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1.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(4): 489-498, July-Aug. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-896995

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION Renal damage is a consequence of severe malaria, and is generally caused by sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum -infected erythrocytes in the renal microcirculation, which leads to obstruction, hypoxia, and ischemia. This triggers high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) to send a danger signal through toll-like receptors 2 and 4. This signal up-regulates inducible nitric oxide (iNOS) and nitrotyrosine to re-perfuse the tissue, and also increases heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression. As no study has examined the involvement of intracellular secondary molecules in this setting, the present study compared the renal expressions of HSP70, HMGB1, iNOS, and nitrotyrosine between mice suffered from severe malaria and normal mice. METHODS C57BL/6 mice were divided into an infected group (intraperitoneal injection of 10 6 P. berghei ANKA) and a non-infected group. Renal damage was evaluated using hematoxylin eosin staining, and immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the expressions of HSP70, HMGB1, iNOS, and nitrotyrosine. RESULTS Significant inter-group differences were observed in the renal expressions of HSP70, HMGB1, and iNOS (p=0.000, Mann-Whitney test), as well as nitrotyrosine (p=0.000, independent t test). The expressions of HSP70 and HMGB1 were strongly correlated (p=0.000, R=1.000). No correlations were observed between iNOS and HMGB, HMGB1 and nitrotyrosine, HSP70 and nitrotyrosine, or iNOS and nitrotyrosine. CONCLUSIONS It appears that HMGB1, HSP70, iNOS, and nitrotyrosine play roles in the renal damage that is observed in mice with severe malaria. Only HSP70 expression is strongly correlated with the expression of HMGB1.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Tyrosine/antagonists & inhibitors , HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins/metabolism , HMGB1 Protein/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/metabolism , Acute Kidney Injury/parasitology , Malaria/complications , Malaria/metabolism , Tyrosine/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Disease Models, Animal , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-51159

ABSTRACT

The sequestration of infected erythrocytes in the placenta can activate the syncytiotrophoblast to release cytokines that affect the micro-environment and influence the delivery of nutrients and oxygen to fetus. The high level of IL-10 has been reported in the intervillous space and could prevent the pathological effects. There is still no data of Th17 involvement in the pathogenesis of placental malaria. This study was conducted to reveal the influence of placental IL-17 and IL-10 levels on fetal weights in malaria placenta. Seventeen pregnant BALB/C mice were divided into control (8 pregnant mice) and treatment group (9 pregnant mice infected by Plasmodium berghei). Placental specimens stained with hematoxylin and eosin were examined to determine the level of cytoadherence by counting the infected erythrocytes in the intervillous space of placenta. Levels of IL-17 and IL-10 in the placenta were measured using ELISA. All fetuses were weighed by analytical balance. Statistical analysis using Structural Equation Modeling showed that cytoadherence caused an increased level of placental IL-17 and a decreased level of placental IL-10. Cytoadherence also caused low fetal weight. The increased level of placental IL-17 caused low fetal weight, and interestingly low fetal weight was caused by a decrease of placental IL-10. It can be concluded that low fetal weight in placental malaria is directly caused by sequestration of the parasites and indirectly by the local imbalance of IL-17 and IL-10 levels.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Fetal Weight , Humans , Interleukin-10/analysis , Interleukin-17/analysis , Malaria/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Placenta/chemistry , Plasmodium berghei/physiology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic/metabolism
3.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Jan; 52(1): 67-72
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-150334

ABSTRACT

The present work deals with the development of Plasmodium falciparum stages in mouse model and its potential for the study of efficacy of antimalarial drugs. C57BL/6J mice were infected with multidrug resistant P. falciparum strain then treated with arteether and artesunate. A response was observed to antimalarial drugs in terms of decrease in parasitemia. Mice infected with P. falciparum strain were successfully cured after treatment with either arteether or artesunate. The speed of parasite clearance time and burden of parasitemia differed for each drug and matched the previously reported observations, hence stressing the relevance of the model. These findings thus suggest that P. falciparum. infected human RBC (iRBC) – C57BL/6J mice can provide a valuable in vivo system and should be included in the short list of animals that can be used for the evaluation of P. falciparum responses to drugs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Artemisinins/administration & dosage , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Resistance, Multiple/genetics , Female , Humans , Malaria/drug therapy , Malaria/metabolism , Malaria/parasitology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Parasitemia/drug therapy , Plasmodium falciparum/growth & development , Plasmodium falciparum/pathogenicity
4.
RBCF, Rev. bras. ciênc. farm. (Impr.) ; 43(3): 371-383, jul.-set. 2007. ilus, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-468144

ABSTRACT

A malária é a endemia tropical mais devastadora do mundo e esse quadro é agravado pela ausência de tratamento eficaz. Entretanto, a resistência dos plasmódios à artemisinina não apresenta relevância clínica e seu mecanismo de ação está associado ao grupo heme, com formação de radicais livres e rompimento da ponte endoperóxido. O comportamento voltamétrico da artemisinina foi estudado por voltametria cíclica e voltametria de onda quadrada. O fármaco é irreversivelmente reduzido em eletrodos de carbono vítreo e os valores de potencial de pico não sofrem influência da acidez do meio, porém observou-se o maior valor de corrente em pH 6,0. O comportamento voltamétrico da artemisinina foi significativamente alterado na presença do grupo heme, provocando uma antecipação de seu pico de redução em cerca de 600 mV. Por voltametria de onda quadrada observou-se que este novo pico foi sensível à adição crescente de concentração de hemina, atingindo valor de corrente cerca de 10 vezes maior em relação ao pico original da artemisinina, numa relação de concentração de 20 mmol/L para o primeiro e 50 mmol/L do segundo. Além disso, resultados indicaram que esse processo eletrocatalítico ocorreu pela formação de Fe(II)-hemina na superfície do eletrodo, com provável processo de eletro-polimerização da hemina sobre o eletrodo de carbono vítreo. Esse efeito adsortivo foi avaliado a partir da estimativa da concentração superficial (G) de hemina sobre o eletrodo de trabalho em pH 6,0. A modificação do eletrodo de carbono vítreo por hemina mostrou que a interação entre artemisinina e o grupo heme ocorre predominantemente sobre a superfície do eletrodo e não em solução. Portanto, esclarecer o mecanismo de ação da artemisinina é importante para o planejamento e desenvolvimento de novos agentes antimaláricos.


Malaria is the tropical disease most devastating of the world and this situation is worsened by the absence of effective treatment. However, the plasmodium resistance to artemisinin does not show clinical relevance. The drug mechanism of action is associated to the heme group, with free radical formation and endoperoxide moiety breakage. The voltammetric behavior of artemisinin was studied by cyclic and square-wave voltametries. This drug was irreversibly reduced on glassy carbon electrode and the peak potential values are pH independent, however the biggest value of current peak was observed at pH 6.0. The voltammetric behavior of artemisinin was significantly changed in the heme group presence, provoking an anticipation of about 600 mV on cathodic peak. By square-wave voltammetry it was observed that this new peak was sensitive to the hemin concentration, reaching a value around 10 times larger regarding the original cathodic peak of artemisinin, being the concentration of 20 mmol/L for the former and 50 mmol/L for the latter. In addition, results indicated that this electro-catalytic process depends on the Fe(II)-hemin formation on the electrode surface, indicating the possible electro-polymerization of hemin on the glassy carbon electrode. This adsorptive effect was evaluated from the superficial concentration (G) estimation of the hemin on the working electrode at pH 6.0. The modification of the glassy carbon electrode using hemin showed that the interaction between artemisinin and the heme group predominantly occurs on the electrode surface and not in solution. Therefore, clarifying artemisinin mechanism of action is important in order to contribute for the design and development of new antimalarial agents.


Subject(s)
Artemisinins/pharmacokinetics , Drug Resistance , Malaria/metabolism , Malaria/therapy , Plasmodium falciparum , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Hemin
5.
São Paulo; s.n; 31 mar. 2006. 210 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-448696

ABSTRACT

A malária ainda constitui grave problema de saúde pública, estando presente principalmente em países em desenvolvimento. Acredita-se que 40% da população mundial vivam em áreas endêmicas para esta parasitose. No Brasil, cerca de 600 mil novos casos aparecem a cada ano, merecendo realce a Amazônia, que corresponde a 99% dos casos brasileiros. Dentre os agentes etiológicos, o Plasmodium falciparum suscita atenção especial, pois é o responsável pela malária grave. A artemisinina é agente antimalárico cujo emprego encontra-se principalmente para cepas resistentes. Embora este fármaco seja o único antimalárico cuja resistência dos plasmódios não possui relevância clínica, problemas de solubilidade comprometem sua eficácia clínica e fazem com que seja utilizado sempre em associação a antimaláricos com maior meia-vida plasmática. Com o objetivo de aumentar a biodisponibilidade do antimalárico, conferindo-lhe maior hidrossolubilidade e ante ao emprego de quitosana como transportador com vistas, entre outros, a esse objetivo, planejaram-se pró-fármacos de quitosanas modificadas e artemisinina. Inicialmente, obtiveram-se quatro derivados hidrofílicos da quitosana: N-carboxibutilquitosana, N-carboximetilquitosana, N,O-carboximetilquitosana e N-succinilquitosana. A artemisinina foi empregada na forma reduzida, a diidroartemisinina, sintetizada a partir do fármaco na presença de boroidreto de sódio em várias proporções relativas ao fármaco. Procedeu-se, então, à condensação entre a diidroartemisinina e os derivados hidrofílicos obtidos por meio de quatro métodos distintos. Prepararam-se, também, microesferas para incorporar e ligar covalentemente a diidroartemisinina à quitosana O fármaco flurbiprofeno foi utilizado como fármaco lipofílico modelo de reação. Os resultados obtidos indicam a formação de microesferas de pró-fármaco de quitosana com artemisinina, utilizando genipina como reticulante, empregando-se emulsão múltipla O/AIO juntamente com as microesferas...


Subject(s)
Antimalarials/pharmacokinetics , Malaria/metabolism , Malaria/therapy , Biological Availability , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Drug Evaluation , Solubility , Treatment Outcome
6.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 19(1): 9-22, ene. 2006. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-431741

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVOS: Evaluar la relación entre los factores genéticos y fenotípicos del sistema enzimático del citocromo P-450 y la respuesta terapéutica antimalárica a la cloroquina, la amodiaquina, la mefloquina y el proguanil, así como determinar la influencia de algunos factores biológicos y sociales del hospedero en el comportamiento de este complejo enzimático. MÉTODOS: Revisión sistemática de las bases de literatura biomédica PubMed, Excerpta Medica, LILACS y SciELO mediante descriptores en español e inglés. Se usaron los siguientes descriptores: "CYP-450" y "citocromo P-450" y sus combinaciones con "proguanil" (y lo mismo con "mefloquina", "cloroquina" y "amodiaquina"), "farmacocinética de proguanil" (y lo mismo con "mefloquina", "cloroquina" y "amodiaquina"), "resistencia a proguanil" (y lo mismo con "mefloquina", "cloroquina" y "amodiaquina"), "metabolismo", "farmacogenética", "enfermedad", "inflamación", "infección", "enfermedad hepática", "malaria", "nutrición" y "desnutrición". Estos mismos términos se usaron en inglés. La búsqueda se limitó a los artículos publicados en español, inglés y portugués hasta el 30 de junio de 2005 y a cuatro medicamentos antimaláricos: amodiaquina, cloroquina, mefloquina y proguanil. RESULTADOS: Algunos factores genéticos del citocromo P-450 humano (principalmente su polimorfismo), así como otros de tipo biológico y social (la propia presencia de enfermedad, inflamación o infección, la administración de medicamentos antimaláricos y su combinación, y el estado nutricional del paciente), influyen en la actividad de ese complejo enzimático. Solo en la última década se ha abordado el estudio de las bases genéticas de los citocromos y se han podido dilucidar los mecanismos de algunas interacciones entre fármacos y del metabolismo de estos, lo que ha permitido caracterizar el proceso de biotransformación de la amodiaquina y de la cloroquina. Se espera que nuevas investigaciones permitan responder a las interrogantes que aún subsisten, entre ellas cuál es la ruta metabólica de otros medicamentos antimaláricos, la distribución en la población de los alelos de las enzimas que participan en su metabolismo, y la contribución de tales mutaciones al fracaso terapéutico, y predecir la respuesta a los tratamientos antimaláricos...


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Child , Adult , Mice , Rats , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , /genetics , /metabolism , Malaria, Falciparum/drug therapy , Malaria/drug therapy , Administration, Oral , Amodiaquine/administration & dosage , Amodiaquine/metabolism , Amodiaquine/pharmacokinetics , Amodiaquine/therapeutic use , Antimalarials/administration & dosage , Antimalarials/metabolism , Antimalarials/pharmacokinetics , Biotransformation , Proguanil/administration & dosage , Proguanil/metabolism , Proguanil/pharmacokinetics , Proguanil/therapeutic use , Chloroquine/administration & dosage , Chloroquine/metabolism , Chloroquine/pharmacokinetics , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Databases as Topic , Disease Models, Animal , Genotype , Murinae , Mutation , Malaria, Falciparum/metabolism , Malaria/metabolism , Mefloquine/administration & dosage , Mefloquine/metabolism , Mefloquine/pharmacokinetics , Mefloquine/therapeutic use , Nutritional Status , Phenotype , Plasmodium berghei , Polymorphism, Genetic
7.
Washington; DC: ASM Press; 2005. 542 p. ilus.
Monography in English | LILACS | ID: lil-598014
8.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2004 Jun; 42(6): 558-61
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-62328

ABSTRACT

Induction of haemolymph proteins in mosquito A. stephensi due to wounding or bacterial infection (E. coli) was analyzed using SDS-PAGE. Wounding response of pupa revealed subsequent induction of two polypeptides (21 and 74 kDa). Two other polypeptides (44 and 57 kDa) were induced commonly in both pupa and adult female haemolymph upon bacterial infection. In vitro binding assay revealed identification of 44 kDa, a putative bacterial binding protein, a more relevant protein for further elucidation of molecular mechanism involved in host parasite interactions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Female , Hemolymph/metabolism , Malaria/metabolism , Peptides/chemistry , Protein Binding , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Time Factors
9.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-18963

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Foreign peptide sequences can be inserted into the betaB-betaC loop of the cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) small coat protein (SCP) to yield functional chimaeric viruses. Immunisation with chimaeric CPMV elicits immune responses that protect against human immunodeficiency and mink enteritis viruses. The present study was undertaken to investigate the expression of a B cell epitope from the merozoite surface antigen-1 of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (PfMSP1) in CPMV for an epitope based vaccine. METHODS: DNA encoding a 19 aa sequence (VTHESYQEL VKKLEALEDA, termed P109), the N-terminus of the mature PfMSP1, was cloned into SCP gene yielding a chimaeric virus CPMV-P109. CPMV-P109 was propagated in cowpea plants. The immunogenicity of purified recombinant virus in rabbits was investigated. RESULTS: CPMV-P109 developed a systemically spreading infection in cowpea, with normal viral morphology. The P109 epitope was detected on CPMV-P109 by ELISA with an antiserum produced against homopolymeric P109. Immunisation of rabbits with CPMV-P109 yielded antibodies that, although were predominantly directed against virus-specific epitopes, also recognized the P109 peptide on the recombinant virus and free P109 peptide. These antibodies however, did not react with the native antigen on merozoite by immunofluorescence. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: The results indicate that selecting immunodominant peptide epitopes and presenting them in a near native conformation are important for generating biologically relevant antibodies in the CPMV expression system. Further, the findings draw attention to the importance of measuring immune responses to the viral vector antigens, a preponderance of which can result in undesirable effects such as autoimmunity and hypersensitivity in immunized hosts.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Base Sequence , Capsid Proteins/chemistry , Cloning, Molecular , Comovirus/chemistry , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Epitopes , Genetic Vectors , HIV/metabolism , Malaria/metabolism , Merozoite Surface Protein 1/chemistry , Microscopy, Electron , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Molecular Sequence Data , Parvovirus/genetics , Peptides/chemistry , Plasmids/metabolism , Plasmodium falciparum/metabolism , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Rabbits , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Viruses/genetics
10.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-113114

ABSTRACT

Plasmodium yoelii infected cerebral micro vessels of mice registered a significant increase in D-[U-14C] Glucose transport as compared to normal microvessels which was found to be time, temperature and concentration dependent. Metabolic inhibitors galactose, manose, 2-deoxy glucose and D-glucose showed noticeable inhibition of the same.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biological Transport , Cerebral Cortex/blood supply , Glucose/metabolism , Malaria/metabolism , Mice , Microcirculation/metabolism , Plasmodium yoelii
12.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-23717

ABSTRACT

The morbidity associated with malaria plays a key role in the staggering of the social and economic development of human race. The investigations on the cellular, biochemical and molecular organisation of the malarial parasite are important to understand the host parasite interactions in a better way. The parasite induces several biochemical and biophysical alterations in the host red cells. It is well recognized that cation homeostasis is vital to basic aspects of cell functions. Though the pathogenesis of anaemia associated with Plasmodium falciparum infection is multifactorial, the complex mechanisms involving the role of oxidant stress and calcium imbalance of infected red cells plays an important role.


Subject(s)
Animals , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Humans , Malaria/metabolism , Plasmodium/metabolism
13.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 1995 Nov; 33(11): 897-8
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-62311

ABSTRACT

Heme and heme degrading enzymes namely heme-oxygenase (HO) and biliverdin reductase (BR) were monitored in liver and spleen during Plasmodium berghei infection in golden hamsters. There was a sequential rise in the levels of heme and HO with the rise in parasitaemia. BR was also significantly increased in these organs following infection.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cricetinae , Heme/metabolism , Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing)/metabolism , Liver/metabolism , Malaria/metabolism , Mesocricetus , Parasitemia/metabolism , Plasmodium berghei , Spleen/metabolism
14.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-20322

ABSTRACT

The specificity of murine antibodies raised against structurally related peptides derived from a malaria parasite membrane protein was studied. The peptides were conjugated to bovine serum albumin (BSA) with 6-maleimido caproic acyl N-hydroxysuccinimide ester before immunization. Conjugation to BSA through a C-terminal or an internal cysteine residue elicited antibodies with noticeably different specificities. An N-terminal tripeptide sequence arginine-asparagine-asparagine had a dominant influence on the immunogenicity of the peptides. Such factors need to be taken into consideration while designing peptide-based immunogens.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Antibodies, Protozoan/immunology , Antibody Specificity , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Malaria/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Molecular Sequence Data , Peptide Fragments/genetics , Protozoan Proteins/genetics
15.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 1992 Dec; 30(12): 1193-6
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-56911

ABSTRACT

Lipid peroxide, lipid hydroperoxide, reduced glutathione, oxidised glutathione, lipofuscin contents and the activity of the enzyme superoxide dismutase were assessed in P. berghei infected M. natalensis brain. The results showed significant increase in the levels of lipid peroxides, lipid hydroperoxides and lipofuscin in brain subcellular fractions of P. berghei infected M. natalensis. Furthermore, a depressed superoxide dismutase activity was observed along with regulation in glutathione content. An elevated level of lipid peroxidation products along with depressed activity of scavengers in brain during malaria highlights the role of free radicals in malarial pathology.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain/metabolism , Free Radicals/metabolism , Glutathione/metabolism , Lipid Peroxides/metabolism , Lipofuscin/metabolism , Malaria/metabolism , Muridae , Plasmodium berghei , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
16.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-16373

ABSTRACT

The lipid composition of mouse liver following infection with P. berghei was investigated. The liver lipid contents of infected animals were greatly increased mainly due to the accumulation of triacylglycerides. There was enhanced lipid concentration (85.29%). Significantly (23.7%) depleted liver cholesterol was also found in the mice. Similarly, phospholipid contents of liver were also decreased by 19.90 per cent. The liver from P. berghei infected mouse produced more lipid peroxide, as compared to control animals (314%). Significant depletion was also observed in carbohydrate, glycogen and glucose (79.1, 86.26 and 78.6% respectively) contents of liver at high parasitaemia. The lower contents of nucleic acid in the infected hosts observed in the study may be partly due to the absorption of nucleic acids by the parasites from the host cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Lipid Peroxidation , Lipids/analysis , Liver/chemistry , Malaria/metabolism , Male , Mice , Plasmodium berghei
17.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 1989 Dec; 26(6): 397-9
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-26553

ABSTRACT

Plasmodium berghei infection to Mastomys natalensis showed hyper beta-lipoproteinemia. The increase in serum cholesterol is associated with decreased uptake of low density lipoprotein (LDL) by the liver through receptor mediated endocytosis. The membranes prepared from infected M. natalensis exhibit up to 50% decline in high affinity binding sites for human 125I-LDL. Significant increases in serum lipids, cholesterol, triglyceride and lipid peroxide (LPO) contents of liver membrane were observed. Effects of lipid constituents and LPO content of liver membrane in relation to LDL catabolism and other possible mechanisms have been explained.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Lipoproteins/metabolism , Liver/metabolism , Malaria/metabolism , Male , Muridae , Plasmodium berghei , Receptors, LDL/metabolism
19.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-32183

ABSTRACT

The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and the glomerular clearance rate of albumin were determined in 6 rhesus monkeys infected with P. knowlesi as well as in 6 control monkeys by using 51Cr-EDTA and 125I-HSA respectively. The excreted albumin in the urine was also determined and used for calculating the renal clearance value. The amount and rate of albumin filtered in the glomeruli and reabsorbed by the tubules were then calculated from these parameters. The present study showed that the rate and amount of albumin filtered through the glomeruli, reabsorbed by tubules and excreted in the urine of normal monkeys, which were similar to results reported earlier in normal human, dogs and rats. In the monkeys infected with P. knowlesi the glomerular filtration rate was reduced while the glomerular clearance rate of albumin increased which resulted in the significantly elevated filtered albumin in the glomeruli. The tubular reabsorptive capacity to plasma albumin was also found to be significantly increased in parallel to the elevated filtered load of albumin. However, as this capacity was limited, the excess albumin was therefore excreted into the urine in the infected monkeys. All these findings indicated that the albuminuria in P. knowlesi-infected monkeys was due to the increased glomerular capillary permeability to plasma albumin, although the tubular reabsorptive capacity increased but could not cope with a very high filtered load, therefore, excess albumin was detected in the urine.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Kidney/metabolism , Macaca mulatta , Malaria/metabolism , Metabolic Clearance Rate , Plasmodium , Rats , Serum Albumin/metabolism
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