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1.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(9): 4263-4274, set. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339602

ABSTRACT

Abstract Due to intense ongoing urbanization in the Amazon, the urban pattern of malaria may be changing, both in its spatial distribution and epidemiological profile. The purpose of this paper is to analyze how the process of production of urban space in Porto Velho, the capital of the state of Rondonia, Brazil has contributed to the occurrence and maintenance of urban malaria. Using data collected from the Malaria Epidemiological Surveillance System (SIVEP-Malaria), we calculated malaria indices for the districts of Porto Velho from 2005 to 2018. We also developed two typologies for classifying urban space based on functional characteristics and features of the landscape. While the former considers characteristics of urban space in Porto Velho, the latter is based on suitability for malaria vectors. We found that the annual parasite index declined in Porto Velho during the study period. However, changes in the index were not uniform across the districts of the city. Periurban areas showed no decline in the index, which we attribute to these areas' high vegetation density and hydrological characteristics.


Resumo A Amazônia tem passado por um intenso processo de urbanização em anos recentes, produzindo transformações na organização espacial da região que podem estar refletindo no padrão espaço temporal da malária urbana. O objetivo deste trabalho é compreender como o processo de produção do espaço urbano do município de Porto Velho-RO, tem corroborado para a ocorrência e manutenção da malária urbana. Os dados levantados no Sistema de Vigilância Epidemiológica (SIVEP-Malária) possibilitaram o cálculo do Índice Parasitário Anual (IPA) de malária para os bairros da cidade de Porto Velho dos anos de 2005 a 2018 e a construção de duas tipologias da paisagem do espaço urbano. A primeira considerou o processo de produção do espaço urbano de Porto Velho; a segunda se baseou nas condições de receptividade para o vetor da malária. A ocorrência da malária em Porto Velho vem declinando de forma diferenciada ao longo do território, havendo uma tendência de permanência nas áreas periurbanas com maior densidade de vegetação e hidrografia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Malaria/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Cities/epidemiology
2.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 53(2): 187-191, 20210630.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352855

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malaria
3.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(supl.1): 100-112, mayo 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285452

ABSTRACT

Abstract | Introduction: Malaria is a vector-borne disease widely distributed in the Amazon region and the coastal area of northern Ecuador. Its epidemiology involves related factors such as human settlements, vector reproduction sites, mobility, productive activity, and the response capacity of health systems, among others. Objective: To describe malaria transmission by Plasmodium vivax in a non-endemic area of Ecuador by analyzing the epidemiological and entomological factors involved. Materials and methods: We conducted the epidemiological study of the cases reported in the Salinas canton and the characterization of vector breeding sites through captures of larvae and adult mosquitoes by human capture of resting mosquitoes. Results: We detected 21 cases of malaria with local transmission related to the presence of initial cases in Venezuelan migrant patients and identified Anopheles albimanus as the predominant vector in natural breeding sites such as estuaries, wells, and water channels. Conclusions: We detected an outbreak of malaria triggered by imported cases from Venezuela. Climatic, social, environmental, and ecological conditions have favored the development of the vector maintaining the transmission cycle. Strategies to control imported malaria should be multiple including early case detection and control of productive breeding sites to avoid local transmission.


Resumen | Introducción. La malaria o paludismo es una enfermedad transmitida por vectores, ampliamente distribuida en la región amazónica y en la zona costera del norte del Ecuador. Su epidemiología involucra factores relacionados, como asentamientos humanos, sitios de reproducción del vector, movilidad, actividad productiva y capacidad de respuesta de los sistemas de salud, entre otros.Objetivo. Describir la transmisión de malaria por Plasmodium vivax en un área no endémica de Ecuador, mediante el análisis de los factores epidemiológicos y entomológicos involucrados. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo el estudio epidemiológico de los casos reportados en el cantón de Salinas y la caracterización de criaderos del vector con capturas de larvas y adultos mediante la captura de mosquitos en reposo. Resultados. Se detectaron 21 casos de malaria con transmisión local relacionados con la presencia de casos iniciales importados de Venezuela. Se identificó Anopheles albimanuscomo el vector predominante en criaderos naturales como estuarios, pozos y canales de agua. Conclusiones. Se detectó un brote de malaria desencadenado por casos importados de Venezuela. Las condiciones climáticas, sociales, ambientales y ecológicas han favorecido el desarrollo del vector, manteniendo el ciclo de transmisión. Las estrategias para controlar la malaria importada deben ser multifacéticas, e incluir la detección temprana de casos y el control de criaderos productivos para evitar la transmisión local.


Subject(s)
Malaria/epidemiology , Plasmodium vivax , Transients and Migrants , Disease Outbreaks
4.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(supl.1): 121-130, mayo 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285454

ABSTRACT

Resumen | Introducción. La malaria representa uno de los mayores desafíos de salud pública, principalmente en los países pobres. Ciertas características sociales de Colombia, como la migración, el trabajo informal y la escasez económica, favorecen la minería ilegal. El análisis de la situación de la malaria en estas áreas permite establecer una guía para la prevención, el control y el tratamiento de la enfermedad en los programas de salud pública existentes. Objetivo. Describir la situación de la malaria en las poblaciones mineras colombianas entre el 2012 y el 2018. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo que incluyó la creación de gráficos y mapas. Para el análisis estadístico se utilizaron la correlación de Pearson y el índice de Moran. Resultados. Entre el 2012 y el 2018, se notificaron 44.032 casos de malaria en la población minera, 43.900 de malaria no complicada y 132 de malaria complicada, así como tres muertes, dos por Plasmodium vivax y una por infección mixta. Hubo una disminución del 44,7 % de los casos en el período evaluado. La tasa de riesgo en el 2012 fue de 2,5 casos por 1.000 habitantes; el 87,3 % de los casos se presentó en hombres y el 37,9 % en personas entre los 20 y los 29 años, en tanto que el 46,7 % de la población estudiada estaba conformada por afrocolombianos. Se encontró una posible correlación lineal positiva moderada entre mayor la actividad minera, mayor el número de casos de malaria en mineros. El índice de Moran global evidenció una agrupación espacial significativa de los casos de malaria en zonas con industria minera en los municipios del Pacífico colombiano. Conclusiones. La disminución en la notificación de casos durante el período evaluado podría atribuirse a un subregistro del Sistema de Vigilancia en Salud Pública (Sivigila), ya que la mayoría de los mineros no tienen trabajos formales, lo que dificulta su acceso a los servicios de salud. Se recomienda un estudio de cohorte en áreas endémicas para establecer una relación directa entre la explotación minera y la presencia de casos de malaria.


Abstract | Introduction: Malaria represents one of the biggest public health challenges, mainly in poor countries. Colombia has social characteristics such as migration, informal work, and economic shortages that favor illegal mining activities. The study of the malaria situation in these areas would allow establishing the bases for its prevention, control, and treatment in the existing public health programs. Objective: To describe the malaria situation in Colombian mining populations between 2012 and 2018. Materials and methods. We conducted a retrospective descriptive study with graphs and maps. For the statistical analysis, we used Pearson's correlation and Moran's index. Results. From 2012 to 2018, 44,032 cases of malaria were reported in the mining population, 43,900 of uncomplicated malaria and 132 of complicated malaria, and three deaths, two due to Plasmodium vivax and one due to mixed infection. During this period, there was a decrease of 44.7% in cases. The risk rate in 2012 was 2.5 cases x 1000 inhabitants; 87.3% of cases were in men, and 37.9% corresponded to the 20 to 29-year-old age group while 46.7% were AfroColombians. We found a possible moderate positive linear correlation: The greater the mining activity, the greater the number of malaria cases. The global Moran index indicated a significant spatial grouping of cases in mining activities in Colombian Pacific municipalities. Conclusions. The case notification decrease during this period could be attributed to an underreporting of the public health surveillance system (Sivigila) system, as most miners do not have formal jobs, which prevents them from accessing health services. A cohort study is recommended in endemic areas to establish a direct relationship between mining exploitation and the occurrence of malaria cases.


Subject(s)
Malaria , Mining , Colombia , Public Health Surveillance , Vector Borne Diseases
5.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 73(1): e604, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1280331

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El paludismo es una enfermedad febril aguda potencialmente mortal causada por parásitos que se transmiten al ser humano por la picadura de mosquitos del género Anopheles. De los 214 millones de casos de paludismo registrados en 2016, la mayoría de ellos se producen en niños menores de cinco años en África subsahariana. La mortalidad está dada por la presencia de sus complicaciones que deben ser detectadas y tratadas precozmente. Objetivo: Identificar la presencia de signos de alarma, y determinar su relación con otras variables clínicas y de laboratorio. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de 47 pacientes adultos con paludismo por Plasmodium falciparum importado, ingresados en el Departamento de Medicina del Instituto de Medicina Tropical Pedro Kourí, desde enero de 2016 a diciembre de 2018. Los datos fueron procesados en una base de datos en Microsoft Excel y luego analizados en el programa estadístico SPSS 11,5. Resultados: Predominaron los pacientes del sexo masculino, con una media de edad de 35,9 años. Fue significativa la relación existente entre los signos de alarma y la severidad del cuadro clínico, la hiperparasitemia, el supuesto estado no inmune de los pacientes, trombocitopenia y la demora en el ingreso. La respuesta al tratamiento es excelente con los esquemas combinados utilizados a base de quinina. Conclusiones: Los signos de alarma, dentro de los cuales podemos incluir la trombocitopenia, constituyen elementos importantes para poder prevenir futuras complicaciones(AU)


Introduction: Malaria is an acute potentially fatal febrile disease caused by parasites transmitted to humans through the bite of mosquitoes from the genus Anopheles. Most of the 214 million malaria cases reported in the year 2016 were children aged under five years from Sub-Saharan Africa. Mortality is due to the presence of complications which should be detected and treated timely. Objective: Identify the presence of warning signs and determine their relationship to other clinical and laboratory variables. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted of 47 adult patients with imported Plasmodium falciparum malaria admitted to the Medicine Department of Pedro Kourí Tropical Medicine Institute from January 2016 to December 2018. The data obtained were processed in a Microsoft Excel database and then analyzed with the statistical software SPSS 11.5. Results: Male patients prevailed, with a mean age of 35.9 years. A significant relationship was found between warning signs and severity of the clinical status, hyperparasitemia, the supposed non-immune status of patients, thrombocytopenia and admission delay. An excellent response was obtained to treatment with combined quinine-based schemes. Conclusions: Warning signs, among them thrombocytopenia, are important to prevent future complications(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Malaria/complications , Malaria/diagnosis , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Malaria/prevention & control
6.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 25(1): 53-59, jan-abr. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151416

ABSTRACT

O referido trabalho tem como objetivo analisar e avaliar a atual conjuntura das pesquisas científicas na busca da imunização eficaz contra a malária, destacando os principais mecanismos imunológicos e moleculares subjacentes à referida proteção, bem como, as perspectivas a curto e médio prazo. O presente estudo de revisão selecionou pesquisas nas bases de dados da Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (Medline), National Library of Medicine (Pubmed), Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), Web of Science e Scopus. Foram combinados os termos Malaria, Immunization, Vaccine and Epidemiology, com seus sinônimos remissivos e outros descritores associados, no período compreendido entre janeiro e julho de 2019. Como fator preponderante dos critérios de inclusão, foram selecionadas revisões sistemáticas com ou sem metanálise, publicadas nos últimos 5 anos, que discorressem detalhadamente sobre o tema, ou que apresentassem informações estatísticas ou históricas relevantes, relacionada ao tema. Como critérios de exclusão foram considerados: materiais literários e científicos, anteriores ao período de 2014 e que não apresentassem informações estatísticas ou histórica relevantes ao tema, ou que, não se adequassem à temática da pesquisa. Após a aplicação dos critérios de inclusão e exclusão, foi realizada a análise e seleção dos artigos. Dos 451 artigos identificados, 44 foram selecionados. As informações extraídas dos referidos trabalhos convergem no sentido de que a erradicação da malária é uma tarefa demasiadamente complexa, a qual não será alcançada com as vacinas atuais, havendo necessidade do desenvolvimento de ferramentas imunizadoras de maior eficácia. Apesar dos esforços, atualmente ainda não existe uma vacina eficaz na prevenção da infecção, mas vários estudos se encontram em andamento nessa vertente, tornando promissor o surgimento de uma vacina eficaz contra o parasita.


This study aims at analyzing and evaluating the current status of scientific research in the search for effective immunization against malaria, highlighting the key immunological and molecular mechanisms of such protection and the short- and medium-term perspectives. The search and selection of studies took place in the databases of the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (Medline); National Library of Medicine (Pubmed); Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO); Web of Science; and Scopus. The terms Malaria, Immunization, Vaccine, and Epidemiology were used, with their corresponding cross-referenced synonyms and other associated descriptors, including the period from January to July 2019. As a main factor in the inclusion criteria, systematic reviews with or without meta-analysis published in the last 5 years, presenting a detailed discourse about the topic, or relevant statistical or historical information related to the topic were selected. The following exclusion criteria were considered: literary and scientific materials, prior to 2014, and without statistical or historical information relevant to the theme, or which did not fit the research theme. After applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, the articles were analyzed and selected. From a total of 451 identified articles, 44 were selected. The information extracted from the referred studies converge in the sense that malaria eradication is an overly complex task, which will not be achieved with the current vaccines, requiring the development of more effective immunizing tools. Despite all the efforts, there is no effective vaccine for preventing infection yet, but several studies are being developed in this area, making the emergence of an effective vaccine against the disease promising.


Subject(s)
Immunization , Malaria/immunology , Parasites , Protozoan Infections/prevention & control , Vaccines/immunology , Epidemiology/statistics & numerical data , Sporozoites/immunology , Infections/epidemiology
7.
Rev. epidemiol. controle infecç ; 11(1): 40-45, jan.-mar. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362217

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Nutrition, in addition to its physiological function, plays an important role in the recovery of individuals with malaria, a disease that still represents a serious public health problem in the world. The objective of this study was to assess nutritional determinants in the frequency of food intake and the occurrence of anemia in children and adolescents with P. vivax malaria. Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was carried out between 2014 and 2015 in the Marajo Island. The hemoglobin level was measured by the colorimetric enzymatic reaction and a questionnaire of food intake frequency was used to assess the consumption of different types of food. Results: A total of 67 patients met the inclusion criteria, from which 62.7% were children and 37.3% were adolescents. There was a high consumption of ultra-processed foods in both age groups. Anemia occurred in 52.2% of patients, and in most of them it was moderate. There was no significant association between anemia and sex, age group or parasitemia at admission. However a significant association was found between anemia and the ingestion of ultra-processed foods. Conclusion: The ingestion of ultra-processed foods contributes to anemia in children and adolescent with malaria by P. vivax.(AU)


Justificativa e Objetivos: A nutrição, além de sua função fisiológica, desempenha um papel importante na recuperação de indivíduos com malária, uma doença que ainda representa um grave problema de saúde pública no mundo. O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar os determinantes nutricionais na frequência da ingestão alimentar e a ocorrência de anemia em crianças e adolescentes com malária por P. vivax. Métodos: Estudo transversal analítico, realizado entre 2014 e 2015 na ilha do Marajó. O nível de hemoglobina foi medido pela reação enzimática colorimétrica e um questionário de frequência de ingestão alimentar foi utilizado para avaliar o consumo de alimentos. Resultados: Um total de 67 pacientes atendeu aos critérios de inclusão do estudo, dos quais 62,7% eram crianças e 37,3% adolescentes. Houve alto consumo de alimentos ultraprocessados em ambas as faixas etárias. A anemia foi detectada em 52,2% dos pacientes e, na maioria deles, foi moderada. Não houve associação significativa entre anemia e sexo, faixa etária ou parasitemia na admissão. No entanto, encontramos uma associação significativa entre presença de anemia e ingestão de alimentos ultraprocessados. Conclusão: A ingestão de alimentos ultraprocessados contribui para a anemia em crianças e adolescentes com malária por P. vivax.(AU)


Justificación y objetivos: La nutrición, además de su función fisiológica, juega un papel importante en la recuperación de las personas con malaria, una enfermedad que todavía representa un importante problema de salud pública en el mundo. El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar los determinantes nutricionales en la frecuencia del consumo de alimentos y la ocurrencia de anemia en niños y adolescentes con malaria por P. vivax. Métodos: se realizó un estudio analítico transversal entre 2014 y 2015, en la Isla de Marajó. El nivel de hemoglobina fue evaluado por ensayos enzimáticos colorimétricos y se utilizó un cuestionario de frecuencia de consumo de alimentos para evaluar el consumo. Resultados: Un total de 67 pacientes cumplió los criterios de inclusión en el estudio, de los cuales el 62,7% eran niños y el 37,3% adolescentes. Se registró un alto consumo de alimentos ultraprocesados en niños y adolescentes. La anemia se detectó en el 52,2% de los pacientes, de carácter moderada principalmente. No se encontró una asociación significativa entre anemia y sexo, grupo de edad o parasitemia al ingreso. Sin embargo, se encontró una asociación significativa entre la anemia y la ingestión de alimentos ultraprocesados. Conclusión: La ingesta de alimentos ultraprocesados se asocia con la presencia de anemia en niños y adolescentes con malaria por P. vivax.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Plasmodium vivax , Child Nutrition , Anemia , Malaria , Nutritional Status , Eating , Adolescent Nutrition
8.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2021. 117 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349190

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Os testes rápidos para diagnóstico de malária (RDTs) mais usados se baseiam na identificação do antígeno HRP2 de P. falciparum. O antígeno HRP3, também presente no P. falciparum é um análogo estrutural do antígeno HRP2 e por isso pode ter reação cruzada com o HRP2 nesses testes. O antígeno HRP2 é expresso pelo gene pfhrp2, enquanto o antígeno HRP3 é expresso pelo gene pfhrp3. São crescentes os estudos que relatam deleções naturais dos genes pfhrp2 e pfhrp3 em P. falciparum em diversos países endêmicos para malária, inclusive em países que fazem fronteira com o Brasil. No país foi descrita a presença de isolados mutantes circulando na região da Bacia do Rio Amazonas. A confirmação da presença de parasitos com essas deleções em áreas endêmicas do país é fundamental, visto que indivíduos infectados por P. falciparum com deleção dos genes pfhrp2/3 podem apresentar resultados falso negativo no RDT. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a prevalência de deleções dos genes pfhrp2/3 em amostras de pacientes infectados com P. falciparum de área endêmica de malária no Brasil no período de 2003 a 2016, e bem como identificar a população acometida e a diferenciação clínica entre indivíduos infectados por parasitos com deleção e parasitos sem deleção. Métodos: Foram analisadas amostras procedentes do biorrepositório do Laboratório de Doenças Parasitárias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz coletadas no período de 2003 a 2016 no município de Barcelos (AM) de indivíduos sintomáticos e assintomáticos infectados por P. falciparum. O diagnóstico de Plasmodium spp. foi realizado através da detecção do gene 18S de rRNA por PCR. O controle de qualidade do DNA foi realizado pela amplificação de msp1 e msp2. A detecção dos genes pfhrp2 e pfhrp3 foi realizada de acordo com protocolos publicados e bem padronizados pela OMS. Resultados: Foram selecionadas 82 amostras, 28 amostras apresentaram deleção exclusiva do gene pfhrp2, 19, deleção exclusiva do gene pfhrp3 e 15 dupla deleção. Infecção assintomática ocorreu com mais frequência em indivíduos mais velhos e com grande número episódios prévios da doença. A chance de um indivíduo assintomático estar infectado por um parasito com dupla deleção foi maior do que entre os sintomáticos. Conclusão: A alta prevalência de parasitos com deleções de pfhrp2/3 encontrada no município de Barcelos é motivo de preocupação e mostram a necessidade de se implementar um programa de vigilância para monitorar e mapear deleções de pfhrp2/3 nesta área e em outros locais da região amazônica. O padrão clínico pode estar associado às deleções encontradas nos parasitos infectantes.


Introduction: The most used rapid tests for the diagnosis of malaria are based on the identification of the P. falciparum antigen HRP2. The HRP3 antigen, also present in P. falciparum, is a structural analogue of the HRP2 antigen and, therefore, may cross-react with HRP2 in these tests. The HRP2 antigen is expressed by the pfhrp2 gene, while the HRP3 antigen is expressed by the pfhrp3 gene. Studies reporting natural deletions of the pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 genes in P. falciparum are growing in several countries endemic for malaria, including countries bordering Brazil. In the country, the presence of mutant isolates circulating in the Amazon River Basin region has been described. Confirmation of the presence of parasites with these deletions in other endemic areas of the country is fundamental, since individuals infected with P. falciparum with deletion of the pfhrp2/3 genes can present false negative result in the RDT. The objective of this study was to investigate the deletions of the pfhrp2/3 genes in samples from patients infected with P. falciparum in an endemic area for malaria in Brazil from 2003 to 2016, in order to describe the prevalence of the gene (s) ( s) deleted in the studied endemic area; as well as to identify the affected population and the clinical differentiation between individuals infected by parasites with deletion and parasites without deletion. Methods: Samples from the biorepository of the Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute collected from 2003 to 2016 in the municipality of Barcelos (AM) from symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals infected with P. falciparum were analyzed. The diagnosis of Plasmodium spp. was performed by detecting the 18S rRNA gene by PCR. DNA quality control was performed by amplifying msp1 and msp2. The detection of the pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 genes was carried out according to published protocols and well standardized by the WHO. Results: 82 samples were selected, 28 samples showed exclusive deletion of the pfhrp2 gene, 19, exclusive deletion of the pfhrp3 gene and 15 double deletion. Asymptomatic infection occurred more frequently in older individuals and with a large number of previous episodes of the disease. The chance of an asymptomatic individual being infected by a parasite with double deletion was greater than among symptomatic individuals. Conclusion: The high prevalence of parasites with deletions of fhrp2/3 found in the municipality of Barcelos is a cause for concern and shows the need to implement a surveillance program to monitor and map deletions of pfhrp2 / 3 in this area and elsewhere in the Amazon region. The clinical pattern may be associated with the deletions found in the infectious parasites.


Subject(s)
Parasitic Diseases , Plasmodium falciparum , Prevalence , Genes , Malaria , Antigens
9.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e210207, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346578

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Treatment of mycoses is often ineffective, usually prolonged, and has some side effects. These facts highlight the importance of discovering new molecules to treat fungal infections. OBJECTIVES To search the Medicines for Malaria Venture COVID Box for drugs with antifungal activity. METHODS Fourteen human pathogenic fungi were tested against the 160 drugs of this collection at 1.0 µM concentration. We evaluated the ability of the drugs to impair fungal growth, their fungicidal nature, and morphological changes caused to cells. FINDINGS Thirty-four molecules (21.25%) presented antifungal activity. Seven are antifungal drugs and one is the agricultural fungicide cycloheximide. The other drugs with antifungal activity included antibiotics (n = 3), antimalarials (n = 4), antivirals (n = 2), antiparasitcs (n = 3), antitumor agents (n = 5), nervous system agents (n = 3), immunosuppressants (n = 3), antivomiting (n = 1), antiasthmatic (n = 1), and a genetic disorder agent (n = 1). Several of these drugs inhibited Histoplasma capsulatum and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis growth (15 and 20, respectively), while Fusarium solani was not affected by the drugs tested. Most drugs were fungistatic, but niclosamide presented fungicidal activity against the three dimorphic fungi tested. Cyclosporine affected morphology of Cryptococcus neoformans. MAIN CONCLUSIONS These drugs represent new alternatives to the development of more accessible and effective therapies to treat human fungal infections.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Cryptococcus neoformans , COVID-19 , Malaria/drug therapy , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Drug Repositioning , SARS-CoV-2 , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology
10.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 57: e181086, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350237

ABSTRACT

Malaria is nowadays one of the most serious health concerns in a global scale and, although there is an evident increase in research studies in this area, pointed by the vast number of hits and leads, it still appears as a recurrent topic every year due to the drug resistance shown by the parasite exposing the urgent need to develop new antimalarial medications. In this work, 38 molecules were synthesized via copper(I)-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition (CuAAC) or "click" chemistry, following different routes to produce 2 different organic azides, obtained from a 4,7 dicholoquinoline, reacted with 19 different commercially available terminal alkynes. All those new compounds were evaluated for their in vitro activity against the chloroquine resistant malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (W2). The cytotoxicity evaluation was accomplished using Hep G2 cells and SI index was calculated for every molecule. Some of the quinoline derivatives have shown high antimalarial activity, with IC50 values in the range of 1.72-8.66 µM, low cytotoxicity, with CC50>1000 µM and selectivity index (SI) in the range of 20-100, with some compounds showing SI>800. Therefore, the quinolinotriazole hybrids could be considered a very important step on the development of new antimalarial drugs


Subject(s)
In Vitro Techniques/instrumentation , Chloroquine/administration & dosage , Malaria/drug therapy , Antimalarials/analysis , Plasmodium falciparum/metabolism , Research/classification , Drug Resistance/drug effects , Chimera/abnormalities , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Click Chemistry
11.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e210064, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279459

ABSTRACT

Unforeseen Plasmodium infections in the Atlantic Forest of Brazilian Extra-Amazonian region could jeopardise malaria elimination. A human malaria case was registered in Três Forquilhas, in the Atlantic Forest biome of Rio Grande do Sul, after a 45 years' time-lapsed without any malaria autochthonous notification in this southern Brazilian state. This finding represents the expansion of the malaria distribution areas in Brazil and the southernmost human malaria case record in South America in this decade. The coexistence of the bromeliad-breeding vector Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii and non-human primates in the Atlantic Forest regularly visited by the patient claimed for the zoonotic origin of this infection. The reemergence of Atlantic Forest human malaria in Rio Grande do Sul was also discussed.


Subject(s)
Animals , Malaria/epidemiology , Anopheles , Brazil/epidemiology , Forests , Mosquito Vectors
12.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e05362020, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155593

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), such as artemisinin-piperaquine (AP), dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP), and artemether-lumefantrine (AL), is the first-line treatment for malaria in many malaria-endemic areas. However, we lack a detailed evaluation of the cardiotoxicity of these ACTs. This study aimed to analyze the electrocardiographic effects of these three ACTs in malaria patients. METHODS: We analyzed the clinical data of 89 hospitalized patients with falciparum malaria who had received oral doses of three different ACTs. According to the ACTs administered, these patients were divided into three treatment groups: 27 treated with AP (Artequick), 31 with DP (Artekin), and 31 with AL (Coartem). Electrocardiograms and other indicators were recorded before and after the treatment. The QT interval was calculated using Fridericia's formula (QTcF) and Bazett's formula (QTcB). RESULTS: Both QTcF and QTcB interval prolongation occurred in all three groups. The incidence of such prolongation between the three groups was not significantly different. The incidence of both moderate and severe prolongation was not significantly different between the three groups. The ΔQTcF and ΔQTcB of the three groups were not significantly different. The intra-group comparison showed significant prolongation of QTcF after AL treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Clinically recommended doses of DP, AL, and AP may cause QT prolongation in some malaria patients but do not cause torsades de pointes ventricular tachycardia or other arrhythmias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Malaria, Falciparum/drug therapy , Artemisinins/adverse effects , Malaria/drug therapy , Antimalarials/adverse effects , Quinolines , Drug Combinations , Electrocardiography , Artemether/therapeutic use , Artemether, Lumefantrine Drug Combination/therapeutic use
13.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e0441-2020, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155540

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Colombia has an endemo-epidemic for malaria, with a downward trend in mortality over the last few decades. This study describes the malaria mortality rates from 2009-2018. METHODS We obtained data from the Colombian Mortality Information System and calculated the case fatality and crude and age-adjusted mortality rates. RESULTS: During the study, 148 malaria-related deaths were registered. The average annual mortality rate was 0.032 deaths/100,000. Two peaks were observed in 2010 and 2016. Choco contributed to the highest number of deaths (27.7%). CONCLUSIONS: The unstable downward trend of malaria mortality rates calls for greater emphasis on surveillance and interventions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Epidemics , Malaria , Mortality , Colombia/epidemiology
14.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e200497, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154873

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Flight tones play important roles in mosquito reproduction. Several mosquito species utilise flight tones for mate localisation and attraction. Typically, the female wingbeat frequency (WBF) is lower than males, and stereotypic acoustic behaviors are instrumental for successful copulation. Mosquito WBFs are usually an important species characteristic, with female flight tones used as male attractants in surveillance traps for species identification. Anopheles darlingi is an important Latin American malaria vector, but we know little about its mating behaviors. OBJECTIVES We characterised An. darlingi WBFs and examined male acoustic responses to immobilised females. METHODS Tethered and free flying male and female An. darlingi were recorded individually to determine their WBF distributions. Male-female acoustic interactions were analysed using tethered females and free flying males. FINDINGS Contrary to most mosquito species, An. darlingi females are smaller than males. However, the male's WBF is ~1.5 times higher than the females, a common ratio in species with larger females. When in proximity to a female, males displayed rapid frequency modulations that decreased upon genitalia engagement. Tethered females also modulated their frequency upon male approach, being distinct if the interaction ended in copulation or only contact. MAIN CONCLUSIONS This is the first report of An. darlingi flight acoustics, showing that its precopulatory acoustics are similar to other mosquitoes despite the uncommon male:female size ratio, suggesting that WBF ratios are common communication strategies rather than a physical constraint imposed by size.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Mosquito Vectors , Malaria/transmission , Anopheles , Reproduction
15.
Ghana Med. J. (Online) ; 55(2): 56-63, 2021.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1337553

ABSTRACT

Malaria-endemic areas of the world are noted for high morbidity and mortality from malaria. Also noted in these areas is the majority of persons in the population having acquired malaria immunity. Though this acquired malaria immunity does not prevent infection, it resists the multiplication of Plasmodium parasites, restricting disease to merely uncomplicated cases or asymptomatic infections. Does this acquired malaria immunity in endemic areas protect against other diseases, especially outbreak diseases like COVID-19? Does malaria activation of innate immunity resulting in trained or tolerance immunity contribute to protection against COVID-19? In an attempt to answer these questions, this review highlights the components of malaria and viral immunity and explores possible links with immunity against COVID-19. With malaria-endemic areas of the world having a fair share of cases of COVID-19, it is important to direct research in this area to evaluate and harness any benefits of acquired malaria immunity to help mitigate the effects of COVID-19 and any possible future outbreaks


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19 , Immunity, Innate , Malaria
16.
Malar. j. (Online) ; 20(390): 1-12, 2021. Mapas, Tab.
Article in English | AIM, RSDM, AIM | ID: biblio-1352541

ABSTRACT

Background: Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has been the recommended first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria in Mozambique since 2006, with artemether­lumefantrine (AL) and amodiaquine­artesunate (AS­AQ) as the first choice. To assess efficacy of currently used ACT, an in vivo therapeutic efficacy study was conducted. Methods: The study was conducted in four sentinel sites: Montepuez, Moatize, Mopeia and Massinga. Patients between 6 and 59 months old with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria (2000­200,000 parasites/µl) were enrolled between February and September of 2018, assigned to either an AL or AS­AQ treatment arm, and monitored for 28 days. A Bayesian algorithm was applied to differentiate recrudescence from new infection using genotyping data of seven neutral microsatellites. Uncorrected and PCR-corrected efficacy results at day 28 were calculated. Results: Totals of 368 and 273 patients were enrolled in the AL and AS­AQ arms, respectively. Of these, 9.5% (35/368) and 5.1% (14/273) were lost to follow-up in the AL and AS­AQ arms, respectively. There were 48 and 3 recurrent malaria infections (late clinical and late parasitological failures) in the AL and AS­AQ arms, respectively. The day 28 uncorrected efficacy was 85.6% (95% confidence interval (CI) 81.3­89.2%) for AL and 98.8% (95% CI 96.7­99.8%) for AS­AQ, whereas day 28 PCR-corrected efficacy was 97.9% (95% CI 95.6­99.2%) for AL and 99.6% (95% CI 97.9­100%) for AS­AQ. Molecular testing confirmed that 87.4% (42/48) and 33.3% (1/3) of participants with a recurrent malaria infection in the AL and AS­AQ arms were new infections; an expected finding in a high malaria transmission area. Adverse events were documented in less than 2% of participants for both drugs. Conclusion: Both AL and AS­AQ have therapeutic efficacies well above the 90% WHO recommended threshold and remain well-tolerated in Mozambique. Routine monitoring of therapeutic efficacy should continue to ensure the treatments remain efficacious.


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Malaria, Falciparum , Malaria/drug therapy , Parasites , Patients , Recurrence , Safety , Therapeutics , Algorithms , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Efficacy/methods , Monitoring , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Lost to Follow-Up , Artesunate/administration & dosage , Artemether/administration & dosage , Lumefantrine , Infections , Mozambique/epidemiology
17.
Malar. j. (Online) ; 20(293): 1-10, 2021. Tab.
Article in English | AIM, RSDM, AIM | ID: biblio-1353124

ABSTRACT

Background: In Mozambique, socio-economic and cultural factors influence the wide adoption of disease preventive measures that are relevant for malaria control strategies to promote early recognition of disease, prompt seeking of medical care, sleeping under insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), and taking intermittent preventive treatment for pregnant women. However, there is a critical information gap regarding previous and ongoing malaria social and behavioural change (SBC) interventions. The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitudes, practices of beneficiaries of SBC interventions. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional survey was undertaken in 2018 in two rural districts of Zambezia Province, Mozambique. A structured questionnaire was administered to 773 randomly selected households. Respondents were the adult heads of the households. Descriptive statistics were done. Results: The main results show that 96.4% of respondents recalled hearing about malaria in the previous 6 months, 90.0% had knowledge of malaria prevention, and 70.0% of preventive measures. Of the 97.7% respondents that had received ITNs through a mass ITN distribution campaign, 81.7% had slept under an ITN the night before the survey. In terms of source of health information, 70.5% mentioned the role of community volunteers in dissemination of malaria prevention messages, 76.1% of respondents considered worship places (churches and mosques) to be the main places where they heard key malaria prevention messages, and 79.1% asserted that community dialogue sessions helped them better understand how to prevent malaria. Conclusions: Results show that volunteers/activists/teachers played an important role in dissemination of key malaria prevention messages, which brought the following successes: community actors are recognized and people have knowledge of malaria transmission, signs and symptoms, preventive measures, and where to get treatment. There is, however, room for improvement on SBC messaging regarding some malaria symptoms (anaemia and convulsions) and operational research is needed to ascertain the drivers of malaria prevalence and inform the SBC approach.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pregnancy , Malaria , Socioeconomic Factors , Therapeutics/methods , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires , Health Strategies , Knowledge , Cultural Factors , Control , Information , Malaria/prevention & control , Medical Assistance , Mozambique
18.
Rev. moçamb. ciênc. saúde ; 7(1): 8-13, Out. 2021. Tab, ilus, graf
Article in Portuguese | AIM, RSDM, AIM | ID: biblio-1343979

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Moçambique é um dos países endémicos à malária. Em 2011, a estimativa de prevalência desta doença era de 40­80% em crianças dos 2­9 anos e 90% em crianças menores de 5 anos. Estas altas prevalências podem ser devido à dificuldade das crianças em desenvolverem uma resposta imune eficaz. São necessários mais estudos para entender a resposta imune nestas crianças. Este estudo teve como objectivo descrever as características imuno-hematológicas em crianças menores de 15 anos infectadas por Plasmodium falciparum. Metodologia: Foram recrutadas crianças de 2-15 anos, infectadas por P. falciparum. Em cada criança, cujo tutor legal consentiu que participasse no estudo, colheu-se 5 ml de sangue venoso para um tubo com anticoagulante K3EDTA. O sangue foi usado para a contagem automática de células por citometria de fluxo. Os resultados foram agrupados por idade, dos 2-8 anos e 9-15 anos. Resultados: Das 50 crianças incluídas no estudo, 84% tinham idades entre os 2-8 anos, 70% do sexo masculino e 4% com serologia positiva para HIV. O nível de hemoglobina foi mais elevado no grupo de 9-15 anos (10,3g/dL) em relação ao grupo de 2-8 anos (8,7g/dL). A contagem absoluta de linfócitos T-CD4 foi maior no grupo de 2-8 anos (819 cél./µl). A activação celular não apresentou diferenças entre os grupos. Conclusão: A maioria dos casos de malária e anemia aguda foi observada em crianças dos 2 aos 8 anos, predominantemente do sexo masculino. Os valores absolutos de linfócitos foram mais elevados nas crianças dos 2-8 anos, mas os valores percentuais linfocitários não diferiram entre os grupos.


Introduction: Mozambique is one of the endemic countries to malaria. In 2011, the estimated prevalence of this disease was 40­80% in children aged from 2­9 years and 90% in children under 5 years. These high rates may be due to the difficulty of children in building an effective immune response. Further studies are needed to understand the immune response mounted by children in the presence of Plasmodium. This study aimed to describe the immuno-haematological characteristics of children under 15 years infected with Plasmodium falciparum. Methodology: Children aged from 2-15 years, infected with P. falciparum, were recruited for the study. In each child, whose legal guardian consented to take part of the study, was collected 5 ml of venous blood to a K3EDTA anticoagulant tube. The samples were tested using automatic full blood cell counting and flow cytometry. The results were grouped by age, 2-8 years and 9-15 years. Results: From the 50 children included in the study, 84% were aged 2-8 years, 70% were male and 4% were HIV positive. The haemoglobin level was higher in the 9-15 year old group (10.3g/dL) compared to the 2-8 year old group (8.7g/dL). The absolute T-CD4 lymphocytes levels were higher in the 2-8 year old group (819 cells/µl). The T-CD8 lymphocytes activations levels were similar in both groups. Conclusion: The majority of the children attended in the Paediatric Emergency who diagnosed malaria were 2 to 8 years old. These children were predominantly male and presented acute anaemia. The absolute T-CD4 and T-CD8 lymphocytes levels were higher in children aged 2-8 years, but the percentage levels of lymphocytes did not differ between groups.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child , Plasmodium falciparum , Lymphocytes , Child , Malaria , Lymphocyte Activation , Prevalence , Flow Cytometry , Vector Borne Diseases , Host-Parasite Interactions , Anemia
19.
São Paulo; SES/SP; 2021. 41 p. graf.
Monography in Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP, SESSP-SUCENPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1151866

ABSTRACT

Introdução. A malária é uma doença infecciosa vetorial sendo atualmente considerada uma das maiores protozooses do mundo, mantendo-se endêmica principalmente na África, na região Amazônica da América do Sul e no Sudeste Asiático. Essa doença é causada por protozoários do gênero Plasmodium, sendo que cinco espécies são capazes de infectar humanos: P. vivax, P. falciparum, P. malariae, P. ovale e o mais recente, P. knowlesi, que é considerado como um parasito zoonótico. Há fatos que demonstram que esses parasitas que hoje infectam humanos, descendem de Plasmodium símios, e as infecções de símios continuam ocorrendo até os dias atuais. No Brasil os principais agentes de malária símia são Plasmodium brasilianum e Plasmodium simium (similar com P. malariae e P. vivax, respectivamente), sendo que esses dois parasitos estão envolvidos em situações zoonóticas no bioma Mata Atlântica, sendo o seu vetor o Anopheles cruzii. Tendo em vista esse cenário epidemiológico da malária residual, foi verificada a importância de realizar uma revisão sobre os principais estudos baseados e detecção de Plasmodium em fezes de primatas não humanos. Objetivo. Realizar uma revisão bibliográfica e atualização das principais técnicas existentes de detecção de Plasmodium em fezes de primatas não humanos descritas na literatura; bem como conhecer e realizar as técnicas de extração de DNA de fezes de primatas não humanos e técnicas de PCR em tempo real e PCR convencional para rastreamento de DNA de primatas não humanos e de plasmódios. Materiais e Métodos. Foi realizado levantamento bibliográfico nas bases de dados da SciELO, Lilacs, PubMed, MedLine e na Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS), de artigos e livros que descrevam a utilização de técnicas de detecção de Plasmodium em fezes de primatas não humanos, utilizando um total de 46 artigos publicados entre os anos de 1951 a 2021. Resultados. No delineamento da revisão foram selecionados 46 artigos que apresentassem menção explicita sobre as técnicas de detecção de Plasmodium, fezes e/ou menção explicita sobre malária e/ou malária símia. Na prática laboratorial, foram realizadas extrações de DNA e realizadas reações de PCR em Tempo real (TaqMan 18S rRNA) e PCR para amplificação de fragmento de cyt b de gênero Plasmodium em trinta e cinco amostras fecais de Alouatta guariba clamitans do Parque Estadual da Cantareira, município de São Paulo (Projeto FAPESP 2014/10.919-4, coordenado pela Dra. Ana Maria R. de C. Duarte). Discussão/Conclusão. Após a realização da revisão e das práticas laboratoriais, foi possível conhecer a abrangência do uso da técnica não invasiva e diagnostico de plasmódios em fezes de primatas não humanos no mundo, em especial na África e Sudeste Asiático, e também levantar as principais vantagens e desvantagens da utilização de fezes para detecção de Plasmodium. Diante disso, conclui-se que a utilização das técnicas PCR utilizando DNA oriundo das fezes podem trazer relevantes benefícios nos estudos de malária símia e humana em situações zoonóticas, bem como auxiliar nas atividades de Vigilância e Controle.


Subject(s)
Plasmodium , Feces , Malaria
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921789

ABSTRACT

Arthropod-borne diseases, such as malaria and dengue fever, have frequently beset five countries(Cambodia, Vietnam, Laos, Myanmar, and Thailand) in the tropical rainy Lancang-Mekong region, which pose a huge threat to social production and daily life. As a resort to such diseases, chemical drugs risk the resistance in plasmodium, non-availability for dengue virus, and pollution to the environment. Traditional medicinal plants have the multi-component, multi-target, and multi-pathway characteristics, which are of great potential in drug development. Exploring potential medicinals for arthropod-borne diseases from traditional medicinal plants has become a hot spot. This study summarized the epidemiological background of arthropod-borne diseases in the Lancang-Mekong region and screened effective herbs from the 350 medicinal plants recorded in CHINA-ASEAN Traditional Medicine. Based on CNKI, VIP, and PubMed, the plants for malaria and dengue fever and those for killing and repelling mosquitoes were respectively sorted out. Their pharmacological effects and mechanisms were reviewed and the material basis was analyzed. The result is expected to serve as a reference for efficient utilization of medicinal resources, development of effective and safe drugs for malaria and dengue fever, and the further cooperation between China and the other five countries in the Lancang-Mekong region.


Subject(s)
Animals , Culicidae , Malaria , Plants, Medicinal , Plasmodium , Thailand
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