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Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(5): 749-753, oct. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144274


INTRODUCCIÓN: La malaria congénita (MC) es la infección por Plasmodium spp adquirida in útero o durante el parto y sus manifestaciones clínicas son inespecíficas. Puede causar enfermedad grave en la embaraza da y en el recién nacido. OBJETIVO: describir dos casos de MC causados por Plasmodium falciparum, diagnóstico diferencial de sepsis en recién nacidos de gestantes que hayan visitado o residan en áreas endémicas para malaria. CASOS CLÍNICOS: Neonatos de sexo femenino, nacidos en área no endémica para malaria, diagnosticados con sepsis neonatal y tratados con antibióticos sin respuesta clínica. Después de la primera semana de vida la gota gruesa identificó trofozoítos de Plasmodium falciparum y los neonatos recibieron tratamiento con quinina intravenosa con mejoría. Las madres de las recién nacidas tuvieron malaria en el embarazo, una de ellas recibió tratamiento y estaba asintomática y otra tenía malaria complicada al momento del parto. CONCLUSIONES: La MC puede causar enfermedad neonatal grave con manifestaciones clínicas inespecíficas y similares a la sepsis, el tratamiento oportuno disminuye el riesgo de malaria complicada. Es un diagnóstico diferencial en recién nacidos de mujeres con malaria durante el embarazo o gestantes que visiten o residan en áreas endémicas.

INTRODUCTION: Congenital malaria (CM) is a Plasmodium spp infection acquired in utero or during delivery with nonspecific clinical manifestations. Plasmodium falciparum can cause severe illness in pregnant wo men and newborns. OBJECTIVE: to describe two cases of CM caused by Plasmodium falciparum, di fferential diagnosis of sepsis in newborns of pregnant women who live in or have visited endemic malaria zones. CLINICAL CASES: Female neonates born in a non-endemic malaria area, diagnosed with neonatal sepsis and treated with antibiotics without clinical response. After the first week of life, the peripheral blood smear identified trophozoites of Plasmodium falciparum thus the newborns were treated with intravenous quinine, improving their condition. The mothers of the two newborns who had malaria in pregnancy, one of them received treatment and she was asymptomatic, and the other one had severe malaria at the time of delivery. CONCLUSIONS: CM can cause severe neonatal disease with non-specific, sepsis-like clinical manifestations in which early treatment decreases the risk of complicated malaria. It is a differential diagnosis in newborns of women with a history of malaria during pregnancy or pregnant women visiting or living in endemic malaria areas.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Adolescent , Young Adult , Malaria, Falciparum/congenital , Malaria, Falciparum/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic/drug therapy , Neonatal Sepsis/diagnosis , Malaria, Falciparum/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Diagnosis, Differential , Neonatal Sepsis/parasitology , Antimalarials/therapeutic use
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20170450, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041567


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for detecting Plasmodium antigens have become increasingly common worldwide. We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the Immuno-Rapid Malaria Pf/Pv RDT in detecting Plasmodium vivax infection compared to standard thick blood smear (TBS) under microscopy. METHODS: Hundred and eighty-one febrile patients from the hospital's regular admissions were assessed using TBS and RDT in a blinded experiment. RESULTS: RDT showed a sensitivity of 98.9%, specificity of 100%, and accuracy of 99.5% for P. vivax infection when compared to TBS. CONCLUSIONS: The RDT is highly accurate, making it a valuable diagnostic tool for P. vivax infection.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Plasmodium falciparum/immunology , Plasmodium vivax/immunology , Malaria, Vivax/diagnosis , Malaria, Falciparum/diagnosis , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/methods , Antigens, Protozoan/immunology , Brazil , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180537, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990433


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Elimination of malaria in areas of interrupted transmission warrants careful case assessment to avoid the reintroduction of this disease. Occasional malaria cases are reported among visitors of the Atlantic Forest area of Brazil, while data on residents of this area are scarce. METHODS: A sectional study was carried out to examine 324 individuals living in a municipality where autochthonous cases were detected. RESULTS: Asymptomatic Plasmodium infections were detected in 2.8% of the individuals by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), with one case of P. falciparum (0.3%), two cases of P. vivax (0.6%), and six cases of P. malariae (1.9%). The thick blood smears were negative in all individuals. Serological tests performed in 314 subjects were reactive in 11.1%, with 3.5% for P. falciparum and 7.7% for P. vivax. A subsample of 42 reactive individuals for any Plasmodium species showed P. malariae in 30.9% of specimens. Individuals who entered the Atlantic Forest region were 2.7 times more likely to exhibit reactive serology for P. vivax compared with individuals who did not enter this region (p<0.05). Children <15 years had a higher chance of reactive serology for P. falciparum and P. vivax than individuals ≥15 years of age (p<0.05). Individuals living in the Paraiso district had a higher chance of reactive serology for P. vivax compared to other districts (p<0.05). No associations were found between sex, past exposure to malaria, or serological response to antibodies of any Plasmodium species. CONCLUSIONS: The implications of these results for the elimination of malaria were discussed.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Malaria, Vivax/diagnosis , Malaria, Vivax/transmission , Malaria, Falciparum/diagnosis , Malaria, Falciparum/transmission , Brazil/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Cross-Sectional Studies , DNA, Protozoan/analysis , Malaria, Vivax/epidemiology , Malaria, Falciparum/epidemiology , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Antigens, Protozoan/immunology
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(8): 1014-1020, 12/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: lil-732596


Studies on autochthonous malaria in low-transmission areas in Brazil have acquired epidemiological relevance because they suggest continued transmission in what remains of the Atlantic Forest. In the southeastern portion of the state of São Paulo, outbreaks in the municipality of Juquitiba have been the focus of studies on the prevalence of Plasmodium, including asymptomatic cases. Data on the occurrence of the disease or the presence of antiplasmodial antibodies in pregnant women from this region have not previously been described. Although Plasmodium falciparum in pregnant women has been widely addressed in the literature, the interaction of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium malariae with this cohort has been poorly explored to date. We monitored the circulation of Plasmodium in pregnant women in health facilities located in Juquitiba using thick blood film and molecular protocols, as well as immunological assays, to evaluate humoural immune parameters. Through real-time and nested polymerase chain reaction, P. vivax and P. malariae were detected for the first time in pregnant women, with a positivity of 5.6%. Immunoassays revealed the presence of IgG antibodies: 44% for ELISA-Pv, 38.4% for SD-Bioline-Pv and 18.4% for indirect immunofluorescence assay-Pm. The high prevalence of antibodies showed significant exposure of this population to Plasmodium. In regions with similar profiles, testing for a malaria diagnosis might be indicated in prenatal care.

Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Young Adult , Antibodies, Protozoan/isolation & purification , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Malaria, Falciparum/diagnosis , Malaria, Vivax/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic/diagnosis , Asymptomatic Infections , Brazil/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Malaria, Falciparum/epidemiology , Malaria, Falciparum/immunology , Malaria, Vivax/epidemiology , Malaria, Vivax/immunology , Plasmodium malariae/immunology , Plasmodium vivax/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic/immunology , Prospective Studies
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-157588


This study was done to compare the ability of newly developed immunochromatographic assays (ICT), i.e., ICT malaria P.f. / P.v. test and optiMAL test with standard microscopy for the diagnosis of malaria. ICT P.f. / P.v. test detects Plasmodium falciparum specific histidine rich protein-2 (HRP2) antigen and a pan-malarial common specific antigen, where as optiMAL test detects P. falciparum specific parasite Lactate Dehydrogenase (pLDH) enzyme and a common specific pLDH enzyme. Material and Methods: Blood samples were obtained from 150 patients clinically diagnosed as malaria between July 2011 to December 2011.The venous blood were tested for malaria by microscopy and simultaneously ICT P.f./P.v.and optiMAL tests. Results: From total 150 samples, 59 (39.3%) were positive by blood films while 64 (42.7%) were positive by ICT p.f. / p.v. and 52 (34.7%) by optiMAL tests. The blood film indicated that 32.2% (19 of 59) of patients were positive for P. vivax and 67.8% (40 of 59) were infected with P. falciparum. ICT P.f./P.v. test showed 23.4% (15 of 64) were positive for P. vivax and 76.6% (49 of 64) were infected with P. falciparum. Similarly, optiMAL test detected 30.8% (16 of 52) were positive for P. vivax and 69.2% (36 of 52) were infected with P. falciparum. ICT P.f./P.v. test had sensitivities 78.9%, 87.5% and specificities 100%, 87.3% for P. vivax and P. falciparum respectively. optiMAL test showed sensitivities 84.2%, 80% and specificities 100%, 96.4% for P. vivax and P. falciparum respectively. Conclusion: These rapid immunoassays (ICT P.f./P.v. and optiMAL) tests can be used as supplementary to traditional light microscopy for the diagnosis of malarial parasites.

Antigens, Protozoan/blood , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Humans , Chromatography, Affinity/methods , Immunologic Tests/methods , Malaria, Falciparum/diagnosis , Malaria, Vivax/diagnosis , Microscopy , Plasmodium falciparum/isolation & purification , Plasmodium vivax/isolation & purification , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Sensitivity and Specificity
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-70515


Microscopy is considered as the gold standard for malaria diagnosis although its wide application is limited by the requirement of highly experienced microscopists. PCR and serological tests provide efficient diagnostic performance and have been applied for malaria diagnosis and research. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic performance of nested PCR and a recently developed an ELISA-based new rapid diagnosis test (RDT), NovaLisa test kit, for diagnosis of malaria infection, using microscopic method as the gold standard. The performance of nested-PCR as a malaria diagnostic tool is excellent with respect to its high accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and ability to discriminate Plasmodium species. The sensitivity and specificity of nested-PCR compared with the microscopic method for detection of Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, and P. falciparum/P. vivax mixed infection were 71.4 vs 100%, 100 vs 98.7%, and 100 vs 95.0%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA-based NovaLisa test kit compared with the microscopic method for detection of Plasmodium genus were 89.0 vs 91.6%, respectively. NovaLisa test kit provided comparable diagnostic performance. Its relatively low cost, simplicity, and rapidity enables large scale field application.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Coinfection/diagnosis , Endemic Diseases , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Female , Humans , Malaria, Falciparum/diagnosis , Malaria, Vivax/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serologic Tests/methods , Thailand/epidemiology , Young Adult
Rev. panam. infectol ; 16(2): 108-112, 2014. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1067148


Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, longitudinal y retrospectivo mediante revisión documental del libro de registro de muestras, del Laboratorio Provincial de Parasitología del Centro Provincial de Higiene, Epidemiología y Microbiología de Camagüey (Cuba) para mostrar los resultados de 25 años de vigilancia antipalúdica, relacionados con algunas variables de importancia epidemiológica durante el período 1986-2011. Se consideró el mes de arribo, país de procedencia, sexo, especie de Plasmodium diagnosticada, grado de parasitemia, municipio de residencia en Cuba, lugar de ejecución y verificación del diagnóstico, así como el nivel de concordancia con los laboratorios de referencia provincial y nacional. Se confeccionó una base de datos con el total de casos diagnosticados, para determinar la frecuencia absoluta y relativa de casos. Se utilizó el software estadístico profesional SPSS. Un total de 253 viajeros resultaron positivos siendo el 94.5% hombres provenientes de Angola (88.88%) con predominio de P. falciparum (62.0%). Se diagnosticaron además recaídas y recrudescencias

A descriptive, longitudinal and retrospective study was make in Camaguey with patients to come from endemic areas of Malaria, during 1986 to 2011. Some of them, illness with malaria in Camaguey after to arrive. The results’s presentation was an important topic for the authors because that a background of 25 years of surveillance in our province and also to establish relation between some epidemiological variable. 253 traveller were diagnostic with Malaria, 94.5% were male, 88.8% come from Angola and Plasmodium falciparum was the predominant specie with 61.30%. The parasitemie grade more frequent were two and tree plus but (trophozoites) rings, schizonts and gametocytes form of P.vivax and gametocytes of P. falciparum were detected too. An important number of recurrent malaria was diagnostic during the surveillance period. The majority of the laboratory in the province did malaria diagnosis; the slides were verificate in the Provincial Microbiology Reference Laboratory

Male , Female , Humans , Malaria , Malaria, Falciparum/diagnosis , Plasmodium falciparum , Plasmodium vivax , Health Surveillance , Cuba/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Longitudinal Studies , Retrospective Studies
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-7396


In recent years, rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have been widely used for malaria detection, primarily because of their simple operation, fast results, and straightforward interpretation. The Asan EasyTest(TM) Malaria Pf/Pan Ag is one of the most commonly used malaria RDTs in several countries, including Korea and India. In this study, we tested the diagnostic performance of this RDT in Uganda to evaluate its usefulness for field diagnosis of malaria in this country. Microscopic and PCR analyses, and the Asan EasyTest(TM) Malaria Pf/Pan Ag rapid diagnostic test, were performed on blood samples from 185 individuals with suspected malaria in several villages in Uganda. Compared to the microscopic analysis, the sensitivity of the RDT to detect malaria infection was 95.8% and 83.3% for Plasmodium falciparum and non-P. falciparum, respectively. Although the diagnostic sensitivity of the RDT decreased when parasitemia was or =100 parasites/microl. The specificity of the RDT was 97.3% for P. falciparum and 97.3% for non-P. falciparum. These results collectively suggest that the accuracy of the Asan EasyTest(TM) Malaria Pf/Pan Ag makes it an effective point-of-care diagnostic tool for malaria in Uganda.

Adolescent , Adult , Antigens, Protozoan/blood , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Malaria, Falciparum/diagnosis , Parasitemia , Point-of-Care Systems , Predictive Value of Tests , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Sensitivity and Specificity , Uganda/epidemiology , Young Adult
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 55(6): 401-406, Nov-Dec/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-690351


SUMMARY The use of a “direct PCR” DNA polymerase enables PCR amplification without any prior DNA purification from blood samples due to the enzyme's resistance to inhibitors present in blood components. Such DNA polymerases are now commercially available. We compared the PCR performance of six direct PCR-type DNA polymerases (KOD FX, Mighty Amp, Hemo KlenTaq, Phusion Blood II, KAPA Blood, and BIOTAQ) in dried blood eluted from a filter paper with TE buffer. GoTaq Flexi was used as a standard DNA polymerase. PCR performance was evaluated by a nested PCR technique for detecting Plasmodium falciparum genomic DNA in the presence of the blood components. Although all six DNA polymerases showed resistance to blood components compared to the standard Taq polymerase, the KOD FX and BIOTAQ DNA polymerases were resistant to inhibitory blood components at concentrations of 40%, and their PCR performance was superior to that of other DNA polymerases. When the reaction mixture contained a mild detergent, only KOD FX DNA polymerase retained the original amount of amplified product. These results indicate that KOD FX DNA polymerase is the most resistant to inhibitory blood components and/or detergents. Thus, KOD FX DNA polymerase could be useful in serological studies to simultaneously detect antibodies and DNA in eluents for antibodies. KOD FX DNA polymerase is thus not limited to use in detecting malaria parasites, but could also be employed to detect other blood-borne pathogens. .

RESUMO O propósito deste estudo foi avaliar 6 polimerases de DNA disponíveis comercialmente que são resistentes aos inibidores do PCR para uma amplificação potencial de DNA de amostras de sangue total. O DNA genômico do parasita humano da malária, Plasmodium falciparum, foi analisado sob condições que incluíram os componentes inibidores do sangue extraído de sangue ressacado em papel de filtro. Nossos resultados sugerem que a polimerase KOD FX DNA é superior a outras polimerases. .

Humans , DNA, Protozoan/genetics , DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase/genetics , Malaria, Falciparum/diagnosis , Plasmodium falciparum/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , DNA, Protozoan/blood , DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase/blood , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 55(3): 205-208, May-Jun/2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-674692


Asymptomatic Plasmodium infection is a new challenge for public health in the American region. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the best method for diagnosing subpatent parasitemias. In endemic areas, blood collection is hampered by geographical distances and deficient transport and storage conditions of the samples. Because DNA extraction from blood collected on filter paper is an efficient method for molecular studies in high parasitemic individuals, we investigated whether the technique could be an alternative for Plasmodium diagnosis among asymptomatic and pauciparasitemic subjects. In this report we compared three different methods (Chelex®-saponin, methanol and TRIS-EDTA) of DNA extraction from blood collected on filter paper from asymptomatic Plasmodium-infected individuals. Polymerase chain reaction assays for detection of Plasmodium species showed the best results when the Chelex®-saponin method was used. Even though the sensitivity of detection was approximately 66% and 31% for P. falciparum and P. vivax, respectively, this method did not show the effectiveness in DNA extraction required for molecular diagnosis of Plasmodium. The development of better methods for extracting DNA from blood collected on filter paper is important for the diagnosis of subpatent malarial infections in remote areas and would contribute to establishing the epidemiology of this form of infection.

Infecção assintomática por Plasmodium é um novo desafio para a saúde pública no Brasil. A reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) é o melhor método para detectar baixas parasitemias presentes em pacientes com infecção assintomática. Nas áreas endêmicas, a coleta de sangue total é dificultada pela distancia geográfica, transporte e adequada armazenagem das amostras. A coleta de sangue em papel de filtro pode ser uma alternativa nessas áreas de difícil acesso. Neste estudo foram comparados três diferentes métodos de extração de ADN a partir de papel de filtro usando como controle extração a partir de sangue total. O protocolo Chelex®-Saponina foi o que obteve o melhor resultado quando comparado com os outros três protocolos. No entanto a sensibilidade foi de 66,7% para o P. falciparum e 31,6% para o P. vivax. Conclui-se que em caso de infecção assintomática o papel de filtro não é ainda uma boa alternativa para coleta de amostras.

Humans , DNA, Protozoan/analysis , Malaria, Falciparum/diagnosis , Malaria, Vivax/diagnosis , Plasmodium falciparum/isolation & purification , Plasmodium vivax/isolation & purification , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Plasmodium falciparum/genetics , Plasmodium vivax/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Specimen Handling/instrumentation , Specimen Handling/methods
Cad. saúde pública ; 29(5): 935-944, Mai. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-676028


Malaria epidemics occur annually in various municipalities (counties) in the Brazilian Amazon. However, health services do not systematically adopt tools to detect and promptly control these events. This article aimed to characterize malaria epidemics in the Brazilian Amazon Region based on their duration, the Plasmodium species involved, and the population's degree of vulnerability. An automatic malaria incidence monitoring system based on quartiles was assessed for prompt identification of malaria epidemics. In 2010, epidemics were identified in 338 (41.9%) of the counties in the Brazilian Amazon. P. falciparum and P. vivax epidemics were detected, both singly and in combination. Epidemics lasted from 1 to 4 months in 58.3% of the counties, 5 to 8 months in 34.5%, and 9 to 12 months in 17.4%. Systematic monitoring of malaria incidence could contribute to early detection of epidemics and improve the effectiveness of control measures.

Epidemias de malária ocorrem anualmente nos municípios da Região Amazônica, Brasil, no entanto os serviços de saúde não adotam, de maneira sistemática, instrumentos para detecção e contenção oportunas desses eventos. O objetivo foi caracterizar as epidemias de malária na região segundo duração, espécie de Plasmodium e vulnerabilidade das populações. Foi avaliado um sistema de monitoramento automatizado da incidência da malária, com base no diagrama de controle segundo quartis, para identificar as epidemias da doença. Em 2010, ocorreram epidemias em 338 (41,9%) municípios da região. Houve epidemias por P. falciparum e por P. vivax, separadamente, e também por ambas as espécies. Epidemias com duração de um a quatro meses ocorreram em 58,3% dos municípios epidêmicos; de cinco a oito meses, em 24,3%; e de nove a 12 meses, em 17,4%. O monitoramento automatizado da variação da incidência da malária poderá contribuir para detecção precoce das epidemias e melhorar o seu controle oportuno.

Las epidemias de malaria ocurren anualmente en los municipios de la Región Amazónica, Brasil, no obstante, los servicios de salud no adoptan de manera sistemática instrumentos para la detección y contención oportuna de este tipo de eventos. El objetivo fue caracterizar las epidemias de malaria en la región según su duración, especie de Plasmodium y vulnerabilidad de las poblaciones. Se evalúo un sistema de supervisión automatizado de la incidencia de la malaria, en base al diagrama de control según cuartiles, con el fin de identificar las epidemias de la enfermedad. En 2010, se produjeron epidemias en 338 (41,9%) municipios de la región. Hubo epidemias por P. falciparum y por P. vivax, separadamente, y también por ambas especies. Hubo epidemias con una duración de uno a cuatro meses que se produjeron en un 58,3% de los municipios epidémicos; de cinco a ocho meses, en un 24,3%; y de nueve a 12 meses, en un 17,4%. La supervisión automatizada de la variación de la incidencia de la malaria podrá contribuir a la detección precoz de las epidemias y mejorar su control adecuado.

Humans , Epidemics , Malaria, Falciparum/epidemiology , Malaria, Vivax/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Epidemiological Monitoring , Incidence , Malaria, Falciparum/diagnosis , Malaria, Vivax/diagnosis , Plasmodium falciparum , Plasmodium vivax , Time Factors
Journal of Infection and Public Health. 2013; 6 (1): 10-15
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-130297


In the majority of health centers in Ethiopia, the severity of falciparum malaria has been determined by parasitemia alone. However, it has been suggested that the use of peripheral infected RBC counts as an indicator of disease severity by itself is insufficient. Therefore, this study was performed to assess the severity of falciparum malaria infection in three Ethiopian localities with epidemic malaria and to compare the usual severe malaria determination technique [parasitemia] used in Ethiopia with other malaria severity determination parameters: circulatory collapse, cerebral malaria and severe anemia. Blood samples were collected from 400 individuals to examine the presence of falciparum malaria in the Awash, Metehara and Ziway areas of Ethiopia. Data on cerebral malaria, circulatory collapse and severe anemia were collected from 210 falciparum malaria patients. Of the 400 individuals examined, 210 were positive for falciparum malaria, and 190 were negative and served as healthy controls [HC]. Severe anemia [18 patients, 8.57%] and circulatory collapse [25 patients, 11.90%] were the common features associated with severe falciparum malaria. Additionally, the detection of severe malaria was comparable using parasitemia, circulatory collapse or anemia. The findings of this study demonstrated comparable capacity for detecting severe falciparum malaria using circulatory collapse, severe anemia or parasitemia. Therefore, in addition to parasitemia, assessing severity of falciparum malaria using circulatory collapse and severe anemia will facilitate the diagnosis and management of malaria in Ethiopia

Humans , Female , Male , Malaria, Falciparum/diagnosis , Plasmodium falciparum , Severity of Illness Index , Malaria, Falciparum/therapy
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 107(8): 1035-1041, Dec. 2012. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-660652


The haematological changes and release of soluble mediators, particularly C-reactive protein (CRP) and nitric oxide (NO), during uncomplicated malaria have not been well studied, especially in Brazilian areas in which the disease is endemic. Therefore, the present study examined these factors in acute (day 0) and convalescent phase (day 15) patients infected with Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria in the Brazilian Amazon. Haematologic parameters were measured using automated cell counting, CRP levels were measured with ELISA and NO plasma levels were measured by the Griess reaction. Our data indicate that individuals with uncomplicated P. vivax and P. falciparum infection presented similar inflammatory profiles with respect to white blood cells, with high band cell production and a considerable degree of thrombocytopaenia during the acute phase of infection. Higher CRP levels were detected in acute P. vivax infection than in acute P. falciparum infection, while higher NO was detected in patients with acute and convalescent P. falciparum infections. Although changes in these mediators cannot predict malaria infection, the haematological aspects associated with malaria infection, especially the roles of platelets and band cells, need to be investigated further.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Blood Platelets/immunology , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Malaria, Falciparum/blood , Malaria, Vivax/blood , Neutrophils/immunology , Nitric Oxide/blood , Acute Disease , Convalescence , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Malaria, Falciparum/diagnosis , Malaria, Falciparum/immunology , Malaria, Vivax/diagnosis , Malaria, Vivax/immunology
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 107(5): 621-629, Aug. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-643747


In this study, we determined whether the treatment of asymptomatic parasites carriers (APCs), which are frequently found in the riverside localities of the Brazilian Amazon that are highly endemic for malaria, would decrease the local malaria incidence by decreasing the overall pool of parasites available to infect mosquitoes. In one village, the treatment of the 19 Plasmodium falciparum-infected APCs identified among the 270 residents led to a clear reduction (Z = -2.39, p = 0.017) in the incidence of clinical cases, suggesting that treatment of APCs is useful for controlling falciparum malaria. For vivax malaria, 120 APCs were identified among the 716 residents living in five villages. Comparing the monthly incidence of vivax malaria in two villages where the APCs were treated with the incidence in two villages where APCs were not treated yielded contradictory results and no clear differences in the incidence were observed (Z = -0.09, p = 0.933). Interestingly, a follow-up study showed that the frequency of clinical relapse in both the treated and untreated APCs was similar to the frequency seen in patients treated for primary clinical infections, thus indicating that vivax clinical immunity in the population is not species specific but only strain specific.

Humans , Asymptomatic Infections , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Malaria, Falciparum/drug therapy , Malaria, Vivax/drug therapy , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Genotype , Incidence , Malaria, Falciparum/diagnosis , Malaria, Falciparum/epidemiology , Malaria, Vivax/diagnosis , Malaria, Vivax/epidemiology , Population Surveillance
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 45(3): 369-374, May-June 2012. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-640437


INTRODUCTION: Malaria during pregnancy remains a serious public health problem. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence and possible risk factors for malaria in pregnant women attending antenatal care at Augusto Ngangula Specialized General Hospital in Luanda, Angola. METHODS: Pregnant women (679 total) who attended antenatal care from April to September 2008 were included in the study after signing informed consent. For each participant, the social-demographic profile and malaria and obstetric histories were investigated via a questionnaire. Diagnosis was made by optic microscopy, and hemoglobin concentration measured. The associations between age, parity, gestational age, residence, schooling, malaria during gravity, anemia and treatment with incidence of Plasmodium falciparum infection were analyzed through logistic regression. RESULTS: During the period of study, 74 (10.9%) out of 679 women were infected by P. falciparum. The average concentration of hemoglobin was 11.1 ± 0.07g/dL, and there were significant associations between the history of malaria during pregnancy, P. falciparum infection (p<0.01) and anemia at the time of observation (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Previous history of malaria during pregnancy represents a risk factor for current infection and anemia was an important complication associated with malaria, even in women who were treated with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine during pregnancy.

INTRODUÇÃO: A malária na gravidez continua a ser um grave problema de saúde pública. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a prevalência e possíveis fatores de risco para a malária, em mulheres grávidas que foram atendidas em consultas pré-natal, no Hospital Geral Especializado Augusto Ngangula, em Luanda, Angola. MÉTODOS: De abril a setembro de 2008, 679 mulheres grávidas foram envolvidas no estudo após consentimento informado. O perfil sócio demográfico e história de malária e obstetrícia foram investigados através de um questionário. O diagnóstico foi efetuado por microscopia óptica e determinou-se ainda as concentrações da hemoglobina. Através da regressão logística foi analisada a associação entre a idade, paridade, tempo de gestação, residência, escolaridade, malária durante a gravidez, anemia e tratamento com a infecção por Plasmodium falciparum. RESULTADOS: Setenta e quatro (10,9%) das 679 mulheres estavam infectadas com P. falciparum. O valor médio da concentração da hemoglobina foi de 11,1 ± 0,07g/dL, encontrando-se uma associação significativa entre história de malária na gravidez e infecção por P. falciparum (p<0,01) e anemia no momento da observação (p<0.001). CONCLUSÕES: A história de malária anterior na gravidez foi um fator de risco para uma infecção atual e a anemia uma complicação importante associada à malária, mesmo em mulheres que receberam tratamento durante a gravidez com sulfadoxina-pirimetamina.

Adolescent , Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , Young Adult , Malaria, Falciparum/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic/epidemiology , Prenatal Diagnosis/statistics & numerical data , Angola/epidemiology , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Malaria, Falciparum/diagnosis , Malaria, Falciparum/drug therapy , Prevalence , Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic/drug therapy , Pyrimethamine/therapeutic use , Risk Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , Sulfadoxine/therapeutic use
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-157407


Background : Malaria is a global problem. Rapid diagnosis is essential for effective treatment and reducing mortality and morbidity of malaria. Diagnosis of malariaby peripheral smear is labor-intensive and requires considerable expertise for its interpretation. A rapid test , Advantage MAL card test is based on detection of parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) and has the ability to differentiate the four major Plasmodium species in 20 minutes. Objectives: 1) To evaluate utility of parasite lactate dehydrogenase for diagnosis of malaria with Advantage Mal card test.2) To compare the results of Advantage Mal card test with peripheral smear findings. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, total 5242 patients with malaria like symptoms attending OPD and admitted in wards at Acharya Vinoba Bhave Rural Hospital (AVBRH) from January 2008 to August 2011 were studied. Result: The age of patients ranged from < 1 year- >80 years. The commonest age group affected was 21-30 years. Male to female ratio was 1.04: 1. Prevalence rate of malaria was 101/1000 population in AVBRH. Malarial parasites were detected in PS in10.11% patients (P.falciparum 27.73% , P.vivax 71.32% , mixed infection 0.94%) and in 10.07% patients with Advantage Mal test (P. falciparum 28.03%, P.vivax 71.02%, mixed infection 0.95%). 3 cases of P.vivax and 1case of P.falciparum detected by PS were not detected by Advantage Mal test. 2 cases of P.falciparum detected by Advantage Mal and not by PS. Compared to PS, the Advantage Mal had sensitivity 99.24%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100%, negative predictive value was 89.92%. Conclusion: Diagnosis of malaria by detection of pLDH with Advantage Mal card test is simple ,rapid, reliable and cheap method. Results are comparable to blood films. It can detect P.flciparum infection when parasites are sequestered.

Adult , Age Groups , Clinical Enzyme Tests/methods , Female , Humans , Immunoenzyme Techniques/methods , Lactate Dehydrogenases/analysis , Lactate Dehydrogenases/chemistry , Malaria, Falciparum/diagnosis , Malaria, Vivax/diagnosis , Male , Plasmodium falciparum/enzymology , Plasmodium vivax/enzymology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Young Adult
Indian J Med Sci ; 2011 Jan; 65(1) 26-31
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-145585


Background: Diagnosis of malaria is usually made by microscopy [Giemsa, Acridine Orange (AO), and Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC) assay], which requires expertise. Currently, automated haematology analyzers are being used for complete blood count (CBC), in all acute febrile and non-febrile illnesses which simultaneously detects malaria. The normal scattergram by the analyzer (Sysmex 2100) comprises of five parameters i.e. lymphocytes (pink), monocytes (green), neutrophils (blue), eosinophils (red) with a space between the neutrophil and eosinophil populations. Aims : We carried out a prospective study to compare the efficacy of Sysmex XE-2100 (Sysmex Corporation, Kobe) for detection of malaria in comparison to other conventional techniques. Materials and Methods : 430 cases were analyzed for malaria by microscopy (QBC, AO, Giemsa), ICT (Immunochromatography) and flowcytometric analyzer (Sysmex XE-2100). The abnormal scattergrams were observed as double neutrophil, double eosinophil, grey zone, extended neutrophil zone with a decrease space between eosinophil and neutrophil, and a combination of above patterns. Results : Out of 70 positive cases [49/70 (70%) P. vivax, 18/70 (25.7%) P. falciparum, and 3/70 (4.2%) both P. vivax and P. falciparum], 52 showed abnormal scattergrams by the analyzer. The sensitivity and specificity of hematology analyzer found to be 74.2% and 88%, respectively. Conclusion : Flowcytometric analyzer is a rapid, high throughput device which needs less expertization for the diagnosis of malaria. Hence, it can be used in the diagnostic laboratories as an early modality for diagnosis of malaria in suspected as well as clinically in apparent cases.

Autoanalysis/instrumentation , Blood Cell Count/instrumentation , Flow Cytometry/instrumentation , Hematologic Tests/instrumentation , Humans , Malaria/diagnosis , Malaria, Falciparum/diagnosis , Malaria, Vivax/diagnosis , Plasmodium falciparum/analysis , Plasmodium vivax/analysis , Sensitivity and Specificity