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1.
Braz. dent. sci ; 26(1): 1-17, 2023. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1412901

ABSTRACT

Objective: the aim of this study was to analyse the performance of the technique of texture analysis (TA) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of temporomandibular joints (TMJs) as a tool for identification of possible changes in individuals with migraine headache (MH) by relating the findings to the presence of internal derangements. Material and Methods: thirty MRI scans of the TMJ were selected for study, of which 15 were from individuals without MH or any other type of headache (control group) and 15 from those diagnosed with migraine. T2-weighted MRI scans of the articular joints taken in closed-mouth position were used for TA. The co-occurrence matrix was used to calculate the texture parameters. Fisher's exact test was used to compare the groups for gender, disc function and disc position, whereas Mann-Whitney's test was used for other parameters. The relationship of TA with disc position and function was assessed by using logistic regression adjusted for side and group. Results: the results indicated that the MRI texture analysis of articular discs in individuals with migraine headache has the potential to determine the behaviour of disc derangements, in which high values of contrast, low values of entropy and their correlation can correspond to displacements and tendency for non-reduction of the disc in these individuals. Conclusion: the TA of articular discs in individuals with MH has the potential to determine the behaviour of disc derangements based on high values of contrast and low values of entropy (AU)


Objetivo: o objetivo deste estudo foi analisar o desempenho da técnica de análise de textura (AT) em exames de ressonância magnética (RM) das articulações temporomandibulares (ATM) como ferramenta para identificação de possíveis alterações em indivíduos com cefaléia migrânea (CM) relacionando os achados com a presença de desarranjos internos. Material e Métodos: trinta exames de RM das ATM foram selecionados para estudo, sendo 15 de indivíduos sem cefaleia migrânea ou qualquer outro tipo de cefaléia (grupo controle) e 15 diagnosticados com CM. As imagens de RM ponderadas em T2 das articulações realizadas na posição de boca fechada foram usadas para AT. A matriz de co-ocorrência foi usada para calcular os parâmetros de textura. O teste exato de Fisher foi usado para comparar os grupos quanto ao sexo, função do disco e posição do disco, enquanto o teste de Mann-Whitney foi usado para os demais parâmetros. A relação da AT com a posição e função do disco foi avaliada por meio de regressão logística ajustada para lado e grupo. Resultados: a AT por RM dos discos articulares em indivíduos com cefaleia migrânea tem o potencial de determinar o comportamento dos desarranjos discais, em que altos valores de contraste, baixos valores de entropia e sua correlação podem corresponder a deslocamentos e tendência a não redução do disco nesses indivíduos. Conclusão: a análise de textura dos discos articulares em indivíduos com CM tem potencial para determinar o comportamento dos desarranjos do disco com base em altos valores de contraste e baixos valores de entropia. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders , Temporomandibular Joint Disc , Headache Disorders
2.
Rev. psiquiatr. Urug ; 86(2): 55-61, dic. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1412357

ABSTRACT

Se realiza una revisión de estudios de resonancia magnética integral y funcional, así como estudios bioquímicos en pacientes con y sin ideas suicidas. Estos estudios en pacientes con alto riesgo de suicidio presentan una disminución de volúmenes corticales en la corteza prefrontal dorso y ventrolateral. Lo importante de estos estudios es que resultan de la comparación con pacientes deprimidos con bajo riesgo de suicidio. Los estudios de resonancia magnética funcional mostraron una hipofuncionalidad del lóbulo prefrontal en los pacientes depresivos con ideas suicidas severas, que se observa como una disminución del flujo sanguíneo cerebral en las áreas lateral y ventral. Se observa una disminución del metabolismo de serotonina, en clara relación con la severidad de las ideas de muerte, también con un foco en la región lateroventral prefrontal. Dado que las funciones de la corteza prefrontal afirman al individuo en su perspectiva vital, disfunciones como las descritas debilitan la coordinación y organización del apego a la vida, quedando, por el contrario, la posibilidad de la búsqueda de la muerte. Se concluye que los pacientes depresivos con ideas suicidas tienen una alta vulnerabilidad para el intento de suicidio por la afectación de las zonas prefrontales.


A review of functional integral magnetic resonance and biochemical data from patients with and without suicidal ideation is presented. Patients with high suicidal risk show a decrease in cortical volume in ventrolateral and dorsal prefrontal cortex. These studies are compared to those of depressed patients with low suicidal risk. Functional magnetic resonance in depressed patients with severe suicidal ideation show an hypo functional prefrontal lobe, seen as a decrease in blood flow in lateral and ventral areas. There is a decrease in serotonin metabolism, clearly related to the severity of suicidal ideation, also in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. As prefrontal cortex functions enhance vital perspectives, such dysfunctions weaken coordination and organization of attachment to life, making search for death a possibility. Authors conclude that depressed patients with suicidal ideation have a high vulnerability for suicidal intent due to changes in prefrontal areas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Suicide, Attempted , Prefrontal Cortex/physiopathology , Neurotransmitter Agents/metabolism , Depression/physiopathology , Suicidal Ideation , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Prefrontal Cortex/metabolism , Prefrontal Cortex/diagnostic imaging , Depression/metabolism
3.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 57(5): 766-771, Sept.-Oct. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407687

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The incidence of traumatic brachial plexus injuries has been increasing considerably in Brazil, mainly due to the increase in the number of motorcycle accidents. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of brachial plexus avulsion lesions, comparing it with the findings of physical and intraoperative examination. Methods A total of 16 patients with brachial plexus injury were prospectively evaluated and treated at the hand surgery outpatient clinic from our service. All patients underwent MRI of the brachial plexus, and the findings were inserted on a table, as well as the physical examination data, and part of the patients had the plexus evaluated intraoperatively. Results In the present study, the accuracy of MRI in the identification of root avulsion was 100%, with 100% sensitivity and specificity when comparing imaging with surgical findings. Conclusion Magnetic resonance imaging showed high sensitivity and specificity, confirmed by intraoperative findings, which allows considering this test as the gold standard in the diagnosis of avulsion in traumatic brachial plexus injuries.


Resumo Objetivo A incidência de lesões traumáticas do plexo braquial vem aumentando consideravelmente no Brasil, principalmente devido ao aumento do número de acidentes de motocicleta. O objetivo do presente estudo é avaliar a sensibilidade e a especificidade da ressonância magnética (RM) no diagnóstico das lesões por avulsão do plexo braquial, comparando com os achados do exame físico e do intraoperatório. Métodos Foram avaliados prospectivamente 16 pacientes com lesão do plexo braquial atendidos no ambulatório de cirurgia da mão de nosso serviço. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos ao exame de RM do plexo braquial e os achados foram inseridos em uma tabela, assim como os dados do exame físico, e parte dos pacientes teve o plexo avaliado intraoperatoriamente. Resultados No presente estudo, a acurácia da RM na identificação de avulsão de raízes foi de 100%, com 100% de sensibilidade e especificidade comparando-se achados da imagem e cirúrgicos. Conclusão A RM mostrou alta sensibilidade e especificidade, confirmadas por achados intraoperatórios, o que permite considerar este exame como padrão outro no diagnóstico de avulsão nas lesões traumáticas do plexo braquial.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Brachial Plexus/surgery , Brachial Plexus/injuries , Brachial Plexus/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Diagnosis, Differential , Peripheral Nerve Injuries
4.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 57(5): 815-820, Sept.-Oct. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407711

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives The present study aims to characterize the spinal balance (SB) in young adults with Schmorl nodes (SN). Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 47 young adults. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to divide the patients into an SN group and a control group. Standing full spine radiographs were used to compare the spinopelvic SB parameters between groups: sagittal vertical axis, thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis (LL), pelvic incidence (PI), pelvic tilt (PT), and sacral slope (SS). Results The LL and SS values were significantly lower in patients with SN when compared with the control group (54.5° versus 64.3°; 36.2° versus 41.4°, respectively). No significant differences were observed for the other parameters. Significant correlations were found in both groups between LL and SS; PI and PT; and PI and SS. Conclusions Young adults with SN have associated SB modifications, particularly lower LL and SS values, when compared with a control group. This flatter profile resembles that observed in patients with lower back pain and early disc pathology. We believe that SNs are relevant clinical findings that should prompt the study of the SB of a patient, as it may uncover variations associated with early disc degeneration. Level of Evidence III


Resumo Objetivos O presente estudo tem como objetivo caracterizar o equilíbrio sagital (SB, na sigla em inglês) espinhal em adultos jovens com nódulos de Schmorl (NS). Métodos Este é um estudo transversal de uma amostra composta por 47 adultos jovens. Ressonância magnética (RM) lombar foi usada para separar os pacientes em um grupo com NS e um grupo controle. Radiografias da coluna vertebral em pé foram usadas para comparar os parâmetros espinopélvicos do SB entre os grupos: eixo vertical sagital, cifose torácica, lordose lombar (LL), incidência pélvica (PI, na sigla em inglês), inclinação pélvica (PT, na sigla em inglês) e inclinação sacral (SS, na sigla em inglês). Resultados Os valores de LL e SS foram significativamente menores nos pacientes com NS em comparação com o grupo controle (54,5° versus 64,3°; 36,2° versus 41,4°, respectivamente). Não foram observadas diferenças significativas nos demais parâmetros. Os dois grupos apresentaram correlações significativas entre LL e SS, PI e PT e PI e SS. Conclusões Adultos jovens com NS apresentam modificações associadas ao SB, principalmente valores menores de LL e SS, em comparação com o grupo controle. Este perfil mais plano assemelha-se ao observado em pacientes com lombalgia e patologia discal em estágio inicial. Acreditamos que o NS seja um achado clínico relevante que deve levar ao estudo do SB de um paciente por poder revelar variações associadas aos primeiros estágios de degeneração discal. Nível de Evidência III


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Spinal Fusion , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Control Groups , Cross-Sectional Studies , Lordosis/diagnostic imaging , Lumbar Vertebrae/pathology
5.
Diagn. tratamento ; 27(3): 76-9, jul-set. 2022. ilus, ilus, ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1380672

ABSTRACT

Contexto: Os sarcomas de partes moles de extremidades compreendem um grupo de neoplasias raras com características histopatológicas variadas. A incidência anual exata dos sarcomas de parte moles é desconhecida. Embora os tecidos mesenquimais (incluindo o tecido ósseo) contribuam com dois terços do peso corporal humano, os sarcomas representam 1% das neoplasias sólidas nos adultos e 15% na infância. Descrição do caso: Paciente do sexo masculino, 65 anos, apresentando nódulo na coxa direita, realizou ressonância magnética (RM) que detectou lesão sarcomatosa, confirmada pelo estudo anatomopatológico. Foi realizada a extração tumoral com sucesso, sem necessidade de amputação de membro inferior direito. O paciente realizou 30 sessões de radioterapia e atualmente realiza acompanhamento ambulatorial após quatro anos de cirurgia, sem evidências de lesão residual ou recidiva local. Discussão: Os sarcomas de alto grau são mais invasivos localmente e com maior propensão a metástases. Um dos maiores problemas dos sarcomas é a demora no diagnóstico. Embora tenham prognóstico pior que o sarcoma de baixo grau, o sarcoma de alto grau diagnosticado sem metástases poderá ser curado com maior facilidade. As formas mais acuradas de diagnóstico são RM e ultrassonografia. Devido ao seu alto contraste e capacidade de geração de imagens de tecidos moles superficiais e profundos, a RM está sendo cada vez mais realizada para vigilância de recorrência local e diagnóstico no sarcoma de partes moles nas extremidades. Conclusão: Os sarcomas de partes moles nos membros inferiores, muitas vezes, não são incluídos como diagnóstico diferencial inicial. Logo, quando a lesão atinge um tamanho considerável, leva a um diagnóstico tardio e perigoso.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Sarcoma , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Neoplasms
6.
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 74(4): 432-437, ago. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407932

ABSTRACT

Resumen La colecistolitiasis es una condición común en Chile. La complicación más frecuente de esta condición es la colecistitis aguda. Aproximadamente 60.000 colecistectomías son realizadas anualmente en nuestro país, convirtiéndola en una de las patologías digestivas más frecuentes. El tratamiento de la colelitiasis ha evolucionado las últimas dos décadas. Con el desarrollo de la laparoscopía a final de 1980, la colecistectomía abierta fue definitivamente sustituida en los 90 por la vía laparoscópica. Desafortunadamente, la generalización de este procedimiento produjo un aumento en la incidencia de lesiones de vía biliar, aumentando desde una 0,1-0,2% hasta un 0,5-0,7%. Si bien, con el progresivo entrenamiento de los cirujanos en la cirugía mínimamente invasiva esta cifra ha disminuido nuevamente, la LVB aún constituye una de las complicaciones más graves en cirugía, generando gran impacto en la calidad de vida del paciente, e incluso costos en salud que pueden llegar a ser devastadores. El manejo de una lesión de vía biliar es, para muchos cirujanos, un desafío quirúrgico, que para su resolución requiere de las habilidades y experiencia de un cirujano hepatobiliar y derivación a centros de salud especializados. Sin duda, la acción más importante es extremar de manera rutinaria las medidas de prevención. Sin embargo, una vez que la lesión se ha producido, el futuro del paciente depende, directamente, del buen criterio del cirujano, tanto para realizar un diagnóstico temprano, como del enfrentamiento terapéutico que realice. El objetivo de este trabajo es dar a conocer diferentes conductas preventivas y terapéuticas cuando esta complicación se presenta.


Calculous biliary disease is a common condition in Chile. Over 60.000 cholecystectomies are performed annually, making gallstone disease one of the most common digestive health problems. The treatment of calculous biliary disease has evolved over the last 2 decades. With the development of laparoscopic technology in the late 1980s, new techniques for cholecystectomy were introduced. By the early 1990s, laparoscopic cholecystectomy had replaced open cholecystectomy in the operative management of gallbladder stone disease. Unfortunately, the widespread application of laparoscopic cholecystectomy has led to a concurrent rise in the incidence of major bile duct injuries. Reports have estimated the incidence has risen from 0.1-0.2 to 0.5-0.7%. Although, exponential training of surgeons in minimally invasive surgery has led to decrease this numbers again, bile duct injuries still constitute one of the most serious complications in surgery, generating a great impact on the patient's quality of life, and even health costs that can be devastating. The management of patients following major bile duct injurie is a surgical challenge, often requiring the skills of experienced hepatobiliary surgeons at tertiary referral centers. In this setting, the most important action is to routinely maximize prevention measures. However, once injury has occurred, patient's future depends directly on the correct judgment of the surgeon, both to make an early diagnosis and to choose the best therapeutic confrontation. The objective of this article is to present the different preventive and therapeutic options available when this complication occurs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bile Duct Diseases , Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic , Bile Ducts/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Cholangiography , Cholecystectomy , Risk Factors , Laparoscopy
7.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 57(4): 584-589, Jul.-Aug. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394872

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of shoulders from patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) and to correlate these findings with age, duration of SCI and neurological level. Method The study sample included patients with thoracic SCI over 18 years of age, who were active wheelchair users and had undergone an MRI of the shoulder from January 2004 to December 2015. Results We studied 41 shoulders (37 patients), including 27 men (65.9%) and 14 women (34.1%). At the time of MRI, the mean age was 41.9 years and the mean duration of SCI was 9.4 years. The analysis of the relationship between the duration of trauma and severity of the rotator cuff lesion (RCL), as well as between age and the severity of the shoulder injury showed a statistically significant difference (p< 0.001), with a positive association in both cases. No statistically significant difference (p= 0.095) was observed between the neurological level of the SCI and RCL. Conclusion In this study, a progressive increase in the severity of the shoulder lesions can be noted with advancing age and a longer duration of SCI. However, level of the SCI does not seem to interfere with RCL. Level of Evidence Level IV, case series.


Resumo Objetivo Descrever as características de ressonância magnética (RM) dos ombros de pacientes com lesão medular (LM) e correlacionar esses achados com idade, duração da LM e nível neurológico. Método A amostra do presente estudo incluiu pacientes maiores de 18 anos com LM torácica, que eram cadeirantes ativos e haviam sido submetidos a uma ressonância magnética do ombro de janeiro de 2004 a dezembro de 2015. Resultados Foram estudados 41 ombros (37 pacientes), incluindo 27 de pacientes do sexo masculino (65,9%) e 14 de pacientes do sexo feminino (34,1%). Na época da ressonância magnética, a média de idade era de 41,9 anos e a duração média da LM era de 9,4 anos. A análise da relação entre a duração do trauma e a gravidade da lesão do manguito rotador (LMR), bem como entre a idade e a gravidade da lesão do ombro mostrou diferença estatisticamente significativa (p< 0,001), com associação positiva em ambos os casos. Não foi observada diferença estatisticamente significativa (p= 0,095) entre o nível neurológico da LM e da LMR. Conclusão Neste estudo, pode-se notar um aumento progressivo da gravidade das lesões do ombro com o avanço da idade e uma maior duração da LM. No entanto, o nível da LM não parece interferir com a LMR. Nível de Evidência Nível IV, série de casos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Spinal Cord Injuries/diagnostic imaging , Wheelchairs , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Retrospective Studies , Shoulder Injuries/diagnostic imaging
8.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 57(4): 697-701, Jul.-Aug. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394871

ABSTRACT

Abstract A 26-year-old previously healthy patient who, at the age of 18 years, began progressive loss of distal strength, rest tremor, and muscle atrophy in the left upper limb. Upon examination, the patient presented moderate distal atrophy, degree 4 in muscular strength, and minipolymioclonus. Electromyoneurography revealed (EMNG) chronic preganglionic bilateral involvement of bilateral C7/C8/T1, worse on the left, with signs of active C8/T1 denervation. A cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan showed spondylodiscal degenerative changes with central protrusions in C4-C5, C6-C7, and right central in C5-C6, which touched the dural sac. The anteroposterior diameter of the medulla in neutral position, in the C5-C6 plane, was of 5.1 mm. There was a reduction of the spinal cord caliber to 4.0 mm after the dynamic maneuver of forced flexion of the spine, as well as signal increase in the anterior horns. The clinical findings and those of the complementary tests were compatible with Hirayama disease (HD), a rare benign motor neuron disease that affects cervical spinal segments and is most prevalent in men, with onset in the early 20s. Unilateral and slowly progressive weakness is typical, but self-limited. Sensory disturbances, and autonomic and upper motor neuron signals are rare. Management is usually conservative, with the use of a soft cervical collar. Although rare, HD should be considered in young patients with focal asymmetric atrophy in the upper limbs. The early diagnosis of HD depends on the degree of suspicion, as well as on the cooperation and communication among the various specialties involved in the investigation.


Resumo Paciente de 26 anos, previamente hígido, que, aos 18 anos, iniciou perda progressiva de força distal, tremor de repouso, e atrofia muscular no membro superior esquerdo. Ao exame, apresentou atrofia moderada, distal, força muscular de grau 4, e minipolimioclonus. A eletroneuromiografia (ENMG) revelou comprometimento pré-ganglionar crônico de C7/C8/T1 bilateral pior à esquerda, com sinais de desnervação ativa em C8/T1. A ressonância magnética (RM) de coluna cervical mostrou alterações degenerativas espondilodiscais com protrusões centrais em C4-C5, C6-C7, e central direita em C5-C6, que tocavam o saco dural. O diâmetro anteroposterior da medula na posição neutra, no plano de C5-C6, era de 5,1 mm. Houve redução do calibre da medula para 4,0 mm após a manobra dinâmica de flexão forçada da coluna, e aumento de sinal nos cornos anteriores. Os achados clínicos e os dos exames complementares eram compatíveis com doença de Hirayama (DH), uma doença benigna rara dos neurônios motores, que afeta os segmentos espinhais cervicais e é mais prevalente em homens e de início próximo aos 20 anos. É típica a fraqueza unilateral e lentamente progressiva, porém autolimitada. Perturbações sensoriais, sinais autonômicos e do neurônio motor superior são raras. O manejo geralmente é conservador, com uso de colar cervical macio. Apesar de rara, a DH deve ser considerada em pacientes jovens que apresentam atrofias assimétricas focais de membros superiores. O diagnóstico precoce de DH depende do grau de suspeição, e da cooperação e comunicação entre as diversas especialidades envolvidas na investigação.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Spinal Cord/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Muscular Atrophy/diagnostic imaging , Spinal Muscular Atrophies of Childhood/diagnostic imaging
10.
Rev. urug. cardiol ; 37(1): e403, jun. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1390043

ABSTRACT

Dada su epidemiología, la amiloidosis cardíaca se ha vuelto un desafío diagnóstico del siglo XXI. La resonancia cardíaca se ha transformado en una herramienta diagnóstica y pronóstica fundamental en la práctica clínica diaria. En este artículo de revisión resumimos el conocimiento, primero abordando la técnica en sí, desde protocolos generales a específicos para su diagnóstico. Posteriormente, y tomando estas herramientas, sistematizamos la utilidad diagnóstica, pronóstica y terapéutica, con base en la practicidad y evidencia científica más recientes, otorgando la posibilidad de utilizar y abordar desde un correcto diagnóstico por imagen diferentes aspectos de esta enfermedad prevalente.


Given its epidemiology, cardiac amyloidosis has become a diagnostic challenge of the twenty-first century. Cardiac resonance has become a fundamental diagnostic and prognostic tool in daily clinical practice. In this review article we summarize the knowledge, first addressing the technique itself, from general to specific protocols for its diagnosis. Subsequently, and taking this tool we systematize the diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic utility, based on the most recent practicality and scientific evidence, granting the possibility of using and addressing from a correct diagnostic imaging different aspect of this prevalent disease.


Dada a sua epidemiologia, a amiloidose cardíaca tornou-se um desafio do século XXI. A ressonância cardíaca tornou-se uma ferramenta diagnóstica e prognóstico fundamental na prática clínica diária. Neste artigo de revisão resumimos primeiro o conhecimento abordando a própria técnica, desde protocolos gerais até específicos para seu diagnóstico. Posteriormente, e tomando essa ferramenta sistematizamos a utilidade diagnóstica, prognóstica e terapêutica, com base na praticidade e evidência científica mais recentes, concedendo a possibilidade de utilização e abordagem de uma imagem diagnóstica correta de diferentes aspectos desta doença prevalente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Amyloidosis/diagnostic imaging , Cardiomyopathies/diagnostic imaging
11.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 42(2): 190-192, Apr.-June 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394415

ABSTRACT

Retrorectal hamartoma, also called tailgut cyst, is a congenital lesion resulting from the non-regression of embryo remnants of the hindgut. We describe in this work the case report of a 68-year-old man, previously healthy, complaining of rectal bulging for 4 months, which was diagnosed by nuclear magnetic resonance imaging as a multi-loculated and mucinous lesion, suggestive of tailgut cyst. In view of the finding, the lesion was surgically resected, due to the potential for future complications, and, through the anatomopathological analysis, there were no findings of malignancy in the specimen. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Rectal Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Hamartoma/diagnostic imaging , Rectal Diseases/surgery , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Hamartoma/surgery
12.
Medisan ; 26(3)jun. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1405810

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los tumores intramedulares son poco usuales y se generan dentro del tejido de la médula espinal, desplazando o invadiendo la materia blanca, los tractos y los cuerpos neuronales. Objetivo: Caracterizar a pacientes con tumores y seudotumores raquídeos intradurales intramedulares según variables clínicas, imagenológicas (resonancia magnética) e histopatológicas. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo, longitudinal y prospectivo de 11 pacientes con diagnóstico clínico provisional de tumor o seudotumor raquídeo intramedular, confirmado por medio de la resonancia magnética, quienes fueron atendidos en el Departamento de Imagenología del Hospital General Docente Dr. Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso de Santiago de Cuba de enero de 2014 a igual mes de 2017, procedentes de los hospitales generales de esta provincia y de Guantánamo. Resultados: En la investigación primaron las féminas (63,6 %), sobre todo en las edades de 40 a 59 años (45,4 %), así como las manifestaciones clínicas de debilidad muscular (100,0 %) y dolor en la columna vertebral (81,8 %). De acuerdo a la intensidad de las señales obtenidas en la resonancia magnética, resultaron más frecuentes las imágenes heterogéneas, predominantemente en la zona dorsal. Asimismo, sobresalió la mielopatía compresiva dorsal (27,3 %) como diagnóstico clínico de sospecha, mientras que 54,5 % de los diagnósticos imagenológicos fueron confirmados histopatológicamente, con un mayor porcentaje en el caso de los astrocitomas (36,4). Conclusiones: La resonancia magnética es el método imagenológico de elección para la identificación de estos tumores, dado que ofrece una aproximación al diagnóstico definitivo, el cual es corroborado mediante el estudio anatomopatológico.


Introduction: The intramedullary tumors are not very usual and they are generated inside the tissue of the spinal cord, displacing or invading the white matter, tracts and neuronal bodies. Objective: To characterize patients with intradural intramedullary spinal canal tumors and seudotumors according to clinical, imaging (magnetic resonance) and histopatologic variables. Methods: An observational, descriptive, longitudinal and prospective study of 11 patients with clinical provisional diagnosis of intramedullary spinal canal tumor or seudotumor was carried out, confirmed by means of magnetic resonance who were assisted in the Imaging Department of Dr. Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso Teaching General Hospital in Santiago de Cuba from January, 2014 to the same month in 2017, coming from the general hospitals of this province and Guantánamo. Results: In the investigation there was a prevalence of females (63.6 %), mainly in the ages of 40 to 59 (45.4 %), as well as the clinical signs of muscular weakness (100.0 %) and pain in the spine (81.8 %). According to the intensity of signs obtained in the magnetic resonance, the heterogeneous images were more frequent, predominantly in the dorsal area. Also, dorsal compressive myelopathy was notable (27.3 %) as clinical diagnosis of suspicion, while 54.5 % of the imaging diagnosis was histopathologically confirmed, with a higher percentage in the case of astrocytomas (36.4). Conclusions: The magnetic resonance is the radiological method of election for the identification of these tumors, since it offers an approach to the definitive diagnosis, which is corroborated by means of the pathologic study.


Subject(s)
Spinal Neoplasms , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Astrocytoma , Ependymoma
13.
Rev. méd. Maule ; 37(1): 40-46, jun. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1397613

ABSTRACT

Calcific tendinitis is a pathology characterized by the deposits of periarticular hydroxyapatite. Its pathophysiology is not completely known. It is clinically characterized by important inflammatory changes with incapacitating pain. It most commonly affects the shoulder joint and it rarely affects the hand and wrist. Given the unusual nature of this localization, we present the clinical case of a woman who developed calcific tendinitis of the third metacarpophalangeal muscle. We present the clinical evolution of the case, the treatments carried out, and a review of the literature related to this unusual localization of calcific tendinitis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Tendon Injuries/therapy , Wrist Injuries/therapy , Calcinosis/complications , Tendinopathy/complications , Acute Pain/etiology , Calcinosis/diagnosis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Radiography , Tendinopathy/diagnosis , Acute Pain/diagnosis
14.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 57(3): 409-414, May-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388007

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To develop an evidence-based protocol to guide magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) requests in elderly patients with suspected knee osteoarthrosis and to evaluate its effectiveness after implementation. Methods The institutional protocol was developed after reviewing the literature during the first semester of 2018. The control group was defined as patients cared for in the first semester of 2018, before the implementation/dissemination of the institutional protocol, and the study group was composed by patients cared for during the second semester of 2018 after the standardization of MRI requests for suspected knee osteoarthrosis. Results Our sample included 826 patients undergoing knee MRI, with a mean age of 69.3 years. Protocol implementation decreased MRI requests and increased radiograph requests (p < 0.001). After the implementation of the protocol, the MRI changed the diagnosis or treatment in only 11.2% of the cases. Conclusion Protocol implementation resulted in a 47.5% reduction in the number of requests for knee MRI, with most (89%) patients with alteration in diagnosis or treatment. Level of evidence: case-control study (IIIB).


Resumo Objetivo Desenvolver um protocolo, baseado em evidências, para guiar a solicitação de exames de ressonância magnética (RM) em pacientes idosos com suspeita de osteoartrose do joelho e avaliar a sua eficácia após implementação. Métodos O protocolo institucional foi desenvolvido após revisão da literatura durante o primeiro semestre do ano de 2018. Definiu-se como grupo de controle os pacientes do primeiro semestre de 2018, antes da aplicação/divulgação do protocolo institucional, e o grupo de estudo foi composto por pacientes atendidos no segundo semestre do mesmo ano após a padronização dos pedidos de RM para a suspeita de osteoartrose do joelho. Resultados Nossa amostra contou com 826 pacientes submetidos a RM do joelho, com média de idade de 69,3 anos. Após a implementação do protocolo, houve um decréscimo das solicitações de RM e um aumento no número de solicitações de radiografias (p < 0,001). Após a implementação do protocolo, a RM alterou o diagnóstico ou a conduta do médico em apenas 11,2% dos casos. Conclusão Após a introdução do protocolo, encontrou-se uma redução de 47,5% no número de pedidos de RM do joelho, sendo que a maioria (89%) dos pacientes não tiveram suas condutas ou diagnóstico alterados. Nível de evidência: estudo caso-controle (IIIB).


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Clinical Protocols , Osteoarthritis, Knee
15.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 42(supl.1): 33-40, mayo 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1393993

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the most appropriate imaging method to investigate low back pain. As low back pain is very common, a large number of MRI scans are performed. Objective: To evaluate the extraspinal findings and clinical effect of the T1-weighted spin echo (T1 W SE) coronal sequence added to the lumbar MRI protocol for low back pain. Materials and methods: In 2015, we added a T1-weighted (T1W) coronal sequence to our routine lumbar MRI protocol. We retrospectively evaluated 969 lumbar MRI images for low back pain performed with this protocol. The extraspinal MRI findings obtained from them were then grouped as associated with low back pain (Category 1) and not associated with low back pain (Category 2). We also evaluated whether the recorded incidental extraspinal findings could be detected on conventional sagittal and axial images. Results: Ninety-six (63%) of the extraspinal findings were associated with low back pain (Category 1) and 56 (37%), Category 2. Seventy-eight percent of the extraspinal findings were detected only on coronal-T1W images and not on conventional images. Conclusion: Adding coronal-T1W sequence to the routine protocol of lumbar MRI can help to identify extraspinal findings and guide clinical treatment.


Introducción. La resonancia magnética (RM) es el método de imágenes diagnósticas más apropiado para investigar el dolor lumbar. Dado que este es muy común, son muchas las resonancias magnéticas de este tipo que se hacen. Objetivo. Analizar los hallazgos extra espinales que se pueden detectar al agregar la secuencia coronal T1 W al protocolo de imágenes de RM para el dolor lumbar y evaluar su efecto clínico. Materiales y métodos. En el 2015 se agregó una secuencia coronal ponderada en T1W al protocolo de resonancia magnética lumbar de rutina de nuestro hospital. Se evaluaron retrospectivamente 969 imágenes solicitadas en casos de dolor lumbar y realizadas con este protocolo. Los hallazgos obtenidos a partir de dichas imágenes se agruparon luego como asociados con el dolor lumbar (categoría 1) y no asociados con el dolor lumbar (categoría 2). Se evaluó, asimismo, si los hallazgos extra espinales registrados podían detectarse en imágenes axiales y sagitales convencionales. Resultados. Noventa y seis (63 %) de los hallazgos extra espinales se asociaron con lumbalgia (categoría 1) y 56 (37 %) correspondieron a la categoría 2. El 78 % de los hallazgos extra espinales se detectaron solo en imágenes coronales-T1W y no en las convencionales. Conclusión. La secuencia coronal-T1 W agregada al protocolo de rutina de la resonancia magnética lumbar puede ayudar a detectar afectaciones extra espinales y guiar el tratamiento clínico.


Subject(s)
Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Low Back Pain
16.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(3): 404-417, mayo 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1397089

ABSTRACT

The objective of the work was to study the cytotoxic effect of ent-kaurene acid derivatives obtained from Coespeletia moritziana (Sch. Bip. Ex Wedd.) Cuatrec., After analysis by GC/MS, IR and NMR. Isolating: kaurenic acid (I), grandifloric acid (II), 15-α-hydroxy kaurenic acid (III), 15 α-acetoxy-kaur 16-en-19-oic acid (IV), Kaurenol (V); and by hemisynthesis: 15,16-epoxy-17-acetoxy-kauran 19-oic acid (VI), 15-oxo-ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (VIII), ester 2,3,4,6 -15-oxo-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid acetyl α-D-pyranosyl tetra-tetra (VII). Cytotoxicity was tested in human cancer cell lines: uterus (HeLa), lung (A-549), breast (MCF-7), African green monkey kidney non-tumor line (Vero) and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (CMPS). Compound (I) was active against HeLa, A-549 and Vero. Compounds (II and VIII) showed moderate and good (IC50 ≤ 9 µM) cytotoxicity, respectively, against the five cell lines. Compound (V) showed moderate activity against A-549 and compound (VII), slight cytotoxicity against HeLa and A-549. Results that show the cytotoxic specificity of the isolated kaurenes and derivatives of Coespeletia moritzianaand their therapeutic potential.


El objetivo del trabajo fue estudiar el efecto citotóxico de derivados del ácido ent-kaureno obtenidos de Coespeletia moritziana (Sch. Bip. ex Wedd.) Cuatrec., previo análisis mediante GC/MS, IR y RMN. Aislandose: ácido kaurénico(I), ácido grandiflorénico (II), ácido 15-α-hidroxi kaurénico(III), ácido 15 α-acetoxi-kaur 16-en-19-oico (IV), Kaurenol (V); y por hemisíntesis: ácido 15,16-epoxi-17-acetoxi-kauran 19-oico (VI), ácido15-oxo-ent-kaur-16-en-19-oico (VIII), éster 2,3,4,6-tetra acetil α-D-piranosilo del ácido 15-oxo-kaur-16-en-19-oico (VII). La citotóxicidad fue ensayada en líneas celulares cancerosas humanas: útero (HeLa), pulmón(A-549), mama (MCF-7), línea no tumoral de riñón de mono verde africano (Vero) y células mononucleares humanas de sangre periférica (CMPS). El compuesto (I) resultó activo frente a HeLa, A-549 y Vero. Los compuestos (II y VIII), mostraron moderada y buena (IC50≤9µM) citotoxicidad respectivamente, frente a las cinco líneas celulares. El compuesto (V) presentó moderada actividad frente a A-549 y el (VII), leve citotoxicidad frente a HeLa y A-549. Resultados que evidencian la especificidad citotóxica de los kaurenos aislados y derivados de Coespeletia moritzianay su potencial terapéutico.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Asteraceae/chemistry , Cell Line, Tumor/drug effects , Diterpenes/isolation & purification , Spectrophotometry, Infrared , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Chromatography, Thin Layer , Diterpenes, Kaurane , Diterpenes/pharmacology , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
17.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 48(2): 294-302, March-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364942

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To compare enhancement patterns of typical adrenal adenomas, lipid-poor adenomas, and non-adenomas on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and Methods: Evaluation of adrenal nodules larger than 1.0 cm, with at least 2-year follow-up, evaluated on MRI in January 2007 and December 2016. Two different protocols were included - upper abdomen MRI (delayed phase after 3 minutes) and abdomen and pelvis MRI (delayed phase after 7 minutes) - and nodules were divided in typical adenomas (characterized on out-of-phase MRI sequence), lipid-poor adenomas (based on follow-up imaging stability) and non-adenomas (based on pathological finding or follow-up imaging). T2-weighted and enhancement features were analyzed (absolute and relative washout and enhancement curve pattern), similarly to classic computed tomography equations. Results: Final cohort was composed of 123 nodules in 116 patients (mean diameter of 1.8 cm and mean follow up time of 4 years and 3 months). Of them, 98 (79%) nodules had features of typical adenomas by quantitative chemical shift imaging, and demonstrated type 3 curve pattern in 77%, mean absolute and relative washout of 29% and 16%, respectively. Size, oncologic history and T2-weighted features showed statistically significant differences among groups. Also, a threshold greater than 11.75% for absolute washout on MRI achieved sensitivity of 71.4% and specificity of 70.0%, in differentiating typical adenomas from non-adenomas. Conclusion: Calculating absolute washout of adrenal nodules on MRI may help identifying proportion of non-adenomas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adrenal Gland Neoplasms/pathology , Adrenal Gland Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Contrast Media , Diagnosis, Differential
18.
Rev. chil. neuro-psiquiatr ; 60(1): 116-123, mar. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388416

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN INTRODUCCIÓN: un quiste aracnoideo es originado de la alteración de una de las membranas de la meninges (aracnoides), de predominio en la fosa craneal media; es una patología poco común que cause síntomas y si ocurren, se pueden presentar manifestaciones neuropsiquiatrías. OBJETIVO: exponer los datos clínicos; y la metodología diagnóstica y terapéutica. CASO: presentamos una paciente femenina de 24 años de edad; sin antecedentes personales médicos psiquiátricos y médicos no psiquiátricos conocidos, quien presenta una historia con un mes de evolución de síntomas psicóticos y cambios conductuales. Se le realizo CAT cerebral simple y luego una resonancia magnética cerebral contrastada para definir el tamaño del quiste aracnoideo, por los posibles síntomas neuropsiquiátricos encontrados. Por medio de exámenes de laboratorios, estudios electrofisiológicos (electroencefalograma), neuroimágenes y evaluación clínica. Se decide presentar las características clínicas encontradas de la paciente quien requirió manejo con antipsicóticos, benzodiacepinas y estabilizador del humor con gradual mejoría de sus sintomatologías de ingreso (agitación psicomotora y psicosis).


INTRODUCTION: an arachnoid cyst is caused by the alteration of one of the membranes of the meninges (arachnoid), predominantly in the middle cranial fossa; It is an uncommon pathology that causes symptoms and if they occur, neuropsychiatric manifestations may take place. OBJECTIVE: expose the clinical data; and the diagnostic and therapeutic methodology. CASE: we present a 24-year-old female patient; with no personal history of psychiatric and known non-psychiatric medical records, whom presents a story with a month of evolution of psychotic symptoms and behavioral changes. A simple cerebral CAT was performed and then a cerebral magnetic resonance imaging with contrast to define the size of the arachnoid cyst, due to the possible neuropsychiatric symptoms found. Through laboratory tests, electrophysiological studies (electroencephalogram), neuroimaging and clinical evaluation. It was decided to present the clinical characteristics of the patient who required management with antipsychotics, benzodiazepines and mood stabilizer with gradual improvement of her admission symptoms (psychomotor agitation and psychosis)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Psychotic Disorders , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Cysts , Neuropsychiatry
19.
Medicina UPB ; 41(1): 85-90, mar. 2022. Ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1362717

ABSTRACT

Se presenta el caso de una mujer en la quinta década de la vida que ingresa al servicio de urgencias con manifestaciones gastrointestinales consistentes en vómito e hipo. Después de múltiples estudios e intervenciones por especialistas, se piensa en el origen central de los síntomas. Se realiza una resonancia magnética nuclear (RMN) cerebral que permite el enfoque del caso y posterior confirmación del diagnóstico de una enfermedad dentro del espectro de la neuromielitis óptica, positiva para anticuerpos anti-acuaporinas-4. El tratamiento con esteroide y anticuerpo monoclonal (Rituximab) llevan a un control adecuado de la enfermedad.


We present a case report of a woman in her 50s admitted to the emergency room with gastrointestinal manifestations consisting of vomiting and hiccups. After a series of studies and interventions by specialists, a brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is performed in order to find the central origin of the symptoms. This allows the approach of the case and subsequent confirmation of the diagnosis of Neuromyelitis optica, positive for anti-acuaporin-4 antibodies. Finally, it seems that treatment with steroids and monoclonal antibodies leads to proper control of the disease.


Se apresenta o caso de uma mulher na quinta década de vida que ingressa ao serviço de urgências com manifestações gastrointestinais consistentes em vômito e soluço. Depois de múltiplos estudos e intervenções por especialistas, se pensa na origemcentral dos sintomas. Se realiza uma ressonância magnética nuclear (RMN) cerebral que permite o enfoque do caso e posterior confirmação do diagnóstico de uma doença dentro do espectro da neuromielite óptica, positiva para anticorpos anti-acuaporinas-4. O tratamento com esteroide e anticorpo monoclonal (Rituximab) levam a um controle adequado da doença.


Subject(s)
Humans , Neuromyelitis Optica , Vomiting , Brain , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Aquaporins , Hiccup , Antibodies
20.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 150(2): 232-240, feb. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389628

ABSTRACT

Ejection fraction (EF) is defined by the ratio of end-systolic volume (ESV) and end-diastolic volume (EDV). The resulting fraction is a dimensionless number whose interpretation is ambiguous and most likely misleading. Despite this limitation, EF is widely accepted as a clinical marker of cardiac function. In this article we analyze the role of ESV, a fundamental variable of ventricular mechanics, compared with the popular EF. Common physiology-based mathematics can explain a simple association between EF and ESV. This concept is illustrated by a detailed analysis of the information obtained from angiocardiography, echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance studies. EF versus ESV produces a non-linear curve. For a small ESV, the EF approaches 100%, while for a large ESV, the EF gradually decreases toward zero. This elemental relationship is commonly observed in innervated natural hearts. Thus, the popularity of EF mostly derives from a fortuitous connection with the pivotal variable ESV. Alongside this finding, we unfold historical events that facilitated the emergence of EF as a result of serendipity. Our physiology-based approach denounces the circumstantial theories invoked to justify the importance of EF as an index of cardiac function, which are critically discussed. EF appears to be nothing more than a blessing in disguise. For this reason, we propose the ESV as a more logical metric for the analysis of ventricular function.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ventricular Function, Left , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Stroke Volume , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Echocardiography
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