Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 890
Filter
1.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(9): 4263-4274, set. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339602

ABSTRACT

Abstract Due to intense ongoing urbanization in the Amazon, the urban pattern of malaria may be changing, both in its spatial distribution and epidemiological profile. The purpose of this paper is to analyze how the process of production of urban space in Porto Velho, the capital of the state of Rondonia, Brazil has contributed to the occurrence and maintenance of urban malaria. Using data collected from the Malaria Epidemiological Surveillance System (SIVEP-Malaria), we calculated malaria indices for the districts of Porto Velho from 2005 to 2018. We also developed two typologies for classifying urban space based on functional characteristics and features of the landscape. While the former considers characteristics of urban space in Porto Velho, the latter is based on suitability for malaria vectors. We found that the annual parasite index declined in Porto Velho during the study period. However, changes in the index were not uniform across the districts of the city. Periurban areas showed no decline in the index, which we attribute to these areas' high vegetation density and hydrological characteristics.


Resumo A Amazônia tem passado por um intenso processo de urbanização em anos recentes, produzindo transformações na organização espacial da região que podem estar refletindo no padrão espaço temporal da malária urbana. O objetivo deste trabalho é compreender como o processo de produção do espaço urbano do município de Porto Velho-RO, tem corroborado para a ocorrência e manutenção da malária urbana. Os dados levantados no Sistema de Vigilância Epidemiológica (SIVEP-Malária) possibilitaram o cálculo do Índice Parasitário Anual (IPA) de malária para os bairros da cidade de Porto Velho dos anos de 2005 a 2018 e a construção de duas tipologias da paisagem do espaço urbano. A primeira considerou o processo de produção do espaço urbano de Porto Velho; a segunda se baseou nas condições de receptividade para o vetor da malária. A ocorrência da malária em Porto Velho vem declinando de forma diferenciada ao longo do território, havendo uma tendência de permanência nas áreas periurbanas com maior densidade de vegetação e hidrografia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Malaria/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Cities/epidemiology
2.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(supl.1): 100-112, mayo 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285452

ABSTRACT

Abstract | Introduction: Malaria is a vector-borne disease widely distributed in the Amazon region and the coastal area of northern Ecuador. Its epidemiology involves related factors such as human settlements, vector reproduction sites, mobility, productive activity, and the response capacity of health systems, among others. Objective: To describe malaria transmission by Plasmodium vivax in a non-endemic area of Ecuador by analyzing the epidemiological and entomological factors involved. Materials and methods: We conducted the epidemiological study of the cases reported in the Salinas canton and the characterization of vector breeding sites through captures of larvae and adult mosquitoes by human capture of resting mosquitoes. Results: We detected 21 cases of malaria with local transmission related to the presence of initial cases in Venezuelan migrant patients and identified Anopheles albimanus as the predominant vector in natural breeding sites such as estuaries, wells, and water channels. Conclusions: We detected an outbreak of malaria triggered by imported cases from Venezuela. Climatic, social, environmental, and ecological conditions have favored the development of the vector maintaining the transmission cycle. Strategies to control imported malaria should be multiple including early case detection and control of productive breeding sites to avoid local transmission.


Resumen | Introducción. La malaria o paludismo es una enfermedad transmitida por vectores, ampliamente distribuida en la región amazónica y en la zona costera del norte del Ecuador. Su epidemiología involucra factores relacionados, como asentamientos humanos, sitios de reproducción del vector, movilidad, actividad productiva y capacidad de respuesta de los sistemas de salud, entre otros.Objetivo. Describir la transmisión de malaria por Plasmodium vivax en un área no endémica de Ecuador, mediante el análisis de los factores epidemiológicos y entomológicos involucrados. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo el estudio epidemiológico de los casos reportados en el cantón de Salinas y la caracterización de criaderos del vector con capturas de larvas y adultos mediante la captura de mosquitos en reposo. Resultados. Se detectaron 21 casos de malaria con transmisión local relacionados con la presencia de casos iniciales importados de Venezuela. Se identificó Anopheles albimanuscomo el vector predominante en criaderos naturales como estuarios, pozos y canales de agua. Conclusiones. Se detectó un brote de malaria desencadenado por casos importados de Venezuela. Las condiciones climáticas, sociales, ambientales y ecológicas han favorecido el desarrollo del vector, manteniendo el ciclo de transmisión. Las estrategias para controlar la malaria importada deben ser multifacéticas, e incluir la detección temprana de casos y el control de criaderos productivos para evitar la transmisión local.


Subject(s)
Malaria/epidemiology , Plasmodium vivax , Transients and Migrants , Disease Outbreaks
3.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e210064, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279459

ABSTRACT

Unforeseen Plasmodium infections in the Atlantic Forest of Brazilian Extra-Amazonian region could jeopardise malaria elimination. A human malaria case was registered in Três Forquilhas, in the Atlantic Forest biome of Rio Grande do Sul, after a 45 years' time-lapsed without any malaria autochthonous notification in this southern Brazilian state. This finding represents the expansion of the malaria distribution areas in Brazil and the southernmost human malaria case record in South America in this decade. The coexistence of the bromeliad-breeding vector Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii and non-human primates in the Atlantic Forest regularly visited by the patient claimed for the zoonotic origin of this infection. The reemergence of Atlantic Forest human malaria in Rio Grande do Sul was also discussed.


Subject(s)
Animals , Malaria/epidemiology , Anopheles , Brazil/epidemiology , Forests , Mosquito Vectors
4.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(2): 125-132, mar.-abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249882

ABSTRACT

Resumen De 1990 a 2012, el Instituto de Salubridad y Enfermedades Tropicales experimentó los cambios más importantes. En 1989 modificó su nombre y orientación a Instituto Nacional de Diagnóstico y Referencia Epidemiológicos. Poco antes se había formalizado como cúspide de la Red Nacional de Laboratorios en Salud Pública y había incorporado los laboratorios de programas preventivos como el de citología exfoliativa y los de diagnóstico de rabia, paludismo, tuberculosis; posteriormente incorporaría otras redes que surgieron como parte de la respuesta a brotes epidémicos y al nuevo panorama epidemiológico. En este periodo, 27 algoritmos diagnósticos se definieron y organizaron en 18 redes, algunas de las cuales comenzaron a colaborar con redes globales. En 2001, en el Instituto se empezó a trabajar con patógenos relacionados con el bioterrorismo. Para entonces, las restricciones del edificio sede fueron evidentes; en 2008, se decidió construir nuevas instalaciones. El Instituto y sus redes diagnósticas constituyen un hito en la salud pública latinoamericana del siglo XXI.


Abstract From 1990 to 2012, the Sanitary and Tropical Diseases Institute experienced the most important changes. In 1989, its name and orientation were modified to become the National Institute of Epidemiological Diagnosis and Reference (InDRE). Shortly before, it had been formalized as the apex of the National Network of Public Health Laboratories and had incorporated laboratories for preventive programs such as exfoliative cytology and rabies, malaria and tuberculosis diagnosis; subsequently, it would incorporate other networks that emerged as part of the response to major epidemic outbreaks and to the new epidemiological outlook. In this period, 27 priority diagnostic algorithms were defined and organized in 18 networks, some of which began to collaborate with global networks. In 2001, the Institute started working with pathogens related to bioterrorism. By then, space restrictions of the headquarters’ building were evident; in 2008, starting the construction of new facilities was decided. The institute and its diagnostic networks constitute a milestone in Latin American public health of the 21st century.


Subject(s)
Humans , Academies and Institutes , Time Factors , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Public Health , Disease Outbreaks , Malaria/diagnosis , Malaria/epidemiology
5.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 72(1): e436, ene.-abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126695

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La malaria es un problema de salud pública para Colombia, con comportamiento endémico/epidémico y variación entre las diferentes áreas de transmisión. Objetivo: Describir las características epidemiológicas de pacientes con malaria, notificados por un asegurador en salud en Colombia durante los años 2016 y 2017. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, en el que se revisó de forma retrospectiva la base de datos de todos los casos de malaria notificados por un asegurador en salud en Colombia durante los años 2016 y 2017. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo, teniendo en cuenta la naturaleza de las variables. Las variables cualitativas se analizaron a partir de las frecuencias absolutas y relativas. Se usó el test de chi cuadrado para comparar las diferencias entre proporciones, en todos los casos se estableció un valor p< 0,05 como significativo. Los datos se analizaron en el programa SPSS versión 19. Resultados: Durante el período de observación se notificaron 26 017 casos de malaria; el 50 por ciento (13 014) eran hombres y el 50 por ciento (13 003) mujeres. Los grupos etarios más afectados fueron los adultos jóvenes (26,37 por ciento), escolares (15,04 por ciento), preescolares (12,75 por ciento) y adolescentes iniciales (12,18 por ciento). La mayoría de los pacientes estudiados eran indígenas y mulatos; trabajadores no calificados, que residían y fueron notificados en el departamento del Chocó. En cuanto a las características clínicas y paraclínicas se encontró que el 95,9 por ciento de los pacientes eran sintomático, las especies parasitaria más frecuentemente fueron P. falciparum (58,86 por ciento) y P. vivax (35,95 por ciento) y en menor frecuencia P. malariae (0,06 por ciento). Se registró complicaciones en 410 pacientes, estas eran principalmente de tipo hematológicas (56,3 por ciento); sin embargo, también se registraron complicaciones cerebrales, renales, hepáticas y pulmonares. Durante los dos años se observó brotes epidémicos entre las semanas 6 a la 31, y posteriormente se observó un descenso en la notificación de casos. Conclusiones: Este estudio encontró una marcada diferencia en la incidencia de casos de malaria notificados por el asegurador objeto de estudio entre los años 2016 y 2017; la mayoría de estos casos eran por P. falciparum y se registraron en el departamento de Chocó(AU)


Introduction: Malaria is a health problem in Colombia. Its behavior is endemic / epidemic and variation is observed between the different transmission areas. Objective: Describe the epidemiological characteristics of patients with malaria notified by a health insurer in Colombia during the years 2016 and 2017. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted in which a retrospective review was performed of the database of all the malaria cases notified by a health insurer in Colombia during the years 2016 and 2017. A descriptive analysis was done taking into account the nature of the variables. Qualitative variables were analyzed in terms of absolute and relative frequencies. The chi-square test was used to compare the differences between proportions. A value of p< 0.05 was set as significant in all cases. The software SPPS version 19 was used for data analysis. Results: During the observation period a total 26 017 malaria cases were notified, of whom 50 percent were men (13 014) and 50 percent were women (13 003). The most affected age groups were young adults (26.37 percent), schoolchildren (15.04 percent), pre-schoolers (12.75 percent) and preadolescents (12.18 percent). Most of the patients studied were indigenous and mulatto, unskilled workers, and lived or were notified in the department of Chocó. With respect to clinical and paraclinical characteristics, it was found that 95.9 percent of the patients were symptomatic. The most common parasite species were P. falciparum (58.86 percent) and P. vivax (35.95 percent) and to a lesser degree P. malariae (0.06 percent). Complications were recorded in 410 patients. These were mainly hematological (56.3 percent), but brain, kidney, liver and lung complications were also found. During the two study years, epidemic outbreaks were observed between weeks 6 and 31, followed by a decrease in the number of case notifications. Conclusions: The study found a marked difference in the incidence of malaria cases notified by the study insurer between the years 2016 and 2017. Most of these cases were due to P. falciparum and were recorded in the department of Chocó(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Malaria/diagnosis , Malaria/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Colombia
6.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 29(2): e2019056, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101126

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo: descrever o perfil e a incidência dos casos de malária entre indígenas e não indígenas na fronteira franco-brasileira, no período de 2007 a 2016. Métodos: estudo descritivo, realizado a partir de casos notificados no Sistema de Informação de Vigilância Epidemiológica da Malária (SIVEP-Malária), organizados pelo software Tableau 10.3. Resultados: de um total de 21.729 casos no período, o ano de 2009 apresentou o maior registro, 3.637 (16,7%) notificações, das quais 1.956 (53,8%) entre indígenas com incidência parasitária anual (IPA) de 261 por 1 mil habitantes; os polos-base de Kumenê (IPA entre 13 e 534/1 mil hab.) e Manga (IPA entre 55 e 448/1 mil hab.) apresentaram maior risco de infecção; crianças representaram 20,0 a 40,0% dos casos notificados, e gestantes cerca de 2,0% dos casos entre não indígenas e 1,0% entre indígenas. Conclusão: a malária se apresentou de maneira desigual entre indígenas e não indígenas, com maior ocorrência entre povos indígenas.


Resumen Objetivo: describir el perfil y la incidencia de los casos de malaria entre indígenas y no indígenas en la frontera franco-brasileña, entre 2007 y 2016. Métodos: estudio descriptivo, realizado a partir de análisis de casos notificados en el Sistema de Información de Vigilancia Epidemiológica de la Malaria (SIVEP-Malaria), organizados por el software Tableau 10.3. Resultados: de 21.729 casos en el período, 2009 presentó el registro más alto, 3.637 (16,7%) notificaciones, 1.956 (53,8%) entre indígenas con incidencia parasitaria anual (IPA) de 261/1.000; el mayor riesgo de infección ocurrió en los polos Kumenê (IPA entre 13 y 534/1,000) y Manga (IPA entre 55 y 448/1.000); los niños representan 20% hasta 40% de los casos, y las mujeres embarazadas alrededor del 2,0% entre no indígenas y 1,0% entre indígenas. Conclusión: la malaria es desigual entre los dos grupos, con mayor riesgo para los indígenas.


Abstract Objective: to describe the profile and incidence of malaria cases among indigenous and non-indigenous people on the Brazil-French Guiana border, between 2007 and 2016. Methods: this is a descriptive study based on analysis of cases notified on the Malaria Epidemiological Surveillance Information System (SIVEP-Malaria), organized using Tableau 10.3. Results: a total of 21,729 cases were notified in the period; the highest annual number of notifications was 3,637 (16.7%) in 2009, 1,956 (53.8%) of which related to indigenous people, representing annual parasite incidence (API) of 261/1,000; higher risk of infection was found in the Kumenê base area (API between 13 and 534/1,000) and the Manga base area (API between 55 and 448/1,000); children accounted for 20.0 to 40.0% of notified cases, while pregnant women accounted for 2.0% among non-indigenous people and 1.0% among the indigenous. Conclusion: malaria case distribution was unequal between indigenous and non-indigenous people, with greater occurrence among the indigenous.


Subject(s)
Humans , Health of Indigenous Peoples , Indigenous Peoples , Malaria/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Incidence
7.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200043, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135250

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The number of malaria cases in Roraima nearly tripled from 2016 to 2018. The capital, Boa Vista, considered a low-risk area for malaria transmission, reported an increasing number of autochthonous and imported cases. OBJECTIVES This study describes a spatial analysis on malaria cases in an urban region of Boa Vista, which sought to identify the autochthonous and imported cases and associated them with Anopheles habitats and the potential risk of local transmission. METHODS In a cross-sectional study at the Polyclinic Cosme e Silva, 520 individuals were interviewed and diagnosed with malaria by microscopic examination. Using a global positional system, the locations of malaria cases by type and origin and the breeding sites of anopheline vectors were mapped and the risk of malaria transmission was evaluated by spatial point pattern analysis. FINDINGS Malaria was detected in 57.5% of the individuals and there was a disproportionate number of imported cases (90.6%) linked to Brazilian coming from gold mining sites in Venezuela and Guyana. MAIN CONCLUSIONS The increase in imported malaria cases circulating in the west region of Boa Vista, where there are positive breeding sites for the main vectors, may represent a potential condition for increased autochthonous malaria transmission in this space.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Adult , Plasmodium/isolation & purification , Travel , Miners/statistics & numerical data , Mosquito Vectors/parasitology , Malaria/diagnosis , Malaria/transmission , Anopheles/parasitology , Plasmodium/classification , Urban Population , Venezuela , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Geographic Information Systems , Spatial Analysis , Gold , Guyana , Malaria/parasitology , Malaria/epidemiology , Anopheles/classification , Middle Aged
9.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 26(3): 823-839, jul.-set. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039955

ABSTRACT

Resumo O artigo analisa a chegada e identificação do mosquito africano Anopheles gambiae no Brasil em 1930 e as primeiras reações de cientistas e autoridades de saúde pública contra as epidemias de malária causadas por essa espécie. Apesar de ter sido reconhecido como perigoso vetor da malária, sua presença em território nacional foi negligenciada a partir de 1932, após ações emergenciais na capital do Rio Grande do Norte, favorecendo um alastramento silencioso que resultou em uma grande epidemia de malária em 1938. São abordadas questões científicas e políticas que contribuíram para que o combate ao mosquito fosse colocado em segundo plano nas articulações entre a Divisão Sanitária Internacional da Fundação Rockefeller e autoridades brasileiras até 1937.


Abstract The article analyzes the arrival and identification of the African mosquito Anopheles gambiae in Brazil in 1930, and the initial reactions of scientists and public health authorities against the epidemics of malaria caused by this species. Although this mosquito was recognized as a dangerous vector of malaria, its presence in Brazil was neglected after initial emergency actions in the city of Natal in 1932; this encouraged it to spread silently, resulting in a major malaria epidemic in 1938. This article examines scientific and political issues which caused the fight against mosquitoes to be pushed into the background until 1937 in cooperative efforts between the Rockefeller Foundation's International Health Division and the Brazilian authorities.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 20th Century , Mosquito Control/history , Epidemics/history , Mosquito Vectors , Malaria/history , Anopheles , Brazil/epidemiology , Mosquito Control/methods , Federal Government/history , Epidemics/prevention & control , Foundations/history , Malaria/epidemiology
10.
Malar. j. (Online) ; 18(190): 1-11, 20190606. Mapa, Tab.
Article in English | AIM, RSDM, AIM | ID: biblio-1352353

ABSTRACT

Mozambique has historically been one of the countries with the highest malaria burden in the world. Starting in the 1960s, malaria control efforts were intensified in the southern region of the country, especially in Maputo city and Maputo province, to aid regional initiatives aimed to eliminate malaria in South Africa and eSwatini. Despite significant reductions in malaria prevalence, elimination was never achieved. Following the World Health Organization's renewed vision of a malaria­free­world, and considering the achievements from the past, the Mozambican National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) embarked on the development and implementation of a strategic plan to accelerate from malaria control to malaria elimination in southern Mozambique. An initial partnership, supported by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the La Caixa Foundation, led to the creation of the Mozambican Alliance Towards the Elimination of Malaria (MALTEM) and the Malaria Technical and Advisory Committee (MTAC) to promote national ownership and partner coordination to work towards the goal of malaria elimination in local and cross­border initiatives. Surveillance systems to generate epidemiological and entomological intelligence to inform the malaria control strategies were strengthened, and an impact and feasibility assessment of various interventions aimed to interrupt malaria transmission were conducted in Magude district (Maputo Province) through the "Magude Project". The primary aim of this project was to generate evidence to inform malaria elimination strategies for southern Mozambique. The goal of malaria elimination in areas of low transmission intensity is now included in the national malaria strategic plan for 2017­22 and the NMCP and its partners have started to work towards this goal while evidence continues to be generated to move the national elimination agenda forward.


Subject(s)
Disease Eradication/methods , Malaria/prevention & control , Prevalence , Program , Malaria/epidemiology , Mozambique/epidemiology
11.
Rev. salud pública ; 21(1): 9-16, ene.-feb. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058859

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo Describir las estrategias para la eliminación de la malaria a partir de la percepción de pobladores afro-colombianos residentes en Guapi en el contexto de la Estrategia de Gestión Integrada para la promoción, prevención y control de las Enfermedades Transmitidas por Vectores en Colombia (EGI). Métodos Estudio de tipo cualitativo basado en el análisis de discurso de grupos focales. Ocho participantes residentes en zona urbana de Guapi, divididas en dos grupos: el primero correspondió a tres mujeres auxiliares de enfermería, denominadas "mujeres con mayor experiencia", trabajadoras en el actual sistema de salud y funcionarias del antiguo Servicio de Erradicación de la Malaria. El segundo correspondió a cinco mujeres auxiliares de enfermería, denominadas "mujeres con limitada experiencia", trabajadoras en el actual sistema de salud y no tuvieron formación directa con el programa de malaria. Análisis inductivo e interpretativo. Resultados Emergieron ocho subcategorias enmarcadas en la EGI, con énfasis en la promoción y prevención orientadas a disminuir la malaria, especialmente en el área rural. El abordaje del problema debe hacerse de forma integral incluyendo otras problemáticas en salud y determinantes sociales que los afectan como: saneamiento básico, acceso al servicio de salud, falta de educación, uso de tratamientos populares, fragilidad de infraestructura, entre otros. Conclusión Las participantes consideran que la malaria en Guapi se puede reducir pero no eliminar. Se requiere abordar este problema desde una perspectiva institucional y comunitaria, teniendo en cuenta las diferencias culturales, a partir de estrategias que incluyan el empoderamiento comunitario y fortalecimiento administrativo e institucional del programa.(AU)


ABSTRACT Objective To describe strategies for malaria elimination based on the perception of Afro-Colombian residents in Guapi, in the context of the Integrated Management Strategy for the Promotion, Prevention and Control of Vector-Borne Diseases in Colombia (EGI-ETV). Materials and Methods Qualitative study based on focus group discourse analysis. Eight participants from the urban area of Guapi were divided into two groups. The first group included three female nursing assistants, and was called "women with more experience"; they were workers in the current health system and former Malaria Eradication Service officers. The second group was made up of female nursing assistants, and was called "women with limited experience"; they were workers in the current health system and were not directly trained in the malaria program. An inductive and interpretative analysis was performed. Results Eight subcategories emerged, framed in the EGI-EVT, making emphasis on promotion and prevention aimed at reducing malaria, especially in rural areas. This problem must be addressed comprehensively, including other health issues and social determinants that affect them, such as: basic sanitation, access to health services, lack of education, use of popular treatments, and lack of infrastructure, among others. Conclusion Participants consider that malaria in Guapi can be reduced but not eliminated. This problem needs to be addressed from an institutional and community perspective, taking into account cultural differences, based on strategies that include community empowerment and administrative and institutional strengthening of the program.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Community Participation , Disease Eradication/organization & administration , Vector Borne Diseases/prevention & control , Malaria/epidemiology , Colombia/epidemiology , Qualitative Research
12.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 53: 49, jan. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1004511

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the environmental and socioeconomic risk factors of malaria transmission at municipality level, from 2010 to 2015, in the Brazilian Amazon. METHODS The municipalities were stratified into high, moderate, and low transmission based on the annual parasite incidence. A multinomial logistic regression that compared low with medium transmission and low with high transmission was performed. For each category, three models were analyzed: one only with socioeconomic risk factors (Gini index, illiteracy, number of mines and indigenous areas); a second with the environmental factors (forest coverage and length of the wet season); and a third with all covariates (full model). RESULTS The full model showed the best performance. The most important risks factors for high transmission were Gini index, length of the wet season and illiteracy, OR 2.06 (95%CI 1.19-3.56), 1.73 (95%CI 1.19-2.51) and 1.10 (95%CI 1.03-1.17), respectively. The medium transmission showed a weaker influence of the risk factors, being illiteracy, forest coverage and indigenous areas statistically significant but with marginal influence. CONCLUSIONS As a disease of poverty, the reduction in wealth inequalities and, therefore, health inequalities, could reduce the transmission considerably. Besides, environmental risk factors as length of the wet season should be considered in the planning, prevention and control. Municipality-level and fine-scale analysis should be done together to improve the knowledge of the local dynamics of transmission.


Subject(s)
Humans , Forests , Disease Transmission, Infectious/statistics & numerical data , Malaria/transmission , Malaria/epidemiology , Seasons , Socioeconomic Factors , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Incidence , Risk Factors , Cities/epidemiology , Spatio-Temporal Analysis
13.
Bogotá; Instituto Nacional de Salud; [2019]. 4 p.
Monography in Spanish | PIE, LILACS, PIE | ID: biblio-1047552

ABSTRACT

La minería de oro a cielo abierto se ha asociado a diversos problemas de salud en la población, entre esos la proliferación de enfermedades infecciosas como la malaria. El departamento del Chocó, uno de los más importantes productores de oro del país, ha venido siendo afectado por un aumento en el número de casos y muertes por Malaria. Con el fin de poner a prueba si estos dos eventos se encuentran relacionados el ONS llevó a cabo un estudio para evaluar la asociación entre los niveles de producción de oro en los municipios del Chocó y los casos de malaria. El estudio encontró que los municipios con mayor producción de oro también presentan en promedio el mayor número de casos de malaria anualmente. De acuerdo con los hallazgos de este y otros estudios es importante para el control de la malaria abrir los espacios necesarios para discutir la minería de oro como un factor determinante en la propagación de la malaria en el departamento del Chocó y probablemente otras regiones mineras de Colombia.


Subject(s)
Gold , Malaria/epidemiology , Mining , Epidemiologic Factors , Risk Factors , Colombia , Malaria/etiology , Malaria/prevention & control
14.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190210, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101271

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The influence of Plasmodium spp. infection in the health of Southern brown howler monkey, Alouatta guariba clamitans, the main reservoir of malaria in the Atlantic Forest, is still unknown. OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to investigate the positivity rate of Plasmodium infection in free-living howler monkeys in an Atlantic Forest fragment in Joinville/SC and to associate the infection with clinical, morphometrical, haematological and biochemical alterations. METHODS Molecular diagnosis of Plasmodium infection in the captured monkeys was performed by Nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (18S rRNA and coxI). Haematological and biochemical parameters were compared among infected and uninfected monkeys; clinical and morphometrical parameters were also compared. FINDINGS The positivity rate of Plasmodium infection was 70% among forty captured animals, the highest reported for neotropical primates. None statistical differences were detected in the clinical parameters, and morphometric measures comparing infected and uninfected groups. The main significant alteration was the higher alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in infected compared to uninfected monkeys. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Therefore, Plasmodium infection in howler monkeys may causes haematological/biochemical alterations which might suggest hepatic impairment. Moreover, infection must be monitored for the eco-epidemiological surveillance of malaria in the Atlantic Forest and during primate conservation program that involves the animal movement, such as translocations.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Disease Reservoirs/parasitology , Alouatta/parasitology , Malaria/veterinary , Monkey Diseases/parasitology , Brazil/epidemiology , Alouatta/blood , Malaria/blood , Malaria/epidemiology , Animals, Wild , Monkey Diseases/blood , Monkey Diseases/epidemiology
15.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190064, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040607

ABSTRACT

Imported malaria is a malaria infection diagnosed outside the area where it was acquired and is induced by human migration and mobility. This retrospective study was performed based on secondary data from 2007 to 2015. In total, 736 cases of imported malaria (79.7% of 923 cases) were recorded in Rio de Janeiro state. Of the imported cases, 55.3% came from abroad, while 44.7% came from other regions of Brazil. Most cases of imported malaria in Brazil (85.5%) originated in Amazônia Legal, and Burundi (Africa) accounted for 59% of the cases from abroad. Analyses of the determinants of imported malaria in Rio de Janeiro state must be continued to understand the relationship between the origin and destination of cases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Communicable Diseases, Imported/epidemiology , Malaria/epidemiology , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Vulnerable Populations , Spatio-Temporal Analysis , Middle Aged
16.
Article in French | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1264221

ABSTRACT

Paludisme et dengue sont des affections à forte morbidité. Les patients présentent souvent les mêmes profils cliniques. Il est difficile, voire impossible de les différencier sans recours à une confirmation biologique. Ceci justifie notre étude dont l'objectif était d'évaluer la prévalence de la dengue et du paludisme chez les patients fébriles consultant au CHUSS de Bobo-Dioulasso au Burkina Faso. Une étude transversale descriptive prospective a été conduite durant le mois d'août 2016 incluant les patients fébriles au CHU-SS de Bobo-Dioulasso. La recherche d'IgM et d'IgG anti Dengue Virus (DENV) a été faite avec le SD BIOLINE IgG/IgM sur 4mL de sang veineux. Le diagnostic de paludisme a été posé par un examen microscopique après coloration au Giemsa d'une goutte épaisse de sang capillaire.Au total 85 patients inclus, 44 hommes, une sex-ratio H/F de 1,07. Les enfants de 0 à 10 ans étaient majoritaires (34,11%). La prévalence des IgM et des IgG anti DENV était de 7,06% et de 22,35% respectivement. Quatre patients étaient porteurs concomitants d'IgM et d'IgG anti DENV. La prévalence du paludisme était de 20%. Pas de co-infection dengue et paludisme. Nos résultats indiquent la circulation de la dengue et du paludisme chez les patients fébriles au CHU de Bobo-Dioulasso. La dengue étant une affection à potentiel épidémique, elle ne doit pas être méconnue chez les patients fébriles


Subject(s)
Academic Medical Centers , Burkina Faso , Dengue/diagnosis , Dengue/epidemiology , Dengue/therapy , Malaria , Malaria/diagnosis , Malaria/epidemiology , Morbidity
17.
Article in French | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1264231

ABSTRACT

Paludisme et dengue sont des affections à forte morbidité. Les patients présentent souvent les mêmes profils cliniques. Il est difficile, voire impossible de les différencier sans recours à une confirmation biologique. Ceci justifie notre étude dont l'objectif était d'évaluer la prévalence de la dengue et du paludisme chez les patients fébriles consultant au CHUSS de Bobo-Dioulasso au Burkina Faso. Une étude transversale descriptive prospective a été conduite durant le mois d'août 2016 incluant les patients fébriles au CHU-SS de Bobo-Dioulasso. La recherche d'IgM et d'IgG anti Dengue Virus (DENV) a été faite avec le SD BIOLINE IgG/IgM sur 4mL de sang veineux. Le diagnostic de paludisme a été posé par un examen microscopique après coloration au Giemsa d'une goutte épaisse de sang capillaire. Au total 85 patients inclus, 44 hommes, une sex-ratio H/F de 1,07. Les enfants de 0 à 10 ans étaient majoritaires (34,11%). La prévalence des IgM et des IgG anti DENV était de 7,06% et de 22,35% respectivement. Quatre patients étaient porteurs concomitants d'IgM et d'IgG anti DENV. La prévalence du paludisme était de 20%. Pas de co-infection dengue et paludisme. Nos résultats indiquent la circulation de la dengue et du paludisme chez les patients fébriles au CHU de Bobo-Dioulasso. La dengue étant une affection à potentiel épidémique, elle ne doit pas être méconnue chez les patients fébriles


Subject(s)
Academic Medical Centers , Burkina Faso , Dengue/diagnosis , Dengue/epidemiology , Malaria/diagnosis , Malaria/epidemiology
18.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1264284

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Malaria, a public health problem in tropical countries, depends on several factors, some of which are social and environmental. In Mali in the Sahel zone, a socio-security crisis has prevailed in recent years. It was therefore interesting to study the epidemiology of this condition in situation. Objective: To determine the frequency of malaria among febrile syndromes in children aged 1 to 59 months in the pediatric ward of the Regional Hospital of Timbuktu. Material and methods: the study was longitudinal retrospective descriptive for a period from January 1 to December 31, 2015. The data were collected with fact sheets and consultation records. They were captured and analyzed on the Statistical Package for Social Scientist (SPSS) software version 21. Results: a total of 789 children hospitalized, 276 children had a febrile syndrome (35%). During the study period, we collected 180 cases of malaria, with a positive biological examination. The hospital frequency of malaria was 22.8% (180/789) and a frequency in febrile syndromes of 65.2% (180/276) of malaria cases. Of these 180 cases, 147 cases of uncomplicated malaria (81.7%) and 33 cases of severe malaria (18.3%) were found. In 34.8%, the etiology of febrile syndromes was other than malaria. Seasonal variation in malaria was found in terms of months of the year, peaking in September. The hospital lethality was 1.1% in our series. Conclusion: Malaria was the leading febrile syndromes among children under 5 in hospitals in Tombouctou


Subject(s)
Armed Conflicts , Child , Fever/etiology , Hospitals, Pediatric , Malaria/diagnosis , Malaria/epidemiology , Mali
19.
Mali méd. (En ligne) ; 34(2): 1-5, 2019. ilus
Article in French | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1265736

ABSTRACT

Au Mali, le paludisme constitue un problème majeur de santé publique. La région de Sikasso est classée selon le faciès géo climatique comme étant une zone à transmission saisonnière longue du paludisme supérieure à 6 mois. Objectif : Décrire les caractéristiques épidémiologiques, et cliniques des enfants âgés de 0 à 5 ans hospitalisés pour paludisme grave au service de pédiatrie de l'hôpital de Sikasso. Patients et Méthods : Il s'agit d'une étude transversale rétrospective sur douze mois (janvierdécembre 2014) de tous les enfants âgés de 0-5 ans hospitalisés pour paludisme grave à l'hôpital régional de Sikasso. Les variables analysées étaient épidémiologiques, cliniques, paracliniques, thérapeutiques et évolutifs. Résultats : La fréquence hospitalière du paludisme grave a été de 55,82%.La tranche d'âge de 12-35 mois a été la plus concernée (45,3%). Le pic de fréquence des cas a été atteint au mois d'aout (21,2%). Les formesanémique, mixte (anémie et neurologique) etneurologique ont été les plus fréquentes. L'artéméther et la quinine ont été les antipaludiques utilisés. Le recours à une transfusion sanguine a été fréquente (82,8%).La létalité est de10% et la forme mixte (anémie et neurologique) a été la plus létale ((P<10-6). Conclusion : Le paludisme reste une préoccupation nationale au Mali. L'amélioration de la qualité de la prise en charge et la prévention doivent êtreune priorité pour diminuer la létalité qui reste élevée


Subject(s)
Child, Hospitalized , Malaria/diagnosis , Malaria/epidemiology , Mali , Severity of Illness Index
20.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 35(2): e00020218, 2019. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-984141

ABSTRACT

O entendimento das relações entre as variáveis de precipitação e nível d'água dos rios com os casos de malária podem fornecer indícios importantes da modulação da doença no contexto da variabilidade climática local. No intuito de demonstrar como essas relações variam no mesmo espaço endêmico, realizou-se a análise de coerência e fase de ondeletas entre as variáveis ambientais e epidemiológica no período de 2003 a 2010 para 8 municípios do Estado do Amazonas (Barcelos, Borba, Canutama, Carauari, Coari, Eirunepé, Humaitá e São Gabriel da Cachoeira). Os resultados indicam coerências significativas principalmente na escala de variabilidade anual, contudo, escalas menores que 1 ano e bienal também foram encontradas. As análises mostram que casos de malária apresentam pico com aproximadamente 1 mês e meio antes ou depois dos picos de chuva, e em média 1-4 meses após o pico dos rios para grande parte dos municípios estudados. Foi notado que cada variável ambiental apresentou atuação local distinta no tempo e no espaço, sugerindo que outras variáveis locais (a topografia é um exemplo) possam controlar as condições ambientais favorecendo uma atuação diferenciada em cada município, porém, quando as análises são feitas em conjunto é possível ver uma ordem não aleatória destas relações acontecerem. Embora os fatores ambientais e climáticos denotem certa influência sobre a dinâmica da malária, questões de vigilância, prevenção e controle não devem ser desprezadas, significando que as atuações governamentais de saúde podem mascarar possíveis relações com as condições hidrológicas e climáticas locais.


La comprensión de las relaciones entre las variables de precipitaciones y el nivel de agua de los ríos con los casos de malaria pueden proporcionar indicios importantes sobre la modulación de la enfermedad en el contexto de la variabilidad climática local. Con el fin de demonstrar cómo varían esas relaciones en el mismo espacio endémico, se realizó un análisis de coherencia y fase de ondeletas entre las variables ambientales y epidemiológicas, durante el período de 2003 a 2010, en 8 municipios del estado de Amazonas (Barcelos, Borba, Canutama, Carauari, Coari, Eirunepé, Humaitá y São Gabriel da Cachoeira). Los resultados indican coherencias significativas, principalmente en la escala de variabilidad anual, sin embargo, también se detectaron escalas menores de 1 año y bienal. Los análisis muestran que los casos de malaria presentan un pico con aproximadamente 1 mes y medio antes o después de la pluviosidad más alta, y de media 1-4 meses tras el pico de los ríos para gran parte de los municipios estudiados. Se observó que cada variable ambiental presentó una actuación local distinta en el tiempo y en el espacio, sugiriendo que otras variables locales (la topografía es un ejemplo) puedan controlar las condiciones ambientales, favoreciendo una actuación diferenciada en cada municipio, no obstante, cuando los análisis se realizan en conjunto es posible ver un orden no aleatorio de estas relaciones para que se produzcan. A pesar de que los factores ambientales y climáticos denoten una cierta influencia sobre la dinámica de la malaria, cuestiones de vigilancia, prevención y control no se deben despreciar, lo que significa que las actuaciones gubernamentales de salud pueden enmascarar posibles relaciones con las condiciones hidrológicas y climáticas locales.


Understanding the relations between rainfall and river water levels and malaria cases can provide important clues on modulation of the disease in the context of local climatic variability. In order to demonstrate how these relations can vary in the same endemic space, a coherence and wavelet phase analysis was performed between environmental and epidemiological variables from 2003 to 2010 for 8 municipalities (counties) in the state of Amazonas, Brazil (Barcelos, Borba, Canutama, Carauari, Coari, Eirunepé, Humaitá, and São Gabriel da Cachoeira). The results suggest significant coherences, mainly on the scale of annual variability, but scales of less than 1 year and of 2 years were also found. The analyses show that malaria cases display a peak at approximately 1 and a half months before or after peak rainfall and on average 1-4 months after peak river water levels in most of the municipalities studied. Each environmental variable displayed distinct local behavior in time and in space, suggesting that other local variables (e.g. topography) may control environmental conditions, favoring different patterns in each municipality. However, when the analyses were performed jointly it was possible to show a non-random order in these relations. Although environmental and climatic factors indicate a certain influence on malaria dynamics, surveillance, prevention, and control issues should not be overlooked, meaning that government public health interventions can mask possible relations with local hydrological and climatic conditions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Rain , Hydrology , Climate , Malaria/prevention & control , Malaria/epidemiology , Seasons , Brazil/epidemiology , Residence Characteristics , Incidence , Rivers , Disease Vectors
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL