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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888210

ABSTRACT

Cholangiocarcinoma is a highly malignant tumor. It is not sensitive to radiotherapy and chemotherapy and has a poor prognosis. At present, there is no effective treatment. As a new method for treating cancer, magnetic fluid hyperthermia has been clinically applied to a variety of cancers in recent years. This article introduces it to the cholangiocarcinoma model and systematically studies the effect of magnetic fluid hyperthermia on cholangiocarcinoma. Starting from the theory of magnetic fluid heating, the electromagnetic and heat transfer models were constructed in the finite element simulation software COMSOL using the Pennes biological heat transfer equation. The Helmholtz coil was used as an alternating magnetic field generating device. The relationship between the magnetic fluid-related properties and the heating power was analyzed according to Rosensweig's theory. After the multiphysics coupling simulation was performed, the electromagnetic field and thermal field distribution in the hyperthermia region were obtained. The results showed that the magnetic field distribution in the treatment area was uniform, and the thermal field distribution met the requirements of hyperthermia. After the magnetic fluid injection, the cholangiocarcinoma tissue warmed up rapidly, and the temperature of tumor tissues could reach above 42 °C, but the surrounding healthy tissues did not heat up significantly. At the same time, it was verified that the large blood vessels around the bile duct, the overflow of the magnetic fluid, and the eddy current heat had little effect on thermotherapy. The results of this article can provide a reference for the clinical application of magnetic fluid hyperthermia for cholangiocarcinoma.


Subject(s)
Cholangiocarcinoma , Humans , Hyperthermia , Hyperthermia, Induced , Magnetic Fields , Magnetics
2.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(3): e246-e251, jun. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1116913

ABSTRACT

Los neonatos pretérminos nacen con inmadurez en los órganos, lo que lleva al compromiso del sistema inmunológico. Los campos electromagnéticos afectan la producción de melatonina a niveles bajos de exposición. Estos niños necesitan equipamiento médico las 24 horas del día para su recuperación, por lo que están expuestos a los campos magnéticos durante todo el tiempo que se encuentren en la Unidad de Terapia Intensiva. El objetivo fue medir los niveles de campo magnético que se generan alrededor de cada una de las incubadoras utilizando un gaussímetro y comparar los resultados con las recomendaciones de la Comisión Internacional para la Protección contra las Radiaciones No Ionizantes de 2010 y la norma de la International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) IEC 60601-1-2:2004. En 11 neonatos internados, los valores de radiación se encontraban dentro de los recomendados, pero existía interferencia electromagnética por problemas de disposición de los equipos en el área.


Preterm infants are born with immature organs, thus affecting the immune system. Electromagnetic fields influence melatonin production with low exposure levels. These infants require medical equipment 24/7 to recover, so they are constantly exposed to magnetic fields during their stay in the Intensive Care Unit. Our objective was to measure magnetic field levels generated around each incubator using a gauss meter and compare our results to the 2010 recommendations by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection and the IEC 60601-1-2:2004 standard by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). Among 11 hospitalized newborn infants, radiation was found within the recommended limits, but there was electromagnetic interference resulting from medical equipment layout problems in the unit.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Magnetic Fields/adverse effects , Infant, Premature , Equipment and Supplies , Water Level Measurement/analysis , Incubators , Intensive Care Units , Maximum Allowable Concentration , Melatonin
3.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO4954, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056032

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the magnetic hyperthermia therapy in glioblastoma tumor-on-a-Chip model using a microfluidics device. Methods: The magnetic nanoparticles coated with aminosilane were used for the therapy of magnetic hyperthermia, being evaluated the specific absorption rate of the magnetic nanoparticles at 300 Gauss and 305kHz. A preculture of C6 cells was performed before the 3D cells culture on the chip. The process of magnetic hyperthermia on the Chip was performed after administration of 20μL of magnetic nanoparticles (10mgFe/mL) using the parameters that generated the specific absorption rate value. The efficacy of magnetic hyperthermia therapy was evaluated by using the cell viability test through the following fluorescence staining: calcein acetoxymethyl ester (492/513nm), for live cells, and ethidium homodimer-1 (526/619nm) for dead cells dyes. Results: Magnetic nanoparticles when submitted to the alternating magnetic field (300 Gauss and 305kHz) produced a mean value of the specific absorption rate of 115.4±6.0W/g. The 3D culture of C6 cells evaluated by light field microscopy imaging showed the proliferation and morphology of the cells prior to the application of magnetic hyperthermia therapy. Fluorescence images showed decreased viability of cultured cells in organ-on-a-Chip by 20% and 100% after 10 and 30 minutes of the magnetic hyperthermia therapy application respectively. Conclusion: The study showed that the therapeutic process of magnetic hyperthermia in the glioblastoma on-a-chip model was effective to produce the total cell lise after 30 minutes of therapy.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a terapia de magneto-hipertermia em modelo de tumor de glioblastoma on-a-Chip. Métodos: As nanopartículas magnéticas recobertas com aminosilana foram utilizadas para a terapia da magneto-hipertermia, sendo avaliada a taxa de absorção específica das nanopartículas magnéticas em 300 Gauss e 305kHz. Uma pré-cultura de células C6 foi realizada e, seguidamente, foi feito o cultivo das células 3D no chip. O processo de magneto-hipertermia no chip foi realizado após administração de 20μL de nanopartículas magnéticas (10mgFe/mL), utilizando os parâmetros que geraram o valor da taxa de absorção específica. A eficácia da terapia de magneto-hipertermia foi avaliada pela viabilidade celular por meio dos corantes fluorescentes acetoximetiléster de calceína (492/513nm), para células vivas, e etídio homodímero-1 (526/619nm), para células mortas. Resultados: As nanopartículas magnéticas, quando submetidas ao campo magnético alternado (300 Gauss e 305kHz), produziram um valor médio da taxa de absorção específica de 115,4±6,0W/g. A cultura 3D das células C6 avaliada por imagem de microscopia de campo claro mostrou a proliferação e a morfologia das células antes da aplicação da terapia de magneto-hipertermia. As imagens de fluorescência mostraram diminuição da viabilidade das células cultivadas no organ-on-a-Chip em 20% e 100% após 10 e 30 minutos, respectivamente, da aplicação da terapia de magneto-hipertermia. Conclusão: O processo terapêutico da magneto-hipertermia no modelo de tumor glioblastoma on-a-chip foi eficaz para produzir lise total das células após 30 minutos de terapia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Glioblastoma/therapy , Cell Culture Techniques/methods , Lab-On-A-Chip Devices , Magnetite Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , Hyperthermia, Induced/methods , Temperature , Time Factors , Cell Survival , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Cell Line, Tumor , Magnetic Fields , Fluorescence
4.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190142, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132261

ABSTRACT

Abstract Phenolic compounds are one of the main groups of secondary metabolites in plants and are known for their antioxidant activity. Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary) contains different phenolic compounds including carnosol, carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid. In Cuba, rosemary cultivation is limited because it is difficult to propagate and has a low yield. As a result, it was removed from the Herbal Medicine National Formulary. However, the National Public Health System has a strong interest in rosemary because of its value as a natural antioxidant medicine. Irrigation with water treated with a static magnetic field (SMF) is a possible strategy to increase rosemary yield. This technology has been applied to accelerate plant growth and increase crop quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in aqueous leaf extracts from plants irrigated with SMF-treated water in comparison to control plants. Significant differences in phenolic content and antioxidant activity were observed between aqueous extracts of control plants and plants irrigated with SMF-treated water. Therefore, irrigation with SMF-treated water is a promising technology to improve the cultivation of rosemary as a raw material to obtain pharmaceutical products with high antioxidant activities.


Subject(s)
Rosmarinus/chemistry , Agricultural Irrigation/methods , Magnetic Fields , Antioxidants/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
5.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(6): 674-679, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057497

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To study the response of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury (MI/RI) in rats to simulated geomagnetic activity. Methods: In a simulated strong geomagnetic outbreak, the MI/RI rat models were radiated, and their area of myocardial infarction, hemodynamic parameters, creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), melatonin, and troponin I values were measured after a 24-hour intervention. Results: Our analysis indicates that the concentrations of troponin I in the geomagnetic shielding+operation group were lower than in the radiation+operation group (P<0.05), the concentrations of melatonin in the shielding+operation group and normal+operation group were higher than in the radiation + operation group (P<0.01), and the concentrations of CK in the shielding + operation group were lower than in the radiation + operation group and normal + operation group (P<0.05). Left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and ± dP/dtmax in the radiation+operation group were lower than in the shielding + operation group and normal+operation group (P<0.01). Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LEVDP) in the shielding + operation group was higher than in the normal + operation group (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in area of myocardial infarction and LDH between the shielding + operation group and the radiation + operation group. Conclusion: Our data suggest that geomagnetic activity is important in regulating myocardial reperfusion injury. The geomagnetic shielding has a protective effect on myocardial injury, and the geomagnetic radiation is a risk factor for aggravating the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/physiopathology , Magnetic Fields/adverse effects , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Creatine Kinase , Disease Models, Animal , Hemodynamics
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758940

ABSTRACT

In ultrasound/computed tomography (CT) fusion images, ultrasound allows visualization of the target in real time. CT provides a navigation for ultrasound scanning and improves the overview in areas of limited visualization with ultrasound. This study was performed to investigate the feasibility of ultrasound/CT fusion based on an electromagnetic tracking technique using external fiducial markers for canine ocular and periocular regions. In 7 Beagle dogs, contrast-enhanced CT images of the head were obtained with placing external fiducial markers over the frontal region and both sides of the forepaws of the dog. Ultrasonography was performed under a magnetic field by installing a position sensor in the linear probe, without changing the dog's position. The positions of the external fiducial markers were adjusted and matched, based on the CT images. The execution time of co-registration and the distance between the regions of interest and the co-registration points, the frontal bone, cornea, retina, and optic nerve, were estimated. Approximately 60% of external fiducial markers were properly recognized in all dogs. After adjustment, all external fiducial markers were precisely matched. The co-registration execution time was less than 1 min. The distances between the regions of interest and co-registration points were less than 3 mm in all dogs. The electromagnetic tracking technique using external fiducial markers was a simple and applicable method for fusion imaging of a canine head using real-time ultrasonography and CT. This technique can be useful for interventional procedures of retrobulbar and periorbital lesions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cornea , Dogs , Fiducial Markers , Frontal Bone , Head , Magnetic Fields , Magnets , Methods , Optic Nerve , Retina , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Ultrasonography
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764186

ABSTRACT

Portable low-cost magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems have the potential to enable “point-of-care” and timely MRI diagnosis, and to make this imaging modality available to routine scans and to people in underdeveloped countries and areas. With simplicity, no maintenance, no power consumption, and low cost, permanent magnets/magnet arrays/magnet assemblies are attractive to be used as a source of static magnetic field to realize the portability and to lower the cost for an MRI scanner. However, when taking the canonical Fourier imaging approach and using linear gradient fields, homogeneous fields are required in a scanner, resulting in the facts that either a bulky magnet/magnet array is needed, or the imaging volume is too small to image an organ if the magnet/magnet array is scaled down to a portable size. Recently, with the progress on image reconstruction based on non-linear gradient field, static field patterns without spatial linearity can be used as spatial encoding magnetic fields (SEMs) to encode MRI signals for imaging. As a result, the requirements for the homogeneity of the static field can be relaxed, which allows permanent magnets/magnet arrays with reduced sizes, reduced weight to image a bigger volume covering organs such as a head. It offers opportunities of constructing a truly portable low-cost MRI scanner. For this exciting potential application, permanent magnets/magnet arrays have attracted increased attention recently. A magnet/magnet array is strongly associated with the imaging volume of an MRI scanner, image reconstruction methods, and RF excitation and RF coils, etc. through field patterns and field homogeneity. This paper offers a review of permanent magnets and magnet arrays of different kinds, especially those that can be used for spatial encoding towards the development of a portable and low-cost MRI system. It is aimed to familiarize the readers with relevant knowledge, literature, and the latest updates of the development on permanent magnets and magnet arrays for MRI. Perspectives on and challenges of using a permanent magnet/magnet array to supply a patterned static magnetic field, which does not have spatial linearity nor high field homogeneity, for image reconstruction in a portable setup are discussed.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Head , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Magnetic Fields , Magnetic Resonance Imaging
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739326

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility and therapeutic effects of a novel concept hand rehabilitation device based on magnetics for subacute stroke patients with hand motor impairment. We developed an end effector type device that can induce various movements of the fingers in accordance with a magnetic field direction using electromagnets and permanent magnets. Subacute stroke patients with hand motor impairments were recruited and divided into two rehabilitation groups. Conventional rehabilitation therapies were also conducted equally in both groups. Active-assisted training of the affected hand was additionally administered for 30 minutes per day for 4 weeks using the developed equipment in the intervention group. Hand motor function and the activities of daily living were evaluated before and after the intervention. The Manual Function Test score significantly increased in the intervention group after 4 weeks of treatment (p = 0.039), and there was a significant difference in the degree of improvement between the two groups (p = 0.016). The scores of the motor Fugl-Meyer Assessment of the upper limb, the Wolf Motor Function Test score and time, and the motor Functional Independence Measure also improved in both groups (all p < 0.05). In addition, the patients in the intervention group showed greater improvements in these outcome measures than those in the control group did (all p < 0.05). An adjuvant rehabilitation therapy using a magnetic based device can be helpful to improve the hand motor function and activities of daily life in subacute stroke patients.


Subject(s)
Activities of Daily Living , Fingers , Hand , Humans , Magnetic Fields , Magnets , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pilot Projects , Rehabilitation , Robotics , Stroke , Therapeutic Uses , Upper Extremity , Wolves
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774504

ABSTRACT

This paper realized an electromagnetic tracking system based on electrically-controlled rotating magnetic field. A tracking system using the digital signal processor (DSP) as the control processing device was developed, including a controllable constant current source module, a magnetic field source module, a three-axis magnetic sensor and ADC interface circuit. The experimental results verified that each time the system could be stable positioning, average error of position was 0.282 cm, the average error of orientation was 0.696o, the positioning time was 1.572 s. Through calibration and further improvement of the hardware circuit, the performance of the system is expected to further improve.


Subject(s)
Calibration , Electromagnetic Phenomena , Equipment Design , Magnetic Fields
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740155

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The objective of this study is to determine the effect of physical changes on MR temperature imaging at 7.0T and to examine proton-resonance-frequency related changes of MR phase images and T1 related changes of MR magnitude images, which are obtained for MR thermometry at various magnetic field strengths. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An MR-compatible capacitive-coupled radio-frequency hyperthermia system was implemented for heating a phantom and swine muscle tissue, which can be used for both 7.0T and 3.0T MRI. To determine the effect of flip angle correction on T1-based MR thermometry, proton resonance frequency, apparent T1, actual flip angle, and T1 images were obtained. For this purpose, three types of imaging sequences are used, namely, T1-weighted fast field echo with variable flip angle method, dual repetition time method, and variable flip angle method with radio-frequency field nonuniformity correction. RESULTS: Signal-to-noise ratio of the proton resonance frequency shift-based temperature images obtained at 7.0T was five-fold higher than that at 3.0T. The T1 value increases with increasing temperature at both 3.0T and 7.0T. However, temperature measurement using apparent T1-based MR thermometry results in bias and error because B1 varies with temperature. After correcting for the effect of B1 changes, our experimental results confirmed that the calculated T1 increases with increasing temperature both at 3.0T and 7.0T. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the temperature-induced flip angle variations need to be considered for accurate temperature measurements in T1-based MR thermometry.


Subject(s)
Bias , Fever , Heating , Hot Temperature , Magnetic Fields , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Methods , Protons , Signal-To-Noise Ratio , Swine , Thermometry
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740150

ABSTRACT

Application of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for assessment of pulmonary disease has been limited, due to susceptibility to cardiac pulsation, respiratory motion, and inhomogeneity of the magnetic field of the lung. With technical advances of MRI and unmet clinical needs for more accurate diagnosis and assessment of the disease, however, the use of MRI for evaluation of the lung has broadened. Herein, we present a case of pneumonic-type lung adenocarcinoma in a patient with history of anaphylactic shock to iodinated contrast medium, in which MRI played a critical role for targeted lung biopsy and cancer staging. Through this paper, we would like to report potential value of MRI in assessment of lung cancer.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous , Anaphylaxis , Biopsy , Diagnosis , Humans , Lung Diseases , Lung Neoplasms , Lung , Magnetic Fields , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Necrosis , Neoplasm Staging , Pneumonia
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718250

ABSTRACT

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an advanced diagnostic tool used in both medicine and dentistry. Since it functions based on a strong uniform static magnetic field and radiofrequency pulses, it is advantageous over imaging techniques that rely on ionizing radiation. Unfortunately, the magnetic field and radiofrequency pulses generated within the magnetic resonance imager interact unfavorably with dental materials that have magnetic properties. This leads to unwanted effects such as artifact formation, heat generation, and mechanical displacement. These are a potential source of damage to the oral tissue surrounding the affected dental materials. This review aims to compile, based on the current available evidence, recommendations for dentists and radiologists regarding the safety and appropriate management of dental materials during MRI in patients with orthodontic appliances, maxillofacial prostheses, dental implants, direct and indirect restorative materials, and endodontic materials.


Subject(s)
Artifacts , Clothing , Dental Alloys , Dental Implants , Dental Materials , Dentistry , Dentists , Hot Temperature , Humans , Magnetic Fields , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Maxillofacial Prosthesis , Orthodontic Appliances , Radiation, Ionizing , Root Canal Filling Materials
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714572

ABSTRACT

Despite the fact that pharmacotherapy depressive disorders have proven efficacy, a substantial number of patients are resistant to conventional management. As neuroscientific research about pathophysiology of depression have accumulated, repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) have emerged as an important mechanism- based treatment modality. This overview provides a review of therapeutic application of rTMS and tDCS in patients with depression. The clinical and basic studies of rTMS and tDCS in depression were reviewed and integrated using a literature review and interview with experts. rTMS is a noninvasive procedure of a localized pulsed magnetic field to the surface of the head to cause a depolarization of neurons in the brain cortex. tDCS has a mechanism of modulating cortical excitability in a polarity-specific manner without eliciting action potentials. rTMS and tDCS seem promising for treating depression. Although therapeutic parameters and further technical improvement remain to be systematically investigated, rTMS and tDCS would be a safe and effective intervention to treat depression.


Subject(s)
Action Potentials , Brain , Depression , Depressive Disorder , Drug Therapy , Head , Humans , Magnetic Fields , Neurons , Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation , Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-819077

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the effects of 50 Hz 1.8 mT sinusoidal magnetic field (SEMF) and 50 Hz 0.6 mT pulsed electromagnetic field(PEMF) on the maturation and mineralization of rat calvaria osteoblasts. Methods: Primary cultured rat calvarial osteoblasts were divided into 3 groups:blank control group, SEMF group and PEMF group. The rats in SEMT and PEMT groups were treated with 50 Hz 1.8 mT SEMF or 50 Hz 0.6 mT PEMF for 90 min/d, respectively. Western blotting and Real-time RT-PCR were used to detect the protein and mRNA expressions of Collagen-1, bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2), osterix (OSX) and Runt-associated transcription factor 2(Runx-2). The alkaline phosphatase(ALP) activity was detected by ALP test kits at d6 and d9 after treatment, and by ALP staining using azo coupling at d10 after treatment. The formation of calcium nodules was observed by alizarin red staining. Results: Compared with blank control group, the protein and mRNA expressions of Collagen-1, BMP-2, OSX and Runx-2 in SEMT and PEMT groups were significantly increased (P P PP0.05); after 9 days treatment, the activities of ALP in both PEMF and SEMP groups were significantly higher than that in blank control group (all PP0.05). After 10 days treatment, ALP staining was increased in both PEMF and SEMF groups compared with that in blank control group (all PPPPConclusion: Both 50 Hz 1.8 mT that in SEMF and 50 Hz 0.6 mT PEMF can promote the maturation and mineralization of osteoblasts, and the effect of PEMF is more marked.


Subject(s)
Animals , Calcification, Physiologic , Cell Differentiation , Cells, Cultured , Electromagnetic Fields , Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental , Radiation Effects , Magnetic Fields , Osteoblasts , Cell Biology , Radiation Effects , Rats , Skull
16.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 527-537, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-756984

ABSTRACT

Accumulative evidence has shown the adverse effects of a geomagnetic field shielded condition, so called a hypomagnetic field (HMF), on the metabolic processes and oxidative stress in animals and cells. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we evaluate the role of HMF on the regulation of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. We found that HMF exposure led to ROS decrease, and that restoring the decrease by additional HO rescued the HMF-enhanced cell proliferation. The measurements on ROS related indexes, including total anti-oxidant capacity, HO and superoxide anion levels, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and expression, indicated that the HMF reduced HO production and inhibited the activity of CuZn-SOD. Moreover, the HMF accelerated the denaturation of CuZn-SOD as well as enhanced aggregation of CuZn-SOD protein, in vitro. Our findings indicate that CuZn-SOD is able to response to the HMF stress and suggest it a mediator of the HMF effect.


Subject(s)
Cell Line, Tumor , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide , Metabolism , Magnetic Fields , Neoplasm Proteins , Metabolism , Neuroblastoma , Metabolism , Stress, Physiological , Superoxide Dismutase-1 , Metabolism
17.
Biomedical Engineering Letters ; (4): 185-191, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-645191

ABSTRACT

Data from magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) suffer from a rather limited signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) due to cortical background activities and other artifacts. In order to study the effect of the SNR on the size and distribution of dipole clusters reconstructed from interictal epileptic spikes, we performed simulations using realistically shaped volume conductor models and extended cortical sources with different sensor configurations. Head models and cortical surfaces were derived from an averaged magnetic resonance image dataset (Montreal Neurological Institute). Extended sources were simulated by spherical patches with Gaussian current distributions on the folded cortical surface. Different patch sizes were used to investigate cancellation effects from opposing walls of sulcal foldings and to estimate corresponding changes in MEG and EEG sensitivity distributions. Finally, white noise was added to the simulated fields and equivalent current dipole reconstructions were performed to determine size and shape of the resulting dipole clusters. Neuronal currents are oriented perpendicular to the local cortical surface and show cancellation effects of source components on opposing sulcal walls. Since these mostly tangential aspects from large cortical patches cancel out, large extended sources exhibit more radial components in the head geometry. This effect has a larger impact on MEG data as compared to EEG, because in a spherical head model radial currents do not yield any magnetic field. Confidence volumes of single reconstructed dipoles from simulated data at different SNRs show a good correlation with the extension of clusters from repeated dipole reconstructions. Size and shape of dipole clusters reconstructed from extended cortical sources do not only depend on spike and timepoint selection, but also strongly on the SNR of the measured interictal MEG or EEG data. In a linear approximation the size of the clusters is proportional to the inverse SNR.


Subject(s)
Artifacts , Dataset , Electroencephalography , Head , Magnetic Fields , Magnetoencephalography , Neurons , Noise
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-187091

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although static magnetic fields (SMFs) have been used in dental prostheses and osseointegrated implants, their biological effects on osteoblastic and cementoblastic differentiation in cells involved in periodontal regeneration remain unknown. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of SMFs (15 mT) on the osteoblastic and cementoblastic differentiation of human osteoblasts, periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs), and cementoblasts, and to explore the possible mechanisms underlying these effects. METHODS: Differentiation was evaluated by measuring alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, mineralized nodule formation based on Alizarin red staining, calcium content, and the expression of marker mRNAs assessed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Signaling pathways were analyzed by western blotting and immunocytochemistry. RESULTS: The activities of the early marker ALP and the late markers matrix mineralization and calcium content, as well as osteoblast- and cementoblast-specific gene expression in osteoblasts, PDLCs, and cementoblasts were enhanced. SMFs upregulated the expression of Wnt proteins, and increased the phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and total β-catenin protein expression. Furthermore, p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathways were activated. CONCLUSIONS: SMF treatment enhanced osteoblastic and/or cementoblastic differentiation in osteoblasts, cementoblasts, and PDLCs. These findings provide a molecular basis for the beneficial osteogenic and/or cementogenic effect of SMFs, which could have potential in stimulating bone or cementum formation during bone regeneration and in patients with periodontal disease.


Subject(s)
Alkaline Phosphatase , Blotting, Western , Bone Regeneration , Calcium , Dental Cementum , Dental Prosthesis , Gene Expression , Glycogen Synthase , Guided Tissue Regeneration, Periodontal , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Magnetic Fields , Miners , Osteoblasts , Periodontal Diseases , Periodontal Ligament , Phosphorylation , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Protein Kinases , Regeneration , Relative Biological Effectiveness , Reverse Transcription , RNA, Messenger , Signal Transduction , Wnt Proteins
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-725367

ABSTRACT

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive neuromodulation technique which can change cortical excitability in targeted area by producing magnetic field pulses with an electromagnetic coil. rTMS treatment has been used to treat various neuropsychiatric disorders including depression. In this review, we evaluate the literature on rTMS for depression by assessing its efficacy on different subtypes of depression and different technical parameters. In particular, we focus on the results of randomized clinical trials and meta-analyses for depression after the US Food and Drug Administration approval in 2008, which acknowledged its efficacy and acceptability. We also review the new forms of rTMS therapy including deep TMS, theta-burst stimulation, and magnetic seizure therapy (MST) that have been under recent investigation. High frequency rTMS over left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), low frequency rTMS over right DLPFC, or bilateral rTMS is shown to be effective and acceptable in treatment for patients with non-psychotic, unipolar depression either as monotherapy or adjuvant. Deep TMS, theta-burst stimulation and MST are promising new TMS techniques which warrant further research.


Subject(s)
Depression , Depressive Disorder , Humans , Magnetic Fields , Magnets , Prefrontal Cortex , Seizures , Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation , Treatment Outcome , United States Food and Drug Administration
20.
Bauru; s.n; 2017. 93 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-880080

ABSTRACT

Inserido no paradigma da transdisciplinaridade, o presente trabalho foi desenvolvido em etapas, com os seguintes objetivos: a) Construir um dispositivo com base de metal não magnético para ímãs permanentes, visando à geração de um Campo Magnético Estático (CME) ou de um Campo Magnético Compensado (CMC); b) Expor culturas de células mesenquimais a um CME e a um CMC, ou a nenhum campo (controle); c) Analisar a influência destes campos na viabilidade e proliferação celular e nos casos em que houve alteração em pelo menos um destes parâmetros, utilizar a análise proteômica como ferramenta para a compreensão dos mecanismos envolvidos. O dispositivo foi construído utilizando aço inoxidável, capaz de gerar dois tipos de Campos Magnéticos: Compensado (CMC) com intensidade de aproximadamente 0 mT e Estático (CME) com intensidade média de 165 mT. Estes campos foram aplicados a culturas de células mesenquimais de medula óssea de camundongos AJ (MSC/AJ), nos períodos de 0, 24, 48, 72 e 96 h (CMC) e 24 h (CME). Os efeitos sobre a proliferação e a viabilidade foram avaliados por método de contagem manual de células com marcação por azul de tripan. A análise proteômica foi realizada para os experimentos com CMC, com o objetivo de descrever as proteínas envolvidas nas alterações encontradas. A exposição ao CMC tendeu a reduzir a proliferação das células de medula óssea MSC/AJ em relação ao controle em 96 h, porém sem diferença significativa, o que poderia estar relacionado a proteínas que inibem a transcrição, como a Forkhead box protein P2 Foxp2. Este mesmo campo aumentou a viabilidade celular em relação ao baseline para todos os tempos experimentais, o que poderia estar relacionado a proteínas relacionadas à ligação ao Ca+2. Esses mecanismos, entretanto, precisam ser estudados mais profundamente para que possam ser comprovados ou não. Já a exposição ao CME levou a uma tendência à diminuição da proliferação e viabilidade celular em relação ao grupo controle, embora sem diferenças significativas, provavelmente por conta do tamanho amostral e tempo de avaliação (24 h).(AU)


Inserted in the transdisciplinarity paradigm, the present work was developed by steps with the following aims: a) To build a device of non-magnetic metal to hold permanent magnets for the generation of a Static Magnetic Field (SMF) or a Compensated Magnetic Field (CMF); b) To expose mesenchimal cells to the SMF and to CMF or to none of the fields (control); c) To analyze the influence of these fields on cell viability and cell proliferation and in the case where it occurred alteration in at least one of these parameters, to use proteomics as a tool for the comprehension of the involved mechanisms. The device was built in stainless steel, able to generate two kinds of Magnetic Fields: Compesated (CMF) with an intensity of nearly zero mT and Static (SMF) with a mean intensity of 165 mT. These fields were applied to bone marrow mesenchimal cell cultures from AJ mice (MSC/AJ), for 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h (CMF) and 24 h (SMF) periods. The effects on the proliferation and viability were assessed by tripan blue dying and manual counting of the cells. Proteomics was done for the experiments with CMF, aiming to describe the involved proteins on found alterations. The exposition to CMF tends to reduce the bone marrow cell proliferation of MSC/AJ in relation to control in 96 h, but with no significant difference, which may be related to proteins that inhibit the transcription, like Forkhead box protein P2 Foxp2. This very field raised the cell viability in relation to the baseline for all the experimental times that could be related to proteins connected to Ca2+ binding. However, these mechanisms need more experiments, so they can be confirmed or not. The exposition to the SMF tends to decrease both cell proliferation and viability in relation to the control group, although with no significant difference, probably because of the sample number and the exposition time (24h).(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Cell Proliferation/physiology , Magnetic Fields , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/physiology , Cell Count , Cell Survival/physiology , Cells, Cultured , Chromatography, Liquid , Mass Spectrometry , Reference Values , Reproducibility of Results , Time Factors
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