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Malar. j. (Online) ; 20(390): 1-12, 2021. Mapas, Tab.
Article in English | RSDM, AIM | ID: biblio-1352541


Background: Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has been the recommended first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria in Mozambique since 2006, with artemether­lumefantrine (AL) and amodiaquine­artesunate (AS­AQ) as the first choice. To assess efficacy of currently used ACT, an in vivo therapeutic efficacy study was conducted. Methods: The study was conducted in four sentinel sites: Montepuez, Moatize, Mopeia and Massinga. Patients between 6 and 59 months old with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria (2000­200,000 parasites/µl) were enrolled between February and September of 2018, assigned to either an AL or AS­AQ treatment arm, and monitored for 28 days. A Bayesian algorithm was applied to differentiate recrudescence from new infection using genotyping data of seven neutral microsatellites. Uncorrected and PCR-corrected efficacy results at day 28 were calculated. Results: Totals of 368 and 273 patients were enrolled in the AL and AS­AQ arms, respectively. Of these, 9.5% (35/368) and 5.1% (14/273) were lost to follow-up in the AL and AS­AQ arms, respectively. There were 48 and 3 recurrent malaria infections (late clinical and late parasitological failures) in the AL and AS­AQ arms, respectively. The day 28 uncorrected efficacy was 85.6% (95% confidence interval (CI) 81.3­89.2%) for AL and 98.8% (95% CI 96.7­99.8%) for AS­AQ, whereas day 28 PCR-corrected efficacy was 97.9% (95% CI 95.6­99.2%) for AL and 99.6% (95% CI 97.9­100%) for AS­AQ. Molecular testing confirmed that 87.4% (42/48) and 33.3% (1/3) of participants with a recurrent malaria infection in the AL and AS­AQ arms were new infections; an expected finding in a high malaria transmission area. Adverse events were documented in less than 2% of participants for both drugs. Conclusion: Both AL and AS­AQ have therapeutic efficacies well above the 90% WHO recommended threshold and remain well-tolerated in Mozambique. Routine monitoring of therapeutic efficacy should continue to ensure the treatments remain efficacious.

Child, Preschool , Malaria, Falciparum , Malaria/drug therapy , Parasites , Patients , Recurrence , Safety , Therapeutics , Algorithms , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Efficacy/methods , Monitoring , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Lost to Follow-Up , Artesunate/administration & dosage , Artemether/administration & dosage , Lumefantrine , Infections , Mozambique/epidemiology
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e210207, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346578


BACKGROUND Treatment of mycoses is often ineffective, usually prolonged, and has some side effects. These facts highlight the importance of discovering new molecules to treat fungal infections. OBJECTIVES To search the Medicines for Malaria Venture COVID Box for drugs with antifungal activity. METHODS Fourteen human pathogenic fungi were tested against the 160 drugs of this collection at 1.0 µM concentration. We evaluated the ability of the drugs to impair fungal growth, their fungicidal nature, and morphological changes caused to cells. FINDINGS Thirty-four molecules (21.25%) presented antifungal activity. Seven are antifungal drugs and one is the agricultural fungicide cycloheximide. The other drugs with antifungal activity included antibiotics (n = 3), antimalarials (n = 4), antivirals (n = 2), antiparasitcs (n = 3), antitumor agents (n = 5), nervous system agents (n = 3), immunosuppressants (n = 3), antivomiting (n = 1), antiasthmatic (n = 1), and a genetic disorder agent (n = 1). Several of these drugs inhibited Histoplasma capsulatum and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis growth (15 and 20, respectively), while Fusarium solani was not affected by the drugs tested. Most drugs were fungistatic, but niclosamide presented fungicidal activity against the three dimorphic fungi tested. Cyclosporine affected morphology of Cryptococcus neoformans. MAIN CONCLUSIONS These drugs represent new alternatives to the development of more accessible and effective therapies to treat human fungal infections.

Humans , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Cryptococcus neoformans , COVID-19 , Malaria/drug therapy , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Drug Repositioning , SARS-CoV-2 , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e05362020, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155593


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), such as artemisinin-piperaquine (AP), dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP), and artemether-lumefantrine (AL), is the first-line treatment for malaria in many malaria-endemic areas. However, we lack a detailed evaluation of the cardiotoxicity of these ACTs. This study aimed to analyze the electrocardiographic effects of these three ACTs in malaria patients. METHODS: We analyzed the clinical data of 89 hospitalized patients with falciparum malaria who had received oral doses of three different ACTs. According to the ACTs administered, these patients were divided into three treatment groups: 27 treated with AP (Artequick), 31 with DP (Artekin), and 31 with AL (Coartem). Electrocardiograms and other indicators were recorded before and after the treatment. The QT interval was calculated using Fridericia's formula (QTcF) and Bazett's formula (QTcB). RESULTS: Both QTcF and QTcB interval prolongation occurred in all three groups. The incidence of such prolongation between the three groups was not significantly different. The incidence of both moderate and severe prolongation was not significantly different between the three groups. The ΔQTcF and ΔQTcB of the three groups were not significantly different. The intra-group comparison showed significant prolongation of QTcF after AL treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Clinically recommended doses of DP, AL, and AP may cause QT prolongation in some malaria patients but do not cause torsades de pointes ventricular tachycardia or other arrhythmias.

Humans , Malaria, Falciparum/drug therapy , Artemisinins/adverse effects , Malaria/drug therapy , Antimalarials/adverse effects , Quinolines , Drug Combinations , Electrocardiography , Artemether/therapeutic use , Artemether, Lumefantrine Drug Combination/therapeutic use
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200229, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135249


Malaria and tuberculosis are no longer considered to be neglected diseases by the World Health Organization. However, both are huge challenges and public health problems in the world, which affect poor people, today referred to as neglected populations. In addition, malaria and tuberculosis present the same difficulties regarding the treatment, such as toxicity and the microbial resistance. The increase of Plasmodium resistance to the available drugs along with the insurgence of multidrug- and particularly tuberculosis drug-resistant strains are enough to justify efforts towards the development of novel medicines for both diseases. This literature review provides an overview of the state of the art of antimalarial and antituberculosis chemotherapies, emphasising novel drugs introduced in the pharmaceutical market and the advances in research of new candidates for these diseases, and including some aspects of their mechanism/sites of action.

Humans , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Malaria/drug therapy , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Neglected Diseases , Malaria/diagnosis
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200048, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136798


Abstract INTRODUCTION Malaria case management is a pivotal intervention in malaria elimination. However, many remote areas in Brazil still lack access to basic health services. This study describes a community-based approach (CBA) for malaria case management in the large remote area of the Jaú National Park (JNP), Amazonas, Brazil. METHODS In 2001, a general health CBA was initiated with a motor group (MG); a participative community health diagnosis (PCHD) was subsequently implemented between 2001 and 2005. In 2006, a CBA for malaria case management started with an expanded MG including all sectors with a stake in malaria control, from the local residents to the federal government. In 2008, community microscopists were selected and trained to diagnose hemoparasites. A full malaria strategy was implemented in 2009 with subsequent quality control follow-up. RESULTS Two educational materials were co-created with local communities. The MG identified malaria as a major health problem and the malaria MG planned the control activities. Ten communities selected a resident to become malaria microscopists, and ten solar-operated health centers were built. The number of slide readings increased from 923 in 2006 to 1,900 in 2009, while malaria infections decreased from 354 cases in 2005 to 20 cases in 2015. The excess time (≥ 48 hours) between first symptoms and diagnosis/treatment decreased from 68.9% of cases in 2005 to 14.3% in 2010. CONCLUSIONS While many factors were likely involved in the reduction of malaria transmission in the JNP, the CBA played an important role in the sustained success of the initiative.

Humans , Rural Population , Community Health Services/organization & administration , Case Management , Malaria/diagnosis , Malaria/drug therapy , Brazil , Public Health , Community-Based Participatory Research
Int. j. high dilution res ; 19(1/2): 2-25, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS, HomeoIndex | ID: biblio-1146511


Background InKenya malaria is the leading cause for illness and death; homeopathy is used for many years to treat this disease. A previous study in Ghana in 1996, showed comparable effects of homeopathy and chloroquine. MethodsIn three studies we documented homeopathic treatment in a retrospective qualitative study, a prospective single arm study, and a comparison between one cohort receiving homeopathic treatment and the other artemether.ResultsIn the qualitative retrospective study (2014) (n=54), we related typicalmalaria and individual symptoms, with remedy prescriptions and affected organs. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed, that specific remedies were prescribed for patterns of affected organs.In the prospective study (2014) (n=70),the primary outcome was the parasitological status at the first follow up (median 8 days), secondary outcome was the quality of life measure with Outcome Related to Impact on Daily Life. In the third study, of the group (n=79) (b) exposed to homeopathy, n=6 (a) were still parasite-positive after one week, in the control (co-artem) group of n=35 (c) no patient was positive (d). The odds ratio was 5.8068 (95% CI 0.3183 ­105.8794), with z = 1.187 and P = 0.2352. The difference was not statistically significant; homeopathic remedies and coartem tablets had similar effect for uncomplicated malaria in that region.Co-morbidity was treated with different remedies.ConclusionHomeopathic treatment can be used as a valuable option, also when other treatments are ineffective by microbial resistance, not indicated (as in pregnancy) and financially not affordable.(AU)

Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Homeopathy , Kenya/epidemiology , Malaria/drug therapy
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 35(5): e00033417, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001664


Durante o período de pós-comercialização, quando medicamentos são usados por grandes populações e por períodos de tempo maiores, eventos adversos (EA) inesperados podem ocorrer, o que pode alterar a relação risco-benefício dos medicamentos o suficiente para exigir uma ação regulatória. Eventos adversos são agravos à saúde que podem surgir durante o tratamento com um produto farmacêutico, os quais, no período de pós-comercialização do medicamento, podem requerer um aumento significativo de cuidados de saúde e resultar em danos desnecessários aos pacientes, muitas vezes fatais. Portanto, o quanto antes, a descoberta de EA no período de pós-comercialização é um objetivo principal do sistema de saúde. Alguns países possuem sistemas de vigilância farmacológica responsáveis pela coleta de relatórios voluntários de EA na pós-comercialização, mas estudos já demonstraram que, com a utilização de redes sociais, pode-se conseguir um número maior e mais rápido de relatórios. O objetivo principal deste projeto é construir um sistema totalmente automatizado que utilize o Twitter como fonte para encontrar EA novos e já conhecidos e fazer a análise estatística dos dados obtidos. Para isso, foi construído um sistema que coleta, processa, analisa e avalia tweets em busca de EA, comparando-os com dados da Agência Americana de Controle de Alimentos e Medicamentos (FDA) e do padrão de referência construído. Nos resultados obtidos, conseguimos encontrar EA novos e já existentes relacionados ao medicamento doxiciclina, o que demonstra que o Twitter, quando utilizado em conjunto com outras fontes de dados, pode ser útil para a farmacovigilância.

Durante el período de poscomercialización, cuando grandes poblaciones consumen medicamentos durante períodos más prolongados de tiempo, se pueden producir eventos adversos (EA) inesperados, lo que puede alterar la relación riesgo-beneficio de los medicamentos. Esta situación es suficiente para exigir una acción regulatoria. Los EA son agravios a la salud que pueden surgir durante el tratamiento con un producto farmacéutico, los cuales, durante el período de poscomercialización del medicamento, pueden requerir un aumento significativo de cuidados de salud y resultar en lesiones innecesarias para los pacientes, muchas veces fatales. Por lo tanto, el hallazgo anticipado de EA durante el período de poscomercialización es un objetivo primordial del sistema de salud. Algunos países cuentan con sistemas de vigilancia farmacológica, responsables de la recogida de informes voluntarios de EA durante la poscomercialización, pero algunos estudios ya demostraron que, con la utilización de las redes sociales, se puede conseguir un número de informes mayor y más rápido. El objetivo principal de este proyecto es construir un sistema totalmente automatizado que utilice Twitter como fuente para encontrar nuevos EA y ya conocidos, además de realizar un análisis estadístico de los datos obtenidos. Para tal fin, se construyó un sistema que recoge, procesa, analiza y evalúa tweets en búsqueda de eventos adversos, comparándolos con datos de la Agencia Americana de Control de Alimentos y Medicamentos (FDA) y del estándar de referencia construido. En los resultados obtenidos, conseguimos encontrar nuevos eventos adversos y ya existentes, relacionados con el medicamento doxiciclina, lo que demuestra que Twitter, cuando es utilizado junto a otras fuentes de datos, puede ser útil para la farmacovigilancia.

During the post-marketing period, when medicines are used by large population contingents and for longer periods, unexpected adverse events (AE) can occur, potentially altering the drug's risk-benefit ratio enough to demand regulatory action. AE are health problems that can occur during treatment with a pharmaceutical product, which in the drug's post-marketing period can require a significant increase in health care and result in unnecessary and often fatal harm to patients. Therefore, a key objective for the health system is to identify AE as soon as possible in the post-marketing period. Some countries have pharmacovigilance systems responsible for collecting voluntary reports of post-marketing AE, but studies have shown that social networks can be used to obtain more and faster reports. The current project's main objective is to build a totally automated system using Twitter as a source to detect both new and previously known AE and conduct the statistical analysis of the resulting data. A system was thus built to collect, process, analyze, and assess tweets in search of AE, comparing them to U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) data and the reference standard. The results allowed detecting new and existing AE related to the drug doxycycline, showing that Twitter can be useful in pharmacovigilance when employed jointly with other data sources.

Humans , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Doxycycline/adverse effects , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/prevention & control , Data Mining/methods , Social Media , United States , United States Food and Drug Administration , Pharmaceutical Preparations/classification , Databases, Factual , Information Dissemination , Pharmacovigilance , Malaria/drug therapy
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2019. 105 p. graf, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008472


A malária, doença causada pelo protozoário do gênero Plasmodium, está entre as doenças que mais causam mortes os países subdesenvolvidosn. O hospedeiro é infectado por meio da picada do mosquito do gênero Anopheles, que introduz o parasita durante a hematofagia. As formas mais graves são causadas pelo Plasmodium vivax e o Plasmodium falciparum. As regiões mais afetadas por estas formas são África Subsaariana, Ásia, América Central e Sul. Desde o começo do século XXI, a Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS) busca erradicar a doença, porém o P.falciparum se mostrou resistente aos fármacos antimaláricos existentes, dificultando a eficácia do tratamento. Isto, entre outros fatores, como mortalidade e alto índice de infecção, tornam necessárias novas pesquisas para a descoberta de novos fármacos mais seguros e eficazes contra a malária. Estudos têm mostrado como um alvo promissor para a criação de novos antimaláricos, a cisteína protease falcipaína, a qual se apresenta em três isoformas no parasita, sendo elas, falcipaína 1, 2 e 3. A falcipaína 2 está ligada com a hidrólise da hemoglobina, e seus inibidores vem sendo estudados como alternativas na busca de agentes antimaláricos. Derivados de semicarbazona, tais como o nitrofural e o hidroximetilnitrofural demonstraram atividade inibitória de cisteíno proteases parasitárias. Utilizando estratégias modernas de planejamento de fármacos e por meio da integração entre técnicas computacionais e experimentais, realizou-se o planejamento, síntese e avaliação biológica de compostos derivados dos ditiocarbazatos e tiossemicarbazonas, bioisosteros de semicarbazona, como inibidores da cisteíno protease falcipaína 2, no intuito de obter novos antimaláricos. Aplicaram-se técnicas de modelagem molecular em três séries de compostos (A, B e C), sendo a A e B derivados dos ditiocarbazatos e a C das tiossemicarbazonas. Estes estudos sugerem, três compostos da série A, quatro na série B e três na C com maior potencial para inibição da falcipaína 2. Isso devido aos resultados teóricos indicarem condições favoráveis ao ataque nucleofílico da cisteína 42 catalítica da falcipaína 2 às tiocarbonilass presentes nos compostos planejados. Estes derivados foram sintetizados, analisados por espectroscopia de ressonância magnética de 1H e 13C, espectroscopia de IV, ponto de fusão e pureza caracterizando sua formação. Após a obtenção, os compostos foram enviados para ensaios biológicos frente ao parasita P. falciparum. Os compostos testados não apresentaram inibição, porém é sabido que muitos inibidores enzimáticos não são ativos contra o parasita mesmo tendo alta potência contra a enzima, isto devido às barreiras a serem ultrapassadas até chegar ao alvo bioquímico, deste modo faz-se necessário ensaios contra a enzima para validar nossa hipótese

Malaria, a disease caused by the protozoan of the genus Plasmodium, is among the most deadly diseases in poor countries. The host is infected through the bite of the mosquito of the genus ,i>Anopheles, which introduces the parasite during hematophagy. The most severe forms are caused by Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum. The regions most affected by these forms are Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, Central and South America. Since the beginning of the 21st century, the World Health Organization (WHO) has sought to eradicate the disease, but P. falciparum has been resistant to antimalarial drugs treatment. Among other factors, such as mortality and high infection rates, new research is needed to find new, safer and more effective drugs against malaria. Studies have shown as a promising target for the creation of new antimalarial drugs, the cysteine protease falcipain, which is present in three isoforms in the parasite: falcipain 1, 2 and 3. Falcipain 2 is linked to the hydrolysis of hemoglobin, and its inhibitors have been studied as alternatives in the search for antimalarial agents. Derivatives of semicarbazone such as nitrofural and hydroxymethylnitrofural demonstrated inhibitory activity of parasitic cysteine proteases. Using modern strategies for drug design and the integration of computational and experimental techniques, the design, synthesis and biological evaluation of compounds derived from dithiocarbazates and thiossemicarbazones, semicarbazone biosynthesis as inhibitors of cysteine protease falcipain 2 were carried out in order to new antimalarials. Molecular modeling studies were performed in three series of compounds (A, B and C), with A and B being derived from dithiocarbazates and C from thiossemicarbazones. These studies suggest three compounds in the A series, four in the B series, and three in the C group with the greatest potential for inhibition of falcipain 2. This is due to the theoretical results indicating favorable conditions for the nucleophilic attack of the catalytic cysteine of falcipain 2 on thionyls present in the compounds planned. These derivatives were synthesized, analyzed by 1H and 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy and melting point, characterizing their formation. After being obtained, the compounds were sent for biological assays against the P. falciparum parasite. The compounds tested did not show inhibition, but it is known that many enzyme inhibitors are not active against the parasite even though they have high potency against the enzyme, this is due to the barriers to be overcome until reaching the biochemical target, thus enzyme to validate our hypothesis

Plasmodium falciparum/classification , Biological Phenomena/analysis , Drug Discovery/instrumentation , Malaria/drug therapy , Cysteine Proteases/analysis , Antimalarials/analysis
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20190014, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041595


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Malaria is the main cause of death by infection among travelers and is preventable through a combination of chemoprophylaxis and personal protective measures. METHODS: Travelers were interviewed by phone 28-90 days after returning, to assess adherence to pre-travel advice for malaria prevention. RESULTS: A total 57 travelers were included. Adherence to chemoprophylaxis was significantly higher among participants prescribed mefloquine (n=18; 75%) than doxycycline (n=14; 45%). Adherence to mosquito repellent and bed net use was 65% and 67%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to malaria prophylaxis was lower than expected. Further studies testing innovative approaches to motivate travelers' compliance are required.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Mefloquine/therapeutic use , Doxycycline/therapeutic use , Medication Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/statistics & numerical data , Malaria/prevention & control , Malaria/drug therapy , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Travel , Middle Aged
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 84(4): 326-331, 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058155


RESUMEN Introducción: El síndrome de dificultad respiratoria aguda del adulto se presenta como una rara complicación obstétrica, siendo una de sus posibles etiologías la infección derivada por Plasmodium falciparum. La malaria complicada es cada vez menos frecuente, pero se asocia a una alta morbilidad y mortalidad en regiones endémicas, especialmente en pacientes embarazadas, quienes presentan un mayor riesgo de contraerla. Caso clínico: Presentamos el caso clínico de una embarazada con síndrome de dificultad respiratoria aguda del adulto secundario a una malaria complicada y que tiene un aborto de 14 semanas de gestación como consecuencia de esta complicación materna. Discusión: Se realiza una descripción del manejo de la paciente, a quien, a pesar del resultado obstétrico desfavorable, evoluciona satisfactoriamente, sin secuelas a largo plazo. En los casos de malaria en gestantes, es crucial no solo el diagnóstico precoz, sino también el inicio inmediato del tratamiento, con el fin de evitar la progresión a sus formas más severas.

ABSTRACT Introduction: The acute respiratory distress syndrome of the adult presents as a rare obstetric complication, being one of its possible etiologies the Plasmodium falciparum infection. Complicated malaria cases are increasingly rare but are associated with a high morbidity and mortality in endemic regions, especially in pregnant patients who are at a high risk of contracting malaria. Clinical case: We present the case of a pregnant patient with acute respiratory distress syndrome due to complicated malaria with a 14 weeks miscarriage secondary to maternal complications Discussion: We describe the patient's approach, who despite of the unfavorable obstetric outcome, had a satisfactory evolution without long term sequels. In obstetric malaria cases, it is not only crucial the early diagnosis but also the immediate treatment, in order to avoid the development of severe stages.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Pregnancy Complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/complications , Malaria/drug therapy , Malaria/diagnostic imaging , Plasmodium falciparum , Abortion, Spontaneous , Pregnant Women
Rev. biol. trop ; 66(4): 1412-1420, oct.-dic. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003334


Resumen Nuevos agentes antimaláricos a partir de plantas son estudiados como alternativas en el tratamiento de la malaria. Los principales antimaláricos como la cloroquina tienen varios mecanismos de acción contra parásitos, uno de ellos es la inhibición de polimerización del grupo hemo, modelo que ha permitido el diseño de nuevos candidatos antimaláricos. En este sentido, el objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar extractos de plantas de género Piper y Calophyllum sobre la capacidad de inhibición de la β-hematina. Se informa las concentraciones inhibitorias de la formación de β-hematina por parte de 40 extractos de diferente polaridad obtenidos a partir de las especies P. piedecuestanum, C. brasiliense, C. longinforium, y Calophyllum. sp. 19 extractos mostraron un mayor potencial para inhibir la formación de β−hematina con CI50 < 3mg / ml. Estas actividades respaldan principalmente, futuros estudios con el género Calophyllum, en el desarrollo y descubrimiento de nuevas sustancias antiplasmodiales con modos de acción conocido.(AU)

Abstract New antimalarial agents from plants are studied as alternatives in the treatment of malaria. The main antimalarials such as chloroquine have several mechanisms of action against parasites, one of which is the inhibition of polymerization of the heme group, a model that has allowed the design of new antimalarial candidates. In this sense the objective of this work was to evaluate extracts of genus Piper and Calophyllum plants on the inhibition capacity of β-hematin. Inhibitory concentrations of β-hematin are reported from 40 extracts of different polarity obtained from the species P. piedecuestanum, C. brasiliense, C. longinforium, and Calophyllum. sp. 19 extracts showed a greater potential to inhibit β-hematin with IC50 < 3 mg/ml. These activities mainly support future studies with the genus Calophyllum in the development and discovery of new antiplasmodial substances with known modes of action.(AU)

Chloroquine/pharmacology , Polymerization/drug effects , Heme-Binding Proteins , Malaria/drug therapy
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 23(7): 2277-2290, jul. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-952693


Resumo Este artigo analisa a ação de atores nacionais e internacionais na Assistência Farmacêutica (AF) em Moçambique, no período de 2007 a 2012, com foco na provisão pública de medicamentos para HIV/Aids, malária e tuberculose. Descreve-se o funcionamento da AF no país; os atores que atuam nesse âmbito e as relações entre eles; discutem-se questões relevantes sobre o modus operandi dos parceiros de cooperação. A metodologia combinou: revisão bibliográfica, levantamento e análise documental e entrevistas. O marco teórico e analítico utilizou a análise de políticas públicas com foco no papel do Estado e suas inter-relações como os demais atores na ajuda externa na área farmacêutica e a abordagem de redes. Conclui-se que a interação entre os atores envolvidos é complexa, caraterizada pela fragmentação operacional e sobreposição de atividades entre diversos entes; centralização da aquisição de medicamentos na mão de poucos agentes; by pass das estruturas nacionais e desconsideração do necessário fortalecimento do sistema nacional de saúde para a construção de sua autonomia. A despeito de alguns avanços na provisão e disponibilidade de medicamentos para essas doenças, existe forte dependência externa nesse âmbito, o que obstaculiza a sustentabilidade da AF em Moçambique.

Abstract This article examines the activities of national and international actors in Pharmaceutical Services (PS) in Mozambique from 2007 to 2012, focusing on the public provision of HIV/Aids, malaria and tuberculosis medicines. It describes how PS functions in the country, what actors are involved in this area and the relations among them, pursuing salient issues in the modus operandi of partners in cooperation. The methodology combines literature review, document survey and analysis and interviews. The theoretical and analytical framework was given by the policy analysis approach, focusing on the role of the State and its interrelations with other actors in foreign aid in PS, and also by the networks approach. It was concluded that the interactions among the actors involved is complex and characterised by operational fragmentation and overlapping of activities between entities, centralised medicine procurement in the hands of few agents, bypassing of national structures and disregard for the strengthening needed to bolster national health system autonomy. Despite some advances in the provision and availability of medicines for these diseases, external dependence is strong, which undermines the sustainability of PS in Mozambique.

Humans , Pharmaceutical Services/organization & administration , International Cooperation , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Anti-HIV Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-HIV Agents/supply & distribution , Health Policy , Malaria/drug therapy , Mozambique , Antimalarials/administration & dosage , Antimalarials/supply & distribution , Antitubercular Agents/administration & dosage , Antitubercular Agents/supply & distribution
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 83(2): 170-181, abr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-959501


RESUMEN Introducción: La malaria es una enfermedad infecciosa tropical de gran impacto epidemiológico a nivel mundial; las poblaciones con mayor susceptibilidad de padecerla son los niños menores de 5 años y las gestantes, en quienes, se pude no solo comprometer la salud de la madre sino también la del producto y su desarrollo, pudiendo ocurrir diferentes desenlaces adversos entre ellos la restricción del crecimiento intrauterino (RCIU), incrementando sustancialmente las tasas de mortalidad materna y perinatal. Es importante establecer un diagnóstico preciso y oportuno de la RCIU en fetos de gestantes que padecen de malaria, con el fin de llevar a cabo un enfoque de seguimiento y de manejo que puedan disminuir las complicaciones asociadas a la enfermedad. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica en la base de datos de Cochrane y PubMed, libros de la especialidad y consensos de sociedades científicas, relativos a los términos de: malaria during pregnancy, intrauterine growth restriction y malaria and fetal growth restriction. Se seleccionaron finalmente 42 artículos para análisis completo y crítico, que justificara la elaboración de esta revisión. Conclusión: esta revisión aporta elementos para establecer un alto grado de sospecha diagnóstica de malaria durante el embarazo en zonas endémicas para la malaria; además revela la necesidad de implementar protocolos de manejo especifico ante la RCIU según sea la etiología; ya que estas medidas impactaran positivamente en los resultados adversos de la enfermedad, sin olvidar que lo primordial es proteger plenamente a las mujeres contra la malaria desde el comienzo del embarazo hasta el parto.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic/epidemiology , Fetal Growth Retardation/epidemiology , Malaria/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic/parasitology , Fetal Growth Retardation/parasitology , Malaria/complications , Malaria/diagnosis , Malaria/drug therapy
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1264192


Introduction : La prise en charge du paludisme est une urgence médicale qui dépend du diagnostic et en particulier de la parasitémie du patient. Le comptage des parasites et des leucocytes en microscopie sur goutte épaisse (GE) est un socle dans l'estimation de cette parasitémie ou densité parasitaire (DP). Objectif général : ce travail visait à déterminer l'impact du taux des leucocytes par microlitre de sang sur l'établissement de la densité parasitaire. Méthodes : il s'agissait d'une étude prospective réalisée sur une population de 482 patients, consultés pour suspicion du paludisme au Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de la Mère et de l'Enfant Lagune (CHU-MEL) au Bénin, dans la période de Mai à Août 2015. Les densités parasitaires ont été calculées de deux manières : densité parasitaire standard (DPS) en utilisant le nombre de globules blancs standard 6000 défini par l'OMS comme coefficient de correction et densité parasitaire Réelle (DPR) qui utilise le nombre réel des globules blancs par microlitre de sang du patient. Résultats : Parmi les 482 échantillons testés, 40,66% contiennent de plasmodium. 81 ,54% des densités parasitaires standards calculées étaient sous- estimées contre 18,46% surestimées. La différence entre deux densités parasitaires d'un même patient a été significative (p<0 ,005). Conclusion : l'utilisation du coefficient 6000 dans l'estimation de la parasitémie, a entraîné une sous-estimation significative de la charge parasitaire et n'était pas adaptée à la réalité des patients consultés au CHU-MEL. L'étude suggèrerait à l'OMS et aux autorités du Ministère de la santé, la subvention de la réalisation de la numération des globules blancs réels du malade pour toutes réalisations de Goutte épaisse-Densité parasitaire (GE-DP) afin d'assurer aux patients une meilleure prise en charge du paludisme et un bon suivit de l'évolution de leur traitement

Benin , Leukocytes , Malaria/diagnosis , Malaria/drug therapy , Patients
Brasília; CONITEC; out. 2017. tab.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-906979


CONTEXTO: A malária é uma doença parasitária infecciosa aguda causada por protozoários do gênero Plasmodium e representa um grave problema de saúde pública. No Brasil, há três espécies associadas à malária em seres humanos: P. falciparum, P. vivax e P. malariae. O demandante solicitou o desinvestimento do medicamento artemeter 80 mg/ml, mantendo apenas o artesunato 60 mg/ml como opção de tratamento injetável com derivado de artemisinina para malária grave. A recomendação de retirada do artemeter fundamenta-se em orientação do guia de tratamento da Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS), publicado em 2015, que orienta que o tratamento de adultos e crianças com malária grave (incluindo as gestantes em todos os trimestres e mulheres lactantes) deve ser feito, preferencialmente, com artesunato intravenoso ou intramuscular. TECNOLOGIA SOLICITADA PARA DESINVESTIMENTO: Artemeter 80 mg/ml.: Tratamento da malária grave. EVIDÊNCIAS CIENTÍFICAS: Com o objetivo de avaliar se artesunato injetável é uma melhor opção terapêutica que o artemeter injetável para o tratamento da malária grave, em termos de eficácia, efetividade e segurança, foram pesquisadas evidências científicas comparando os dois medicamentos. Foi selecionada uma revisão sistemática da Cochrane que mostrou que o risco de mortalidade por todas as causas foi significativamente menor com o artesunato do que com o artemeter. O artesunato reduziu o risco de hipoglicemia, como evento adverso aos tratamentos, em relação ao artemeter. Não houve diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos na resolução do coma, no tempo para clearance do parasita e no tempo para desaparecimento da febre. IMPACTO ORÇAMENTÁRIO: Embora o custo de tratamento com artesunato 60 mg/mL seja maior do que com o artemeter 80 mg/ml, o demandante informou que não vai aumentar a quantidade de artesunato comprada, visto que os casos de malária grave estão diminuindo. RECOMENDAÇÃO DA CONITEC: Pelo exposto, os membros do Plenário da CONITEC, presentes na 56ª reunião ordinária, deliberaram que o tema fosse submetido à consulta pública com recomendação preliminar favorável ao desinvestimento do artemeter para tratamento da malária grave. CONSULTA PÚBLICA: Foi recebida somente 1 contribuição sobre experiência de profissional de saúde que concordou totalmente com a recomendação da CONITEC. : Os membros da CONITEC deliberaram por recomendar a exclusão do medicamento artemeter para o tratamento de malária grave. DECISÃO: A Portaria nº 42, de 9 de outubro de 2017, tornou pública a decisão de excluir o medicamento artemeter para o tratamento de Malária Grave, no âmbito do Sistema Único de Saúde ­ SUS.(AU)

Humans , Artemisinins/adverse effects , Artemisinins/therapeutic use , Drug Recalls , Malaria/drug therapy , Brazil , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Unified Health System
Belo Horizonte; s.n; 2017. 63 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-943115


Um dos maiores desafios do controle da malária é a resistência do parasito aos antimaláricos. A biologia molecular tem permitido a compreensão desse fenótipo com o estudo de marcadores associados a ela, tais como o Polimorfismo de Base Única (SNP) e o Polimorfismo de Variação de Número de Cópias Gênicas (CNV). Alterações gênicas atribuídas ao CNV podem levar a alterações fenotípicas no parasito, conferindo resistência ou suscetibilidade aos antimaláricos. Sua presença foi relacionada com a falha terapêutica a drogas como cloroquina (CQ) e mefloquina (MQ) em diversas regiões do mundo. Os genes pfmdr1 e pfgch1 de P. falciparum e pvmdr1 de P. vivax são relacionados com resistência a diferentes fármacos. Entretanto, no Brasil poucos estudos caracterizaram esses genes quanto à presença de CNVs, sendo que sua maioria investigou a diversidade genética associada aos SNPs. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a presença de CNV nos genes pfmdr1 e pfgch1 de P. falciparum e pvmdr1 e pvcrt-o de P. vivax, assim como SNPs nos genes pfcrt e pfmdr1 de P. falciparum. O CNV foi determinado por qPCR utilizando sondas de hidrólise e os SNPs por PCR-RFLP. As amostras foram coletadas entre 2002 a 2012, em 3 diferentes estados brasileiros – Mato Grosso (n=31), Rondônia (n=27) e Amapá (n=10)

As 31 amostras analisadas de P.falciparum apresentaram cópia única para pfmdr1 e pfgch1, apesar do histórico de resistência do parasito a vários antimaláricos utilizados ao longo do tempo no Brasil. Entretanto, um importante SNP em pfcrt (K76T), relacionado com resistência à CQ, foi identificado em todas as amostras analisadas. Nesse estudo, também foram analisados 38 isolados de P. vivax, sendo reportado a amplificação gênica em 7 (18%) amostras para pvmdr1. No sudoeste asiático altas taxas de CNV em pvmdr1 foram reportadas (38%), sendo relatado por um único estudo no Brasil (0,9% de amplificação). Um resultado importante desse estudo foi a observação, pela primeira vez, da amplificação de pvcrt-o. Embora estudos anteriores o associem com resistência e casos graves da doença, nenhum avaliou a presença de CNV em pvcrt-o. Este estudo é um dos primeiros a avaliar a presença de CNV nos genes pvmdr1, pvcrt-o e pfgch1 no Brasil, assim como estudar a distribuição de CNV no mundo através de uma revisão sistemática

Male , Female , Humans , Drug Resistance , Malaria/drug therapy , Plasmodium
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(4): 560-565, 09/06/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748861


A rapid decrease in parasitaemia remains the major goal for new antimalarial drugs and thus, in vivo models must provide precise results concerning parasitaemia modulation. Hydroxyethylamine comprise an important group of alkanolamine compounds that exhibit pharmacological properties as proteases inhibitors that has already been proposed as a new class of antimalarial drugs. Herein, it was tested the antimalarial property of new nine different hydroxyethylamine derivatives using the green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing Plasmodium berghei strain. By comparing flow cytometry and microscopic analysis to evaluate parasitaemia recrudescence, it was observed that flow cytometry was a more sensitive methodology. The nine hydroxyethylamine derivatives were obtained by inserting one of the following radical in the para position: H, 4Cl, 4-Br, 4-F, 4-CH3, 4-OCH3, 4-NO2, 4-NH2 and 3-Br. The antimalarial test showed that the compound that received the methyl group (4-CH3) inhibited 70% of parasite growth. Our results suggest that GFP-transfected P. berghei is a useful tool to study the recrudescence of novel antimalarial drugs through parasitaemia examination by flow cytometry. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the insertion of a methyl group at the para position of the sulfonamide ring appears to be critical for the antimalarial activity of this class of compounds.

Animals , Mice , Rats , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Malaria/drug therapy , Parasitemia/drug therapy , Plasmodium berghei/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , Flow Cytometry , Green Fluorescent Proteins , In Vitro Techniques , Malaria/parasitology , Parasitemia/parasitology
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-159427


Neurofibromatosis (von Recklinghausen disease) is a genetic disorder which is now not been considered to be most common due to a gradual increase in its number of cases worldwide. Its prevalence found is around 1 in 4000-5000 individuals with the incidence been found equally in all regions and reported in almost all ethnic groups. Two-three million cases are reported all over world so far with this disorder. It is an autosomal dominant trait with varied age range of the cases reported from 6 years to late adulthood. Disease occurs by a genetic mutation in the neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) gene (tumor suppressor gene) which is located on chromosome no. 17 at 17q11.2, responsible for coding of neurofibromin, a cytoplasmic protein. The effect of this mutation is elicited in almost all systems of the body with mild to severe complications. About half of the cases reported are present with new mutations in the NF1 genes. A patient afflicted with NF1 has around 50-60% of chances of transmitting the disease to each of his/her offspring. Presenting here a case of the female patient diagnosed malaria associated with NF1.

Female , Humans , Malaria/diagnosis , Malaria/drug therapy , Malaria/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Neurofibromin 1/genetics , Neurofibromatosis 1/diagnosis , Neurofibromatosis 1/epidemiology , Neurofibromatosis 1/genetics , Review Literature as Topic
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158453


Background & objectives: Malaria is a serious problem in the countries of the developing world. As the malaria parasite has become resistant to most of the antimalaria drugs available currently, there is a need to search for newer drugs. This study reports the pharmaceutical quality and in vivo antimalarial activities of a polyherbal formulation (SAABMAL®) used as malarial remedy in Nigeria. Methods: The antiplasmodial activity of SAABMAL® was determined by using the 4-day suppressive test in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice. The formulation was tried on three different experimental animal models for in vivo antimalarial activities, which are prophylactic, suppressive and curative in mice. Chloroquine and pyrimethamine were used as standard drugs for comparison. Results: The suppressive study showed that, SAABMAL® (200 and 400 mg/kg/bw) significantly (p<0.01) produced a suppression (29.39 - 100%) of parasitaemia in a dose-dependent manner, while the curative study showed that SAABMAL® at 400 mg significantly (p<0.01) reduced (95.80%) parasitaemia compared with controls. The mean survival time of SAABMAL®-treated groups (100 and 200 mg/kg) was higher than that of the chloroquine-treated group. Histopathologically, no changes were found in the spleen of both untreated and treated groups. SAABMAL® capsules were of good mechanical properties with low weight variation and high degree of content mass uniformity. Interpretation & conclusions: The results obtained in this study showed the efficacy of SAABMAL®, a herbal antimalarial formulation against chloroquine sensitive malaria and its potential use in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria infection. Further studies need to be done in humans to test its efficacy and safety for its potential use as an antimalarial drug.

Animals , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Humans , Malaria/drug therapy , Medicine, Traditional , Mice , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Tropical Climate
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(5): 546-552, 19/08/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-720416


Due to the recent advances of atovaquone, a naphthoquinone, through clinical trials as treatment for malarial infection, 19 quinone derivatives with previously reported structures were also evaluated for blood schizonticide activity against the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. These compounds include 2-hydroxy-3-methylamino naphthoquinones (2-9), lapachol (10), nor-lapachol (11), iso-lapachol (12), phthiocol (13) and phenazines (12-20). Their cytotoxicities were also evaluated against human hepatoma and normal monkey kidney cell lines. Compounds 2 and 5 showed the highest activity against P. falciparum chloroquine-resistant blood-stage parasites (clone W2), indicated by their low inhibitory concentration for 50% (IC50) of parasite growth. The therapeutic potential of the active compounds was evaluated according to the selectivity index, which is a ratio of the cytotoxicity minimum lethal dose which eliminates 50% of cells and the in vitro IC50. Naphthoquinones 2 and 5, with activities similar to the reference antimalarial chloroquine, were also active against malaria in mice and suppressed parasitaemia by more than 60% in contrast to compound 11 which was inactive. Based on their in vitro and in vivo activities, compounds 2 and 5 are considered promising molecules for antimalarial treatment and warrant further study.

Animals , Humans , Mice , Antimalarials/pharmacology , Malaria/drug therapy , Naphthoquinones/pharmacology , Phenazines/pharmacology , Plasmodium berghei/drug effects , Plasmodium falciparum/drug effects , Antimalarials/chemistry , Cell Line , Disease Models, Animal , Malaria/parasitology , Naphthoquinones/chemistry , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests , Parasitemia/drug therapy , Phenazines/chemistry