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Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20074, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403714


Abstract Morinda lucida leaves are largely used by Congolese traditional healers for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. The antimalarial activity of their ethanolic extract has been confirmed both in vitro and in vivo. However, the development of relevant formulations for potential clinical application is hampered since the active ingredients contained in this extract exhibit poor water solubility and low oral bioavailability. Hence, this work aims not only to develop self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDSs) for oral delivery of the ethanolic extract of Morinda lucida (ML) but also to evaluate its oral antimalarial activity alone and in combination with other Congolese ethanolic plant extracts (Alstonia congensis, Garcinia kola, Lantana camara, Morinda morindoides or Newbouldia laevis). Based on the solubility of these different extracts in various excipients, SNEDDS preconcentrates were prepared, and 200 mg/g of each plant extract were suspended in these formulations. The 4-day suppressive Peter's test revealed a significant parasite growth inhibiting effect for all the extract-based SNEDDS (from 55.0 to 82.4 %) at 200 mg/kg. These activities were higher than those of their corresponding ethanolic suspensions given orally at the same dose (p<0.05). The combination therapy of MLSNEDDS with other extract-based SNEDDS exhibited remarkable chemosuppression, ranging from 74.3 % to 95.8 % (for 100 + 100 mg/kg) and 86.7 % to 95.5 % (for 200 + 200 mg/kg/day). In regard to these findings, SNEDDS suspension may constitute a promising approach for oral delivery of ML alone or in combination with other antimalarial plants.

Plants/metabolism , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Morinda/adverse effects , Antimalarials/analysis , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Drug Delivery Systems , Dosage , Malaria/drug therapy
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 57: e181086, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350237


Malaria is nowadays one of the most serious health concerns in a global scale and, although there is an evident increase in research studies in this area, pointed by the vast number of hits and leads, it still appears as a recurrent topic every year due to the drug resistance shown by the parasite exposing the urgent need to develop new antimalarial medications. In this work, 38 molecules were synthesized via copper(I)-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition (CuAAC) or "click" chemistry, following different routes to produce 2 different organic azides, obtained from a 4,7 dicholoquinoline, reacted with 19 different commercially available terminal alkynes. All those new compounds were evaluated for their in vitro activity against the chloroquine resistant malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (W2). The cytotoxicity evaluation was accomplished using Hep G2 cells and SI index was calculated for every molecule. Some of the quinoline derivatives have shown high antimalarial activity, with IC50 values in the range of 1.72-8.66 µM, low cytotoxicity, with CC50>1000 µM and selectivity index (SI) in the range of 20-100, with some compounds showing SI>800. Therefore, the quinolinotriazole hybrids could be considered a very important step on the development of new antimalarial drugs

In Vitro Techniques/instrumentation , Chloroquine/administration & dosage , Malaria/drug therapy , Antimalarials/analysis , Plasmodium falciparum/metabolism , Research/classification , Drug Resistance/drug effects , Chimera/abnormalities , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Click Chemistry
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e05362020, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155593


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), such as artemisinin-piperaquine (AP), dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP), and artemether-lumefantrine (AL), is the first-line treatment for malaria in many malaria-endemic areas. However, we lack a detailed evaluation of the cardiotoxicity of these ACTs. This study aimed to analyze the electrocardiographic effects of these three ACTs in malaria patients. METHODS: We analyzed the clinical data of 89 hospitalized patients with falciparum malaria who had received oral doses of three different ACTs. According to the ACTs administered, these patients were divided into three treatment groups: 27 treated with AP (Artequick), 31 with DP (Artekin), and 31 with AL (Coartem). Electrocardiograms and other indicators were recorded before and after the treatment. The QT interval was calculated using Fridericia's formula (QTcF) and Bazett's formula (QTcB). RESULTS: Both QTcF and QTcB interval prolongation occurred in all three groups. The incidence of such prolongation between the three groups was not significantly different. The incidence of both moderate and severe prolongation was not significantly different between the three groups. The ΔQTcF and ΔQTcB of the three groups were not significantly different. The intra-group comparison showed significant prolongation of QTcF after AL treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Clinically recommended doses of DP, AL, and AP may cause QT prolongation in some malaria patients but do not cause torsades de pointes ventricular tachycardia or other arrhythmias.

Humans , Malaria, Falciparum/drug therapy , Artemisinins/adverse effects , Malaria/drug therapy , Antimalarials/adverse effects , Quinolines , Drug Combinations , Electrocardiography , Artemether/therapeutic use , Artemether, Lumefantrine Drug Combination/therapeutic use
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e210207, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346578


BACKGROUND Treatment of mycoses is often ineffective, usually prolonged, and has some side effects. These facts highlight the importance of discovering new molecules to treat fungal infections. OBJECTIVES To search the Medicines for Malaria Venture COVID Box for drugs with antifungal activity. METHODS Fourteen human pathogenic fungi were tested against the 160 drugs of this collection at 1.0 µM concentration. We evaluated the ability of the drugs to impair fungal growth, their fungicidal nature, and morphological changes caused to cells. FINDINGS Thirty-four molecules (21.25%) presented antifungal activity. Seven are antifungal drugs and one is the agricultural fungicide cycloheximide. The other drugs with antifungal activity included antibiotics (n = 3), antimalarials (n = 4), antivirals (n = 2), antiparasitcs (n = 3), antitumor agents (n = 5), nervous system agents (n = 3), immunosuppressants (n = 3), antivomiting (n = 1), antiasthmatic (n = 1), and a genetic disorder agent (n = 1). Several of these drugs inhibited Histoplasma capsulatum and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis growth (15 and 20, respectively), while Fusarium solani was not affected by the drugs tested. Most drugs were fungistatic, but niclosamide presented fungicidal activity against the three dimorphic fungi tested. Cyclosporine affected morphology of Cryptococcus neoformans. MAIN CONCLUSIONS These drugs represent new alternatives to the development of more accessible and effective therapies to treat human fungal infections.

Humans , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Cryptococcus neoformans , COVID-19 , Malaria/drug therapy , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Drug Repositioning , SARS-CoV-2 , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888193


As a unicellular organism, Plasmodium displays a panoply of lipid metabolism pathways that are seldom found together in a unicellular organism. These pathways mostly involve the Plasmodium-encoded enzymatic machinery and meet the requirements of membrane synthesis during the rapid cell growth and division throughout the life cycle. Different lipids have varied synthesis and meta-bolism pathways. For example, the major phospholipids are synthesized via CDP-diacylglycerol-dependent pathway in prokaryotes and de novo pathway in eukaryotes, and fatty acids are synthesized mainly via type Ⅱ fatty acid synthesis pathway. The available studies have demonstrated the impacts of artemisinin and its derivatives, the front-line compounds against malaria, on the lipid metabolism of Plasmodium. Therefore, this article reviewed the known lipid metabolism pathways and the effects of artemisinin and its derivatives on these pathways, aiming to deepen the understanding of lipid synthesis and metabolism in Plasmodium and provide a theoretical basis for the research on the mechanisms and drug resistance of artemisinin and other anti-malarial drugs.

Humans , Antimalarials/pharmacology , Artemisinins/therapeutic use , Lipid Metabolism , Malaria/drug therapy , Plasmodium
Brasília; Brasil. Ministério da Saúde; 2021.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1391229


Este documento constitui-se em um guia de orientação geral para o tratamento da malária, e fundamenta-se em uma revisão das melhores evidências da eficácia e da segurança dos antimaláricos. Entretanto, é indispensável lembrar-se de que casos que não estejam contemplados neste Guia devem ser discutidos diretamente com profissionais e unidades de referência.

Plasmodium/drug effects , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Public Health Surveillance/methods , Malaria/drug therapy , Brazil/epidemiology
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200048, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136798


Abstract INTRODUCTION Malaria case management is a pivotal intervention in malaria elimination. However, many remote areas in Brazil still lack access to basic health services. This study describes a community-based approach (CBA) for malaria case management in the large remote area of the Jaú National Park (JNP), Amazonas, Brazil. METHODS In 2001, a general health CBA was initiated with a motor group (MG); a participative community health diagnosis (PCHD) was subsequently implemented between 2001 and 2005. In 2006, a CBA for malaria case management started with an expanded MG including all sectors with a stake in malaria control, from the local residents to the federal government. In 2008, community microscopists were selected and trained to diagnose hemoparasites. A full malaria strategy was implemented in 2009 with subsequent quality control follow-up. RESULTS Two educational materials were co-created with local communities. The MG identified malaria as a major health problem and the malaria MG planned the control activities. Ten communities selected a resident to become malaria microscopists, and ten solar-operated health centers were built. The number of slide readings increased from 923 in 2006 to 1,900 in 2009, while malaria infections decreased from 354 cases in 2005 to 20 cases in 2015. The excess time (≥ 48 hours) between first symptoms and diagnosis/treatment decreased from 68.9% of cases in 2005 to 14.3% in 2010. CONCLUSIONS While many factors were likely involved in the reduction of malaria transmission in the JNP, the CBA played an important role in the sustained success of the initiative.

Humans , Rural Population , Community Health Services/organization & administration , Case Management , Malaria/diagnosis , Malaria/drug therapy , Brazil , Public Health , Community-Based Participatory Research
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200229, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135249


Malaria and tuberculosis are no longer considered to be neglected diseases by the World Health Organization. However, both are huge challenges and public health problems in the world, which affect poor people, today referred to as neglected populations. In addition, malaria and tuberculosis present the same difficulties regarding the treatment, such as toxicity and the microbial resistance. The increase of Plasmodium resistance to the available drugs along with the insurgence of multidrug- and particularly tuberculosis drug-resistant strains are enough to justify efforts towards the development of novel medicines for both diseases. This literature review provides an overview of the state of the art of antimalarial and antituberculosis chemotherapies, emphasising novel drugs introduced in the pharmaceutical market and the advances in research of new candidates for these diseases, and including some aspects of their mechanism/sites of action.

Humans , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Malaria/drug therapy , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Neglected Diseases , Malaria/diagnosis
Int. j. high dilution res ; 19(1/2): 2-25, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS, HomeoIndex | ID: biblio-1146511


Background InKenya malaria is the leading cause for illness and death; homeopathy is used for many years to treat this disease. A previous study in Ghana in 1996, showed comparable effects of homeopathy and chloroquine. MethodsIn three studies we documented homeopathic treatment in a retrospective qualitative study, a prospective single arm study, and a comparison between one cohort receiving homeopathic treatment and the other artemether.ResultsIn the qualitative retrospective study (2014) (n=54), we related typicalmalaria and individual symptoms, with remedy prescriptions and affected organs. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed, that specific remedies were prescribed for patterns of affected organs.In the prospective study (2014) (n=70),the primary outcome was the parasitological status at the first follow up (median 8 days), secondary outcome was the quality of life measure with Outcome Related to Impact on Daily Life. In the third study, of the group (n=79) (b) exposed to homeopathy, n=6 (a) were still parasite-positive after one week, in the control (co-artem) group of n=35 (c) no patient was positive (d). The odds ratio was 5.8068 (95% CI 0.3183 ­105.8794), with z = 1.187 and P = 0.2352. The difference was not statistically significant; homeopathic remedies and coartem tablets had similar effect for uncomplicated malaria in that region.Co-morbidity was treated with different remedies.ConclusionHomeopathic treatment can be used as a valuable option, also when other treatments are ineffective by microbial resistance, not indicated (as in pregnancy) and financially not affordable.(AU)

Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Homeopathy , Kenya/epidemiology , Malaria/drug therapy
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 84(4): 326-331, 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058155


RESUMEN Introducción: El síndrome de dificultad respiratoria aguda del adulto se presenta como una rara complicación obstétrica, siendo una de sus posibles etiologías la infección derivada por Plasmodium falciparum. La malaria complicada es cada vez menos frecuente, pero se asocia a una alta morbilidad y mortalidad en regiones endémicas, especialmente en pacientes embarazadas, quienes presentan un mayor riesgo de contraerla. Caso clínico: Presentamos el caso clínico de una embarazada con síndrome de dificultad respiratoria aguda del adulto secundario a una malaria complicada y que tiene un aborto de 14 semanas de gestación como consecuencia de esta complicación materna. Discusión: Se realiza una descripción del manejo de la paciente, a quien, a pesar del resultado obstétrico desfavorable, evoluciona satisfactoriamente, sin secuelas a largo plazo. En los casos de malaria en gestantes, es crucial no solo el diagnóstico precoz, sino también el inicio inmediato del tratamiento, con el fin de evitar la progresión a sus formas más severas.

ABSTRACT Introduction: The acute respiratory distress syndrome of the adult presents as a rare obstetric complication, being one of its possible etiologies the Plasmodium falciparum infection. Complicated malaria cases are increasingly rare but are associated with a high morbidity and mortality in endemic regions, especially in pregnant patients who are at a high risk of contracting malaria. Clinical case: We present the case of a pregnant patient with acute respiratory distress syndrome due to complicated malaria with a 14 weeks miscarriage secondary to maternal complications Discussion: We describe the patient's approach, who despite of the unfavorable obstetric outcome, had a satisfactory evolution without long term sequels. In obstetric malaria cases, it is not only crucial the early diagnosis but also the immediate treatment, in order to avoid the development of severe stages.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Pregnancy Complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/complications , Malaria/drug therapy , Malaria/diagnostic imaging , Plasmodium falciparum , Abortion, Spontaneous , Pregnant Women
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20190014, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041595


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Malaria is the main cause of death by infection among travelers and is preventable through a combination of chemoprophylaxis and personal protective measures. METHODS: Travelers were interviewed by phone 28-90 days after returning, to assess adherence to pre-travel advice for malaria prevention. RESULTS: A total 57 travelers were included. Adherence to chemoprophylaxis was significantly higher among participants prescribed mefloquine (n=18; 75%) than doxycycline (n=14; 45%). Adherence to mosquito repellent and bed net use was 65% and 67%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to malaria prophylaxis was lower than expected. Further studies testing innovative approaches to motivate travelers' compliance are required.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Mefloquine/therapeutic use , Doxycycline/therapeutic use , Medication Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/statistics & numerical data , Malaria/prevention & control , Malaria/drug therapy , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Travel , Middle Aged
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2019. 105 p. graf, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008472


A malária, doença causada pelo protozoário do gênero Plasmodium, está entre as doenças que mais causam mortes os países subdesenvolvidosn. O hospedeiro é infectado por meio da picada do mosquito do gênero Anopheles, que introduz o parasita durante a hematofagia. As formas mais graves são causadas pelo Plasmodium vivax e o Plasmodium falciparum. As regiões mais afetadas por estas formas são África Subsaariana, Ásia, América Central e Sul. Desde o começo do século XXI, a Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS) busca erradicar a doença, porém o P.falciparum se mostrou resistente aos fármacos antimaláricos existentes, dificultando a eficácia do tratamento. Isto, entre outros fatores, como mortalidade e alto índice de infecção, tornam necessárias novas pesquisas para a descoberta de novos fármacos mais seguros e eficazes contra a malária. Estudos têm mostrado como um alvo promissor para a criação de novos antimaláricos, a cisteína protease falcipaína, a qual se apresenta em três isoformas no parasita, sendo elas, falcipaína 1, 2 e 3. A falcipaína 2 está ligada com a hidrólise da hemoglobina, e seus inibidores vem sendo estudados como alternativas na busca de agentes antimaláricos. Derivados de semicarbazona, tais como o nitrofural e o hidroximetilnitrofural demonstraram atividade inibitória de cisteíno proteases parasitárias. Utilizando estratégias modernas de planejamento de fármacos e por meio da integração entre técnicas computacionais e experimentais, realizou-se o planejamento, síntese e avaliação biológica de compostos derivados dos ditiocarbazatos e tiossemicarbazonas, bioisosteros de semicarbazona, como inibidores da cisteíno protease falcipaína 2, no intuito de obter novos antimaláricos. Aplicaram-se técnicas de modelagem molecular em três séries de compostos (A, B e C), sendo a A e B derivados dos ditiocarbazatos e a C das tiossemicarbazonas. Estes estudos sugerem, três compostos da série A, quatro na série B e três na C com maior potencial para inibição da falcipaína 2. Isso devido aos resultados teóricos indicarem condições favoráveis ao ataque nucleofílico da cisteína 42 catalítica da falcipaína 2 às tiocarbonilass presentes nos compostos planejados. Estes derivados foram sintetizados, analisados por espectroscopia de ressonância magnética de 1H e 13C, espectroscopia de IV, ponto de fusão e pureza caracterizando sua formação. Após a obtenção, os compostos foram enviados para ensaios biológicos frente ao parasita P. falciparum. Os compostos testados não apresentaram inibição, porém é sabido que muitos inibidores enzimáticos não são ativos contra o parasita mesmo tendo alta potência contra a enzima, isto devido às barreiras a serem ultrapassadas até chegar ao alvo bioquímico, deste modo faz-se necessário ensaios contra a enzima para validar nossa hipótese

Malaria, a disease caused by the protozoan of the genus Plasmodium, is among the most deadly diseases in poor countries. The host is infected through the bite of the mosquito of the genus ,i>Anopheles, which introduces the parasite during hematophagy. The most severe forms are caused by Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum. The regions most affected by these forms are Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, Central and South America. Since the beginning of the 21st century, the World Health Organization (WHO) has sought to eradicate the disease, but P. falciparum has been resistant to antimalarial drugs treatment. Among other factors, such as mortality and high infection rates, new research is needed to find new, safer and more effective drugs against malaria. Studies have shown as a promising target for the creation of new antimalarial drugs, the cysteine protease falcipain, which is present in three isoforms in the parasite: falcipain 1, 2 and 3. Falcipain 2 is linked to the hydrolysis of hemoglobin, and its inhibitors have been studied as alternatives in the search for antimalarial agents. Derivatives of semicarbazone such as nitrofural and hydroxymethylnitrofural demonstrated inhibitory activity of parasitic cysteine proteases. Using modern strategies for drug design and the integration of computational and experimental techniques, the design, synthesis and biological evaluation of compounds derived from dithiocarbazates and thiossemicarbazones, semicarbazone biosynthesis as inhibitors of cysteine protease falcipain 2 were carried out in order to new antimalarials. Molecular modeling studies were performed in three series of compounds (A, B and C), with A and B being derived from dithiocarbazates and C from thiossemicarbazones. These studies suggest three compounds in the A series, four in the B series, and three in the C group with the greatest potential for inhibition of falcipain 2. This is due to the theoretical results indicating favorable conditions for the nucleophilic attack of the catalytic cysteine of falcipain 2 on thionyls present in the compounds planned. These derivatives were synthesized, analyzed by 1H and 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy and melting point, characterizing their formation. After being obtained, the compounds were sent for biological assays against the P. falciparum parasite. The compounds tested did not show inhibition, but it is known that many enzyme inhibitors are not active against the parasite even though they have high potency against the enzyme, this is due to the barriers to be overcome until reaching the biochemical target, thus enzyme to validate our hypothesis

Plasmodium falciparum/classification , /analysis , Drug Discovery/instrumentation , Malaria/drug therapy , Cysteine Proteases/analysis , Antimalarials/analysis
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 35(5): e00033417, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001664


Durante o período de pós-comercialização, quando medicamentos são usados por grandes populações e por períodos de tempo maiores, eventos adversos (EA) inesperados podem ocorrer, o que pode alterar a relação risco-benefício dos medicamentos o suficiente para exigir uma ação regulatória. Eventos adversos são agravos à saúde que podem surgir durante o tratamento com um produto farmacêutico, os quais, no período de pós-comercialização do medicamento, podem requerer um aumento significativo de cuidados de saúde e resultar em danos desnecessários aos pacientes, muitas vezes fatais. Portanto, o quanto antes, a descoberta de EA no período de pós-comercialização é um objetivo principal do sistema de saúde. Alguns países possuem sistemas de vigilância farmacológica responsáveis pela coleta de relatórios voluntários de EA na pós-comercialização, mas estudos já demonstraram que, com a utilização de redes sociais, pode-se conseguir um número maior e mais rápido de relatórios. O objetivo principal deste projeto é construir um sistema totalmente automatizado que utilize o Twitter como fonte para encontrar EA novos e já conhecidos e fazer a análise estatística dos dados obtidos. Para isso, foi construído um sistema que coleta, processa, analisa e avalia tweets em busca de EA, comparando-os com dados da Agência Americana de Controle de Alimentos e Medicamentos (FDA) e do padrão de referência construído. Nos resultados obtidos, conseguimos encontrar EA novos e já existentes relacionados ao medicamento doxiciclina, o que demonstra que o Twitter, quando utilizado em conjunto com outras fontes de dados, pode ser útil para a farmacovigilância.

Durante el período de poscomercialización, cuando grandes poblaciones consumen medicamentos durante períodos más prolongados de tiempo, se pueden producir eventos adversos (EA) inesperados, lo que puede alterar la relación riesgo-beneficio de los medicamentos. Esta situación es suficiente para exigir una acción regulatoria. Los EA son agravios a la salud que pueden surgir durante el tratamiento con un producto farmacéutico, los cuales, durante el período de poscomercialización del medicamento, pueden requerir un aumento significativo de cuidados de salud y resultar en lesiones innecesarias para los pacientes, muchas veces fatales. Por lo tanto, el hallazgo anticipado de EA durante el período de poscomercialización es un objetivo primordial del sistema de salud. Algunos países cuentan con sistemas de vigilancia farmacológica, responsables de la recogida de informes voluntarios de EA durante la poscomercialización, pero algunos estudios ya demostraron que, con la utilización de las redes sociales, se puede conseguir un número de informes mayor y más rápido. El objetivo principal de este proyecto es construir un sistema totalmente automatizado que utilice Twitter como fuente para encontrar nuevos EA y ya conocidos, además de realizar un análisis estadístico de los datos obtenidos. Para tal fin, se construyó un sistema que recoge, procesa, analiza y evalúa tweets en búsqueda de eventos adversos, comparándolos con datos de la Agencia Americana de Control de Alimentos y Medicamentos (FDA) y del estándar de referencia construido. En los resultados obtenidos, conseguimos encontrar nuevos eventos adversos y ya existentes, relacionados con el medicamento doxiciclina, lo que demuestra que Twitter, cuando es utilizado junto a otras fuentes de datos, puede ser útil para la farmacovigilancia.

During the post-marketing period, when medicines are used by large population contingents and for longer periods, unexpected adverse events (AE) can occur, potentially altering the drug's risk-benefit ratio enough to demand regulatory action. AE are health problems that can occur during treatment with a pharmaceutical product, which in the drug's post-marketing period can require a significant increase in health care and result in unnecessary and often fatal harm to patients. Therefore, a key objective for the health system is to identify AE as soon as possible in the post-marketing period. Some countries have pharmacovigilance systems responsible for collecting voluntary reports of post-marketing AE, but studies have shown that social networks can be used to obtain more and faster reports. The current project's main objective is to build a totally automated system using Twitter as a source to detect both new and previously known AE and conduct the statistical analysis of the resulting data. A system was thus built to collect, process, analyze, and assess tweets in search of AE, comparing them to U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) data and the reference standard. The results allowed detecting new and existing AE related to the drug doxycycline, showing that Twitter can be useful in pharmacovigilance when employed jointly with other data sources.

Humans , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Doxycycline/adverse effects , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/prevention & control , Data Mining/methods , Social Media , United States , United States Food and Drug Administration , Pharmaceutical Preparations/classification , Databases, Factual , Information Dissemination , Pharmacovigilance , Malaria/drug therapy
Rev. biol. trop ; 66(4): 1412-1420, oct.-dic. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003334


Resumen Nuevos agentes antimaláricos a partir de plantas son estudiados como alternativas en el tratamiento de la malaria. Los principales antimaláricos como la cloroquina tienen varios mecanismos de acción contra parásitos, uno de ellos es la inhibición de polimerización del grupo hemo, modelo que ha permitido el diseño de nuevos candidatos antimaláricos. En este sentido, el objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar extractos de plantas de género Piper y Calophyllum sobre la capacidad de inhibición de la β-hematina. Se informa las concentraciones inhibitorias de la formación de β-hematina por parte de 40 extractos de diferente polaridad obtenidos a partir de las especies P. piedecuestanum, C. brasiliense, C. longinforium, y Calophyllum. sp. 19 extractos mostraron un mayor potencial para inhibir la formación de β−hematina con CI50 < 3mg / ml. Estas actividades respaldan principalmente, futuros estudios con el género Calophyllum, en el desarrollo y descubrimiento de nuevas sustancias antiplasmodiales con modos de acción conocido.(AU)

Abstract New antimalarial agents from plants are studied as alternatives in the treatment of malaria. The main antimalarials such as chloroquine have several mechanisms of action against parasites, one of which is the inhibition of polymerization of the heme group, a model that has allowed the design of new antimalarial candidates. In this sense the objective of this work was to evaluate extracts of genus Piper and Calophyllum plants on the inhibition capacity of β-hematin. Inhibitory concentrations of β-hematin are reported from 40 extracts of different polarity obtained from the species P. piedecuestanum, C. brasiliense, C. longinforium, and Calophyllum. sp. 19 extracts showed a greater potential to inhibit β-hematin with IC50 < 3 mg/ml. These activities mainly support future studies with the genus Calophyllum in the development and discovery of new antiplasmodial substances with known modes of action.(AU)

Chloroquine/pharmacology , Polymerization/drug effects , Heme-Binding Proteins , Malaria/drug therapy
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 35(3): 497-504, jul.-sep. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-978889


RESUMEN Al final de los 90 en el Perú, después de determinar la resistencia a antimaláricos, se decidió el cambio de los esquemas terapéuticos antimaláricos, que incluía la terapia combinada para P. falciparum, mefloquina/artesunato en la amazonia y sulfadoxina pirimetamina/artesunato en la costa norte. Luego de dos décadas, con el objetivo de evaluar el impacto en la endemia de malaria de estos esquemas, se revisaron los reportes de malaria en tres departamentos que juntos agrupan más del 70% de los casos reportados en el país. Fue evidente el mayor impacto del esquema sulfadoxinapirimetamina/artesunato en costa norte reduciendo a casi cero los casos de P. falciparum luego de cuatro años de implementar terapia combinada. La monodosis y la capacidad de limitar el desarrollo de esporozoitos fueron importantes para conseguir este objetivo. El esquema mefloquina/artesunato tuvo impacto limitado por la imposibilidad de asegurar tratamiento supervisado en los servicios de salud y la necesidad de tres dosis. Seleccionar un esquema eficaz y de fácil administración es importante al elegir la primera línea de tratamiento para malaria. Esta experiencia es significativa para los objetivos de eliminación de la malaria en el Perú.

ABSTRACT At the end of the 90s in Peru, after determining the resistance to antimalarial drugs, a change in antimalarial treatment schemes was decided; this change included the combined therapy for P. falciparum, mefloquine/artesunate in the Amazon region, and sulfadoxine pyrimethamine/artesunate in the North coast. After two decades, and aimed at assessing the impact of these schemes on the malaria endemic, a review was conducted of malaria reports in three departments accounting for more than 70% of cases reported in the country. The major impact of the sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine/ artesunate scheme in the North coast was evident since it reduced the number of cases of P. falciparum to virtually zero four years after implementation of the combined therapy. The single dose and the ability to limit the development of sporozoites were crucial in order to achieve this goal. The mefloquine/artesunate scheme had a limited impact because it was not possible to ensure supervised treatment in the health service facilities and the need for three doses. It is important to select an effective and easy-to-administer scheme when choosing the first line of treatment for malaria. This experience is significant for the malaria eradication goals in Peru.

Humans , Malaria/drug therapy , Malaria/transmission , Antimalarials/administration & dosage , Peru , Time Factors , Clinical Protocols , Drug Combinations , Health Policy
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 23(7): 2277-2290, jul. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-952693


Resumo Este artigo analisa a ação de atores nacionais e internacionais na Assistência Farmacêutica (AF) em Moçambique, no período de 2007 a 2012, com foco na provisão pública de medicamentos para HIV/Aids, malária e tuberculose. Descreve-se o funcionamento da AF no país; os atores que atuam nesse âmbito e as relações entre eles; discutem-se questões relevantes sobre o modus operandi dos parceiros de cooperação. A metodologia combinou: revisão bibliográfica, levantamento e análise documental e entrevistas. O marco teórico e analítico utilizou a análise de políticas públicas com foco no papel do Estado e suas inter-relações como os demais atores na ajuda externa na área farmacêutica e a abordagem de redes. Conclui-se que a interação entre os atores envolvidos é complexa, caraterizada pela fragmentação operacional e sobreposição de atividades entre diversos entes; centralização da aquisição de medicamentos na mão de poucos agentes; by pass das estruturas nacionais e desconsideração do necessário fortalecimento do sistema nacional de saúde para a construção de sua autonomia. A despeito de alguns avanços na provisão e disponibilidade de medicamentos para essas doenças, existe forte dependência externa nesse âmbito, o que obstaculiza a sustentabilidade da AF em Moçambique.

Abstract This article examines the activities of national and international actors in Pharmaceutical Services (PS) in Mozambique from 2007 to 2012, focusing on the public provision of HIV/Aids, malaria and tuberculosis medicines. It describes how PS functions in the country, what actors are involved in this area and the relations among them, pursuing salient issues in the modus operandi of partners in cooperation. The methodology combines literature review, document survey and analysis and interviews. The theoretical and analytical framework was given by the policy analysis approach, focusing on the role of the State and its interrelations with other actors in foreign aid in PS, and also by the networks approach. It was concluded that the interactions among the actors involved is complex and characterised by operational fragmentation and overlapping of activities between entities, centralised medicine procurement in the hands of few agents, bypassing of national structures and disregard for the strengthening needed to bolster national health system autonomy. Despite some advances in the provision and availability of medicines for these diseases, external dependence is strong, which undermines the sustainability of PS in Mozambique.

Humans , Pharmaceutical Services/organization & administration , International Cooperation , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Anti-HIV Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-HIV Agents/supply & distribution , Health Policy , Malaria/drug therapy , Mozambique , Antimalarials/administration & dosage , Antimalarials/supply & distribution , Antitubercular Agents/administration & dosage , Antitubercular Agents/supply & distribution
Rev. biol. trop ; 66(2): 880-891, abr.-jun. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-977352


Abstract Malaria represents a major health problem worldwide, affecting around 198 million people in 2016 according to WHO database. For decades, anti-malarial drug therapy has been used in the battle against this disease and its uncontrolled usage in endemic areas has developed the appearance of the drug resistance. Thus, it has emerged the necessity of finding new treatments that could be used as an alternative cure to malaria infection. The aim of this work was the evaluation of two photo-excitable compounds: Compound 1, which is (2E)-3-(4-dimethylamino-phenyl)-1-(4-imidazol-1-yl-phenyl)prop-2-en-1-one) and Compound 2, (1E,4E)1-[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]-5-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1,4-pentadiene-3-one) as possible anti-malaria drugs with Plasmodium berghei ANKA strain in BALB/c mice as murine model. Cytotoxicity effect was evaluated by a cell proliferation by colorimetry assay (MTS); and the drug incorporation into the parasite was assessed in vitro with Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA) to determine the localization of the drugs into the parasitized red blood cells (RBCs). Finally, the curative effect of compounds no-radiation (fundamental state) and ration drugs were evaluated by oral drug administration of this drugs in BALB/c mice and chloroquine was used as positive control. This curative effect was determined daily by the parasitemia percentage. The results showed that both compounds were cytotoxic in fundamental state. Furthermore, cytotoxic effect was increased after radiation into the Solar Simulator, and compound 2 was more cytotoxic than compound 1. Curative assays showed that both compounds in fundamental state were non effective as anti-malarial drug. However, in the curative assays in the mice treated with compound 2, when this was ration showed a survival rate of 33 % and a parasitemia percentage decrease in compare to compound 1. Although the compounds did not show a similar or better anti-malarial effect than Chloroquine, Compound 2 presented certain anti-malarial effect after solar radiation. Rev. Biol. Trop. 66(2): 880-891. Epub 2018 June 01.

Resumen La malaria representa un importante problema de salud en todo el mundo, afectando a alrededor de 198 millones de personas en 2016 según la base de datos de la OMS. Durante décadas, se ha utilizado la terapia con fármacos anti-malpricos en la lucha contra esta enfermedad y su uso incontrolado en las zonas endémicas ha desarrollado la aparición de resistencia a los fármacos. Por lo tanto, se ha surgido la necesidad de encontrar nuevos tratamientos que podrían ser utilizados como una cura alternativa para la infección por el paludismo. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar dos compuestos foto-excitables: El compuesto 1, que es (2E) -3- (4-dimetilamino-fenil) -1- (4-imidazol-1-ilfenil) prop-2 1-ona) y el Compuesto 2, (1E, 4E) -1- [4- (dimetilamino) fenil] -5- (4-metoxifenil) -1,4-pentadieno-3-ona) como posibles drogas antimaláricas con la cepa ANKA de Plasmodium berghei en ratones BALB / c como modelo murino. El efecto de la citotoxicidad se evaluó mediante una proliferación celular con el ensayo de colorimetría (MTS); y la incorporación del fármaco en el parásito se evaluó in vitro con Ensayo de Inmunofluorescencia Indirecta (IFA) para determinar la localización de los fármacos en los glóbulos rojos parasitados (RBCs). Finalmente, se evaluó el efecto curativo de los compuestos sin radiación (estado fundamental) y los fármacos irradiados mediante la administración oral de los fármacos en los ratones BALB / c, y se usó cloroquina como control positivo de cura. Este efecto curativo se determinó diariamente por el porcentaje de parasitemia. Los resultados mostraron que ambos compuestos eran citotóxicos en estado fundamental. Además, el efecto citotóxico se incrementó después de la radiación en el Simulador Solar, y el compuesto 2 fue más citotóxico que el compuesto 1. Los ensayos curativos mostraron que ambos compuestos en estado fundamental no eran eficaces como fármacos antimaláricos. Sin embargo, en los ensayos curativos en los ratones tratados con el compuesto 2, cuando fue irradiado, se observó una tasa de supervivencia del 33 % y una disminución del porcentaje de parasitemia en comparación con el compuesto 1. Aunque los compuestos no mostraron un efecto similar o mejor antimalárico que la cloroquina, el compuesto 2 presentó cierto efecto antimalárico después de la radiación solar.

Animals , Plasmodium/drug effects , Dimethylamines/pharmacology , Imidazoles/therapeutic use , Malaria/drug therapy , Solar Radiation
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 83(2): 170-181, abr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-959501


RESUMEN Introducción: La malaria es una enfermedad infecciosa tropical de gran impacto epidemiológico a nivel mundial; las poblaciones con mayor susceptibilidad de padecerla son los niños menores de 5 años y las gestantes, en quienes, se pude no solo comprometer la salud de la madre sino también la del producto y su desarrollo, pudiendo ocurrir diferentes desenlaces adversos entre ellos la restricción del crecimiento intrauterino (RCIU), incrementando sustancialmente las tasas de mortalidad materna y perinatal. Es importante establecer un diagnóstico preciso y oportuno de la RCIU en fetos de gestantes que padecen de malaria, con el fin de llevar a cabo un enfoque de seguimiento y de manejo que puedan disminuir las complicaciones asociadas a la enfermedad. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica en la base de datos de Cochrane y PubMed, libros de la especialidad y consensos de sociedades científicas, relativos a los términos de: malaria during pregnancy, intrauterine growth restriction y malaria and fetal growth restriction. Se seleccionaron finalmente 42 artículos para análisis completo y crítico, que justificara la elaboración de esta revisión. Conclusión: esta revisión aporta elementos para establecer un alto grado de sospecha diagnóstica de malaria durante el embarazo en zonas endémicas para la malaria; además revela la necesidad de implementar protocolos de manejo especifico ante la RCIU según sea la etiología; ya que estas medidas impactaran positivamente en los resultados adversos de la enfermedad, sin olvidar que lo primordial es proteger plenamente a las mujeres contra la malaria desde el comienzo del embarazo hasta el parto.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic/epidemiology , Fetal Growth Retardation/epidemiology , Malaria/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic/parasitology , Fetal Growth Retardation/parasitology , Malaria/complications , Malaria/diagnosis , Malaria/drug therapy
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1264192


Introduction : La prise en charge du paludisme est une urgence médicale qui dépend du diagnostic et en particulier de la parasitémie du patient. Le comptage des parasites et des leucocytes en microscopie sur goutte épaisse (GE) est un socle dans l'estimation de cette parasitémie ou densité parasitaire (DP). Objectif général : ce travail visait à déterminer l'impact du taux des leucocytes par microlitre de sang sur l'établissement de la densité parasitaire. Méthodes : il s'agissait d'une étude prospective réalisée sur une population de 482 patients, consultés pour suspicion du paludisme au Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de la Mère et de l'Enfant Lagune (CHU-MEL) au Bénin, dans la période de Mai à Août 2015. Les densités parasitaires ont été calculées de deux manières : densité parasitaire standard (DPS) en utilisant le nombre de globules blancs standard 6000 défini par l'OMS comme coefficient de correction et densité parasitaire Réelle (DPR) qui utilise le nombre réel des globules blancs par microlitre de sang du patient. Résultats : Parmi les 482 échantillons testés, 40,66% contiennent de plasmodium. 81 ,54% des densités parasitaires standards calculées étaient sous- estimées contre 18,46% surestimées. La différence entre deux densités parasitaires d'un même patient a été significative (p<0 ,005). Conclusion : l'utilisation du coefficient 6000 dans l'estimation de la parasitémie, a entraîné une sous-estimation significative de la charge parasitaire et n'était pas adaptée à la réalité des patients consultés au CHU-MEL. L'étude suggèrerait à l'OMS et aux autorités du Ministère de la santé, la subvention de la réalisation de la numération des globules blancs réels du malade pour toutes réalisations de Goutte épaisse-Densité parasitaire (GE-DP) afin d'assurer aux patients une meilleure prise en charge du paludisme et un bon suivit de l'évolution de leur traitement

Benin , Leukocytes , Malaria/diagnosis , Malaria/drug therapy , Patients
Brasília; CONITEC; out. 2017. tab.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-906979


CONTEXTO: A malária é uma doença parasitária infecciosa aguda causada por protozoários do gênero Plasmodium e representa um grave problema de saúde pública. No Brasil, há três espécies associadas à malária em seres humanos: P. falciparum, P. vivax e P. malariae. O demandante solicitou o desinvestimento do medicamento artemeter 80 mg/ml, mantendo apenas o artesunato 60 mg/ml como opção de tratamento injetável com derivado de artemisinina para malária grave. A recomendação de retirada do artemeter fundamenta-se em orientação do guia de tratamento da Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS), publicado em 2015, que orienta que o tratamento de adultos e crianças com malária grave (incluindo as gestantes em todos os trimestres e mulheres lactantes) deve ser feito, preferencialmente, com artesunato intravenoso ou intramuscular. TECNOLOGIA SOLICITADA PARA DESINVESTIMENTO: Artemeter 80 mg/ml.: Tratamento da malária grave. EVIDÊNCIAS CIENTÍFICAS: Com o objetivo de avaliar se artesunato injetável é uma melhor opção terapêutica que o artemeter injetável para o tratamento da malária grave, em termos de eficácia, efetividade e segurança, foram pesquisadas evidências científicas comparando os dois medicamentos. Foi selecionada uma revisão sistemática da Cochrane que mostrou que o risco de mortalidade por todas as causas foi significativamente menor com o artesunato do que com o artemeter. O artesunato reduziu o risco de hipoglicemia, como evento adverso aos tratamentos, em relação ao artemeter. Não houve diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos na resolução do coma, no tempo para clearance do parasita e no tempo para desaparecimento da febre. IMPACTO ORÇAMENTÁRIO: Embora o custo de tratamento com artesunato 60 mg/mL seja maior do que com o artemeter 80 mg/ml, o demandante informou que não vai aumentar a quantidade de artesunato comprada, visto que os casos de malária grave estão diminuindo. RECOMENDAÇÃO DA CONITEC: Pelo exposto, os membros do Plenário da CONITEC, presentes na 56ª reunião ordinária, deliberaram que o tema fosse submetido à consulta pública com recomendação preliminar favorável ao desinvestimento do artemeter para tratamento da malária grave. CONSULTA PÚBLICA: Foi recebida somente 1 contribuição sobre experiência de profissional de saúde que concordou totalmente com a recomendação da CONITEC. : Os membros da CONITEC deliberaram por recomendar a exclusão do medicamento artemeter para o tratamento de malária grave. DECISÃO: A Portaria nº 42, de 9 de outubro de 2017, tornou pública a decisão de excluir o medicamento artemeter para o tratamento de Malária Grave, no âmbito do Sistema Único de Saúde ­ SUS.(AU)

Humans , Artemisinins/adverse effects , Artemisinins/therapeutic use , Drug Recalls , Malaria/drug therapy , Brazil , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Unified Health System