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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 899-908, Oct.-Dec. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153431

ABSTRACT

Abstract Experiments were performed investigating citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt) as a repellent to honeybee Apis mellifera (L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Egypt, it was conducted in laboratory in the Department of Entomology and Pesticides Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, to check long-term survival of honeybee when exposed to different nano insecticides alone or combined with citronella at the same examination box for each. In this study, we used a modeling approach regarding survival data of caged worker bees under chronic exposure to four insecticides (Chloropyrophos, Nano-chloropyrophos Imidacloprid, Nano-Imidacloprid) each of them was supplemented in a box alone and in combination with citronella. Having three replicates and five concentrations (100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 ppm). Laboratory bioassay of these insecticides showed that chloropyrophos and nano chloropyrophos were the most toxic at their high dose (500 ppm) with LT50 of 120.98 and 122.02 followed by 132.14 and 136.5 minutes for Imidacloprid and Nano-Imidacloprid, respectively. No consumption occurred by bees to mixed sugar syrup with insecticides in all treatments when citronella was added. These data highly recommended that adding citronella is very effective when nicotinoid pesticides are used to longevity honeybee life and keep bee safe.


Resumo Foram realizados experimentos para investigar a citronela (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt) como repelente de abelhas Apis mellifera (L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) no Egito, conduzidos no laboratório do Departamento de Entomologia e Ciência de Pesticidas, da Faculdade de Agricultura, da Universidade do Cairo, e verificar a sobrevivência a longo prazo das abelhas quando expostas a diferentes nanoinseticidas isoladamente ou combinados com citronela na mesma caixa de exame para cada um. Neste estudo, usamos uma abordagem de modelagem em relação aos dados de sobrevivência de abelhas operárias enjauladas sob exposição crônica a quatro inseticidas (clorpirifós, nanoclorpirifós, imidacloprida e nanoimidacloprida), e cada um deles foi suplementado em uma caixa e em combinação com citronela, tendo três repetições e cinco concentrações (100, 200, 300, 400 e 500 ppm). O bioensaio em laboratório desses inseticidas mostrou que clorpirifós e nanoclorpirifós foram os mais tóxicos em altas doses (500 ppm) com LT50 de 120,98 e 122,02, seguidos por 132,14 e 136,5 minutos para imidacloprida e nanoimidacloprida, respectivamente. Não houve consumo pelas abelhas do xarope de açúcar misto com inseticidas em todos os tratamentos quando a citronela foi adicionada. Esses dados recomendam a adição de citronela, sendo muito eficaz quando pesticidas nicotinoides são utilizados para longevidade das abelhas e para mantê-las seguras.


Subject(s)
Animals , Magnoliopsida , Lamiaceae , Cymbopogon , Insecticides/toxicity , Bees , Longevity
2.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 185-190, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881006

ABSTRACT

After one-month of oral treatment with traditional Chinese medicine decoction, without using other drugs, the lung inflammatory exudate, pulmonary fibrosis and quality of life of a 61-year-old female patient with corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were significantly improved. No recurrence or deterioration of the patient's condition was found within seven weeks of treatment and follow-up, and no adverse events occurred, indicating that oral Chinese medicine decoction was able to improve the pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis in a patient recovering from COVID-19, but further research is still needed.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , COVID-19/virology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Exudates and Transudates , Female , Humans , Inflammation/etiology , Lung/pathology , Magnoliopsida , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Middle Aged , Phytotherapy , Pulmonary Fibrosis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06915, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1340353

ABSTRACT

Two outbreaks of traumatic injuries in goats and sheep associated with grazing and ingestion of the cactus Tacinga inamoena have recently been reported in the state of Paraíba, Brazil. In the first of these, which was detected in 2019 during a preliminary inspection of a herd of 70 animals, it was found that 15 showed certain ocular complications, and these animals were subjected to general physical and ophthalmic examinations. The clinical findings included excessive lacrimation, blepharitis, photophobia, corneal opacity, hyphema, corneal neovascularization, corneal ulcers, and adherence of gloquids to the bulbar conjunctiva and cornea. Large amounts of T. inamoena were found to be present in several areas in which these animals had been grazed and had been observed consuming the fruits of this plant. In the second outbreak during the following year, two sheep from a total of 100 animals were identified as having oral lesions associated with grazing in areas within which T. inamoena was growing. One of these animals was referred to a veterinary hospital, and on physical examination was found to show apathy, anorexia, a body score of 1.5, and the presence of gloquids within the fur. With respect to the oral cavity, halitosis, severe sialorrhea, extensive hemorrhagic ulcers, and painful tenderness on palpation were detected. Given the unfavorable prognosis, the sheep was subsequently euthanized. At necropsy, multifocal to coalescent plaques were detected on the upper and lower lips, oral mucosa, tongue, and hard and soft palates. These were generally elevated and firm and characterized by an irregular, ulcerated surface, sometimes crusty, with a yellow to light brown center and erythematous edges. The findings of this study highlight that the consumption of T. inamoena can cause serious oral and ophthalmic lesions in small ruminants in the northeastern semi-arid regions of Brazil, and can potentially contribute to substantial large economic losses. This problem tends to be exacerbated by the invasive behavior of T. Inamoena, particularly in areas in the process of environmental degradation.(AU)


Relatam-se dois surtos de lesões traumáticas associadas ao pastejo e ingestão da Tacinga inamoena por caprinos e ovinos no estado da Paraíba, Brasil. No primeiro surto observou-se durante uma inspeção preliminar do rebanho que 15 dos 70 animais apresentavam alterações oculares, os animais foram submetidos ao exame físico geral e ao exame oftálmico. Lacrimejamento excessivo, blefarite, fotofobia, opacidade de córnea, hifema, neovascularização corneana, úlceras de córnea e gloquídeos aderidos à conjuntiva bulbar e córnea foram os achados clínicos identificados. A planta estava presente em diversas áreas e em grande quantidade nas áreas de pastejo, onde os animais eram vistos ingerindo seus frutos. No segundo surto, dois ovinos de um total de 100 animais, foram identificados com lesões orais associadas ao pastejo em áreas da planta. Um deles foi encaminhado ao Hospital Veterinário. No exame físico, o animal apresentou apatia, anorexia, escore corporal 1,5, pelos opacos, eriçados e no pelame era possível identificar gloquídeos. Na cavidade oral observou-se halitose, sialorreia intensa, extensas úlceras hemorrágicas e sensibilidade dolorosa à palpação. Devido ao prognóstico desfavorável o animal foi eutanasiado. Na necropsia, placas multifocais a coalescentes, elevadas, firmes e com superfície irregular, ulcerada, por vezes crostosas, com centro amarelo a marrom-claro e bordos eritematosos, estavam presentes nos lábios superiores, inferiores, mucosa oral, língua, palatos duro e mole. T. inamoena causa sérias lesões orais e oftálmicas em pequenos ruminantes no semiárido nordestino e prejuízos econômicos de grandes dimensões, que podem ser agravados pelo comportamento invasor da T. inamoena em áreas com indícios de degradação ambiental.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Ruminants/injuries , Sheep/injuries , Eye Injuries/veterinary , Magnoliopsida , Stomatitis/diagnosis , Cactaceae
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(1): 15-21, Jan.-Mar 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984006

ABSTRACT

Abstract Resource amendments commonly promote plant invasions, raising concerns over the potential consequences of nitrogen (N) deposition; however, it is unclear whether invaders will benefit from N deposition more than natives. Growth is among the most fundamental inherent traits of plants and thus good invaders may have superior growth advantages in response to resource amendments. We compared the growth and allocation between invasive and native plants in different N regimes including controls (ambient N concentrations). We found that invasive plants always grew much larger than native plants in varying N conditions, regardless of growth- or phylogeny-based analyses, and that the former allocated more biomass to shoots than the latter. Although N addition enhanced the growth of invasive plants, this enhancement did not increase with increasing N addition. Across invasive and native species, changes in shoot biomass allocation were positively correlated with changes in whole-plant biomass; and the slope of this relationship was greater in invasive plants than native plants. These findings suggest that enhanced shoot investment makes invasive plants retain a growth advantage in high N conditions relative to natives, and also highlight that future N deposition may increase the risks of plant invasions.


Resumo As alterações de recursos geralmente promovem invasões de plantas, suscitando preocupações quanto às conseqüências potenciais da deposição de nitrogênio (N); No entanto, não está claro se os invasores se beneficiarão da deposição de N mais do que com os nativos. O crescimento é um dos traços inerentes mais fundamentais das plantas e, portanto, os bons invasores podem ter vantagens de crescimento superiores em resposta a alterações de recursos. Comparamos o crescimento e a alocação entre plantas invasivas e nativas em diferentes regimes de N, incluindo controles (concentrações ambientais de N). Descobrimos que as plantas invasivas sempre cresceram muito mais do que as plantas nativas em diferentes condições de N, independentemente das análises baseadas em crescimento ou filogenia, e que o primeiro atribuiu mais biomassa aos rebentos do que o segundo. Embora N aumentou o crescimento de plantas invasivas, esse aumento não aumentou com o aumento da adição de N. Através das espécies invasivas e nativas, as mudanças na alocação da biomassa do extrato foram correlacionadas positivamente com as mudanças na biomassa da planta inteira; e a inclinação desse relacionamento foi maior em plantas invasivas do que plantas nativas. Essas descobertas sugerem que o aumento do investimento em lançamentos faz com que as plantas invasivas mantenham uma vantagem de crescimento em altas condições de N em relação aos nativos, e também destacar que a futura deposição de N pode aumentar os riscos de invasões de plantas.


Subject(s)
Soil/chemistry , Magnoliopsida/growth & development , Introduced Species , Nitrogen/analysis , China , Plant Shoots/growth & development , Fertilizers/analysis
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(1): 120-126, Jan.-Mar 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984005

ABSTRACT

Abstract We evaluated the response of the biomass of aquatic macrophytes under limnological changes after water level fluctuation (WLF) of two tropical reservoirs (R1 and R2), located in northeastern Brazil. Initially we tested the hypothesis that post-WLF limnological conditions and biomass of macrophytes increase or decrease, depending on the variable or species. We monitored a 4 × 50 m permanent plot, in four expeditions per period (pre- or post-WLF), assessing species biomass and 10 limnological variables. We utilized 0.25 × 0.25 m quadrats for biomass. Once the effect of WLF in limnological variables and species biomass was confirmed, we utilized Canonical Correspondence Analysis to understand the relationship between limnological variables and species biomass. The abundant and/or dominant species in pre-WLF of R1 ( Pistia stratiotes, Eichhornia crassipes and Salvinia auriculata) and R2 (Paspalidium geminatum and S. auriculata) reduced their biomass post-WLF and were correlated with temperature, total phosphorous and nitrate. The reduced biomass of P. stratiotes, E. crassipes and S. auriculata in post-WLF widened resource availability, allowing coexistence of species. Therefore, we suggest that the change of limnological conditions in post-WLF in artificial lakes acts only as a moderator factor of the interspecific interaction (especially coexistence), without direct relation between these conditions and species biomass.


Resumo Avaliamos a resposta da biomassa de macrófitas aquáticas às alterações ambientais após flutuação do nível de água (WLF) de dois reservatórios tropicais (R1 e R2), localizados no Nordeste do Brasil. Inicialmente, testamos a hipótese de que após uma WLF as condições limnológicas e a biomassa das macrófitas aumentam ou diminuem, dependendo da variável ou espécie. Por isso, monitoramos uma parcela permanente de 4 × 50 m, em quatro amostragens por período (pré ou pós-WLF), avaliando a biomassa de espécies e 10 variáveis ​​limnológicas. Utilizamos quadrados de 0,25 × 0,25 m na amostragem da biomassa. Uma vez que o efeito do WLF em variáveis limnológicas e biomassa das espécies foi confirmado, utilizamos a Análise de Correspondência Canônica para compreender a relação das variáveis ​​limnológicas com a biomassa de espécies. As espécies abundantes e/ou dominantes no pré-WLF de R1 (Pistia stratiotes, Eichhornia crassipes e Salvinia auriculata ) e R2 (Paspalidium geminatum e S. auriculata ) reduziram sua biomassa pós-WLF, correlacionando-se diretamente com temperatura, fósforo total e nitrato. A redução da biomassa de P. stratiotes , E. crassipes e S. auriculata em pós-WLF ampliou a disponibilidade de recursos, permitindo a coexistência de espécies. Portanto, sugerimos que a mudança das condições limnológicas no pós-WLF em lagos artificiais atua apenas como um fator moderador da interação interespecífica (em especial a coexistência), sem relação direta entre essas condições e a biomassa das espécies.


Subject(s)
Water Movements , Lakes/analysis , Biomass , Magnoliopsida/physiology , Brazil , Lakes/chemistry , Water Resources , Aquatic Organisms/physiology
6.
Biol. Res ; 52: 25, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011427

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The morphological diversity of flower organs is closely related to functional divergence within the MADS-box gene family. Bryophytes and seedless vascular plants have MADS-box genes but do not have ABCDE or AGAMOUS-LIKE6 (AGL6) genes. ABCDE and AGL6 genes belong to the subgroup of MADS-box genes. Previous works suggest that the B gene was the first ABCDE and AGL6 genes to emerge in plant but there are no mentions about the probable origin time of ACDE and AGL6 genes. Here, we collected ABCDE and AGL6 gene 381 protein sequences and 361 coding sequences from gymnosperms and angiosperms and reconstructed a complete Bayesian phylogeny of these genes. In this study, we want to clarify the probable origin time of ABCDE and AGL6 genes is a great help for understanding the role of the formation of the flower, which can decipher the forming order of MADS-box genes in the future. RESULTS: These genes appeared to have been under purifying selection and their evolutionary rates are not significantly different from each other. Using the Bayesian evolutionary analysis by sampling trees (BEAST) tool, we estimated that: the mutation rate of the ABCDE and AGL6 genes was 2.617 × 10-3 substitutions/site/million years, and that B genes originated 339 million years ago (MYA), CD genes originated 322 MYA, and A genes shared the most recent common ancestor with E/AGL6 296 MYA, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The phylogeny of ABCDE and AGL6 genes subfamilies differed. The APETALA1 (AP1 or A gene) subfamily clustered into one group. The APETALA3/PISTILLATA (AP3/PI or B genes) subfamily clustered into two groups: the AP3 and PI clades. The AGAMOUS/SHATTERPROOF/SEEDSTICK (AG/SHP/STK or CD genes) subfamily clustered into a single group. The SEPALLATA (SEP or E gene) subfamily in angiosperms clustered into two groups: the SEP1/2/4 and SEP3 clades. The AGL6 subfamily clustered into a single group. Moreover, ABCDE and AGL6 genes appeared in the following order: AP3/PI → AG/SHP/STK → AGL6/SEP/AP1. In this study, we collected candidate sequences from gymnosperms and angiosperms. This study highlights important events in the evolutionary history of the ABCDE and AGL6 gene families and clarifies their evolutionary path.


Subject(s)
Phylogeny , Magnoliopsida/genetics , MADS Domain Proteins/genetics , Arabidopsis Proteins/genetics , Cycadopsida/genetics , Period Circadian Proteins/genetics , Genes, Plant , Genome, Plant , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Evolution, Molecular
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774556

ABSTRACT

Turpinia species have been used as local Chinese medicines. It has been widely concerned about their antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects. Modern studies showed that the chemical constituents of Turpina species include flavonoids, triterpenoids, megastigans and phenoli acids. Its pharmacological research mainly focused on antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, analgesic, and immuneregulation effect. In this paper, the chemical compositions and pharmacological activities of Turpinia species were summarized, in order to provide scientific basis for the further development and utilization of Turpinia species.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Flavonoids , Magnoliopsida , Chemistry , Phytochemicals , Pharmacology , Triterpenes
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774543

ABSTRACT

This project is to investigate lignans from the seed of Hydnocarpus anthelminthica. Thirteen lignans were isolated from the 95% ethanol extract of the seed of H. anthelminthica, by polyamide resin, Sephadex LH-20, ODS column chromatography and preparative HPLC. Their structures were elucidated as(+)-syringaresinol(1), lirioresinol A(2),(+)-medioresinol(3),(7R,8R,8'R)-4'-guaiacylglyceryl-evofolin B(4), leptolepisol C(5),(-)-(7R,7'R,7″R,8S,8'S,8″S)-4',4″-dihydroxy-3,3',3″,5,5',5″-hexamethoxy-7,9':7',9-diepoxy-4,8″-oxy-8,8'-sesquineolignan-7″,9″-diol(6),(-)-(7R,7'R,7″R,8S,8'S,8″S)-4',4″-dihydroxy-3,3',3″,5,5'-pentamethoxy-7,9':7',9-diepoxy-4,8″-oxy-8,8'ses-quineolignan-7″,9″-diol(7), ceplignan(8), hydnocarpusol(9), isohydnocarpin(10),(-)-hydnocarpin(11), hydnocarpin(12), and hydnocarpin-D(13) by spectroscopic data analysis. Compounds 1-8 were obtained from the genus Hydnocarpus for the first time.


Subject(s)
Lignans , Magnoliopsida , Chemistry , Molecular Structure , Phytochemicals , Plant Extracts , Seeds , Chemistry
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773441

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#This research aimed to evaluate the protective effects of bioactive compounds such as phenolic acids, flavonoids, and tannins present in four species extracted with methanol.@*METHODS@#The total phenolic content of the methanolic extracts was measured spectrophotometrically. The effect of the extracts on cell viability in U266 cells was measured. The effects of extracts on free radical scavenging were assessed by the DPPH test and FRAP assay. Antibacterial effects of the natural products in this report were investigated by using the disc diffusion method.@*RESULTS@#Our results clearly demonstrated that the methanolic extracts were characterized by a high amount of phenolic compounds. It has been speculated that ME-TA and ME-TAl exhibit a significant (P < 0.05) and dose-dependent antiradical potential. The exposure of cells to high doses of extracts almost completely suppressed cell growth in vitro. ME-TA and ME-TAl showed significant cytotoxic effects at a concentration of 100 μg/mL in the U266 cell line. ME-TAl and ME-CF inhibited the growth of B. subtilis and S. aureus, respectively, to the same extent as 10 μg/μL of chloramphenicol at a concentration of 1 mg/mL.@*CONCLUSION@#Overall, these results suggest that plants used in traditional medicine have a novel application as free radical scavengers, bacterial inhibitors and tumor suppressors.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic , Pharmacology , Antioxidants , Pharmacology , Bacteria , Biological Products , Pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Survival , Humans , Magnoliopsida , Chemistry , Multiple Myeloma , Phytochemicals , Pharmacology , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Pharmacology
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777444

ABSTRACT

This study is based on the data analysis of medicinal plant resources and diversity collected from the fourth Chinese traditional medicine resource survey( pilot). Through the analysis of relevant data from 33 census pioneer plots in Guizhou province( area),a total of 265 families,1 432 genera and 5 296 species of medicinal resources were reported,including algae,fungi,lichens,mosses,a total of 43 genera and 35 families,57,48 families,120 genera and 453 species of ferns,gymnosperms 11 families,22 genera and 61 species,167 families,1 243 genera and 4 721 species of angiosperms,4 genera and 4 families four medicinal animals.Compared with the data related to the third survey of traditional Chinese medicine resources,the number of ferns,gymnosperms and angiosperms in the fourth survey has increased far more than that of the third survey. From the regional distribution of medicinal resources,the composition of the genus,the type of life,and the location of the medicine,the richness of the medicinal plant resources in Guizhou province is not only reflected in many types,but also in the variety of medicinal resources. These studies provide a scientific basis for vigorously developing the Chinese herbal medicine industry and the sustainably using medicinal plant resources in Guizhou province.


Subject(s)
China , Cycadopsida , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Ferns , Magnoliopsida , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plants, Medicinal , Classification
11.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(4): 714-722, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974304

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Carnivorous plant species, such as Utricularia spp., capture and digest prey. This digestion can occur through the secretion of plant digestive enzymes and/or by bacterial digestive enzymes. To comprehend the physiological mechanisms of carnivorous plants, it is essential to understand the microbial diversity related to these plants. Therefore, in the present study, we isolated and classified bacteria from different organs of Utricularia breviscapa (stolons and utricles) and from different geographic locations (São Paulo and Mato Grosso). We were able to build the first bacterium collection for U. breviscapa and study the diversity of cultivable bacteria. The results show that U. breviscapa bacterial diversity varied according to the geographic isolation site (São Paulo and Mato Grosso) but not the analyzed organs (utricle and stolon). We reported that six genera were common to both sample sites (São Paulo and Mato Grosso). These genera have previously been reported to be beneficial to plants, as well as related to the bioremediation process, showing that these isolates present great biotechnological and agricultural potential. This is the first report of an Acidobacteria isolated from U. breviscapa. The role of these bacteria inside the plant must be further investigated in order to understand their population dynamics within the host.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/isolation & purification , Magnoliopsida/microbiology , Biodiversity , Phylogeny , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/growth & development , Bacteria/genetics , Brazil , Floods
12.
Mem. Inst. Invest. Cienc. Salud (Impr.) ; 16(2): 6-11, Ago. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-997945

ABSTRACT

Un gran número de especies vegetales son utilizados con fines medicinales para tratar diferentes patologías y entre ellas la diabetes que en el 2015 presentaba la mayor carga económica a los países de América Latina y el Caribe. A su vez, para la OMS, el uso de las plantas medicinales constituye una terapia más natural, más inocua, efectiva, de un costo racional y asequible a las poblaciones, por ende, para establecer su uso seguro es necesaria su correcta identificación. El objetivo del estudio fue describir las plantas medicinales y fitoterápicos empleadas por pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2, para lo cual se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transverso, que incluyó a 41 pacientes registrados en el Programa Nacional de Diabetes por consulta regular en enero del 2015. Más de la mitad de la población manifestó consumir algún tipo de planta medicinal para el tratamiento de la diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Las plantas medicinales mayormente utilizadas mencionadas por los pacientes fueron: Jaguareté po (Jungia floribunda Less.), Ajenjo (Artemisia absinthium L.), Moringa (Moringa oleífera L.), e Insulina (Cissus verticillata (L.) Nicolson & C. E. Jarvis). El número promedio de plantas consumidas por paciente fue 3. A través de este tipo de estudios se puede describir las plantas medicinales y/o fitorerápicos, generar nuevas informaciones, y de esta forma promover el uso más racional de los mismos(AU)


A large number of plant species are used for medicinal purposes to treat different pathologies, including diabetes, which in 2015 presented the greatest economic burden in the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. In turn, WHO considers the use of medicinal plants a more natural, more innocuous, effective therapy, of rational cost and affordable to the populations. Therefore, to establish the safe use it is necessary the correct identification. The objective of the study was to describe the medicinal plants and / or phytotherapic compounds used by patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. For this descriptive cross sectional study, 41 patients registered in the National Diabetes Program who attended regular consultation in January, 2015 were included. More than half of the sample reported use of some type of medicinal plants for the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2. The medicinal plants mostly used mentioned by the patients were: Jaguareté po (Jungia floribunda Less.), Wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L.), Moringa (Moringa oleifera L.), and Insulin (Cissus verticillata (L.) Nicolson & CE Jarvis). The average number of plants consumed per patient was three. Through this type of studies, medicinal plants and phytotherapic compounds can be described, new information generated and thus promote a more rational use(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Plants, Medicinal , Magnoliopsida , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Phytotherapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Phytotherapeutic Drugs
13.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1): 325-332, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886914

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT We aimed to evaluate the frequency of bee pollen production, its botanical origin and chemical composition when collected in different seasons. Our results indicate that higher proteins (22.80 ± 3.09%) and flavonoids (2789.87 ± 1396.00 μg 100g-1) levels were obtained in the winter season, which also showed greater pollen production (134.50 ± 35.70 grams) and predominance of the Myrtaceae family. As for spring we found high concentrations of lipids (4.62 ± 2.26%) and low ash content (2.22 ± 0.39%). Regarding the amino acid composition and vitamin C content, we found no differences between the averages throughout the seasons. Our results highlight the importance of understanding not only the botanical origin and the chemical composition of bee pollen, but also the harvesting frequency of this product by bees, so that it becomes possible to supplement the colonies in times of natural food resources shortage.


Subject(s)
Animals , Pollen/physiology , Pollen/chemistry , Seasons , Bees/physiology , Magnoliopsida/physiology , Pollen/classification , Ascorbic Acid/analysis , Reference Values , Flavonoids/analysis , Proteins/analysis , Analysis of Variance , Amino Acids/analysis , Lipids/analysis , Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
14.
Bauru; s.n; 2018. 132 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-906807

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial and anti-caries effects of two plant extracts. The first chapter dealt with a review of the literature whose objective was to discuss the antimicrobial potential of Brazilian natural agents on the biofilm related to dental caries and gingivitis/periodontal disease. The research of the articles was carried out using PubMed. We found a total of 23 papers. Most of the studies were performed using planktonic microorganisms or under clinical trials. Nineteen articles were focused on cariogenic bacteria. From these nineteen articles, eleven were also about periodontopathogenic bacteria. Four studies addressed only periodontopathogenic bacteria. The most tested Brazilian natural agents were green propolis, essential oils of Lippia sidoides and Copaifera sp. Most of the tested agents showed similar results when compared to positive control (essential oils and extracts) or better effect than negative control (green propolis). More studies involving protocols closer to the clinical condition and the use of response variables that allows understanding the mechanism of action of natural agents are necessary before the incorporation of these natural agents into dental products. The second chapter aimed to test the effect of the hydroalcoholic extracts of Myracrodruon urundeuva All. and Qualea grandiflora Mart. leaves on the viability of the microcosm biofilm and on the prevention of enamel demineralization. The microcosm biofilm was produced on bovine enamel, using human saliva pool mixed with McBain saliva (0.2% sucrose) for 14 days. The biofilm was treated daily with the extracts for 1 min. M. urundeuva at 100, 10 and 0.1 µg/ml and Q. grandiflora at 100 and 0.1 µg/ml reduced cell viability similarly to the positive control and significantly more than negative control. M. urundeuva at 1000, 100 and 0.1 µg/ml were able to reduce the counting formation unit-CFU counting of lactobacilli sp. and Streptococcus mutans, while Q. grandiflora at 1000 and 1.0 µg/ml significantly reduced the S. mutans CFU counting. On the other hand, the natural extracts did not reduce the production of extracellular polyssacharides, lactic acid and the development of enamel caries lesions. The third chapter aimed to evaluate the effect of hydroalcoholic extracts of M. urundeuva and Q. grandiflora (alone or combined) on the viability of S. mutans biofilm and the prevention of enamel demineralization. S. mutans strain (ATCC 21175) was reactivated in BHI broth. Minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal concentration, minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration and minimum biofilm eradication concentration were determined to choose the concentrations to be tested under the biofilm model. S. mutans biofilm (5x105 CFU/ml) was produced on bovine enamel using McBain saliva with 0.2% sucrose for 3 days. The biofilm was treated daily with the extracts for 1 min. M. urundeuva (isolated or combined) at concentrations equal or higher than 0.625 mg/ml was able to reduce the bacteria viability, whereas Q. grandiflora extract alone showed antimicrobial effect at 5 mg/ml only (p<0.05). On the other hand, none of the extracts was able to reduce the development of enamel caries lesions. Despite the tested natural extracts have antimicrobial effect; they are unable to prevent caries in enamel.(AU)


O objetivo foi avaliar os efeitos antimicrobiano e anti-cárie de dois extratos de plantas. O primeiro capítulo se referiu a uma revisão da literatura cujo objetivo foi discutir o potencial antimicrobiano dos agentes naturais brasileiros sobre o biofilme relacionado à cárie dentária e à gengivite/doença periodontal. A pesquisa dos artigos foi realizada usando o PubMed. Foram encontrados 23 trabalhos. A maioria dos estudos foi realizada utilizando microorganismos na fase planctônica ou ensaios clínicos. Dezenove artigos foram focados em bactérias cariogênicas. Dos dezenove artigos, onze também eram sobre bactérias periodontopatogênicas. Quatro estudos abordaram apenas bactérias periodontopatogênicas. Os agentes naturais brasileiros mais testados foram própolis verde, óleos essenciais de Lippia sidoides e Copaifera sp. Os agentes testados apresentaram resultados similares quando comparados ao controle positivo (óleos essenciais e extratos) ou melhor efeito que o controle negativo (própolis verde). Mais estudos próximos da condição clínica e o uso de variáveis de resposta que permitam entender o mecanismo de ação são necessários, para permitir a incorporação desses agentes naturais em produtos odontológicos. O segundo capítulo teve como objetivo testar o efeito dos extratos hidroalcoólicos de Myracrodruon urundeuva All. e Qualea grandiflora Mart. sobre a viabilidade do biofilme microcosmo e na prevenção da desmineralização do esmalte. O biofilme microcosmo foi produzido em esmalte bovino, utilizando pool de saliva humana misturada à saliva de McBain (0,2% de sacarose) durante 14 dias. O biofilme foi tratado diariamente com os extratos durante 1 min. M. urundeuva a 100, 10 e 0,1 µg/ml e Q. grandiflora a 100 e 0,1 µg/ml reduziram a viabilidade dos microrganismos de forma semelhante ao controle positivo e significativamente maior do que o controle negativo. M. urundeuva a 1000, 100 e 0,1 µg/ml foi capaz de reduzir a contagem de Unidade formadora de colônia-UFC para Lactobacilos totais e Streptococcus mutans, enquanto a Q. grandiflora a 1000 e 1,0 µg/ml reduziu significativamente a contagem de UFC para S. mutans. Os extratos naturais não conseguiram reduzir a produção de polissacarídeos extracelulares-PEC, ácido lático e o desenvolvimento da lesão cariosa em esmalte. O terceiro capítulo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito dos extratos hidroalcoólicos de M. urundeuva. e Q. grandiflora (sozinhos ou combinados) sobre a viabilidade do biofilme de S. mutans e na prevenção da desmineralização do esmalte. Cepa de S. mutans (ATCC 21175) foi reativada em caldo BHI. Concentração inibitória mínima, concentração bactericida mínima, concentração inibitória mínima de biofilme e concentração de erradicação mínima de biofilme foram determinadas para escolher as concentrações a serem testadas sob o modelo de biofilme. O biofilme de S. mutans (5x105 CFU/ml) foi produzido em esmalte bovino, utilizando saliva de McBain com 0,2% de sacarose durante 3 dias. O biofilme foi tratado diariamente com os extratos durante 1 min. M. urundeuva (isolada ou combinada) nas concentrações iguais ou superiores a 0,625 mg/ml foi capaz de reduzir a viabilidade das bactérias, enquanto que o extrato da Q. grandflora apresentou efeito antimicrobiano somente a 5 mg/ml (p<0,05). Nenhum dos extratos reduziu o desenvolvimento da lesão da cárie. Apesar dos extratos naturais terem efeito antimicrobiano, são incapazes de prevenir o desenvolvimento da lesão cariosa em esmalte.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Cattle , Anacardiaceae/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Biofilms/drug effects , Dental Enamel/microbiology , Magnoliopsida/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Tooth Demineralization/prevention & control , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Microradiography , Reproducibility of Results , Saliva/microbiology , Streptococcus mutans/drug effects , Streptococcus mutans/growth & development , Time Factors
15.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 192-198, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-691071

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>The current study was designed to evaluate the various antioxidant potentials and inhibitory effects of phenolic-rich leaf extracts of Bridelia ferruginea (BF) on the in vitro activities of some key enzymes involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>In this study, BF leaf free and bound phenolic-rich extracts were used. We quantified total phenolic and flavonoid contents, and evaluated several antioxidant activities using assays for ferric reducing antioxidant power, total antioxidant activity (phosphomolybdenum reducing ability), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and thiobarbituric acid reactive species. Also, extracts were tested for their ability to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The total phenolic and total flavonoid contents in the free phenolic extract of BF were significantly greater than in the bound phenolic extract. Also, all the antioxidant activities considered were significantly greater in the free phenolic extract than in the bound phenolic extract. In the same vein, the free phenolic-rich extract had a significantly higher percentage inhibition against α-glucosidase activity (IC = 28.5 µg/mL) than the bound phenolic extract (IC = 340.0 µg/mL). On the contrary, the free phenolic extract (IC = 210.0 µg/mL) had significantly lower inhibition against α-amylase than the bound phenolic-rich extract (IC = 190.0 µg/mL).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The phenolic-rich extracts of BF leaves showed antioxidant potentials and inhibited two key carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes in vitro.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Metabolism , Enzyme Inhibitors , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Glycoside Hydrolase Inhibitors , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Humans , Iron , Magnoliopsida , Chemistry , Oxidative Stress , Pancreas , Metabolism , Phenols , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Rats , Swine , alpha-Amylases , Chemistry , alpha-Glucosidases , Chemistry
16.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 263-272, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-691065

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVES</b>The aim of this study is to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of Lasianthera africana (Icacinaceae) against isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RIF)-induced liver damage in rats.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The hepatoprotective effects of hot aqueous L. africana (HALA) leaf extract (0.1-1 g/kg) and silymarin (50 mg/kg) were assessed in a model of oxidative liver damage induced by RIF and INH (100 mg/kg each) in Wistar rats for 28 days. Biochemical markers of hepatic damage such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were assessed. The antioxidant statuses of plasma glutathione peroxidase (GSPx), glutathione reductase (GSH), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid peroxidation were evaluated.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The pretreatment of INH and RIF decreased hematological indices and the antioxidant levels (P < 0.001) and increased the levels of liver marker enzymes (P < 0.001). However, pretreatment with HALA extract and silymarin provoked significant elevation of hematological indices. The levels of AST, ALT, and ALP were depressed (P < 0.001). Total triglycerides, total cholesterol, total bilirubin and low-density lipoprotein were decreased (P < 0.001). However, high-density lipoprotein, bicarbonate, and electrolytes like chloride and potassium were elevated (P < 0.001), but sodium was depressed (P < 0.05). Additionally, GSH, GSPx, SOD and CAT were elevated (P < 0.01) and malondialdehyde was depressed (P < 0.001) when compared to the RIF-INH-treated rats. Histopathological evaluations support hepatoprotective activity.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>This study demonstrated that HALA leaf extract attenuated RIF-INH-induced hepatotoxicity. L. africana could be exploited in management of RIF-INH-induced hepatitis.</p>


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase , Metabolism , Animals , Antibiotics, Antitubercular , Toxicity , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Metabolism , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Cholesterol , Metabolism , Female , Glutathione , Metabolism , Humans , Isoniazid , Toxicity , Liver , Magnoliopsida , Chemistry , Male , Malondialdehyde , Metabolism , Plant Extracts , Plant Leaves , Chemistry , Rats, Wistar , Rifampin , Toxicity , Superoxide Dismutase , Metabolism
17.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 358-366, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-691054

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>Myanmar has a long history of using medicinal plants for treatment of various diseases. To the best of our knowledge there are no previous reports on antiglycation activities of medicinal plants from Myanmar. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidant, antiglycation and antimicrobial properties of 20 ethanolic extracts from 17 medicinal plants indigenous to Myanmar.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>In vitro scavenging assays of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO), superoxide (SO) radicals were used to determine the antioxidant activities. Folin-Ciocalteu's method was performed to determine the total phenolic content. Antiglycation and antimicrobial activities were detected by bovine serum albumin-fluorescent assay and agar well diffusion method.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Terminalia chebula Retz. (Fruit), containing the highest total phenolic content, showed high antioxidant activities with inhibition of 77.98% ± 0.92%, 88.95% ± 2.42%, 88.56% ± 1.87% and 70.74%± 2.57% for DPPH, NO, SO assays and antiglycation activity respectively. It also showed the antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans with inhibition zone of 19, 18, 17, 25 and 15 mm, respectively. Garcinia mangostana Linn. showed the strongest activities for SO and antiglycation assays with inhibition of 93.68% ± 2.63% and 82.37% ± 1.78%. Bark of Melia sp. was the best NO radical scavenger with inhibition rate of 89.39%± 0.60%.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The results suggest that these plants are potential sources of antioxidants with free radical-scavenging and antiglycation activities and could be useful for decreasing the oxidative stress and glycation end-product formation in glycation-related diseases.</p>


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents , Pharmacology , Antioxidants , Pharmacology , Bacteria , Biphenyl Compounds , Metabolism , Candida albicans , Fruit , Garcinia , Chemistry , Glycation End Products, Advanced , Metabolism , Humans , Magnoliopsida , Chemistry , Medicine, Traditional , Melia , Chemistry , Myanmar , Nitric Oxide , Metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Phenols , Pharmacology , Phytotherapy , Picrates , Metabolism , Plant Bark , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal , Superoxides , Terminalia , Chemistry
19.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 30: 6-11, nov. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1021043

ABSTRACT

Background: Penthorum chinense Pursh (P. chinense) is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) plant, which has long been used for the prevention and treatment of hepatic diseases. This study aimed to genetically characterize the varieties of P. chinense from different geographic localities of China by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR technique and verified with inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. Results: The P. chinense samples were collected from nine different geographic localities. Previously improved RAPD and ISSR markers were utilized for genetic analysis using DNA amplification. The genetic relationship dendrogram was obtained by conducting cluster analysis to the similarity coefficient of improved RAPD and ISSR markers. Improved RAPD yielded 185 scorable amplified products, of which 68.6% of the bands were polymorphic, with an average amplification of 9.25 bands per primer. The ISSR markers revealed 156 alleles with 7.8 bands per primers, where 59.7% bands were polymorphic. Furthermore, the similarity coefficient ranges of RAPD and ISSR markers were 0.71­0.91 and 0.66­0.89, respectively. Conclusions: This study indicated that improved RAPD and ISSR methods are useful tools for evaluating the genetic diversity and characterizing P. chinense. Our findings can provide the theoretical basis for cultivar identification, standardization, and molecular-assisted breeding of P. chinense for medicinal use.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal/genetics , Magnoliopsida/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Genetic Variation , Genetic Markers , China , DNA, Plant/genetics , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique , Microsatellite Repeats , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
20.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(10): 692-697, Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894841

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Endophytic fungi, present mainly in the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota phyla, are associated with different plants and represent important producers of bioactive natural products. Brazil has a rich biodiversity of plant species, including those reported as being endemic. Among the endemic Brazilian plant species, Vellozia gigantea (Velloziaceae) is threatened by extinction and is a promising target to recover endophytic fungi. OBJECTIVE The present study focused on bioprospecting of bioactive compounds of the endophytic fungi associated with V. gigantea, an endemic, ancient, and endangered plant species that occurs only in the rupestrian grasslands of Brazil. METHODS The capability of 285 fungal isolates to produce antimicrobial and antimalarial activities was examined. Fungi were grown at solid-state fermentation to recover their crude extracts in dichloromethane. Bioactive extracts were analysed by chromatographic fractionation and NMR and displayed compounds with antimicrobial, antimycobacterial, and antimalarial activities. FINDINGS Five fungi produced antimicrobial and antimalarial compounds. Extracts of Diaporthe miriciae showed antifungal, antibacterial, and antimalarial activities; Trichoderma effusum displayed selective antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium intracellulare; and three Penicillium species showed antibacterial activity. D. miriciae extract contained highly functionalised secondary metabolites, yielding the compound epoxycytochalasin H with high antimalarial activity against the chloroquine-resistant strain of Plasmodium falciparum, with an IC50 approximately 3.5-fold lower than that with chloroquine. MAIN CONCLUSION Our results indicate that V. gigantea may represent a microhabitat repository hotspot of potential fungi producers of bioactive compounds and suggest that endophytic fungal communities might be an important biological component contributing to the fitness of the plants living in the rupestrian grassland.


Subject(s)
Plasmodium/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Magnoliopsida/classification , Magnoliopsida/microbiology , Mitosporic Fungi/drug effects , Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/isolation & purification , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/isolation & purification , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Antimalarials/isolation & purification , Antimalarials/pharmacology , Tropical Climate , Biological Assay , Candida/drug effects , Endophytes/chemistry
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