. Além disso, a relação K/(Ca+Mg) foi de 2,38 em forragens de azevém e aveia (valor de referência: 2,2) e 0,15 no solo (valor de referência: 0,09), que representam fatores de risco para hipomagnesemia. Em conclusão, a hipomagnesemia é uma causa importante de mortalidade em gado de corte em pastagens naturais melhoradas no Uruguai e pode ser facilmente prevenida pela correta suplementação sazonal de Mg.(AU)

Animals , Cattle , Cattle , Pasture , Risk Factors , Mortality , Magnesium/blood , Cause of Death
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(1): 116-121, feb. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092796


Resumen: Introducción: En recién nacidos (RN) con encefalopatía hipóxico isquémica (EHI) en hipotermia se describen alte raciones metabólicas que se asocian a pronóstico neurológico. La hipomagnesemia ha sido reportada en la literatura, pero no es medida ni corregida en todos los centros de atención neonatal. Objeti vo: Evaluar la frecuencia de hipomagnesemia e hipocalcemia en RN con EHI en tratamiento con hipotermia corporal total y evaluar la respuesta al aporte de sulfato de magnesio. Pacientes y Méto do: Estudio prospectivo, observational y descriptivo en RN con EHI sometidos a hipotermia corporal total, hospitalizados entre los años 2016-2017. Se realizó medición seriada en sangre de magnesemia (Mg) y calcemia (Ca). Con Mg menor o igual de 1,8 mg/dl se administró suplemento como sulfato de Mg para mantener niveles entre 1,9 y 2,8 mg/dl. Se describió la frecuencia de hipomagnesemia e hipocalcemia y su presentación en el tiempo. Se realizó registro prospectivo de evolución clínica. Se hizo un análisis estadístico descriptivo, con medidas de tendencia central. Resultados: Se incluyeron 16 pacientes. Presentaron hipomagnesemia 13/16 (81,3%), la que fue precoz (6-36 h de vida), nor malizándose con aporte de sulfato de magnesio, requiriendo 2a dosis 4 de ellos. Presentaron hipo- calcemia 6/16 (37,5%). Conclusiones: La hipomagnesemia es frecuente (80%), similar a lo descrito en la literatura. Dado su importancia fisiológica debe controlarse y corregirse, de igual manera que el calcio.

Abstract: Introduction: In newborns with the diagnosis of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) treated with hypother mia, metabolic alterations are observed, which are associated with neurological prognosis. Hypo magnesemia has been reported frequently in the literature in these patients, but it is not measured or corrected in all neonatal healthcare centers. Objective: To evaluate the frequency of hypomag nesemia and hypocalcemia in newborns with HIE treated with whole-body hypothermia and to evaluate the response to the magnesium sulfate administration. Patients and Method: Prospective, observational and descriptive study in hospitalized newborns with the diagnosis of HIE and trea ted with whole-body hypothermia between the years 2016 and 2017. Serial blood measurement of magnesemia (Mg) and calcemia (Ca) was performed. When presenting an Mg level < 1.8 mg/dl, supplementation with magnesium sulfate was administered to maintain levels between 1.9 and 2.8 mg/dl. The frecuency of hypomagnesemia, hypocalcemia and clinical evolution was registered. A descriptive statistical analysis was performed, with central tendency measures. Results: Sixteen ca ses were included, 13 of them presented hypomagnesemia (81.3%), with early-onset (6-36 hours of life), which was normalized with magnesium sulfate treatment, receiving a second dose 4 patients. Six of 16 patients presented hypocalcemia (37.5 %). Conclusions: Hypomagnesemia is frequent (80%), similar to that described in the literature, and should be controlled and corrected early, given its physiological role, in the same way that calcium is controlled.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/complications , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/therapy , Hypocalcemia/etiology , Hypothermia, Induced , Magnesium Deficiency/etiology , Biomarkers/blood , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Hypocalcemia/diagnosis , Hypocalcemia/drug therapy , Hypocalcemia/epidemiology , Magnesium/blood , Magnesium Deficiency/diagnosis , Magnesium Deficiency/drug therapy , Magnesium Deficiency/epidemiology , Magnesium Sulfate/therapeutic use
Adv Rheumatol ; 60: 18, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088642


Abstract Objective: Correlate serum magnesium (Mg) and Calcium (Ca) levels with body composition and metabolic parameters in women with fibromyalgia (FM). Patients and methods: Cross-sectional study compared with a control group paired by age and body mass index (BMI) of adult women diagnosed with fibromyalgia. All participants went through assessment of their body composition through dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and had blood samples collected for dosing of Mg, Ca, C-reactive Protein (CRP), lipidogram and glycemia. Results: 53 women with FM (average age 48.1 ±8.2 years, average BMI 26.6 ±4.5 kg/m2) and 50 control women (average age 47.1 ±9.9 years, average BMI 25.6 ± 3.6 kg/m2) participated in the study. Serum levels turned out to have inverse correlation with CRP in the FM group (r = −0.29, p = 0.03) and with BMI and glycemia in the control group (r = 0.31; p = 0.02 and r = 0.48; p = 0.0004 respectively). Serum levels of calcium correlated with triglycerides (r = 0.29; p = 0.03) in the FM group and with glycemia in the control group (r = 0.64; p = 0.0001). Conclusions: In patients with FM, magnesemia turned out to have inverse correlation with CRP and calcemia had positive association with triglycerides.(AU)

Humans , Female , Fibromyalgia/physiopathology , Calcium/blood , Magnesium/blood , Triglycerides/blood , Blood Glucose , Body Composition , C-Reactive Protein , Cross-Sectional Studies/instrumentation , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/blood
Medicentro (Villa Clara) ; 23(2): 84-93, abr.-jun. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002571


RESUMEN Introducción: la hipertensión, al igual que la obesidad, es un problema de salud a nivel mundial. En los últimos años esta situación ha aumentado en la edad infantil. Existe una estrecha relación inversa entre la ingestión del magnesio en la dieta, o en su suplementación, y los niveles de presión sanguínea. En la hipertensión hay presencia de las especies reactivas del oxígeno y las defensas antioxidantes pudieran estar afectadas. Objetivos: evaluar el comportamiento de las concentraciones del magnesio en niños pre-hipertensos, hipertensos y obesos en edad escolar. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal. La muestra estuvo constituida por 501 infantes (8-11 años), los cuales se clasificaron según: los valores de presión arterial en reposo, sexo, color de la piel e índice de masa corporal. Las determinaciones del magnesio se realizaron por el método de absorción atómica con llama. Se utilizaron las pruebas: T student y U de Mann-Whinney, en la comparación de los grupos con un nivel de significación p< 0,05. Resultados: en el grupo total de niños no hubo diferencias en las concentraciones del magnesio. Los niños pre-hipertensos e hipertensos, del sexo femenino y piel blanca, de 9 años, presentaron disminución significativa de las concentraciones de magnesio. Los varones hipertensos normopesos presentaron diferencia significativa del magnesio en relación con los normotensos. No se encontró diferencia significativa en las concentraciones de magnesio al estudiar el índice de masa corporal. Conclusiones: las concentraciones de magnesio estuvieron disminuidas en los niños pre-hipertensos, hipertensos u obesos para determinados grupos de edad, sexo y color de la piel.

ABSTRACT Introduction: hypertension as obesity is considered a health problem worldwide. In recent years, this situation has increased in childhood. There is a close inverse correlation between the dietary intake of magnesium, or in its supplementation, and blood pressure levels. In hypertension, there is a presence of reactive oxygen species, as well as, antioxidant defenses may be affected. Objectives: to evaluate the manifestation of magnesium concentrations in pre-hypertensive, hypertensive and obese school-age children. Methods: a cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out. The sample consisted of 501 infants (8-11 years old), which were classified according to: blood pressure values at rest, gender, skin color and body mass index. The determinations of magnesium were made using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Mann-Whitney U and Student's T Tests were used to compare groups with a significance level of p <0.05. Results: there were no differences in magnesium concentrations in the total group of children. Female pre-hypertensive and hypertensive white children aged 9 years showed a significant decrease in magnesium concentrations. Normal-weight hypertensive males had a significant difference in magnesium concentrations in relation to normotensive ones. No significant difference in magnesium concentrations was found when studying the body mass index. Conclusions: magnesium concentrations were decreased in pre-hypertensive, hypertensive or obese children for certain age groups, gender and skin color.

Pediatric Obesity/prevention & control , Magnesium/blood
Adv Rheumatol ; 59: 55, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088613


Abstract Objective: Determine food intake and levels of serum magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) and correlate these minerals with pain, quality of life and depression risk in women with and without fibromyalgia (FM). Patients and methods: Fifty-three women diagnosed with FM and 50 healthy women participated in the study, where all of them had equivalent age and body mass index (BMI). All women underwent anthropometric assessment, physical exams of pain perception threshold and tender point (TP) count, blood sample collection, and filling out of FM impact questionnaire (FIQ), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), and 3-day dietary record (DR). Results: Dietary intake of Mg and Ca was substantially lower by women with FM. There were no differences in levels of serum Mg and Ca in the groups under analysis. For the FM group, dietary intake of Mg and Ca had inverse correlation with TP and direct relation with the pain threshold. Conclusions: Although women with FM had lower dietary intake of Mg and Ca, serum levels for these nutrients were not different between the groups. Low dietary intake of minerals correlated with worsened pain threshold parameters.

Humans , Female , Fibromyalgia/physiopathology , Calcium/blood , Magnesium/blood , Quality of Life , Pain Measurement/instrumentation , Anthropometry/instrumentation , Depression/etiology , Patient Health Questionnaire
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 33(5): 448-453, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977448


Abstract Objective: Cardiac arrhythmias are a common challenge following open-heart surgeries. Hypomagnesemia is believed to be correlated with this condition. Prophylactic intravenous magnesium supplementation has been practiced for a long time in patients undergoing CABG. This study was designed in an attempt to compare the efficacy of oral versus intravenous routes in the prevention of hypomagnesemia and arrhythmia. Methods: In this interventional clinical study, 82 patients were randomly assigned to 2 groups. All patients were evaluated for baseline serum magnesium level and arrhythmias. One group received 1,600 mg of oral magnesium hydroxide through nasogastric (NG) tube prior to surgery, while the other group received 2 g of magnesium sulfate during the induction of anesthesia. The serum magnesium level was monitored for 48 hours after the operation. The difference in preoperative hypomagnesemia was non-significant (Sig: 0.576). Results: During the operation, the serum magnesium level peaked around 4 mg/dL, and no hypomagnesemia was detected in any patient. Although the curve of oral group declined parallel and below that of intravenous (IV) group, no significant differences were detected during postoperative monitoring. In addition, a prevalence of arrhythmia of 13.9% and 6.5% was noticed in IV and oral groups, respectively (OR: 0.428). Conclusion: Providing 1,600 mg of oral magnesium supplement to patients is as effective as 2,000 mg of magnesium sulfate IV in preventing hypomagnesemia and arrhythmia after CABG. Thus, the authors introduce this treatment regimen as a promising and cost-effective method.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/prevention & control , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Coronary Artery Bypass/adverse effects , Magnesium/administration & dosage , Magnesium/blood , Magnesium Hydroxide/administration & dosage , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Time Factors , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Administration, Intravenous , Magnesium Sulfate/administration & dosage
Arq. gastroenterol ; 55(1): 41-45, Apr.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888244


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is a gold standard for long term enteral feeding. Neurologic dysphagia and head/neck cancer are the most common indications for PEG as they can lead to protein-energy malnutrition and serum electrolyte abnormalities, with potential negative impact on metabolic balance. Refeeding syndrome may also be related with severe electrolyte changes in PEG-fed patients and contribute to poor prognosis. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the changes in serum concentrations of the main electrolytes and its possible association with the outcome. METHODS: Retrospective study of patients followed in our Artificial Nutrition Clinic, submitted to PEG from 2010 to 2016, having head/neck cancer or neurologic dysphagia, who died under PEG feeding. Serum electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chlorine, magnesium, calcium and phosphorus) were evaluated immediately before the gastrostomy procedure. Survival after PEG until death was recorded in months. RESULTS: We evaluated 101 patients, 59 with electrolyte alterations at the moment of the gastrostomy. Sodium was altered in 32 (31.7%), magnesium in 21 (20.8%), chlorine in 21 (20.8%), potassium in 14 (13.8%), calcium in 11 (10.9 %) and phosphorus in 11 (10.9%). The survival of patients with low sodium (<135 mmol/L) was significantly lower when compared to patients with normal/high values, 2.76 months vs 7.80 months, respectively (P=0.007). CONCLUSION: Changes in serum electrolytes of patients undergoing PEG were very common. More than half showed at least one abnormality, at the time of the procedure. The most frequent was hyponatremia, which was associated with significantly shorter survival, probably reflecting severe systemic metabolic distress.

RESUMO CONTEXTO: A gastrostomia endoscópica percutânea (PEG) é a via de eleição preferencial para a nutrição entérica de longa duração. A disfagia neurológica e as neoplasias cervico-faciais constituem as principais indicações para PEG por poderem conduzir a desnutrição energético-proteica e alterações hidroeletrolíticas, com potencial impacto negativo no equilíbrio metabólico. A síndrome de realimentação pode também estar associada a alterações hidroeletrolíticas graves em doentes alimentados por PEG e contribuir para um mau prognóstico. OBJETIVO: Avaliar as alterações das concentrações séricas dos principais eletrólitos e a eventual associação entre os valores séricos alterados e o prognóstico dos doentes gastrostomizados. Métodos - Estudo retrospetivo realizado em doentes seguidos na Consulta de Nutrição Artificial do Hospital Garcia de Orta, propostos e submetidos a PEG, de 2010 a 2016 e que faleceram sob nutrição por PEG. Consideraram-se os valores séricos dos iões em estudo avaliados imediatamente antes do procedimento endoscópico de gastrostomia, obtidos por consulta do processo clínico. A sobrevida, após a realização da PEG até à morte foi registrada em meses. RESULTADOS: Avaliaram-se 101 doentes. A sobrevida média pós-gastrostomia foi 6,55 meses. Destes, 59 apresentaram alterações de alguns iões no momento da realização da PEG. O sódio estava alterado em 31 (30,6%), magnésio em 20 (19,8%), cloro em 19 (18,8%), potássio em 14 (13,8%), cálcio em 10 (9,9%) e o fósforo em 9 (8,9%). Quando comparada a sobrevida dos doentes com valores de sódio baixo (<135 mmol/L) com a dos doentes com valores normais/elevados, esta foi 2,76 meses vs 7,80 meses, respectivamente (P=0,007). CONCLUSÃO: As alterações dos eletrólitos séricos nos doentes submetidos a PEG foram muito frequentes, com mais de metade dos doentes a apresentarem pelo menos uma alteração aquando da realização do procedimento. A alteração mais frequente foi a hiponatrémia, associando-se a pior prognóstico com sobrevida significativamente mais curta, refletindo provavelmente um grave compromisso metabólico sistêmico.

Gastrostomy/methods , Deglutition Disorders/blood , Enteral Nutrition/methods , Electrolytes/blood , Endoscopy/methods , Head and Neck Neoplasms/blood , Phosphorus/blood , Portugal/epidemiology , Potassium/blood , Prognosis , Gastrostomy/mortality , Sodium Chloride/blood , Deglutition Disorders/mortality , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Calcium/blood , Retrospective Studies , Endoscopy/mortality , Head and Neck Neoplasms/mortality , Head and Neck Neoplasms/therapy , Hyponatremia/epidemiology , Magnesium/blood , Middle Aged
Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences. 2017; 33 (5): 1254-1259
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-189785


Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of Type 2 diabetes mellitus [T2DM] in patients with nephropathy [i.e. Chronic Kidney Disease Stage 1 to 3] and to compare the mean magnesium levels in diabetic nephropathic patients and non-diabetic nephropathic patients

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in department of Medicine, Mayo Hospital Lahore from August 2014 to February 2015. Using non-probability purposive sampling 200 nephropathic [Chronic Kidney Disease Stage 1 to 3] patients were selected. Patients were assessed for T2DM and divided in two groups on the basis of presence or absence of DM. Magnesium levels were recorded in both groups. Percentages, mean, standard deviation and unpaired t-test was used to assess the data. SPSS was used for analysis of information

Results: Total number of cases were 200, 43.5% [n=87] out of them were between 25-50 years of age while 56.5% [n=113] patients were between 51-70 years. The Mean+SD was calculated to be 51.38+11.51 years, The male patients were 48.5 %[ n=109] while 51.5 %[ n=91] were females. The frequency of DM in patients with nephropathy was 25.5% [n=51]

Comparison of mean magnesium levels in nephropathic patients with and without diabetes was done. The results showed nephropathic patients having diabetes had 1.54+0,301 mg/dL magnesium levels while cases without diabetes had 1.92+0.313 mg/dL levels of magnesium, p value was calculated as 0.001 showing a significant difference between the two groups

Conclusion: The frequency of diabetes mellitus is higher among patients with nephropathy while on comparison of mean magnesium levels, nephropathic patients with diabetes had significant lower levels of magnesium as compared to without diabetes

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Diabetic Nephropathies , Magnesium/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 60(5): 465-471, Oct. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-798179


ABSTRACT Objective Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP) is a common endocrine disease, and its most effective treatment is surgery. Postoperative hypocalcemia is a morbidity of parathyroid surgeries, and it may extend hospitalization durations. The purpose of this study is to determine the predictive factors related to the development of hypocalcemia and hungry bone syndrome (HBS) in patients who underwent parathyroidectomy for PHP. Materials and methods Laboratory data comprising parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium, phosphate, 25-OHD, albumin, magnesium, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) of the patients were recorded preoperatively, on the 1st and 4th days postoperatively, and in the 6th postoperative month, and their neck ultrasound (US) and bone densitometry data were also recorded. Results Hypocalcemia was seen in 63 patients (38.4%) on the 1st day after parathyroidectomy. Ten patients (6.1%) had permanent hypocalcemia in the 6th month after surgery. Out of the patients who underwent parathyroidectomy for PHP, 22 (13.4%) had HBS. The incidence of postoperative hypocalcemia was higher in patients who underwent parathyroidectomy for PHP, who had parathyroid hyperplasia, and who had osteoporosis. Preoperative PTH, ALP, and BUN values were higher in those patients who developed HBS. Furthermore, HBS was more common in patients who had osteoporosis, who had parathyroid hyperplasia, and who underwent thyroidectomy simultaneously with parathyroidectomy. Conclusions As a result, patients who have the risk factors for development of hypocalcemia and HBS should be monitored more attentively during the perioperative period.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Parathyroidectomy/adverse effects , Hyperparathyroidism/surgery , Hyperparathyroidism/complications , Hypocalcemia/etiology , Parathyroid Hormone/blood , Phosphates/blood , Postoperative Period , Reference Values , Time Factors , Blood Urea Nitrogen , Calcifediol/blood , Calcium/blood , Predictive Value of Tests , Risk Assessment/methods , Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , Magnesium/blood
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 36(3): 167-173, mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-782062


A ovinocultura no Brasil é uma atividade em grande expansão e, com o aumento da demanda mundial por carne ovina, aumentou-se o interesse no monitoramento da sanidade do rebanho, utilizando diversas ferramentas como auxiliares no diagnóstico clínico, tais como os intervalos de referência séricos. Os elementos minerais constituem 2 a 5,5% do corpo dos vertebrados, exercendo diversas funções no organismo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi obter intervalos de referência para os eletrólitos magnésio, fósforo, cloreto e cálcio para ovinos das raças Dorper e Santa Inês. Foram coletados soros de 487 animais clinicamente sadios, sendo 146 da raça Dorper e 341 da raça Santa Inês. Os eletrólitos foram mensurados utilizando-se kits comerciais. Os dados foram analisados quanto à raça, sexo e idade, e os intervalos de referência determinados. Os resultados revelaram diferenças significativas nos intervalos de referência obtidos para os eletrólitos cálcio e magnésio na variável raça, e para o eletrólito fósforo na variável faixa etária e, quando confrontados com valores de referência já publicados, comprovou-se a existência de diferença estatística significativa entre os mesmos em todos os analitos estudados.

The sheep industry in Brazil is an important economic activity, and with the increasing global demand for sheep meat there is a great interest in the monitoring of the herd health, and serum reference ranges are basic tools for veterinary clinical pathology assays. Mineral elements correspond to 2-5.5% of the body of vertebrates, holding different functions in their physiology. The objective of this study was to obtain reference intervals of the electrolytes magnesium, phosphorus, chloride and calcium for the Dorper and Saint Ines sheep breeds. Sera samples were collected from 487 clinically healthy sheep, 146 from Dorper and 341 from Santa Ines breed. Electrolytes were measured using commercial kits. Data were analyzed taking the race, sex and age variables in account, and reference ranges were established. The results revealed significant statistical differences in reference ranges obtained for the electrolytes calcium and magnesium concerning the variable race, and for the electrolyte phosphorus in the variable age and, when compared with reference values already published, proved the existence of significant differences.

Animals , Chlorides/blood , Electrolytes/analysis , Phosphorus/blood , Magnesium/blood , Sheep , Hematologic Tests , Minerals , Public Health , Reference Standards
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 28(1): 19-26, jan.-mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-780002


RESUMO Objetivo: A hipercapnia resultante da ventilação protetora na síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo desencadeia uma compensação metabólica do pH que ainda não foi completamente caracterizada. Nosso objetivo foi descrever esta compensação metabólica. Métodos: Os dados foram recuperados a partir de uma base de dados registrada de forma prospectiva. Foram obtidas as variáveis dos pacientes no momento da admissão e quando da instalação da hipercapnia até o terceiro dia após sua instalação. Analisamos 41 pacientes com síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo, incluindo 26 com hipercapnia persistente (pressão parcial de gás carbônico acima de 50mmHg por mais de 24 horas) e 15 sem hipercapnia (Grupo Controle). Para a realização da análise, utilizamos uma abordagem físico-química quantitativa do metabolismo acidobásico. Resultados: As médias de idade dos Grupos com Hipercapnia e Controle foram, respectivamente, de 48 ± 18 anos e 44 ± 14 anos. Após a indução da hipercapnia, o pH diminuiu acentuadamente e melhorou gradualmente nas 72 horas seguintes, de forma coerente com os aumentos observados no excesso de base padrão. A adaptação metabólica acidobásica ocorreu em razão de diminuições do lactato sérico e do strong ion gap e de aumentos na diferença aparente de strong ions inorgânicos. Além do mais, a elevação da diferença aparente de strong ions inorgânicos ocorreu por conta de ligeiros aumentos séricos de sódio, magnésio, potássio e cálcio. O cloreto sérico não diminuiu por até 72 horas após o início da hipercapnia. Conclusão: A adaptação metabólica acidobásica, que é desencadeada pela hipercapnia aguda persistente em pacientes com síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo, foi complexa. Mais ainda, aumentos mais rápidos no excesso de base padrão em pacientes com hipercapnia envolveram diminuições séricas de lactato e íons não medidos, e aumentos na diferença aparente de strong ions inorgânicos, por meio de ligeiros aumentos séricos de sódio, magnésio, cálcio e potássio. Não ocorreu redução do cloreto sérico.

ABSTRACT Objective: Hypercapnia resulting from protective ventilation in acute respiratory distress syndrome triggers metabolic pH compensation, which is not entirely characterized. We aimed to describe this metabolic compensation. Methods: The data were retrieved from a prospective collected database. Variables from patients' admission and from hypercapnia installation until the third day after installation were gathered. Forty-one patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome were analyzed, including twenty-six with persistent hypercapnia (PaCO2 > 50mmHg > 24 hours) and 15 non-hypercapnic (control group). An acid-base quantitative physicochemical approach was used for the analysis. Results: The mean ages in the hypercapnic and control groups were 48 ± 18 years and 44 ± 14 years, respectively. After the induction of hypercapnia, pH markedly decreased and gradually improved in the ensuing 72 hours, consistent with increases in the standard base excess. The metabolic acid-base adaptation occurred because of decreases in the serum lactate and strong ion gap and increases in the inorganic apparent strong ion difference. Furthermore, the elevation in the inorganic apparent strong ion difference occurred due to slight increases in serum sodium, magnesium, potassium and calcium. Serum chloride did not decrease for up to 72 hours after the initiation of hypercapnia. Conclusion: In this explanatory study, the results indicate that metabolic acid-base adaptation, which is triggered by acute persistent hypercapnia in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, is complex. Furthermore, further rapid increases in the standard base excess of hypercapnic patients involve decreases in serum lactate and unmeasured anions and increases in the inorganic apparent strong ion difference by means of slight increases in serum sodium, magnesium, calcium, and potassium. Serum chloride is not reduced.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Acid-Base Equilibrium/physiology , Hypercapnia/complications , Potassium/blood , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Sodium/blood , Calcium/blood , Retrospective Studies , Databases, Factual , Lactic Acid/blood , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hypercapnia/etiology , Magnesium/blood , Middle Aged
Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics [The]. 2016; 17 (1): 63-70
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-176215


Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD] is a common neurodevelopmental disorder with associated mineral deficiency

Aim: To assess magnesium level in ADHD children and compare it to the normal levels in children. Then, to detect the effect of magnesium supplementation as an add on therapy, on magnesium deficient patients

Methods: The study was conducted on 25 patients with ADHD and 25 controls. All subjects had magnesium estimation in serum and hair. ADHD children were further assessed by Wechsler intelligence scale for children, Conners' parent rating scale, and Wisconsin card sorting test. Then magnesium deficient patients were assigned into 2 groups, those who received magnesium, and those who did not. The difference between the studied groups was assessed by Conners' parents rating scale and Wisconsin card sorting test

Results: Magnesium deficiency was found in 18 [72%] of ADHD children. The magnesium supplemented group improved as regards cognitive functions as measured by the Wisconsin card sorting test and Conners' rating scale. The patients reported minor side effects from magnesium supplementation

Conclusion: Magnesium supplementation in ADHD, proves its value and safety

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Magnesium/therapeutic use , Child , Case-Control Studies , Prospective Studies , Magnesium/blood , Magnesium Deficiency
JPMA-Journal of Pakistan Medical Association. 2015; 65 (1): 59-61
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-153789


To examine the effect of smoking on complete blood count, serum C-reactive protein and magnesium levels in male smokers. The prospective case-control study was conducted in two villages of Matiari district in rural Sindh, Pakistan, from July to December 2013, and comprised healthy adult male smokers and an equal number of matching non-smokers as controls. The complete blood count, serum C-reactive protein and magnesium levels in all the subjects were measured to assess the effect of smoking on these parameters. The two groups had 48 subjects each with an overall age range of 20-40 years. The results of complete blood count were comparable except for lymphocyte, which was significantly higher [p<0.001], and neutrophil, which was lower [p<0.001] in smokers than in the non-smokers. Serum C-reactive protein concentrations among the cases [14.62 +/- 0.16mg/L] compared to the controls [4.81 +/- 0.38mg/L] were significantly higher [p<0.001]. However, reverse was true for serum magnesium levels which were significantly higher [p<0.001] in the controls [2.52 +/- 0.18mg/L] as against the cases [1.09 +/- 0.38mg/dl].Serum C-reactive protein-to-magnesium ratio was significantly higher [p<0.001] in smokers than in the non-smokers. Lymphocyte count was higher while neutrophil count was lower in smokers. Smoking also caused significant increase in serum C-reactive protein concentration concomitant to decrease in magnesium concentration in the smokers

Humans , Male , Blood Cell Count , C-Reactive Protein , Magnesium/blood , Adult , Prospective Studies , Case-Control Studies
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 48(3): 319-328, set. 2014.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-734241


En la actualidad, datos epidemiológicos sugieren que, en países occidentales, la ingesta de magnesio no satisface la ingesta recomendada, lo que apoya un riesgo de deficiencia de magnesio latente en estas poblaciones. La evaluación del estado de magnesio sigue siendo un desafío para el laboratorio clínico ya que el magnesio se encuentra distribuido mayoritariamente en el hueso y tejidos blandos. Existe la necesidad de conciliación entre una prueba de fácil acceso, rápida, sensible y representativa del magnesio intracelular. La utilidad de diferentes biomarcadores en sujetos sanos ha sido evaluada; se ha reportado que el magnesio en plasma, eritrocitos y orina parecen ser biomarcadores sensibles a la ingesta dietética y útiles como biomarcadores en la población general. Sin embargo, esto no es concluyente, ya que se resalta que aún se requieren estudios mejor diseñados, que impliquen factores como mayor población empleada, dosis y tiempo de suplementación. El progreso en la genética y la genómica abren perspectivas interesantes en la búsqueda de estos biomarcadores que permitan cuantificar los niveles de magnesio celular así como también las reservas de todo el cuerpo, para poder así establecer recomendaciones dietéticas mejor ajustadas a la población.

Epidemiological studies suggest that dietary magnesium in the Western countries does not meet the recommended intake, supporting a risk of latent magnesium deficiency with Western diet behavior. Assessment of magnesium status remains a major challenge for the clinical laboratory, since, magnesium storage is mostly found in bone and soft tissues. The conciliation between an easy obtained sample, rapid and robust laboratory test, and the parameter representative for intracellular magnesium is extremely difficult to reach. In a current systematic review study, the usefulness of magnesium status biomarkers in healthy subjects has been evaluated. It is proposed that plasma and erythrocyte magnesium, and urinary magnesium excretion which respond to dietary manipulation appear to be useful biomarkers in the general population. However, it is emphasized that well-designed studies of sufficient size with varying doses and duration of magnesium supplementation are still required. The development of specific and sensible biomarkers, making it possible to obtain cell magnesium levels as well as body magnesium pool evaluation, relevant to study individuals, small and large populations, remains a major challenge for the assessment of magnesium status. A progress in genetics and genomics opens new interesting perspectives in the search of these biomarkers.

Na atualidade, dados epidemiológicos sugerem que, nos países ocidentais, a ingestão de magnésio não supre a ingestão recomendada, o que apoia um risco de deficiência de magnésio latente nestas populações. A avaliação do estado do magnésio continua sendo um desafio para o laboratório clínico, visto que o magnésio se encontra distribuído principalmente no osso e nos tecidos moles. Há a necessidade de conciliar evidência facilmente acessível, rápida, sensível e representativa do magnésio intracelular. A utilidade de vários biomarcadores em indivíduos saudáveis foi avaliada, e foi relatado que o magnésio em plasma, eritrócitos e urina parecem ser biomarcadores sensíveis à ingestão dietética e úteis como biomarcadores na população geral. No entanto, esta não é conclusiva, uma vez que se destaca que são requeridos ainda estudos melhor desenhados, envolvendo fatores como utilização de maior população, dosagem e tempo de suplementação. Um avanço na genética e na genômica abre perspectivas interessantes na busca desses biomarcadores para poder quantificar os níveis de magnésio celular bem como as reservas do corpo inteiro, e assim poder estabelecer melhores recomendações na dieta adaptadas à população.

Humans , Biomarkers , Magnesium Deficiency/blood , Magnesium/blood , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/trends , Magnesium
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(8): 715-720, 08/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-716274


Our objective was to observe the biodegradable and osteogenic properties of magnesium scaffolding under in vivo conditions. Twelve 6-month-old male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into two groups. The chosen operation site was the femoral condyle on the right side. The experimental group was implanted with porous magnesium scaffolds, while the control group was implanted with hydroxyapatite scaffolds. X-ray and blood tests, which included serum magnesium, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine (CREA), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were performed serially at 1, 2, and 3 weeks, and 1, 2, and 3 months. All rabbits were killed 3 months postoperatively, and the heart, kidney, spleen, and liver were analyzed with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. The bone samples were subjected to microcomputed tomography scanning (micro-CT) and hard tissue biopsy. SPSS 13.0 (USA) was used for data analysis, and values of P<0.05 were considered to be significant. Bubbles appeared in the X-ray of the experimental group after 2 weeks, whereas there was no gas in the control group. There were no statistical differences for the serum magnesium concentrations, ALT, BUN, and CREA between the two groups (P>0.05). All HE-stained slices were normal, which suggested good biocompatibility of the scaffold. Micro-CT showed that magnesium scaffolds degraded mainly from the outside to inside, and new bone was ingrown following the degradation of magnesium scaffolds. The hydroxyapatite scaffold was not degraded and had fewer osteoblasts scattered on its surface. There was a significant difference in the new bone formation and scaffold bioabsorption between the two groups (9.29±1.27 vs 1.40±0.49 and 7.80±0.50 vs 0.00±0.00 mm3, respectively; P<0.05). The magnesium scaffold performed well in degradation and osteogenesis, and is a promising material for orthopedics.

Animals , Male , Rabbits , Absorbable Implants , Bone Substitutes/therapeutic use , Implants, Experimental , Magnesium/therapeutic use , Osteogenesis/physiology , Tissue Scaffolds/chemistry , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Blood Urea Nitrogen , Biocompatible Materials/therapeutic use , Creatinine/blood , Durapatite/therapeutic use , Femur , Femur/surgery , Heart/anatomy & histology , Kidney/anatomy & histology , Liver/anatomy & histology , Magnesium/blood , Porosity , Spleen/anatomy & histology , X-Ray Microtomography
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-200222


Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a strong predictor of postpartum prediabetes and transition to overt type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Although many reports indicate that low magnesium is correlated with deteriorated glucose tolerance, the association between postpartum serum magnesium level and the risk for T2DM in women with a history of GDM has not been evaluated. We analyzed postpartum serum magnesium levels and development of prediabetes and T2DM in women with prior GDM according to American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria using the Korean National Diabetes Program (KNDP) GDM cohort. During a mean follow-up of 15.6+/-2.0 months after screening, 116 women were divided into three groups according to glucose tolerance status. Ultimately, eight patients (6.9%) were diagnosed with T2DM, 59 patients (50.9%) with prediabetes, and 49 patients (42.2%) with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) after follow-up. The T2DM group had the lowest serum magnesium level (0.65 [0.63-0.68] mM/L) in the postpartum period, but there was no significant difference between the prediabetes group (0.70 [0.65-0.70] mM/L) and the NGT group (0.70 [0.65-0.70] mM/L) (P=0.073) Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that postpartum HOMA-IR was a significant predictor of both prediabetes and T2DM. Moreover, we found that postpartum serum magnesium level was also a possible predictor for T2DM development. Serum magnesium level in the postpartum period may be a possible predictor for T2DM development in women with a history of GDM.

Adult , Blood Glucose , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Diabetes, Gestational/blood , Female , Glucose Intolerance/blood , Glucose Tolerance Test , Humans , Insulin Resistance , Magnesium/blood , Postpartum Period/blood , Prediabetic State/diagnosis , Pregnancy , Prospective Studies , Republic of Korea , Risk Factors
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(4): 438-445, jun. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-678277


Leptospirosis in humans usually involves hypokalaemia and hypomagnesaemia and the putative mechanism underlying such ionic imbalances may be related to nitric oxide (NO) production. We previously demonstrated the correlation between serum levels of NO and the severity of renal disease in patients with severe leptospirosis. Methylene blue inhibits soluble guanylyl cyclase (downstream of the action of any NO synthase isoforms) and was recently reported to have beneficial effects on clinical and experimental sepsis. We investigated the occurrence of serum ionic changes in experimental leptospirosis at various time points (4, 8, 16 and 28 days) in a hamster model. We also determined the effect of methylene blue treatment when administered as an adjuvant therapy, combined with late initiation of standard antibiotic (ampicillin) treatment. Hypokalaemia was not reproduced in this model: all of the groups developed increased levels of serum potassium (K). Furthermore, hypermagnesaemia, rather than magnesium (Mg) depletion, was observed in this hamster model of acute infection. These findings may be associated with an accelerated progression to acute renal failure. Adjuvant treatment with methylene blue had no effect on survival or serum Mg and K levels during acute-phase leptospirosis in hamsters. .

Animals , Cricetinae , Ion Channels/blood , Leptospirosis/drug therapy , Methylene Blue/therapeutic use , Disease Models, Animal , Guanylate Cyclase/drug effects , Leptospirosis/blood , Magnesium/blood , Nitrogen Oxides/blood , Potassium/blood , Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear/drug effects , Sodium/blood
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 59(3): 276-279, maio-jun. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-679501


OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of serum magnesium levels with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) use and other factors. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 151 patients admitted with acute diseases in the Internal Medicine Division of the Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, after the exclusion of conditions that are commonly associated with hypomagnesemia: diarrhea; vomiting; chronic alcohol use; severely uncompensated diabetes mellitus; and chronic use of laxatives, diuretics or other drugs causing magnesium deficiency. RESULTS: All patients had normal serum magnesium levels. Serum albumin and creatinine levels were positively associated with serum magnesium levels, after adjusting for confounders. There was no difference between mean serum magnesium levels of PPI users and non-users, nor between men and women; there was also no correlation among age, serum phosphorus, and potassium levels with serum magnesium levels. Limitations of this study include the absence of an instrument for measuring adherence to PPI use and the sample size. CONCLUSION: The association of PPI use and hypomagnesemia is uncommon. Congenital defects in the metabolism of magnesium may be responsible for hypomagnesemia in some patients using this drug class.

OBJETIVO: O objetivo desse estudo foi verificar a associação do nível sérico do magnésio com o uso de inibidores de bomba de prótons (IBP) e outros fatores. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se estudo transversal com 151 pacientes admitidos com doenças agudas no serviço de medicina interna do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. Foram excluídos aqueles pacientes com condições usualmente relacionadas à hipomagnesemia: diarréia; vômitos; diabéticos agudamente descompensados; uso crônico de laxantes, álcool, diuréticos ou outros fármacos relacionados. RESULTADOS: Todos os pacientes apresentaram níveis normais de magnésio. Albumina e creatinina sérica se associaram positivamente com os níveis de magnésio sérico, após ajuste para fatores confundidores. Não houve diferença no nível sérico de magnésio em usuários ou não-usuários de IBP ou entre homens e mulheres. Não houve correlação com idade, nível sérico de fósforo e potássio. As principais limitações desse estudo foram a ausência de instrumento para medir a adesão aos IBPs e o tamanho da amostra. CONCLUSÃO: A associação do uso de IBP e hipomagnesemia é rara. Defeitos congênitos no metabolismo do magnésio devem ser responsáveis pelo surgimento de hipomagnesemia em usuários de dessa classe de fármacos.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Magnesium Deficiency/chemically induced , Magnesium Deficiency/epidemiology , Magnesium/blood , Proton Pump Inhibitors/adverse effects , Creatinine/blood , Epidemiologic Methods , Magnesium Deficiency/blood , Magnesium Deficiency/diagnosis , Serum Albumin/analysis
IJPM-International Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2013; 4 (12): 1476-1479
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-138133


The aim of study was to compare the serum level of magnesium in mothers having low birth weight with those having normal birth weight neonates. In a case-control study, women who delivered low birth weight neonate [cases], compared with normal birth weight [controls] in serum concentration of magnesium. Blood samples collected within 24 h after delivery. Concentration of magnesium assessed by standard atomic absorption spectro-photometry. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to control of potential confounding variables. A total of 116 mothers [67 cases and 49 control] were studied. Mothers in two groups did not differ in age, body mass index, and socioeconomic or demographic factors. Maternal magnesium concentration did not differ between two groups 0.86 +/- 0.11 m. mol/l versus 0.94 +/- 0.22 m.mol/l respectively [P = 0.09]. There is no significant difference between serum magnesium levels of low birth weight infants' mother and normal weight infants' mother

Humans , Female , Male , Magnesium/blood , Birth Weight , Mothers , Case-Control Studies , Maternal Age