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Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e200497, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154873


BACKGROUND Flight tones play important roles in mosquito reproduction. Several mosquito species utilise flight tones for mate localisation and attraction. Typically, the female wingbeat frequency (WBF) is lower than males, and stereotypic acoustic behaviors are instrumental for successful copulation. Mosquito WBFs are usually an important species characteristic, with female flight tones used as male attractants in surveillance traps for species identification. Anopheles darlingi is an important Latin American malaria vector, but we know little about its mating behaviors. OBJECTIVES We characterised An. darlingi WBFs and examined male acoustic responses to immobilised females. METHODS Tethered and free flying male and female An. darlingi were recorded individually to determine their WBF distributions. Male-female acoustic interactions were analysed using tethered females and free flying males. FINDINGS Contrary to most mosquito species, An. darlingi females are smaller than males. However, the male's WBF is ~1.5 times higher than the females, a common ratio in species with larger females. When in proximity to a female, males displayed rapid frequency modulations that decreased upon genitalia engagement. Tethered females also modulated their frequency upon male approach, being distinct if the interaction ended in copulation or only contact. MAIN CONCLUSIONS This is the first report of An. darlingi flight acoustics, showing that its precopulatory acoustics are similar to other mosquitoes despite the uncommon male:female size ratio, suggesting that WBF ratios are common communication strategies rather than a physical constraint imposed by size.

Animals , Male , Female , Mosquito Vectors , Malaria/transmission , Anopheles , Reproduction
Saúde Soc ; 29(2): e181046, 2020. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101917


Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é analisar a influência dos determinantes socioambientais da saúde na incidência de malária por Plasmodium vivax na fronteira franco-brasileira. O estudo foi realizado entre 2011 e 2015, no município de Oiapoque (AP), na Amazônia brasileira. Foram incluídos na amostra 253 indivíduos de ambos os sexos, de 10 a 60 anos de idade. Houve predominância de 63,64% (161/253) de casos de malária em adultos do sexo masculino. A faixa etária mais acometida foi de 20 a 29 anos, com 30% (76/253); 84,6% (214/253) dos pacientes não concluíram o ensino médio, e 29,6% (75/253) não concluíram o ensino primário. No aspecto ambiental, houve correlação negativa entre as precipitações pluviométricas e a incidência da malária por P. vivax (p=0,0026). Em termos de mobilidade, constatou-se considerável proporção de migrantes provenientes dos estados do Pará e do Maranhão (55,73%; 141/253). Por fim, os dados apontaram que 31,23% (79/253) dos casos de malária foram importados da Guiana Francesa. Em síntese, a transmissão da malária na fronteira franco-brasileira envolve fatores ecológico-ambientais, biológicos e sociais que se expressam na elevada vulnerabilidade social da população que vive e circula na zona fronteiriça, favorecendo a ocorrência de surtos e a permanência da enfermidade.

Abstract This study analyzes the influence of socio-environmental health determinants on the maintenance of Plasmodium vivax malaria at the borders between French Guiana and Brazil. This study was carried out between 2011 and 2015 in the city of Oiapoque, Amapá, situated in the Brazilian Amazon region. The sample included 253 individuals of both sexes aged between 10 and 60 years. The disease was predominant in 63.64% (161/253) adult males. The most affected age group was 20 to 29 years old, with 30% (76/253). About 84.6% did not complete high school, while 29.6% (75/253) of the cases had not finished the first degree. Concerning the environmental aspect, negative correlation was observed between rainfall and the incidence of P. vivax malaria (p=0.0026). In terms of mobility, there was a considerable influx of migrants from the states of Pará and Maranhão, with 55.73% (141/253). Lastly, the data indicated that 31.23% (79/253) of malaria cases were imported from French Guiana. In summary, the transmission of malaria in these particular borders involved ecological, environmental, biological and social factors, which are expressed in the high social vulnerability of the population living and circulating in the border zone, favoring the occurrence of outbreaks and the maintenance of the disease.

Humans , Male , Female , Impacts on Health/analysis , Border Health , Environment , Human Migration , Social Determinants of Health , Malaria/transmission , Malaria, Vivax
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200043, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135250


BACKGROUND The number of malaria cases in Roraima nearly tripled from 2016 to 2018. The capital, Boa Vista, considered a low-risk area for malaria transmission, reported an increasing number of autochthonous and imported cases. OBJECTIVES This study describes a spatial analysis on malaria cases in an urban region of Boa Vista, which sought to identify the autochthonous and imported cases and associated them with Anopheles habitats and the potential risk of local transmission. METHODS In a cross-sectional study at the Polyclinic Cosme e Silva, 520 individuals were interviewed and diagnosed with malaria by microscopic examination. Using a global positional system, the locations of malaria cases by type and origin and the breeding sites of anopheline vectors were mapped and the risk of malaria transmission was evaluated by spatial point pattern analysis. FINDINGS Malaria was detected in 57.5% of the individuals and there was a disproportionate number of imported cases (90.6%) linked to Brazilian coming from gold mining sites in Venezuela and Guyana. MAIN CONCLUSIONS The increase in imported malaria cases circulating in the west region of Boa Vista, where there are positive breeding sites for the main vectors, may represent a potential condition for increased autochthonous malaria transmission in this space.

Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Adult , Plasmodium/isolation & purification , Travel , Miners/statistics & numerical data , Mosquito Vectors/parasitology , Malaria/diagnosis , Malaria/transmission , Anopheles/parasitology , Plasmodium/classification , Urban Population , Venezuela , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Geographic Information Systems , Spatial Analysis , Gold , Guyana , Malaria/parasitology , Malaria/epidemiology , Anopheles/classification , Middle Aged
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 53: 49, jan. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1004511


ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the environmental and socioeconomic risk factors of malaria transmission at municipality level, from 2010 to 2015, in the Brazilian Amazon. METHODS The municipalities were stratified into high, moderate, and low transmission based on the annual parasite incidence. A multinomial logistic regression that compared low with medium transmission and low with high transmission was performed. For each category, three models were analyzed: one only with socioeconomic risk factors (Gini index, illiteracy, number of mines and indigenous areas); a second with the environmental factors (forest coverage and length of the wet season); and a third with all covariates (full model). RESULTS The full model showed the best performance. The most important risks factors for high transmission were Gini index, length of the wet season and illiteracy, OR 2.06 (95%CI 1.19-3.56), 1.73 (95%CI 1.19-2.51) and 1.10 (95%CI 1.03-1.17), respectively. The medium transmission showed a weaker influence of the risk factors, being illiteracy, forest coverage and indigenous areas statistically significant but with marginal influence. CONCLUSIONS As a disease of poverty, the reduction in wealth inequalities and, therefore, health inequalities, could reduce the transmission considerably. Besides, environmental risk factors as length of the wet season should be considered in the planning, prevention and control. Municipality-level and fine-scale analysis should be done together to improve the knowledge of the local dynamics of transmission.

Humans , Forests , Disease Transmission, Infectious/statistics & numerical data , Malaria/transmission , Malaria/epidemiology , Seasons , Socioeconomic Factors , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Incidence , Risk Factors , Cities/epidemiology , Spatio-Temporal Analysis
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180415, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041552


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Malaria and leishmaniases are transmitted by vectors during blood-feeding. Vector-infected animals develop antibodies against the vector's saliva. This study evaluated IgY antibody detection in the chicken eggs exposed to bites from Migonemyia migonei, Lutzomyia longipalpis and Anopheles aquasalis. METHODS: We used ELISA to quantify the antibody levels in the sera and exposed chicken eggs. RESULTS: High IgY levels were observed following immunization; furthermore, higher reactivity was observed in the eggs and species-specific immune response was observed post final immunization. CONCLUSIONS: Chicken eggs can be used as sentinels to surveil vector saliva antibodies.

Animals , Psychodidae/immunology , Saliva/immunology , Immunoglobulins/analysis , Chickens/parasitology , Eggs/parasitology , Insect Vectors/immunology , Anopheles/immunology , Time Factors , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Leishmaniasis/transmission , Malaria/transmission
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180542, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990438


Abstract In Brazil, malaria is an important public health problem first reported in 1560. Historically, fluctuations in malaria cases in Brazil are attributed to waves of economic development; construction of railroads, highways, and hydroelectric dams; and population displacement and land occupation policies. Vector control measures have been widely used with an important role in reducing malaria cases. In this review article, we reviewed the vector control measures established in the Brazilian territory and aspects associated with such measures for malaria. Although some vector control measures are routinely used in Brazil, many entomological and effectiveness information still need better evidence in endemic areas where Plasmodium vivax predominates. Herein, we outlined some of the needs and priorities for future research: a) update of the cartography of malaria vectors in Brazil, adding molecular techniques for the correct identification of species and complexes of species; b) evaluation of vector competence of anophelines in Brazil; c) strengthening of local entomology teams to perform vector control measures and interpret results; d) evaluation of vector control measures, especially use of insecticide-treated nets and long-lasting insecticidal nets, estimating their effectiveness, cost-benefit, and population acceptance; e) establishment of colonies of malaria vectors in Brazil, i.e., Anopheles darlingi, to understand parasite-vector interactions better; f) study of new vector control strategies with impacts on non-endophilic vectors; g) estimation of the impact of insecticide resistance in different geographical areas; and h) identification of the relative contribution of natural and artificial breeding sites in different epidemiological contexts for transmission.

Humans , Animals , Mosquito Control/methods , Mosquito Vectors , Malaria/prevention & control , Malaria/transmission , Brazil/epidemiology , Insecticide Resistance , Insecticides/pharmacology , Anopheles
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20190419, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057245


Abstract INTRODUCTION: The fish farming program in Acre is as an alternative program to generate income and employment and has promising regional, national, and international markets. While the economic importance of fish farming in the Jurua Region is clear, one must address its contribution to increase malaria transmission. METHODS This was a qualitative study. The answers of the 16 key informants were organized into the following: (1) the healthcare services structure; (2) conscience, perception, and behaviors; and (3) socioeconomic and political issues. Each answer was classified as weaknesses, strengths, opportunities, and threats. RESULTS Regarding healthcare services, the frequency of household visits was reduced, and subjects presenting with malaria symptoms were required to visit a healthcare unit to be diagnosed and treated. Regarding individual's conscience, perception, and behavior, malaria was considered an insignificant disease, and a large proportion of the population were engaged in health practices that put them at risk in contacting with malaria vectors. Regarding political and economic issues, there were economic and infrastructure barriers for the development of a productive activity, and the insufficient credit or formalization of their properties prevented their access to governmental incentives and the financial market. CONCLUSIONS Support to fish farmers for low-cost inputs was not observed, and appropriate knowledge regarding the impact of the absence of maintenance and abandonment of fish tanks was insufficient. Moreover, insufficient healthcare services prevented not only the treatment of individuals with malaria but also the control of this disease.

Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Fisheries , Malaria/transmission , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Qualitative Research
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20190308, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057242


Abstract Malaria, a mosquito-borne infectious disease, is considered a significant global health burden. Climate changes or different weather conditions may impact infectious diseases, specifically those transmitted by insect vectors and contaminated water. Based on the current predictions for climate change associated with the increase in carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere and the increase in atmospheric temperature, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change predicts that in 2050, malaria may threaten some previously unexposed areas worldwide and cause a 50% higher probability of malaria cases. Climate-based distribution models of malaria depict an increase in the geographic distribution of the disease as global environmental temperatures and conditions worsen. Researchers have studied the influence of changes in climate on the prevalence of malaria using different mathematical models that consider different variables and predict the conditions for malaria distribution. In this context, we conducted a mini-review to elucidate the important aspects described in the literature on the influence of climate change in the distribution and transmission of malaria. It is important to develop possible risk management strategies and enhance the surveillance system enhanced even in currently malaria-free areas predicted to experience malaria in the future.

Animals , Climate Change , Mosquito Vectors/parasitology , Malaria/transmission , Anopheles/parasitology , Population Dynamics , Models, Biological
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 27: e3111, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-991309


ABSTRACT Objective: systematic review with a meta-analysis of the prevalence of malaria relapse. Method: it consisted in a search for cross-sectional studies, carried out in three databases, without application of filters. A total of 1,924 articles were identified, selected based on eligibility criteria. The selection was made in pairs from the reading of the titles, abstracts and text. The meta-analysis was performed with a statistical program. Results: a sample of 1,308 patients with malaria, ranging from 70 to 586 patients in the study. Relapse was estimated at 0.47%, with a 95% confidence interval and 99.04% of squared i. In the included studies, the prevalence of relapse ranged from 17.00% to 92.85%. The result of the meta-analysis is considered relevant, despite the heterogeneity. Conclusion: relapse is a phenomenon that can contribute to the maintenance of the endemicity of malaria in the world and to introduce it in non-affected areas. In addition, there is the need for advancement in the production of knowledge regarding this disease, to qualify the research methods on prevalence.

RESUMO Objetivo: realizar uma revisão sistemática com metanálise da prevalência de recaída por malária. Método: consistiu na busca por estudos transversais, realizada em três bases de dados, sem aplicação de filtros. Foram identificados 1.924 artigos, selecionados a partir de critérios de elegibilidade. A seleção foi realizada em par na sequência de leitura dos títulos, resumos e texto. A metanálise foi realizada com programa estatístico. Resultados: uma amostra de 1.308 pacientes com malária, variando de 70 a 586 pacientes nos estudo. A recaída foi estimada em 0,47%, com intervalo de confiança de 95% e i quadrado de 99,04%. Nos estudos incluídos, a prevalência de recaída variou de 17,00% a 92,85%. Considera-se o resultado da metanálise relevante, apesar da heterogeneidade. Conclusão: a recaída é um fenômeno que pode contribuir para a manutenção da endemicidade da malária no mundo, além de poder introduzi-la em áreas não afetadas. Além disso, há necessidade, para avanço na produção de conhecimento referente a essa doença, de qualificar os métodos de pesquisa sobre prevalência.

RESUMEN Objetivo: realizar una revisión sistemática con metaanálisis de la prevalencia de recaída por malaria. Método: consistió en la búsqueda por estudios transversales, realizada en tres bases de datos, sin aplicación de filtros. Fueron identificados 1.924 artículos, seleccionados a partir de criterios de elegibilidad. La selección fue realizada en pares en la secuencia de lectura de los títulos, resúmenes y texto. El metaanálisis fue realizado con un programa estadístico. Resultados: una muestra de 1.308 pacientes con malaria, variando de 70 a 586 pacientes en el estudio. La recaída fue estimada en 0,47%, con intervalo de confianza de 95% e i cuadrado de 99,04%. En los estudios incluidos, la prevalencia de recaída varió de 17,00% a 92,85%. Se considera el resultado de la metaanálisis relevante, a pesar de la heterogeneidad. Conclusión: la recaída es un fenómeno que puede contribuir para el mantenimiento de la endemicidad de la malaria en el mundo, además de poder introducirla en áreas no afectadas. Además de eso, es necesario de calificar los métodos de investigación sobre prevalencia para el avance en la producción de conocimiento referente a esa enfermedad.

Humans , Public Health Nursing/organization & administration , Cross-Sectional Studies , Malaria/complications , Malaria/diagnosis , Malaria/transmission , Recurrence , Neglected Diseases
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2019. 127 p. graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-995136


Infecções por Plasmodium spp. podem acarretar em complicações pulmonares (1 a 40% dos casos), que podem resultar no desenvolvimento da síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo (SDRA). Esta síndrome é caracterizada por inflamação aguda, lesão do endotélio alveolar e do parênquima pulmonar, disfunção e aumento da permeabilidade da barreira alvéolo-capilar pulmonar e, consequente, formação de efusão pleural. Neste sentido, os mecanismos de regulação da permeabilidade das células endoteliais e as junções interendoteliais têm papel crítico na manutenção do endotélio pulmonar. O objetivo do estudo foi determinar precocemente o desenvolvimento da SDRA associada à malária por tomografia computadorizada por emissão de fóton único (SPECT/CT), além de identificar alterações nas junções interendoteliais das células endoteliais pulmonares primárias de camundongos DBA/2 (CEPP-DBA/2), após contato com os eritrócitos parasitados de Plasmodium berghei ANKA (EP-PbA). Os nossos resultados demonstraram que é possível identificar alterações na aeração pulmonar no 5° e 7° dia após a infecção e, consequentemente, diferenciar os animais que desenvolveriam SDRA daqueles que evoluiriam para hiperparasitemia (HP). Além disso, observamos em CEPP-DBA/2 que o contato direto com EP-PbA aumenta da abertura das junções interendoteliais e da permeabilidade vascular. Assim, avaliamos a diminuição da expressão das proteínas das junções interendoteliais que contribuem para o aumento da permeabilidade vascular, por imunofluorescência e Western Blot. Apesar da SDRA ter sido identificada há mais de 50 anos, ainda não se conhece formas de diagnóstico precoce e os mecanimos efetivos de desenvolvimento desta enfermidade, que permitam um tratamento efetivo e que evite a morte do paciente. Portanto, sugere-se que a técnica de SPECT/CT seja uma importante ferramenta de diagnóstico para identificação precoce de SDRA associado a malária

Infections by Plasmodium spp. can lead to pulmonary complications (1 to 40% of the cases), that can result in the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). This syndrome is characterized by the acute inflammation, injury of the alveolar endothelium and pulmonary parenchyma, dysfunction and increased permeability of the pulmonary alveolar-capillary barrier and, consequently, formation of pleural effusion. In this aspect, mechanisms of regulation of endothelial cell permeability and interendothelial junctions play a critical role in the maintenance of the pulmonary endothelium. The present study aimed to determine the early development of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT/CT) associated malaria ARDS in addition to identifying changes in the interendothelial junctions of the primary pulmonary endothelial cells of DBA/2 mice (CEPP-DBA/2) after contact with erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA (EP-PbA). Our results demonstrated that is possible to identify changes in lung aeration on the 5th and 7th day after infection and, consequently, differentiate the animals that should develop ARDS from those that would evolve to hyperparasitemia (HP). In addition, we observed in CEPP-DBA/2 that direct contact with EP-PbA increases the opening of the interendothelial junctions and vascular permeability. Thus, we evaluated that decrease the expression of interendothelial junction proteins contribute to the increase of vascular permeability, by immunofluorescence and Western Blot. Although ARDS was identified more than 50 years ago, it is not yet known what forms of early diagnosis, and the effective mechanisms of development of this disease, that allow an effective treatment and that prevent the death of the patient. Therefore, it is suggested that the SPECT/CT technique is a valuable tool to promote the early identification of ARDS associated with malaria

Animals , Male , Mice , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Capillary Permeability , Malaria/transmission , Plasmodium berghei , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon/statistics & numerical data , Edema , Lung/abnormalities
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e180350, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984756


BACKGROUND The prompt diagnosis of plasmodial species for effective treatment prevents worsening of individual health and avoids transmission maintenance or even malaria reintroduction in areas where Plasmodium does not exist. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) allows for the detection of parasites below the threshold of microscopic examination. OBJECTIVE Our aim was to develop a real-time PCR test to reduce diagnostic errors and increase efficacy. METHODS The lower limit of quantification and the linearity/analytical sensitivity to measure sensitivity or limit of detection (LoD) were determined. Intra-assay variations (repeatability) and alterations between assays, operators, and instruments (reproducibility) were also assessed to set precision. FINDINGS The linearity in SYBR™ Green and TaqMan™ systems was 106 and 102 copies and analytical sensitivity 1.13 and 1.17 copies/μL, respectively. Real-time PCR was more sensitive than conventional PCR, showing a LoD of 0.01 parasite (p)/μL. Reproducibility and repeatability (precision) were 100% for up to 0.1 p/μL in SYBR™ Green and 1 p/μL in TaqMan™ and conventional PCR. CONCLUSION Real-time PCR may replace conventional PCR in reference laboratories for P. vivax detection due to its rapidity. The TaqMan™ system is the most indicated when quantification assays are required. Performing tests in triplicate when diagnosing Plasmodium-infected-asymptomatic individuals is recommended to minimise diagnostic errors.

Humans , Plasmodium vivax , Malaria/diagnosis , Malaria/prevention & control , Malaria/transmission
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e180598, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040630


Anopheles bellator is a primary malaria vector in the Atlantic Forest. Partial sequences of timeless and Clock genes were used to assess the genetic differentiation of five Brazilian populations, which showed strong population structure (e.g. high F ST values and fixed differences) in all pairwise comparisons between Bahia sample and the others from Paraná, São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro states. Also, the resulting phylogenetic trees clearly grouped the sequences from Bahia in a different cluster with high bootstrap values. Among southern and southeastern populations low levels of genetic differentiation were found suggesting a general stability of the genetic structure.

Animals , Genetic Variation/genetics , Mosquito Vectors/genetics , Anopheles/genetics , Phylogeny , Brazil , Forests , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Mosquito Vectors/classification , Malaria/transmission , Anopheles/classification
Mem. Inst. Invest. Cienc. Salud (Impr.) ; 16(3): 30-34, dic. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-998314


En Paraguay, no se han registrado casos autóctonos de malaria desde el 2011. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo observacional transversal en 6 monos y 23 aves que vivían en una región históricamente endémica de Paraguay para buscar presencia de reservorios silvestres de parásitos plasmodios causantes de la malaria. El ADN se extrajo por el método de Chelex a partir de una gota de sangre en un papel de filtro, y la detección del parásito se realizó mediante la PCR múltiple semianidada. Por este método, no se detectaron parásitos en ninguna de las 29 muestras. Se evaluó el riesgo potencial de circulación selvática de los parásitos que causan la malaria. Teniendo en cuenta la presencia de mosquitos anofelinos vectores en la zona, el hecho de que no se hayan observado casos positivos es un buen indicador teniendo en cuenta que nuestro país fue declarado recientemente como país libre de malaria por la OMS(AU)

In Paraguay, autochthonous cases of malaria have not been recorded since 2011. A cross-sectional observational descriptive study was conducted in 6 monkeys and 23 birds living in a historically endemic region of Paraguay to identify wild reservoirs of plasmodium parasites that cause malaria. DNA was extracted by the Chelex method from a blood drop in a filter paper, and parasite detection was performed by the seminested multiplex PCR. By this method, parasites were not detected in any of the 29 samples. The risk of potential sylvatic circulation of the parasites causing malaria was evaluated. Considering the presence of anopheline mosquitoes in the area, the fact that we did not find any positive cases is a good indicator as our country was recently certified as a malaria-free country by the WHO(AU)

Animals , Birds/parasitology , Disease Reservoirs , Macaca/parasitology , Malaria/transmission , Paraguay , Cross-Sectional Studies , Endemic Diseases , Malaria/epidemiology
Buenos Aires; GCBA. Gerencia Operativa de Epidemiología; 9 nov. 2018. a) f: 13 l:17 p. graf, mapas.(Boletín Epidemiológico Semanal: Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, 3, 116).
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, InstitutionalDB, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1116593


El paludismo o malaria es una enfermedad potencialmente mortal causada por la infección de una o más de cinco especies de parásitos protozoarios intracelulares: Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malariae, y Plasmodium knowlesi, que se transmiten al ser humano por la picadura de mosquitos hembra infectados del género Anopheles. Se describen antecedentes, situación actual, casos notificados en Argentina, estratificación de riesgo de reintroducción de paludismo en el país, definición de casos sospechosos y confirmados, y acciones epidemiológicas realizadas

Protozoan Infections/prevention & control , Protozoan Infections/epidemiology , Health Surveillance , Disease Notification/methods , Disease Notification/statistics & numerical data , Risk Map , Malaria/pathology , Malaria/prevention & control , Malaria/transmission , Malaria/epidemiology
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(2): 111-118, Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-894892


BACKGROUND In southeastern Brazil, autochthonous cases of malaria can be found near Atlantic Forest fragments. Because the transmission cycle has not been completely clarified, the behaviour of the possible vectors in those regions must be observed. A study concerning the entomological aspects and natural infection of anophelines (Diptera: Culicidae) captured in the municipalities of the mountainous region of Espírito Santo state was performed in 2004 and 2005. Similarly, between 2014 and 2015, 12 monthly collections were performed at the same area of the study mentioned above. METHODS Center for Disease Control (CDC) light traps with CO2 were set in open areas, at the edge and inside of the forest (canopy and ground), whereas Shannon traps were set on the edge. FINDINGS A total of 1,414 anophelines were collected from 13 species. Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii Dyar and Knab remained the most frequently captured species in the CDC traps set in the forest canopy, as well as being the vector with the highest prevalence of Plasmodium vivax/simium infection, according to molecular polymerase chain reaction techniques. CONCLUSIONS P. vivax/simium was found only in abdomens of the mosquitoes of the subgenus Nyssorhynchus, weakening the hypothesis that this subgenus also plays a role in malaria transmission in this specific region.

Mosquito Vectors/parasitology , Malaria/transmission , Anopheles/classification , Anopheles/parasitology , Brazil , Forests , Population Density , Malaria
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(2): 87-95, Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894897


BACKGROUND Studies on malaria vectors in the Pantanal biome, Central Brazil, were conducted more than half a century ago. OBJECTIVES To update anopheline records and assess receptivity and vulnerability to malaria transmission. METHODS Five-day anopheline collections were conducted bimonthly in Salobra, Mato Grosso do Sul state, for one year. Indoors, mosquitoes were collected from their resting places, while in open fields, they were captured using protected human-baited and horse-baited traps near the house and at the Miranda River margin, respectively. Hourly biting activity outdoors was also assessed. Secondary data were collected on the arrival of tourists, economic projects, and malaria cases. FINDINGS A total of 24,894 anophelines belonging to 13 species were caught. The main Brazilian malaria vector Anopheles darlingi was the predominant species, followed by An. triannulatus s.l. Hourly variation in anopheline biting showed three main peaks occurring at sunset, around midnight, and at sunrise, the first and last being the most prominent. The highest density of all species was recorded near the river margin and during the transition period between the rainy and early dry seasons. This coincides with the time of main influx of outsider workers and tourists, whose activities mostly occur in the open fields and frequently start before sunrise and last until sunset. Some of these individuals originate from neighbouring malaria-endemic countries and states, and are likely responsible for the recorded imported and introduced malaria cases. MAIN CONCLUSION Pantanal is a malaria-prone area in Brazil. Surveillance and anopheline control measures must be applied to avoid malaria re-emergence in the region.

Animals , Oviposition , Malaria/transmission , Anopheles/classification , Anopheles/physiology , Mosquito Vectors , Anopheles/parasitology
Article in French | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1271835


Le but de cette étude est d'évaluer la fréquence du paludisme parmi les causes de fièvres chez les patients admis au Service d'Accueil des Urgences (SAU) du CHU ­Gabriel Touré de Bamako. Il s'agissait d'une étude transversale allant du 1er août au 30 novembre 2015. Tous les patients admis au Service d'Accueil des Urgences étaient inclus dans notre étude. La goutte épaisse ou le Test de Diagnostic rapide étaient utilisés pour la confirmation biologique des cas de paludisme. Nous avions enregistré 6 641 patients parmi lesquels 5,07 % étaient fébriles. L'âge moyen des patients était de 21 ans avec une prédominance de la tranche d'âge de 18-40 ans soit 52 %. Le sex-ratio était de 1,5 en faveur des hommes. Les élèves-étudiants représentaient 34,85 % des cas suivis des ménagères avec 20,71 %. Le diagnostic clinique réalisé par des médecins avait donné un taux de 74,5 % de paludisme contre 58,8 % selon la GE/TDr. L'incidence du paludisme comme cause de la fièvre était de 58,8 %. Tous les cas de paludisme simple ont été traités avec les CTA et les cas graves avec des formes injectables de l'artesunate dans 68,38 %, l'artemether dans 17,65 % et la quinine dans 13,17 %. Le paludisme est fréquent parmi les urgences fébriles au SAU du CHU-GT. Les dispositions doivent être renforcées pour une confirmation biologique systématique de tous les cas suspects de paludisme pour éviter les erreurs diagnostics

Academic Medical Centers , Emergency Medical Services , Fever , Malaria/diagnosis , Malaria/epidemiology , Malaria/transmission , Mali
São Paulo; s.n; 2018. 148 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-905455


A malária continua sendo um problema em saúde global. Nas Américas, em 2017, o Brasil e Venezuela foram os países que mais contribuíram no número de casos. No Brasil, 99% dos casos ocorreram na Amazônia Legal. Apesar dos grandes progressos do Brasil desde 2005, nos últimos anos tem se encontrado um aumento dos casos e a persistência de áreas de alta transmissão. São poucos os estudos epidemiológicos recentes que abordam este problema para a Amazônia Legal. Existem associações entre a transmissão da malária e fatores de risco ambientais e socioeconômicos, mas, existe uma falta de consenso nestes fatores, influenciados pela escala de análise. Objetivo: Caracterizar e analisar os fatores de risco da transmissão da malária nos municípios da Amazônia Legal entre 2010 e 2015. Métodos: Foram utilizados os dados de malária autóctone por município entre 2010 e 2015 da base de dados SIVEP-malária da Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde. Os fatores de risco analisados foram: índice Gini, taxa de analfabetismo, presença de minas, área de reservas indígenas no município, taxa de floresta no município e duração da estação seca. Para a seleção dos fatores de risco ambientais foi realizada uma revisão sistematizada e os fatores socioeconômicos foram embasados na literatura. A unidade espacial foram os 310 municípios dos estados do Acre, Amazonas, Amapá, Pará, Rondônia e Roraima. Os casos de malária foram analisados mediante o Índice Parasitário Anual (IPA) e a incidência mensal através da estratificação local dos dados. Para os fatores de risco uma regressão logística foi executada para um modelo ambiental, socioeconômico e completo, sendo o IPA a variável dependente e estratificando o risco de transmissão em baixo, médio e alto. Resultados: No período 2010 - 2015 houve redução de 61% no IPA, cumprindo a meta proposta pelo Plano Nacional de Controle e Prevenção da Malária no Brasil. No entanto, essa redução não aconteceu de igual forma em todos os municípios, e um conjunto de 13 municípios apresentam um mínimo de 40% dos casos ao longo dos 5 anos. É relevante destacar que tem estados que reduziram o efeito da sazonalidade enquanto outros não. A revisão sistematizada deixou claro que existem divergências na seleção dos fatores de risco ambientais e da influência na transmissão dependendo do espaço tempo e da escala. A análise dos fatores de risco apresentou que os modelos que incluíam fatores ambientais e socioeconômicos tinham um melhor desempenho ao longo dos anos e nos estratos de transmissão. Positivamente o índice Gini e negativamente a duração da estação seca foram os fatores de risco mais importantes para a transmissão. Conclusão: A malária é multifatorial e deve ser abordada tendo em conta o espaço tempo e a escala de atuação, para implementar intervenções eficientemente. As inequidades na população se apresentam como o grande empecilho para obter melhores resultados no seu controle e eliminação, e embora o Brasil tinha feito progressos muito meritórios, não conseguirá acabar com o problema da malária enquanto não aborda-lo como um problema à saúde global que vai além de programas específicos contra a doença

Introduction: Malaria is still a global health problem. In the Americas in 2017, Brazil and Venezuela were the countries that most contributed to the number of cases. In Brazil, 99% of the cases are in the Legal Amazon. In the last years, there has been an increase of cases and areas of high transmission despite the significant progress in Brazil since 2005. Few recent epidemiological studies approached this issue for the Legal Amazon. There is a relationship between malaria transmission and environmental and socioeconomic risk factors. However, there is a lack of consensus on the influence of them due to the scale of analysis. Objective: Characterize and analyze the malaria transmission risk factors in the Legal Amazon municipalities from 2010 to 2015. Methodology: We used data of autochthonous malaria by the municipality from 2010 to 2015, extracted from the SIVEP-malária database from the Bureau of Health Surveillance. We analyzed the following risk factors: Gini index, illiteracy rate, mines presence, areas of indigenous reserve by municipality, forest rate by municipality and length of dry season. A systematized literature review was performed to select the environmental risk factors. Socioeconomic risk factors were selected based on the literature. The 310 municipalities in the states of Acre, Amazonas, Amapá, Pará, Rondônia and Roraima were our unit of analysis. Local stratification of Annual Parasite Index (API) and monthly incidence were used to analyze the data. Logistic regression was used to perform an environmental, socioeconomic and full model, stratifying by low, moderate and high-risk transmission; the dependent variable API. Results: From 2010 to 2015, there was a 61% API reduction, achieving the Brazilian National Malaria Control and Prevention Plan goal. However, the decline was heterogeneous among municipalities. There are 13 municipalities that at least had the 40% of all cases during the 5 years period. It is relevant to note that some states minimized the seasonality while others do not. The systematized review made clear the divergences to select the risk factors and the influence of them into the transmission due to the space-time and the scale. The full model showed a better performance to analyze the risk factors by strata and transmission intensity. Gini index positively and length of dry season negatively were the most important risk factors. Conclusion: Malaria is a multifactorial disease that has to be approached taking into account the space-time and the scale of analysis to implement effective interventions. Population inequities are the biggest obstacle to obtain better results in malaria control and elimination. Brazil advanced significantly but to end with the problem malaria has to be understood as a global health problem that goes beyond specific disease programs

Geographic Mapping , Geography, Medical , Global Health , Malaria/transmission , Malaria/epidemiology , Risk Factors
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(9): e170522, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-955127


The Malaria Frontier Hypothesis (MFH) is the current model for predicting malaria emergence in the Brazilian Amazon. It has two important dimensions, 'settlement time' and 'malaria incidence', and its prediction are: malaria incidence peaks five years after the initiation of human settlement and declines towards zero after an estimated 10 years. Although MFH is currently accepted, it has been challenged recently. Herein, we described a novel method for estimating settlement timeline by using remote sensing technology integrated in an open-software geographic information system. Surprisingly, we found that of the majority of the rural settlements with high malaria incidence are more than 10 years old.

Humans , Geographic Information Systems/organization & administration , Malaria/parasitology , Malaria/transmission , Malaria/epidemiology , Rural Population , Brazil/epidemiology , Forests , Conservation of Natural Resources/trends , Parasite Load/statistics & numerical data