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1.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(4): 690-698, Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345226

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento A ressonância magnética cardíaca (RMC) é o método de escolha para avaliar as dimensões e a função do ventrículo direito (VD), e a insuficiência pulmonar (IP). Objetivos Avaliar a acurácia da ecocardiografia bidimensional (ECO 2D) em estimar a função e as dimensões do VD e o grau de IP, e comparar os resultados obtidos pela ECO 2D com os da RMC. Métodos Comparamos os relatórios de ECO e RMC de pacientes cuja indicação para RMC havia sido para avaliar VD e IP. Um valor de p < 0,05 foi considerado estatisticamente significativo. Resultados Incluímos 51 pacientes com cardiopatia congênita com idade mediana de 9,3 anos (7-13,3 anos). Observou-se uma baixa concordância entre ECO 2D e RMC quanto à classificação da dimensão (Kappa 0,19; IC 95% 0,05 a 0,33, p 0,004) e da função do VD (Kappa 0,16; IC 95% -0,01 a +0,34; p 0,034). O tamanho do VD foi subestimado pela ECO 2D em 43% dos casos, e a função do VD foi superestimada pela ECO 2D em 29% dos casos. O grau de concordância entre os métodos quanto à classificação da IP não foi significativo (Kappa 0,014; IC 95% -0,03 a +0,06; p 0,27). Houve uma tendência de a ECO 2D superestimar o grau da IP. Conclusões A ECO 2D mostrou baixa concordância com a RMC quanto às dimensões e função do VD, e grau de IP. Em geral, a ECO subestimou as dimensões do VD e superestimou a função do VD e o grau de IP quando comparada à RMC.


Abstract Background Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is the method of choice for assessing right ventricular (RV) dimensions and function, and pulmonary insufficiency (PI). Objectives To assess the accuracy of two-dimensional echocardiography (2D ECHO) in estimating RV function and dimensions, and the degree of PI, and compare the 2D ECHO and CMR findings. Methods We compared ECHO and CMR reports of patients whose indication for CMR had been to assess RV and PI. A p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results We included 51 congenital heart disease patients, with a median age of 9.3 years (7-13.3 years). There was poor agreement between 2D ECHO and CMR for classification of the RV dimension (Kappa 0.19; 95% CI 0.05 to 0.33, p 0.004) and function (Kappa 0.16; 95% CI -0.01 to +0.34; p 0.034). The RV was undersized by 2D ECHO in 43% of the cases, and RV function was overestimated by ECHO in 29% of the cases. The degree of agreement between the methods in the classification of PI was not significant (Kappa 0.014; 95% CI -0.03 to +0.06, p 0.27). 2D ECHO tended to overestimate the degree of PI. Conclusions The 2D ECHO showed a low agreement with CMR regarding the RV dimensions and function, and degree of PI. In general, ECHO underestimated the dimensions of the RV and overestimated the function of the RV and the degree of PI as compared with CMR.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography, Three-Dimensional , Heart Defects, Congenital , Stroke Volume , Echocardiography , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Reproducibility of Results , Ventricular Function, Right , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging
2.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(5): 919-925, nov. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248908

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: Fibrose cardíaca difusa é fator importante na avaliação prognóstica dos pacientes com disfunção ventricular. Mapeamento T1 nativo pela ressonância magnética cardíaca (RMC) apresenta elevada sensibilidade e é considerado preditor independente de mortalidade por todas as causas e desenvolvimento de insuficiência cardíaca (IC) nos pacientes com cardiomiopatia. Objetivos: Avaliar aplicabilidade da avaliação com mapa T1 nativo em pacientes com IC em um hospital de referência de cardiologia e sua associação com parâmetros estruturais e perfil funcional. Métodos: Estudo transversal com pacientes adultos com IC classes funcionais NYHA I e II, isquêmicos e não isquêmicos, acompanhados em hospital de referência, que realizaram RMC. Os valores de T1 nativo foram analisados em relação a parâmetros estruturais, comorbidades, etiologia e categorização da IC pela fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo (FEVE). Análises foram realizadas com nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: Analisados 134 pacientes. Valores de T1 nativo elevados foram encontrados em pacientes com maior dilatação (1004,9 vs 1042,7ms, p=0,001), volume (1021,3 vs 1050,3ms, p<0,01) e disfunção ventricular (1010,1 vs 1053,4ms, p<0,001), mesmo quando analisados isoladamente os não isquêmicos. Pacientes classificados com IC com fração de ejeção reduzida apresentaram maiores valores T1 em relação aos com IC e fração de ejeção preservada (ICFEP) (992,7 vs 1054,1ms, p<0,001). Dos com ICFEP, 55,2% apresentavam T1 elevado. Conclusões: Mapeamento T1 por RMC é factível para avaliação da IC clínica. Houve associação direta entre maior valor nativo de T1 e menor fração de ejeção, maiores diâmetros e volumes do VE, independentemente da etiologia da IC.


Abstract Background: Diffuse cardiac fibrosis is an important factor in the prognostic assessment of patients with ventricular dysfunction. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) native T1 mapping is highly sensitive and considered an independent predictor of all-cause mortality and heart failure (HF) development in patients with cardiomyopathy. Objectives: To evaluate the feasibility of native T1 mapping assessment in patients with HF in a cardiology referral hospital and its association with structural parameters and functional profile. Methods: Cross-sectional study with adult patients with HF NYHA functional classes I and II, ischemic and non-ischemic, followed in a referral hospital, who underwent CMR. Native T1 values were analyzed for structural parameters, comorbidities, etiology, and categorization of HF by left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Analyses were performed with a significance level of 5%. Results: Enrollment of 134 patients. Elevated native T1 values were found in patients with greater dilation (1004.9 vs 1042.7ms, p = 0.001), ventricular volumes (1021.3 vs 1050.3ms, p <0.01) and ventricular dysfunction (1010.1 vs 1053.4ms, p <0.001), also present when the non-ischemic group was analyzed separately. Patients classified as HF with reduced ejection fraction had higher T1 values than those with HF and preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) (992.7 vs 1054.1ms, p <0.001). Of those with HFPEF, 55.2% had higher T1. Conclusions: CMR T1 mapping is feasible for clinical HF evaluation. There was a direct association between higher native T1 values and lower ejection fraction, and with larger LV diameters and volumes, regardless of the etiology of HF.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Heart Failure/diagnostic imaging , Referral and Consultation , Stroke Volume , Cross-Sectional Studies , Predictive Value of Tests , Ventricular Function, Left , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine , Myocardium
3.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(2): 305-312, fev. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152996

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento Dados sobre o uso de ressonância magnética cardíaca (RMC) em crianças no Brasil são escassos. Objetivos Buscamos oferecer informações sobre as práticas atuais de RMC pediátricas no Brasil. Métodos Um questionário foi enviado a médicos solicitantes de RMC de todo o país, cobrindo informações sobre si próprios, sobre seus serviços de RMC, contexto clínico dos pacientes e sobre os obstáculos para a realização de RMC em crianças. Para a análise estatística, um p < 0,05 bilateral foi considerado significativo. Resultados A pesquisa obteve 142 respostas. Foi relatado que a RMC está disponível para 79% dos respondentes, dos quais 52% raramente ou nunca a utilizam. As indicações mais comuns são cardiomiopatias (84%), pós-operatório de correção de tetralogia de Fallot (81%) e malformações do arco aórtico (53%). A complexidade do exame se correlacionou à relação RMC/cirurgia (Rho = 0,48, IC 95% = 0,32-0,62, p < 0,0001) e ao número de exames de RMC (Rho = 0,52, IC 95% = 0,38-0,64, p < 0,0001). A complexidade da RMC esteve associada à sua realização por cardiologistas pediátricos (RC 2,04, IC 95% 1,2-3,89, p < 0,01). Os principais obstáculos ao uso mais frequente de RMC foram o alto custo (65%), a necessidade de sedação (60%) e o número insuficiente de profissionais qualificados (55%). Conclusão A RMC pediátrica não é usada frequentemente no Brasil. A presença de um cardiologista pediátrico a frente dos exames esteve associado ao uso de RMC em pacientes mais complexos. O treinamento de especialistas em RMC pediátrica e a educação dos médicos solicitantes são passos importantes na direção de um uso mais abrangente de RMC no Brasil. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; 116(2):305-312)


Abstract Background Data on the use of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) on children in Brazil is lacking. Objectives This study sought to provide information on current pediatric CMR practices in Brazil. Methods A questionnaire was sent out to referring physicians around the country. It covered information on the respondents, their CMR practices, the clinical context of the patients, and barriers to CMR use among children. For statistical analysis, two-sided p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results The survey received 142 replies. CMR was reported to be available to 79% of the respondents, of whom, 52% rarely or never use CMR. The most common indications were found to be cardiomyopathies (84%), status of post-tetralogy of Fallot repair (81%), and aortic arch malformations (53%). Exam complexity correlated with CMR-to-surgery ratio (Rho = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.32-0.62, p < 0.0001) and with the number of CMR exams (Rho = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.38-0.64, p < 0.0001). Further, a high CMR complexity score was associated with pediatric cardiologists conducting the exams (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.2-3.89, p < 0.01). The main barriers to a more frequent use of CMR were its high cost (65%), the need for sedation (60%), and an insufficient number of qualified professionals (55%). Conclusion Pediatric CMR is not used frequently in Brazil. The presence of a pediatric cardiologist who can perform CMR exams is associated with CMR use on more complex patients. Training pediatric CMR specialists and educating referring providers are important steps toward a broader use of CMR in Brazil. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; 116(2):305-312)


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Brazil , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Cardiomyopathies , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine , Heart
4.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 114(2): 284-292, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088875

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Diastolic dysfunction, commonly evaluated by echocardiography, is an important early finding in many cardiomyopathies. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) often requires specialized sequences that extends the test time. Recently, feature-tracking imaging has been made available, but still requires expensive software and lacks clinical validation. Objective: To assess diastolic function in patients with aortic valve disease (AVD) and compare it with normal controls by evaluating left ventricular (LV) longitudinal displacement by CMR. Methods: We compared 26 AVD patients with 19 normal controls. Diastolic function was evaluated as LV longitudinal displacement in 4-chamber view cine-CMR images using steady state free precession (SSFP) sequence during the entire cardiac cycle with temporal resolution < 50 ms. The resulting plot of atrioventricular junction (AVJ) position versus time generated variables of AVJ motion. Significance level of p < 0.05 was used. Results: Maximum longitudinal displacement (0.12 vs. 0.17 cm), maximum velocity during early diastole (MVED, 0.6 vs. 1.4s-1), slope of the best-fit line of displacement in diastasis (VDS, 0.22 vs. 0.03s-1), and VDS/MVED ratio (0.35 vs. 0.02) were significantly reduced in AVD patients compared with controls, respectively. Aortic regurgitation showed significantly worse longitudinal LV shortening compared with aortic stenosis. Higher LV mass indicated worse diastolic dysfunction. Conclusions: A simple linear measurement detected significant differences on LV diastolic function between AVD patients and controls. LV mass was the only independent predictor of diastolic dysfunction in these patients. This method can help in the evaluation of diastolic dysfunction, improving cardiomyopathy detection by CMR, without prolonging exam time or depending on expensive software.


Resumo Fundamentos: A disfunção diastólica, comumente avaliada por ecocardiografia, é um importante achado precoce na maioria das cardiomiopatias. A ressonância magnética cardíaca (RMC) frequentemente requer sequências específicas que prolongam o tempo de exame. Recentemente, métodos de imagens com monitoramento de dados (feature-tracking) foram desenvolvidos, mas ainda requerem softwares caros e carecem de validação clínica. Objetivos: Avaliar a função diastólica em pacientes com doença valvar aórtica (DVA) e compará-la a controles normais pela medida do deslocamento longitudinal do ventrículo esquerdo (VE) por RMC. Métodos: Nós comparamos 26 pacientes com DVA com 19 controles normais. A função diastólica foi avaliada como uma medida do deslocamento longitudinal do VE nas imagens de cine-RMC no plano quatro câmaras usando a sequência steady state free precession (SSFP) durante todo o ciclo cardíaco com resolução temporal < 50 ms. O gráfico resultante da posição da junção atrioventricular versus tempo gerou variáveis de movimento da junção atrioventricular. Utilizamos nível de significância de p < 0,005. Resultados: Deslocamento longitudinal máximo (0,12 vs. 0,17 cm), velocidade máxima em início de diástole (0,6 vs. 1,4s-1), velocidade máxima na diástase (0,22 vs. 0,03s-1) e a razão entre a velocidade máxima na diástase e a velocidade máxima em diástole inicial (0,35 vs. 0,02) foram significativamente menores nos pacientes com DVA em comparação aos controles normais, respectivamente. Pacientes com insuficiência aórtica apresentaram medidas de encurtamento longitudinal do VE significativamente piores em comparação aqueles com estenose aórtica. O aumento da massa ventricular esquerda indicou pior disfunção diastólica. Conclusões: Esta simples medida linear detectou diferenças significativas na função diastólica do VE entre pacientes com DVA e controles normais. A massa ventricular esquerda foi o único preditor independente de disfunção diastólica nesses pacientes. Este método pode auxiliar na avaliação da disfunção diastólica, melhorando a detecção de cardiomiopatias por RMC sem prolongar o tempo de exame ou depender de caros softwares.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aortic Valve Insufficiency/physiopathology , Aortic Valve Stenosis/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Diastole/physiology , Aortic Valve Insufficiency/diagnostic imaging , Aortic Valve Stenosis/diagnostic imaging , Reference Values , Atrioventricular Node/physiopathology , Atrioventricular Node/diagnostic imaging , Time Factors , Bundle of His/physiopathology , Bundle of His/diagnostic imaging , Case-Control Studies , Linear Models , Retrospective Studies , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Statistics, Nonparametric , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/methods
5.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 38(3): 210-212, dic. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058065

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) disease is generally associated with thoracic aortic dilatation (TAD). Related factors include; genetical, morphological (valvular phenotype) and most recently, hemodynamic profiles associated with flow pattern and wall shear stress. Cardiac magnetic resonance 4D Flow (4DF) can give an integral evaluation of these later flow variables. Remarkable, different spectrums of flow and vortex direction exist in BAV that are related to the site of TAD (proximal or distal). Therefore, we present a 57 years old patient with BAV (Sievers 0) with anteroposterior leaflets distribution in which 4DF depicted an anteriorly and righthand oriented jet that correlated with the zone of grater AD; also, vortex rotation was counterclockwise, corresponding to the most frequent vortex type in BAV. In conclusion, 4DF is a powerful and ground-breaking tool that enhances our knowledge of BAV related aortopathy.


Subject(s)
Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/methods , Bicuspid Aortic Valve Disease , Aortic Aneurysm , Aortic Diseases/physiopathology , Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Cardiac-Gated Imaging Techniques/methods
6.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(3): 201-204, June 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020060

ABSTRACT

El infarto agudo de miocardio es la principal causa de muerte en el mundo, siendo la obstrucción coronaria aterosclerótica el hallazgo más frecuente. Sin embargo, el 6% de los pacientes no presenta lesiones angiográficamente significativas, definidas por obstrucción de la luz vascular mayor al 50%. Estos casos se han definido bajo el término MINOCA (myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries). Suelen ocurrir en mujeres jóvenes, con factores de riesgo cardiovascular, elevación de biomarcadores cardíacos e infradesnivel del segmento ST en el electrocardiograma. Las principales etiologías son la miocarditis, el síndrome de Takotsubo y el infarto subendocárdico. Presentamos el caso de una mujer de 65 años con antecedentes de hipertensión arterial y bloqueo completo de rama izquierda previo, que ingresó con ángor, imagen de bloqueo completo de rama izquierda en el electrocardiograma con criterios de Sgarbossa negativos y biomarcadores cardíacos positivos. En el ecocardiograma evidenció trastorno en la motilidad de la pared inferolateral y en la coronariografía solo una lesión no significativa (40%) en segmento proximal de la arteria circunfleja. La cardiorresonancia, en la secuencia de realce tardío de gadolinio, mostró retención de contraste subendocárdico a nivel de los segmentos inferolateral medial con extensión lateroapical compatible con infarto correspondiente a territorio de arteria circunfleja. Este caso ilustra un ejemplo de MINOCA secundario a infarto subendocárdico con trombólisis espontánea, en el que la presentación clínica fue típica, sin embargo en la coronariografía no se observaron lesiones significativas, por lo que fue necesario complementar con otro método de imágenes: la cardiorresonancia.


Myocardial infarction is the leading cause of death in the world, being the coronary atherosclerotic obstruction the main finding. Although 6% of all the patients had no significant coronary arteries disease on coronary angiography, defined by lumen vascular obstruction greater than 50%. This type of cases was defined by the term MINOCA (myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries). They are usually young women, with cardiovascular risk factors, high cardiac biomarkers with non-ST elevation in the electrocardiogram. The main etiologies are myocarditis, Takotsubo syndrome and subendocardial myocardial infarction. We present the case of a 65 years-old woman with history of hypertension and complete left bundle branch block, who was admitted to the emergency department with typical chest pain, complete left bundle branch block in the electrocardiogram, with negative Sgarbossa criteria and positive cardiac biomarkers. The echocardiography evidenced inferolateral regional wall motion abnormalities, and the coronary angiography a single non-significative lesion (40%) in the proximal segment of the circumflex artery. Cardiac magnetic resonance evidenced subendocardial late gadolinium enhancement in inferolateral medial with latero-apical extension segments consistent with circumflex artery-related infarction. This case illustrates an example of MINOCA secondary to myocardial infarction with posterior spontaneous thrombolysis, in which the clinical presentation was typical, however the coronary angiography showed non obstructive lesions. Therefore, another complementary imaging methods were needed such as the cardiac magnetic resonance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Coronary Vessels/diagnostic imaging , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography , Risk Factors , Coronary Angiography , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine , Coronary Vessels/physiology , Electrocardiography , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764172

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We investigate biases in the assessments of left ventricular function (LVF), by compressed sensing (CS)-cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cardiovascular cine images with short axis view, were obtained for 8 volunteers without CS. LVFs were assessed with subsampled data, with compression factors (CF) of 2, 3, 4, and 8. A semi-automatic segmentation program was used, for the assessment. The assessments by 3 CS methods (ITSC, FOCUSS, and view sharing (VS)), were compared to those without CS. Bland-Altman analysis and paired t-test were used, for comparison. In addition, real-time CS-cine imaging was also performed, with CF of 2, 3, 4, and 8 for the same volunteers. Assessments of LVF were similarly made, for CS data. A fixed compensation technique is suggested, to reduce the bias. RESULTS: The assessment of LVF by CS-cine, includes bias and random noise. Bias appeared much larger than random noise. Median of end-diastolic volume (EDV) with CS-cine (ITSC or FOCUSS) appeared −1.4% to −7.1% smaller, compared to that of standard cine, depending on CF from (2 to 8). End-systolic volume (ESV) appeared +1.6% to +14.3% larger, stroke volume (SV), −2.4% to −16.4% smaller, and ejection fraction (EF), −1.1% to −9.2% smaller, with P < 0.05. Bias was reduced from −5.6% to −1.8% for EF, by compensation applied to real-time CS-cine (CF = 8). CONCLUSION: Loss of temporal resolution by adopting missing data from nearby cardiac frames, causes an underestimation for EDV, and an overestimation for ESV, resulting in underestimations for SV and EF. The bias is not random. Thus it should be removed or reduced for better diagnosis. A fixed compensation is suggested, to reduce bias in the assessment of LVF.


Subject(s)
Bias , Compensation and Redress , Diagnosis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine , Noise , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left , Volunteers
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719592

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Segmented cardiac cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the gold standard for cardiac ventricular volumetric assessment. In patients with difficulty in breath-holding or arrhythmia, this technique may generate images with inadequate quality for diagnosis. Real-time cardiac cine MRI has been developed to address this limitation. We aimed to assess the performance of retrospective electrocardiography-gated real-time cine MRI at 3T for left ventricular (LV) volume and mass measurement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-one patients were consecutively enrolled. A series of short-axis cine images covering the entire left ventricle using both segmented and real-time balanced steady-state free precession cardiac cine MRI were obtained. End-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), stroke volume (SV), ejection fraction (EF), and LV mass were measured. The agreement and correlation of the parameters were assessed. Additionally, image quality was evaluated using European CMR Registry (Euro-CMR) score and structure visibility rating. RESULTS: In patients without difficulty in breath-holding or arrhythmia, no significant difference was found in Euro-CMR score between the two techniques (0.3 ± 0.7 vs. 0.3 ± 0.5, p > 0.05). Good agreements and correlations were found between the techniques for measuring EDV, ESV, EF, SV, and LV mass. In patients with difficulty in breath-holding or arrhythmia, segmented cine MRI had a significant higher Euro-CMR score (2.3 ± 1.2 vs. 0.4 ± 0.5, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Real-time cine MRI at 3T allowed the assessment of LV volume with high accuracy and showed a significantly better image quality compared to that of segmented cine MRI in patients with difficulty in breath-holding and arrhythmia.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Diagnosis , Heart Ventricles , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine , Retrospective Studies , Stroke Volume
9.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 16(1): eMD3863, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-891456

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Uterine contractility out of the gestational phase, during the menstrual cycle and the habitual functional variations of the organ, this is one of the responsible mechanisms for reproduction and fertility, due to its direct action in the mechanisms conducting the spermatozoa to the ovule and in the decidual implantation. Pathologies such as uterine leiomyoma, endometriosis, adenomyosis, polycystic ovarian syndrome, as well as the use of intrauterine devices and oral contraceptives, may alter a functionality of uterine contractility. Thus, magnetic resonance imaging with ultrafast sequences provides a dynamic evaluation (cine-MRI) and thus the correlation of uterine contractility quality in patients with current infertility or pathologies.


RESUMO A contratilidade uterina fora da fase gestacional, durante o ciclo menstrual e as habituais variações funcionais do órgão, é um dos mecanismos responsáveis pela reprodução e fertilidade, devido sua ação direta nos mecanismos de condução dos espermatozoides até o óvulo e na implantação decidual. Patologias como leiomioma uterino, endometriose, adenomiose, síndrome dos ovários policísticos, bem como o uso de dispositivos intrauterinos e anticoncepcionais orais, podem alterar a funcionalidade da contratilidade uterina. Desta forma a ressonância magnética com sequências ultra-rápidas proporcionam uma avaliação dinâmica (cine-RM) e assim a correlação da qualidade da contratilidade uterina em pacientes com infertilidade ou patologias vigentes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Uterine Contraction/physiology , Uterus/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine , Infertility, Female/diagnostic imaging , Uterus/physiopathology , Infertility, Female/physiopathology
10.
Rev. colomb. radiol ; 29(2): 4901-4907, 2018. llus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-986288

ABSTRACT

La técnica 4D Flow hace referencia a las imágenes de resonancia magnética (RM) adquiridas mediante una secuencia retrospectiva de angiografía contraste de fase, en la cual se obtienen datos de la velocidad de la sangre en las tres direcciones, en un espacio de 3 dimensiones (3D) y a través de todo el ciclo cardiaco. Con las imágenes obtenidas mediante 4D Flow se puede evaluar de forma cuantitativa la dinámica regional y global del flujo sanguíneo con medidas hemodinámicas, tales como: velocidad promedio, máxima y mínima, flujo latido promedio, flujo de avance y regurgitante, volumen de eyección, y aproximaciones matemáticas a los gradientes de presión y fuerzas de cizallamiento en las paredes de los vasos; además, permite analizar cualitativamente la evolución temporal de los complejos patrones de flujo sanguíneo por medio de líneas de flujo, trazadores de partículas, gráficas de velocidad 3D y vectores; representaciones que describen la trayectoria de la sangre, a través del tiempo, en el sistema cardiovascular. Estas características permiten que la técnica tenga muchas aplicaciones potenciales en la práctica clínica, ya que brindan al especialista información valiosa sobre la función y el estado del sistema cardiovascular del paciente. A continuación se evalúa mediante 4D Flow, en algunas patologías congénitas: estenosis valvular pulmonar, conducto arterioso persistente y estenosis aórtica.


4D Flow technique refers to MR images acquired through a phase contrast angiography retrospective sequence, in which blood velocity data are obtained in three directions, in a 3-dimensional space, and through all of the cardiac cycle. With the 4D flow images, the regional and global dynamics of blood flow can be quantitatively analyzed through hemodynamic measurements, such as: average, maximum and minimum velocity, average flow, forward and regurgitation flow, ejection volume, and mathematical approximations to pressure gradients and shear forces in vessel walls; It also allows analyze qualitatively the temporal evolution of complex blood flow patterns through flow lines, particle tracers, 3D velocity graphs and vectors; representations that describe the trajectory of the blood, over time, in the cardiovascular system. These characteristics make the technique have many potential applications in clinical practice, as it provides information on the function and status of the patient's cardiovascular system. In this study we evaluated with the 4D flow technique some congenital pathologies: pulmonary stenosis, patent ductus arteriosus, and aortic stenosis.


Subject(s)
Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine , Heart Defects, Congenital , Hemodynamics
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716265

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To test whether the method utilizing three-dimensional (3D) whole-heart MRI has an additional benefit over that utilizing conventional two-dimensional (2D) cine MRI in quantifying ventricular volumes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 110 patients with congenital heart disease, a navigator-gated, 3D whole-heart MRI during end-systole (ES) and end-diastole (ED), 2D short-axis cine MRI, and phase contrast MRI of the great arteries were acquired. Ventricular volumes were measured by using a 3D threshold-based segmentation for 3D whole-heart MRI and by using a simplified contouring for 2D cine MRI. The cardiac trigger delays of 3D whole-heart MRI were compared with those of a 2D cine MRI. The stroke volumes calculated from the ventricular volumes were compared with the arterial flow volumes, measured by phase contrast MRI. RESULTS: The ES and ED trigger delays of whole-heart MRI were significantly less than cine MRI for both the left ventricle (−16.8 ± 35.9 ms for ES, −59.0 ± 90.4 ms for ED; p < 0.001) and the right ventricle (−58.8 ± 30.6 ms for ES, −104.9 ± 92.7 ms for ED; p < 0.001). Compared with the arterial flow volumes, 2D cine MRI significantly overestimated the left ventricular stroke volumes (8.7 ± 8.9 mL, p < 0.001) and the 3D whole-heart MRI significantly underestimated the right ventricular stroke volumes (−22.7 ± 22.9 mL, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Three-dimensional whole-heart MRI is often subject to early timing of the ED phase, potentially leading to the underestimation of the right ventricular stroke volumes.


Subject(s)
Arteries , Heart Defects, Congenital , Heart Ventricles , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine , Methods , Stroke Volume
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740123

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Children born with single ventricle physiology demonstrate poor growth rate and suffer from malnutrition, which lead to increased morbidity and mortality in this population. We assume that an anabolic steroid, oxandrolone, will promote growth in these infants by improving myocardial energy utilization. The purpose of this paper is to study the efficacy of oxandrolone on myocardial energy consumption in these infants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We modeled single ventricle physiology in a lamb by prenatally shunting the aorta to the pulmonary artery and then postnatally, we monitored cardiac energy utilization by quantitatively measuring the first order reaction rate constant, kf of the creatine-kinase reaction in the heart using magnetization transfer 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy, home built 1H/31P transmit/receive double tuned coil, and transmit/receive switch. We also performed cine MRI to study the structure and dynamic function of the myocardium and the left ventricular chamber. The spectroscopy data were processed using home-developed python software, while cine data were analyzed using Argus software. RESULTS: We quantitatively measured both the first order reaction rate constant and ejection fraction in the control, shunted, and the oxandrolone-treated lambs. Both kf and ejection fraction were found to be more significantly reduced in the shunted lambs compared to the control lambs, and they are increased in oxandrolone-treated lambs. CONCLUSION: Some improvement was observed in both the first order reaction rate constant and ejection fraction for the lamb treated with oxandrolone in our preliminary study.


Subject(s)
Aorta , Boidae , Child , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Heart , Humans , Infant , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Malnutrition , Mortality , Myocardium , Oxandrolone , Physiology , Pulmonary Artery , Spectrum Analysis
13.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2017. 81 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1151981

ABSTRACT

The prediction of meniscus reparability is quite useful for surgeons to optimize surgical planning. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to predict the suture of meniscal lesions. This was an unicentric retrospective study that included 104 patients who underwent knee joint ligament reconstruction and / or arthroscopy for the treatment of meniscal injury at knee joint level. The MRI images of the meniscus were evaluated and later the arthroscopic findings were used as the gold standard. After the operative procedure, the cases were allocated into two groups according to the necessity of meniscus suture: Sutured Group "MSu" (n = 58) and Non sutured Group "MNSu" (n = 150). Considering the lesion detection capacity in the medial meniscus, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of MR were 85.3%, 63.9% and 77.9%, respectively. The positive predictive value (PPV) was 81.7% and the negative predictive value (NPV) was 69.7%. The agreement between MRI and arthroscopy was moderate. For the lateral meniscus, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of MRI were 80.6%, 89.0% and 86.5%, respectively, with PPV of 75.7% and NPV of 91.5% and a substantial agreement. Regarding suture predictability, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were respectively 60.3%, 66.7% and 64.9% with PPV of 41.2% and NPV of 81.3%, with weak agreement. According to the arthroscopy, the 58 meniscal lesions of the MSu group were more frequent in the posterior horn, had the longitudinal pattern and were located in the red-red vascular zone. In our study, MRI was not a good predictor of meniscal suture, although it is an useful tool for the diagnosis of medial and lateral meniscal lesions


Subject(s)
Menisci, Tibial/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine
14.
J. appl. oral sci ; 24(5): 472-480, Sept.-Oct. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-797978

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective Since the tongue is the oral structure responsible for mastication, pronunciation, and swallowing functions, patients who undergo glossectomy can be affected in various aspects of these functions. The vowel /i/ uses the tongue shape, whereas /u/ uses tongue and lip shapes. The purpose of this study is to investigate the morphological changes of the tongue and the adaptation of pronunciation using cine MRI for speech of patients who undergo glossectomy. Material and Methods Twenty-three controls (11 males and 12 females) and 13 patients (eight males and five females) volunteered to participate in the experiment. The patients underwent glossectomy surgery for T1 or T2 lateral lingual tumors. The speech tasks “a souk” and “a geese” were spoken by all subjects providing data for the vowels /u/ and /i/. Cine MRI and speech acoustics were recorded and measured to compare the changes in the tongue with vowel acoustics after surgery. 2D measurements were made of the interlip distance, tongue-palate distance, tongue position (anterior-posterior and superior-inferior), tongue height on the left and right sides, and pharynx size. Vowel formants Fl, F2, and F3 were measured. Results The patients had significantly lower F2/Fl ratios (F=5.911, p=0.018), and lower F3/F1 ratios that approached significance. This was seen primarily in the /u/ data. Patients had flatter tongue shapes than controls with a greater effect seen in /u/ than /i/. Conclusion The patients showed complex adaptation motion in order to preserve the acoustic integrity of the vowels, and the tongue modified cavity size relationships to maintain the value of the formant frequencies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Pharynx/pathology , Speech/physiology , Tongue/physiopathology , Tongue/pathology , Glossectomy/rehabilitation , Pharynx/physiopathology , Postoperative Period , Reference Values , Speech Acoustics , Tongue Neoplasms/surgery , Tongue Neoplasms/physiopathology , Tongue Neoplasms/pathology , Case-Control Studies , Retrospective Studies , Analysis of Variance , Treatment Outcome , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine , Anatomic Landmarks , Neoplasm Staging
15.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 107(2): 163-172, Aug. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-794567

ABSTRACT

Abstract Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common genetic cardiovascular disease and represents the main cause of sudden death in young patients. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and cardiac computed tomography (CCT) are noninvasive imaging methods with high sensitivity and specificity, useful for the establishment of diagnosis and prognosis of HCM, and for the screening of patients with subclinical phenotypes. The improvement of image analysis by CMR and CCT offers the potential to promote interventions aiming at stopping the natural course of the disease. This study aims to describe the role of RCM and CCT in the diagnosis and prognosis of HCM, and how these methods can be used in the management of these patients.


Resumo A cardiomiopatia hipertrófica (CMH) é a doença genética cardiovascular mais comum e representa a principal causa de morte súbita em pacientes jovens. A Ressonância Magnética Cardíaca (RMC) e a Tomografia Computadorizada Cardíaca (TCC) são métodos de imagem não invasivos de alta sensibilidade e especificidade, úteis no diagnóstico e no estabelecimento do prognóstico de CMH, e no rastreamento de indivíduos com fenótipos subclínicos. O aperfeiçoamento da análise da RMC e TCC tem grande potencial para promover intervenções com o objetivo de impedir o curso natural da doença. O presente estudo tem por objetivo descrever o papel da RMC e TCC no diagnóstico e prognóstico da CMH, e como essas ferramentas podem auxiliar no manejo clínico de pacientes portadores dessa doença.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Prognosis , Image Enhancement/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/methods
16.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 107(1): 48-54, July 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-792499

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Reproducibility data of the extent and patterns of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is limited. Objective: To explore the reproducibility of regional wall thickness (WT), LGE extent, and LGE patterns in patients with HCM assessed with cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). Methods: The extent of LGE was assessed by the number of segments with LGE, and by the total LV mass with LGE (% LGE); and the pattern of LGE-CMR was defined for each segment. Results: A total of 42 patients (672 segments) with HCM constituted the study population. The mean WT measurements showed a mean difference between observers of -0.62 ± 1.0 mm (6.1%), with limits of agreement of 1.36 mm; -2.60 mm and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.95 (95% CI 0.93-0.96). Maximum WT measurements showed a mean difference between observers of -0.19 ± 0.8 mm (0.9%), with limits of agreement of 1.32 mm; -1.70 mm, and an ICC of 0.95 (95% CI 0.91-0.98). The % LGE showed a mean difference between observers of -1.17 ± 1.2 % (21%), with limits of agreement of 1.16%; -3.49%, and an ICC of 0.94 (95% CI 0.88-0.97). The mean difference between observers regarding the number of segments with LGE was -0.40 ± 0.45 segments (11%), with limits of agreement of 0.50 segments; -1.31 segments, and an ICC of 0.97 (95% CI 0.94-0.99). Conclusions: The number of segments with LGE might be more reproducible than the percent of the LV mass with LGE.


Resumo Fundamento: Os dados de reprodutibilidade da extensão e dos padrões de realce tardio pelo gadolínio (RTG) em cardiomiopatia hipertrófica (CMH) são limitados. Objetivo: Explorar a reprodutibilidade da espessura parietal (EP) da região, extensão do RTG e padrões de RTG em pacientes com CMH avaliados com ressonância magnética cardíaca (RMC). Métodos: A extensão do RTG foi avaliada pelo número de segmentos com RTG e pela massa total do VE com RTG (%RTG) e foi definido o padrão RMC com RTG para cada segmento. Resultados: A população do estudo foi composta por um total de 42 pacientes (672 segmentos) com CMH. As medições médias de EP mostraram uma diferença média entre observadores de -0,62 ± 1,0 mm (6,1%), com limites de concordância de 1,36 mm, -2,60 mm e um coeficiente de correlação intraclasse (CCI) de 0,95 (95% IC 0,93-0,96). Medições máximas de EP mostraram uma diferença média entre observadores de -0,19 ± 0,8 mm (0,9%), com limites de concordância de 1,32 mm, -1,70 mm e CCI de 0,95 (95% IC 0,91-0,98). O % RTG mostrou uma diferença média entre observadores de -1,17 ± 1,2% (21%), com limites de concordância de 1,16%, -3,49% e CCI de 0,94 (95% IC 0,88-0,97). A diferença média entre observadores com relação ao número de segmentos com RTG foi de -0,40 ± 0,45 segmentos (11%) com limites de concordância de 0,50 segmentos, -1,31 segmentos e CCI de 0,97 (95% IC 0,94-0,99). Conclusões: O número de segmentos com RTG pode ser mais reprodutível do que o percentual da massa do VE com RTG.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic/diagnostic imaging , Radiographic Image Enhancement/methods , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/methods , Gadolinium , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Reference Values , Time Factors , Observer Variation , Reproducibility of Results , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Risk Assessment
17.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 106(3): 226-235, Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777102

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Pulmonary hypertension is associated with poor prognosis in heart failure. However, non-invasive diagnosis is still challenging in clinical practice. Objective: We sought to assess the prognostic utility of non-invasive estimation of pulmonary vascular resistances (PVR) by cardiovascular magnetic resonance to predict adverse cardiovascular outcomes in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Methods: Prospective registry of patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) < 40% and recently admitted for decompensated heart failure during three years. PVRwere calculated based on right ventricular ejection fraction and average velocity of the pulmonary artery estimated during cardiac magnetic resonance. Readmission for heart failure and all-cause mortality were considered as adverse events at follow-up. Results: 105 patients (average LVEF 26.0 ±7.7%, ischemic etiology 43%) were included. Patients with adverse events at long-term follow-up had higher values of PVR (6.93 ± 1.9 vs. 4.6 ± 1.7estimated Wood Units (eWu), p < 0.001). In multivariate Cox regression analysis, PVR ≥ 5 eWu(cutoff value according to ROC curve) was independently associated with increased risk of adverse events at 9 months follow-up (HR2.98; 95% CI 1.12-7.88; p < 0.03). Conclusions: In patients with HFrEF, the presence of PVR ≥ 5.0 Wu is associated with significantly worse clinical outcome at follow-up. Non-invasive estimation of PVR by cardiac magnetic resonance might be useful for risk stratification in HFrEF, irrespective of etiology, presence of late gadolinium enhancement or LVEF.


Resumo Fundamento: A hipertensão pulmonar está associada a mau prognóstico em insuficiência cardíaca. No entanto, o diagnóstico não-invasivo é desafiador na prática clínica. Objetivo: Avaliar a utilidade prognóstica da estimativa não-invasiva das resistências vasculares pulmonares (RVP) medidas através de ressonância magnética cardiovascular na previsão de desfechos cardiovasculares adversos em insuficiência cardíaca com fração de ejeção reduzida (ICFEr). Métodos: Registro prospectivo de pacientes com fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo (FEVE) < 40% internados recentemente por insuficiência cardíaca descompensada, durante três anos. As RVP foram calculadas com base na fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo e velocidade média do fluxo na artéria pulmonar estimada por ressonância magnética cardíaca. Durante a evolução, reinternação por insuficiência cardíaca e mortalidade por todas as causas foram consideradas eventos adversos. Resultados: Foram incluídos 105 pacientes (FEVE média de 26,0 ± 7,7%, etiologia isquêmica em 43%). Os valores de RVP nos pacientes que apresentaram eventos adversos durante o seguimento em longo prazo foram mais altos (6,93 ± 1,9 versus 4,6 ± 1,7 unidades Wood estimadas (uWe), p < 0,001). Na análise de regressão multivariada de Cox, RVP ≥ 5 eWu (valor de corte segundo a curva ROC) mostrou-se independentemente associada a um maior risco de eventos adversos aos 9 meses de seguimento (RR = 2,98; IC 95% = 1,12-7,88; p < 0,03). Conclusões: Em pacientes com ICFEr, a presença de RVP ≥ 5,0 uW está associada a uma evolução clínica significativamente pior. A estimativa não-invasiva da RVP através de ressonância magnética cardíaca pode ser útil na estratificação de risco em ICFEr, independentemente da etiologia, presença de realce tardio pelo gadolínio ou FEVE.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Heart Failure, Systolic/diagnosis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/standards , Vascular Resistance/physiology , Heart Failure, Systolic/mortality , Heart Failure, Systolic/physiopathology , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Survival Analysis , Stroke Volume/physiology
18.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 617-624, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-93958

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Despite technical simplicity and the low cost of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (BA-PWV), its use has been hampered by a lack of data supporting its usefulness and reliability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of BA-PWV to measure aortic stiffness in comparison to using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 124 participants without cardiovascular risk factors volunteered for this study. BA-PWV was measured using a vascular testing device. On the same day, using CMR, cross-sectional areas for distensibility and average blood flow were measured at four aortic levels: the ascending, upper thoracic descending, lower thoracic descending, and abdominal aorta. RESULTS: Compared to PWV measured by CMR, BA-PWV values were significantly higher and the differences therein were similar in all age groups (all p<0.001). There was a significant correlation between BA-PWV and PWV by CMR (r=0.697, p<0.001). Both BA-PWV and PWV by CMR were significantly and positively associated with age (r=0.652 and 0.724, p<0.001). The reciprocal of aortic distensibility also demonstrated a statistically significant positive correlation with BA-PWV (r=0.583 to 0.673, all p<0.001). CONCLUSION: BA-PWV was well correlated with central aortic PWV and distensibility, as measured by CMR, regardless of age and sex.


Subject(s)
Adult , Ankle Brachial Index/methods , Ankle Joint , Aorta/anatomy & histology , Blood Flow Velocity , Cardiovascular Diseases , Female , Heart/physiopathology , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine , Male , Pulse Wave Analysis/methods , Regional Blood Flow , Reproducibility of Results , Risk Factors , Vascular Stiffness
19.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1735-1737, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-70395

ABSTRACT

We report herein a case of benign cardiac schwannoma in the interatrial septum. A 42-year-old woman was transferred from a clinic because of cardiomegaly as determined by chest X-ray. A transthoracic echocardiography and chest computed tomography examination revealed a huge mass in the pericardium compressing the right atrium, superior vena cava (SVC), left atrium, and superior pulmonary vein. To confirm that the tumor originated from either heart or mediastinum, cine magnetic resonance imaging was performed, but the result was not conclusive. To facilitate surgical planning, we used 3D printing. Using a printed heart model, we decided that tumor resection under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) through sternotomy would be technically feasible. At surgery, a huge tumor in the interatrial septum was confirmed. By incision on the atrial roof between the aorta and SVC, tumor enucleation was performed successfully under CPB. Pathology revealed benign schwannoma. The patient was discharged without complication. 3D printing of the heart and tumor was found to be helpful when deciding optimal surgical approach.


Subject(s)
Adult , Atrial Septum/pathology , Cardiomegaly/etiology , Cardiopulmonary Bypass , Female , Heart Atria/pathology , Heart Neoplasms/pathology , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine , Neurilemmoma/pathology , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Sternotomy , Treatment Outcome , Vena Cava, Superior/pathology
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-189928

ABSTRACT

In patients with non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM), risk stratification for sudden cardiac death (SCD) and selection of patients who would benefit from prophylactic implantable cardioverter-defibrillators remains challenging. We aim to discuss the evidence of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR)-derived myocardial scar for the prediction of adverse cardiovascular outcomes in NICM. From the 15 studies analyzed, with a total of 2747 patients, the average prevalence of myocardial scar was 41%. In patients with myocardial scar, the risk for adverse cardiac events was more than 3-fold higher, and risk for arrhythmic events 5-fold higher, as compared to patients without scar. Based on the available observational, single center studies, CMR scar assessment may be a promising new tool for SCD risk stratification, which merits further investigation.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Cardiomyopathies/diagnosis , Cicatrix/diagnosis , Death, Sudden, Cardiac , Defibrillators, Implantable , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/methods , Myocardium/pathology , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
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