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1.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(3): 575-583, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951799

ABSTRACT

Abstract Mamastrovirus 5 (MAstV5), belonging to the Astroviridae (AstV) family, previously known as canine astrovirus or astrovirus-like particles, has been reported in several countries to be associated with viral enteric disease in dogs since the 1980s. Astroviruses have been detected in fecal samples from a wide variety of mammals and birds that are associated with gastroenteritis and extra enteric manifestations. In the present study, RT-PCR was used to investigate the presence of MAstV5 in 269 dog fecal samples. MAstV5 was detected in 26% (71/269) of the samples. Interestingly, all MAstV5-positive samples derived from dogs displaying clinical signs suggestive of gastroenteritis, other enteric viruses were simultaneously detected (canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus, canine coronavirus, canine adenovirus and canine rotavirus). Based on genomic sequence analysis of MAstV5 a novel classification of the species into four genotypes, MAstV5a-MAstV5d, is proposed. Phylogenetic analyses based on the ORF2 amino acid sequences, samples described herein grouped into the putative genotype 'a' closed related with Chinese samples. Other studies are required to attempt the clinical and antigenic implications of these astrovirus genotypes in dogs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Mamastrovirus/isolation & purification , Mamastrovirus/genetics , Astroviridae Infections/veterinary , Dog Diseases/virology , Gastroenteritis/veterinary , Phylogeny , Mamastrovirus/classification , Open Reading Frames , Astroviridae Infections/virology , Feces/virology , Gastroenteritis/virology , Genotype
2.
Córdoba; s.n; 2015. 70 p. ilus, graf.
Thesis in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-971381

ABSTRACT

El agua es reconocida como el recurso natural más preciado de nuestro planeta, el descuido de las fuentes de agua ligado a las actividades humanas, genera contaminación sostenida en el tiempo y lleva como resultado a la disminución en la calidad y cantidad de este recurso esencial. La presencia de patógenos virales en las fuentes de agua tienen un alto impacto socioeconómico tanto en las naciones en desarrollo como en las desarrolladas. La ocurrencia de virus entéricos como rotavirus, astrovirus, norovirus y adenovirus en el ambiente, en aguas y alimentos, ha sido reportada en los países desarrollados y asociada a gastroenteritis de origen viral relacionada con el consumo de agua contaminada con materia fecal. En Argentina y otros países de Sudamérica no hay regulaciones sobre el monitoreo de virus patógenos en matrices acuosas y existen pocos estudios de monitoreo ambiental de patógenos virales (rotavirus, norovirus, adenovirus, enterovirus) en aguas superficiales de ríos y lagos. Más aún, no se dispone de información sobre el monitoreo ambiental de astrovirus en aguas superficiales en la Argentina. En este trabajo de tesis se abordó el estudio de astrovirus humano en aguas del río Suquia con los objetivos de: 1. Evaluar las aguas del río Suquía como potencial fuente de transmisión de astrovirus humano (HastV). 2. Conocer si el río Suquía está integrado a la historia natural de circulación de astrovirus en nuestro medio. A los fines de cumplir los objetivos planteados se analizaron un total de 28 muestras de agua recolectadas en 7 puntos representativos del río Suquía, cubriendo el muestreo desde el nacimiento (Dique San Roque) hasta que el río abandona la Ciudad de Córdoba (Cantera San José).


Abstract: Water is the most precious natural resource on Earth; neglected water sources associated with anthropogenic activities generate sustained contamination over time and results in a reduction in quantity and quality of this essential resource. The presence of pathogenic virus in water sources has a high socioeconomic impact, both in developing and developed countries. The occurrence of enteric virus, such as rotavirus, astrovirus, norovirus and adenovirus, in the environment, water and food has been reported in developed countries associated with viral gastroenteritis related to consumption of fecal-contaminated water.In Argentina as well as in other South American countries, there are regulations no requiring monitoring of pathogenic viruses in water matrices, and few studies have focused on environmental monitoring of viral pathogens (rotavirus, norovirus, adenovirus, enterovirus) in surface waters of rivers and lakes. Moreover, there is no information available on environmental monitoring of astrovirus in surface waters in Argentina. This thesis work focuses on the study of human astrovirus in the waters of the Suquía river, with the general aims of: 1. evaluating the waters of Suquía river as a potential source of transmission of human astrovirus (HastV), and 2. Knowing if Suquía river is integrated to the natural history of astrovirus circulation in our environment. To meet the aims of this work, a total of 28 water samples were collected from 7 representative points along Suquía river course, with sampling covering from the riverhead (San Roque Dam) to the site where the river leaves the city of Córdoba (San José quarry).


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Mamastrovirus/immunology , Astroviridae Infections/microbiology , Water Monitoring , Water Quality Control , Coastal Pollution/analysis , Coastal Pollution/policies , Health Policy , Argentina/epidemiology
3.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2015. xiii,108 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-774266

ABSTRACT

Os astrovírus humanos (HAstVs) pertencem a família Astroviridae e são associados agastrenterite aguda (GA) em crianças menores de cinco anos, tanto nos paísesdesenvolvidos como naqueles em desenvolvimento, o que os tornam de interesse nocampo da Saúde Pública. A família Astroviridae é dividida em dois gêneros:Avastrovirus e Mamastrovirus. No gênero Mamastrovirus, encontram-se os astrovirusassociados à infecção em mamíferos, tanto humanos como animais. Até 2008, osastrovirus associados a doenças em humanos eram restritos a oito genótipos,conhecidos como HAstV 1-8. A partir de então novos HAstVs foram sendo descritos,associados a doenças em humanos, como os HAstVs MLB1-3 e os HAstVs VA1-4.Opresente estudo consiste no estudo epidemiológicos retrospectivos (1994 a 2011) paradetecção e caracterização molecular de HAstV em amostras de fezes provenientes decrianças com menos de cinco anos de idade com GA, em diferentes regiões do Brasil:Nordeste, Sudeste e Sul. Incluem-se neste trabalho três estudos: 1) Estudo dosHAstV em casos esporádicos de GA ocorridos em crianças menores de cinco anos deidade, em três regiões brasileiras (Nordeste, Sudeste e Sul), durante o período de2005 a 2011, incluindo a pesquisa dos novos HAstV; 2) Estudo dos HAstV em criançascom GA, atendidas na creche Bertha Lutz, FIOCRUZ-RJ, durante o período de janeirode 1994 a dezembro de 2008; 3)...


Human astrovirus (HAstVs), belong to Astroviridae family, and are associatedwith acute gastroenteritis (GA) in children under five years-old, both indeveloped and in developing countries, which makes them of interest in thePublic Health field. The Astroviridae family is divided into two genera:Avastrovirus and Mamastrovirus. Mamastrovirus are the astrovirusesassociated to infection in mammals, both humans and animals. By 2008, theastrovirus associated with human disease were restricted to eight genotypes,known as HAstV 1-8. Since then, new HAstVs have been described, associatedwith human disease, such as HAstVs MLB1-3 and HAstVs VA1-4. The presentstudy is the retrospective epidemiological study (1994 to 2011) for the detectionand molecular characterization of HAstV in stool samples from children underfive years old presenting GA, in different regions of Brazil: Northeast, Southeastand South. Three studies are presented: 1) Study of HAstV in sporadic cases ofGA occurred in children under five years old in three Brazilian regions(Northeast, Southeast and South) from 2005 to 2011, including the descriptionof a new HAstV; 2) Study of HAstV in children with GA, attending the day careBertha Lutz, FIOCRUZ-RJ from January 1994 to December 2008 and 3) Studyof HAstV in children under two years old presenting GA and hospitalized inNiteroi, Rio de Janeiro from April to September 2003. The detection of HAstVwas performed using different protocols for detection and molecularcharacterization such as: Reverse–transcriptase polymerase chain reaction,(RT- PCR), Single step RT -PCR (OneStep RT-PCR) and RealTime RT- PCR.The HAstV detected were characterized by partial sequencing of ORF2 regionof the viral genome. The study 1 demonstrated the HAstV detection frequencyin 7.1 % of samples, and described the first ASTV MLB1 in Brazil. Themolecular characterization identified the circulation genotypes HAstV -1, 2, 3, 4,5, 6 and 8...


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Astroviridae Infections , Gastroenteritis/diagnosis , Gastroenteritis/epidemiology , Mamastrovirus/pathogenicity
4.
Chinese Journal of Virology ; (6): 46-50, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-280296

ABSTRACT

Human astrovirus (HastV) is recognized as one of the leading causes of acute viral diarrhea in infants. The HastV non-structural protein, nsPla, and C-terminal protein, nsPla/4, contain various conserved functional domains,and may play an important role in virus replication, transcription and the virus-host interactions of HastV. This study used an E. coli system to investigate the expression of nsPla and nsPla/4 proteins. Firstly,the nsPla and nsPla/4 genes of HAstV-1 were cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector,PGEX-4T-1, to build the PGEX-4T-1a and PGEX-4T-la/4 fusion protein plasmids. Then, the recombinant plasmids were transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and induced with isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). The optimal expression conditions of the two fusion proteins were identified and then analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and western blotting, respectively. The results showed that the pGEX-4T-la fusion protein was maximally expressed at 30 °C after 12 hours of induction with 1.0 mM IPTG. The pGEX-4T-la/4 fusion protein was maximally expressed at 20 °C after 8 hours of induction with 0.5 mM IPTG. Western blot analysis showed that the two fusion proteins specificity reacted with the anti-nsPla and anti-GST monoclonal antibodies, respectively. This study successfully obtained the HAstV non-structural protein, nsP1a, and its C-terminal protein nsP1a/4 protein using an E. coli system. This novel study lays the foundation for future research into the pathogenic mechanisms of human astrovirus and the functions of its non-structural protein.


Subject(s)
Cloning, Molecular , Escherichia coli , Genetics , Metabolism , Gene Expression , Humans , Mamastrovirus , Genetics , Metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism
5.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(4): 428-435, 03/07/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-716303

ABSTRACT

Viral acute gastroenteritis (AG) is a significant cause of hospitalisation in children younger than five years. Group A rotavirus (RVA) is responsible for 30% of these cases. Following the introduction of RVA immunisation in Brazil in 2006, a decreased circulation of this virus has been observed. However, AG remains an important cause of hospitalisation of paediatric patients and only limited data are available regarding the role of other enteric viruses in these cases. We conducted a prospective study of paediatric patients hospitalised for AG. Stool samples were collected to investigate human adenovirus (HAdV), RVA, norovirus (NoV) and astrovirus (AstV). NoV typing was performed by nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. From the 225 samples tested, 60 (26%) were positive for at least one viral agent. HAdV, NoV, RVA and AstV were detected in 16%, 8%, 6% and 0% of the samples, respectively. Mixed infections were found in nine patients: HAdV/RVA (5), HAdV/NoV (3) and HAdV/NoV/RVA (1). The frequency of fever and lymphocytosis was significantly higher in virus-infected patients. Phylogenetic analysis of NoV indicated that all of these viruses belonged to genotype GII.4. The significant frequency of these pathogens in patients with AG highlights the need to routinely implement laboratory investigations.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , DNA Virus Infections/virology , Feces/virology , Gastroenteritis/virology , Acute Disease , Adenoviruses, Human/genetics , Adenoviruses, Human/isolation & purification , Brazil , Genotype , Hospitalization , Mamastrovirus/genetics , Mamastrovirus/isolation & purification , Norovirus/genetics , Norovirus/isolation & purification , Phylogeny , Prospective Studies , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Viral/genetics , Rotavirus/genetics , Rotavirus/isolation & purification , Seasons
6.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 729-732, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-261646

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the etiological characteristics of human rotavirus (HRV), human calicivirus (HuCV), human astrovirus (HAstV) and human enteral adenovirus (HAdV) in Ningxia province during 2011.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Stool specimen was collected from acute diarrhea case of Ningxia during 2011. HRV was detected by ELISA and serotype/genotype identified on those RT-PCR positive specimens. HuCV, HAstV and HAdV were detected by RT-PCR.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>In this study, a total of 690 specimens were detected, with the infection rates of HRV, HuCV, HAstV and HAdV as 2.17%, 21.74%, 3.19% and 6.52%, respectively. Co-infections were found in 4.20% of all the samples being tested. Among 15 HRV positive cases, serotypes G1, G3 and P[4] were the most predominant strains.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Children who were under 2 years of age were the majority among patients infected by diarrhea viruses while HuCV was recognized as the main pathogen responsible for the viral diarrhea cases in Ningxia, 2011.</p>


Subject(s)
Adenoviruses, Human , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Caliciviridae , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Epidemiology , Diarrhea , Virology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Mamastrovirus , Middle Aged , Rotavirus , Young Adult
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-110409

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of human astroviruses was tested in patients with acute gastroenteritis by using conventional duplex reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and electrophoresis. Diarrheal fecal samples were collected from 9,597 patients at local hospitals in Seoul. The prevalence of astroviruses was 1.0% (94/9,597 patients; mostly infants), and that of sapoviruses was 0.1% (14/9,597 patients). Age- and gender-wise analyses were carried out on 29 astrovirus-positive patients having complete information on file regarding their age, gender, and other particulars. The results were higher in patients of ages 0 to 14 yr, and 69.0% of the astrovirus-positive patients were females, of which 69.2% were infants (0 to 12 months), and 61.5% were 1-4 yr old. Notably, in the case of 5 to 78-yr-old acute gastroenteritis patients, 100% were females.


Subject(s)
Acute Disease , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Astroviridae Infections/complications , Child , Child, Preschool , DNA, Viral/analysis , Feces/virology , Female , Gastroenteritis/complications , Humans , Infant , Male , Mamastrovirus/genetics , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sapovirus/genetics , Sex Factors , Young Adult
8.
Acta pediátr. hondu ; 4(1): 249-252, abr.-sep. 2013. tab., graf.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-884538

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes y Objetivo: Las infecciones nosocomiales son infecciones que se adquie- ren después de 48 horas de estancia hospita- laria. Entre las formas mas comunes esta la diarrea nosocomial. Se quiso determinar las características clínicas y epidemiológicas de la diarrea nosocomial por rotavirus en niños. Pacientes y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal en el departamento de pediatría del Hospital Regional del Norte- Instituto Hondureño de Seguridad Social (IHSS-HRN). Se incluyeron en el estudio todos los niños entre 1 mes a 5 años de edad con diagnóstico confirmado, probable o sospecho de diarrea nosocomial y que fueron ingresados en la sala A y B de pediatría duran- te el periodo de 12 meses a partir de Agosto del 2012. 46 niños cumplieron todos los crite- rios de inclusión. Resultados: 61% de los niños con diarrea nosocomial por rotavirus son menores de 24 meses. La ablactación temprana fue un hallazgo en el 37% de los casos. El 63% de los niños tenían entre 5-7 días de estancia hospitalaria cuando iniciaron los síntomas caracterizados por la triada diarrea, vómitos y fiebre. La incidencia de la diarrea nosocomial fue de 1.9 por cada 100 egresos. Conclusiones: Los lactantes son los niños con mayor riesgo de adquirir diarrea nosocomial, especialmente si ha habido ablactación temprana. A mayor estancia hos- pitalaria mayor riesgo de diarrea nosocomial...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Cross Infection , Diarrhea, Infantile/complications , Mamastrovirus , Rotavirus Infections/complications
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-318093

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the epidemiological characteristics of viral diarrhea of norovirus (NV), sapovirus (SV) and astrovirus (AstV) among children in Zhuhai during winter and spring.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Stool specimens were collected from children with viral diarrhea in Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Zhuhai from November 21, 2009 to April 3, 2010. Nucleic acid of NV, SV and AstV from negative specimens of rotavirus and adenovirus were detected by using Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and the types of positive samples of NV were also classified at the same time.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The total detection rate of the three viruses is 21.49 percent, the highest detection rate is 29.05% in December 2009, the lowest detection rate is 12.20% in February 2010, 87.96% of positive specimens were from children patients aged from 0 to 30 months. The season detection rate of NV, SV and AstV are 14.70%, 2.75% and 4.04% respectively. There were significant differences of NV and SV detection rates in every month of the season, whereas the AstV detection rate was comparatively stable. The highest detection rate of NV is 34.09% in children patients aged from 12 to 18 months, the highest SV detection rate is 12.5% in children patients aged from 60 to 120 months, and the highest AstV detection rate is 16.67% in children patients aged from 24 to 30 months. All the NV were belong to G II genogroup.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>NV is one of the main pathogens causing viral diarrhea among children in Zhuhai during winter and spring, SV and AstV are also important pathogens. So we should strengthen the monitoring of viral diarrhea caused by NV, SV and AstV in infants and young children.</p>


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Diarrhea , Virology , Feces , Virology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Mamastrovirus , Norovirus , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sapovirus , Seasons
10.
Chinese Journal of Virology ; (6): 548-554, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-356668

ABSTRACT

Human astrovirus (HAstV) is one of the leading causes of actue virual diarrhea in infants. HAstV-induced epithdlial cell apoptosis plays an important role in the pathogenesis of HAstV infection. Our previous study indicated that HAstV non-structural protein nsPla C-terminal protein nsPla/4 was the major apoptosis functional protein and probably contained the main apoptosis domains. In order to screen for astrovirus encoded apoptotic protien, nsPla/4 and six turncated proteins, which possessed nsPla/4 protein different function domain ,were cloned into green fluorescent protein (GFP) vector pEG-FP-N3. After 24-72 h transfection, the fusion protein expression in BHK21 cells, was analysis by fluorescence microscope and Western blot. The results indicated seven fusion proteins were observed successfully in BHK21 cell after transfected for 24 h. Western blot analysis showed that the level of fusion protein expressed in BHK21 cells was increased significantly at 72h compared to 48h in transfected cells. The successful expression of deletion mutants of nsPla/4 protein was an important foundation to gain further insights into the function of apoptosis domains of nsPla/4 protein and it would also provide research platform to further confirm the molecule pathogenic mechanism of human astrovirus.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Motifs , Astroviridae Infections , Virology , Humans , Mamastrovirus , Genetics , Metabolism , Mutation , Sequence Deletion , Transfection , Viral Nonstructural Proteins , Chemistry , Genetics , Metabolism
11.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 107(8): 1064-1067, Dec. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-660657

ABSTRACT

This retrospective study (April-September 2003) was designed to investigate the roles of the main viruses responsible for cases of acute infantile gastroenteritis in hospitalised children up to two years of age. The viruses were identified in 64.7% (88/136) of the cases and the detection rates of rotavirus A (RVA), norovirus (NoV) and astrovirus were 41.9% (57/136), 30.3% (24/79) and 12.7% (7/55), respectively. RVA and NoV were detected in 20 of the 24 reported nosocomial infection cases. This study identified the first circulation of the genotype NoV GII.21 in Brazil and highlights the need to establish differential diagnoses through active laboratorial surveillance.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Gastroenteritis/virology , Mamastrovirus/genetics , Norovirus/genetics , Rotavirus/genetics , Acute Disease , Brazil , Feces/virology , Genotype , Hospitalization , Mamastrovirus/isolation & purification , Norovirus/isolation & purification , Retrospective Studies , Rotavirus/isolation & purification , Seasons
12.
Chinese Journal of Virology ; (6): 482-487, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-340019

ABSTRACT

Human astroviruses have been recognized as one of the important causes of viral gastroenteritis in infants and young children. In the present work, we reviewed the progress of astrovirus infections in humans, focusing on the serotypes molecular biological, characteristics of disease, pathogenic mechanism, epidemiology and detection methods, and concluded that there were multiple astroviruses circulating in the world, and several novel astroviruses were discovered in recent years. Human astrovirus 1 was the most prevailing serotype. Which caused intestinal and parenteral infections, and the characteristics of infections were similar to other diarrheal viruses. However, the pathogenic mechanism remained unknown. Only limited data was available about the correlation between the novel astroviruses and diseases, and the laboratory detection methods needed to be established.


Subject(s)
Animals , Astroviridae Infections , Diagnosis , Epidemiology , Pathology , Cell Line , Genome, Viral , Genetics , Humans , Mamastrovirus , Classification , Genetics , Virulence , Physiology , Virus Replication
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-246199

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigated the molecular epidemiologic features of viral diarrhea in Chengdu infants and young children, and to establish baseline patterns of etiology, provides the scientific basis for the vaccine development and the epidemic situation control.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>From March, 2006 to December, 2008, a total of 376 infants and young children from Chengdu area hospitalized for diarrhea in Chengdu Children's Hospital were enrolled in this study. The stool specimen collected from each patient was tested for rotavirus (RV), Calicivirus (CV), astrovirus (AstV) and adenovirus (Adv) by using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) examination.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Among those 376 cases,there were 142 cases (37.76%) of RV infections,which scattered predominantly in October to December. Among 234 cases RV negativity,there were 29 cases HuCV infections (15.85%), 5 cases AstV infections (1.64%), and 8 cases Adv infections (2.04%).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>RV appeared to be the main etiological agent of viral diarrhea in Chengdu infants and young children,the predominant serotype of RV were G3, P[8] and P[4],HuCV might be the important etiological agent besides RV.</p>


Subject(s)
Adenoviruses, Human , Genetics , Caliciviridae , Genetics , Child, Preschool , China , Epidemiology , Diarrhea , Epidemiology , Virology , Female , Genotype , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Mamastrovirus , Genetics , Molecular Epidemiology , Rotavirus , Genetics , Virus Diseases , Epidemiology , Virology , Viruses , Genetics
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-246198

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the pathogen and characteristics of viral diarrhea in children in Changchun area.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>460 stools specimens were collected from children with acute diarrhea cured in the childrens, hospital of Changchun in 2010. Rotavirus were detected by ELISA, caliceverus and astrovirus were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR), adenovirus were detected by polymerase chain reactions (PCR).</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>A total of 460 specimens were detected. The detection rate of rotavirus, caliceverus, astrovious, adenovious respectively is 35.22%, 20.43%, 9.78%, 3.70%, the detectablerate of mixed infection is 7.61%, children under 2 years old were the major patient. The main genotypes of the virus: rotavirus (G3P[8]), caliceverus (GII-4), astrovious (type I), adenovious (Ad41).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Rotavirus is the main pathogen in Changchun. Followed by caliceverus, astrovious, adenovious.</p>


Subject(s)
Adenoviruses, Human , Caliciviridae , Child, Preschool , China , Epidemiology , Diarrhea , Epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Mamastrovirus , Rotavirus , Virus Diseases , Epidemiology
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-143980

ABSTRACT

Human astrovirus (HAstV) is a major cause of acute diarrhea among children, resulting in outbreaks of diarrhea and occasionally hospitalization. Improved surveillance and application of sensitive molecular diagnostics have further defined the impact of HAstV infections in children. These studies have shown that HAstV infections are clinically milder (diarrhea, vomiting, fever) than infections with other enteric agents. Among the 8 serotypes of HAstV identified, serotype 1 is the predominant strain worldwide. In addition to serotype 1, the detection rate of HAstV types 2 to 8 has increased by using newly developed assays. HAstV is less common compared with other major gastroenteritis viruses, including norovirus and rotavirus; however, it is a potentially important viral etiological agent with a significant role in acute gastroenteritis. A better understanding of the molecular epidemiology and characteristics of HAstV strains may be valuable to develop specific prevention strategies.


Subject(s)
Child , Diarrhea , Disease Outbreaks , Gastroenteritis , Hospitalization , Humans , Mamastrovirus , Molecular Epidemiology , Norovirus , Pathology, Molecular , Sprains and Strains , Vomiting
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-143973

ABSTRACT

Human astrovirus (HAstV) is a major cause of acute diarrhea among children, resulting in outbreaks of diarrhea and occasionally hospitalization. Improved surveillance and application of sensitive molecular diagnostics have further defined the impact of HAstV infections in children. These studies have shown that HAstV infections are clinically milder (diarrhea, vomiting, fever) than infections with other enteric agents. Among the 8 serotypes of HAstV identified, serotype 1 is the predominant strain worldwide. In addition to serotype 1, the detection rate of HAstV types 2 to 8 has increased by using newly developed assays. HAstV is less common compared with other major gastroenteritis viruses, including norovirus and rotavirus; however, it is a potentially important viral etiological agent with a significant role in acute gastroenteritis. A better understanding of the molecular epidemiology and characteristics of HAstV strains may be valuable to develop specific prevention strategies.


Subject(s)
Child , Diarrhea , Disease Outbreaks , Gastroenteritis , Hospitalization , Humans , Mamastrovirus , Molecular Epidemiology , Norovirus , Pathology, Molecular , Sprains and Strains , Vomiting
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-231199

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the epidemiologic characteristics of viral diarrhea in children under 5 years old in Lanzhou, understand the four major virus in children of distribution.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>In the first hospital of Lanzhou university from Jul 2009 to Jun 2010,we collected 290 stool specimens from children with diarrhea and 114 asymptomatic controls. Rotavirus was detected by ELISA,further strain characterization was carried out by nested PCR. The human calicivirus, astrovirus, adenovirus were detected by RT-multiplex PCR and PCR.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>At least one of the four viral agents was found in 60% of the specimens. Rotavirus, human calicivirus, adenovirus, and astrovirus were identified in 39.31%, 11.38%, 10.69%, and 4.83% in 290 specimens respectively. Rotavirus G3 was the most prevailing serotype, P [8] was the most common genotype. In the 114 control samples, 7 sample was positived for calicivirus, 5 samples were positived for human adenovirus and 1 sample was positived for astrovirus.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The results indicated clearly the impact of viral agents causing diarrhea and the importance of long-term systematic surveillance.</p>


Subject(s)
Adenoviruses, Human , Caliciviridae , Child, Preschool , China , Epidemiology , Diarrhea , Epidemiology , Virology , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Mamastrovirus , Rotavirus
18.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 43(3): 240-243, May-June 2010. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-548516

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This was a prospective study that included women seen in the obstetrics and gynecology sector of Hospital das Clínicas, Federal University of Goiás, in Goiânia, State of Goiás, with the aim of detecting rotaviruses, adenoviruses, caliciviruses and astroviruses. Eighty-four women participated in the study and from these, 314 fecal samples were collected. Out of all of the women, 29 were seropositive for HIV and 55 were seronegative, and 45 and 39 were pregnant and non-pregnant, respectively. METHODS: Fecal samples were collected from each woman once every two months over the period from July 2006 to June 2007, and they were screened for rotaviruses by means of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoenzymatic assays, for caliciviruses and astroviruses by means of RT-PCR and for adenovirus by means of immunoenzymatic assays. The astroviruses were genotyped using nested PCR. RESULTS: Among the 84 patients, 19 (22.6 percent) were positive for either calicivirus (14/19) or astrovirus (6/19), while one women was positive for both viruses in fecal samples collected on different occasions. Most of the positive samples were collected during the months of July and August (astrovirus) and September and October (calicivirus). None of the samples analyzed was positive for rotavirus or adenovirus. Gastroenteric viruses were detected in 13/19 (68.4 percent) of the pregnant women, whether HIV-seropositive or not. CONCLUSIONS: The results from the present study showed that neither pregnancy nor HIV-seropositive status among the women increased the risk of infection by any of the gastroenteric viruses studied. This study presents data on gastroenteric virus detection among pregnant and/or HIV-positive women.


INTRODUÇÃO: Este foi um estudo prospectivo que incluiu mulheres atendidas no setor de obstetrícia e ginecologia do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Goiás, em Goiânia, Estado de Goiás com o objetivo de detectar rotavírus, adenovírus, calicivírus e astrovírus. Oitenta e quatro mulheres participaram no estudo e destas, 314 amostras fecais foram coletadas. Do total de mulheres, 29 eram soropositivas para HIV, 55 soronegativas, 45 e 39 estavam grávidas e não-grávidas, respectivamente. MÉTODOS: Amostras fecais foram coletadas de cada mulher uma vez a cada dois meses pelo período de Julho-2006 a Junho-2007, foram triadas para rotavírus pela metodologia de eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida (EGPA) e através de ensaio imunoenzimático (EIE), para calicivírus e astrovírus por RT-PCR e por EIE para adenovírus. Os astrovírus foram genotipados por Nested-PCR. RESULTADOS: De 84 pacientes, 19 (22,6 por cento) foram positivas para calicivírus (14/19) ou astrovírus (6/19), sendo que uma mulher foi positiva para ambos os vírus em amostras fecais coletadas em diferentes ocasiões. A maioria das amostras positivas foi coletada no período de Julho a Agosto (astrovírus) e de Setembro a Outubro (calicivírus). Nenhuma das amostras analisadas foi positiva para rotavírus ou adenovírus. Os vírus gastroentéricos foram detectados em 13/19 (68,4 por cento) mulheres grávidas, as quais eram HIV-soropositivas ou não. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados do presente estudo mostram que nem o estado gravídico das mulheres nem a soropositividade para HIV aumentaram o risco para a infecção por nenhum dos vírus gastroentéricos estudados. Este estudo apresenta dados sobre a detecção de vírus gastroentéricos entre mulheres grávidas e/ou HIV-positivas.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Young Adult , Adenoviridae/isolation & purification , Feces/virology , Gastroenteritis/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , RNA Viruses/isolation & purification , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/virology , Brazil , Caliciviridae/isolation & purification , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Mamastrovirus/isolation & purification , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , RNA Viruses/classification , Rotavirus/isolation & purification , Young Adult
19.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 104(4): 655-658, July 2009. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-523736

ABSTRACT

Out of 1,588 faecal samples of children taken from three locations of the Central West Region of Brazil, 57 were positive for astroviruses (HAstVs) using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). They were genotyped by nested RT-PCR and/or genomic sequencing. HAstV-1 (42.8 percent), HAstV-2 (23.2 percent), HAstV-3 (3.6 percent), HAstV-4 (14.3 percent) and HAstVs -5, -6, -7 and -8 (1.8 percent each) were detected. In Goiânia and Campo Grande, HAstV-1 was the most frequently detected genotype while in Brasília (DF) it was HAstV-2. Shifts in the circulation of astrovirus genotypes were observed in DF and Campo Grande. All samples collected by rectal swabs were viral negative. The astrovirus genotypes were detected in all age groups and there was no correlation between genotype and age group.


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Humans , Astroviridae Infections/virology , Diarrhea/virology , Feces/virology , Mamastrovirus/genetics , Astroviridae Infections/diagnosis , Genotype , Mamastrovirus/isolation & purification , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
20.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 40(4): 222-228, oct.-dic. 2008. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-634603

ABSTRACT

Con el objetivo de determinar la incidencia de calicivirus, rotavirus y astrovirus en brotes de gastroenteritis ocurridos en diversas regiones de la Argentina durante los años 2005 y 2006, se analizaron muestras de materia fecal provenientes de 7 brotes con resultado de coprocultivo negativo. Para el diagnóstico de rotavirus se utilizó un ELISA comercial, mientras que para el diagnóstico de calicivirus y astrovirus se utilizó el método de RT-PCR. De las 74 muestras analizadas, 20 fueron positivas para calicivirus, 17 para rotavirus y una para astrovirus. No se identificaron infecciones virales mixtas. En 5 muestras positivas para calicivirus se secuenció una región del gen de la polimerasa; 4 de ellas correspondieron al género Norovirus y una al género Sapovirus. El análisis filogenético de las muestras secuenciadas determinó la presencia de norovirus de los genogrupos GI y GII; dentro de este último, se identificaron los genotipos GII-4, GII-b y GII-17. El análisis de la muestra en la cual se identificó sapovirus reveló la presencia del genotipo GI-1. Este estudio representa una continuación del análisis epidemiológico molecular de calicivirus asociados a brotes de gastroenteritis iniciado en 2004 y constituye la primera comunicación de la circulación de norovirus del genotipo GII-17 en la Argentina.


In order to determine the incidence of calicivirus, rotavirus and astrovirus in outbreaks of gastroenteritis occurring in different regions of Argentina during 2005 and 2006, fecal samples from seven nonbacterial outbreaks were analyzed. A commercial ELISA was used for rotavirus detection, while RT-PCRs were used for calicivirus and astrovirus. Of the 74 samples analyzed, 20 were calicivirus positive, 17 were rotavirus positive and one was astrovirus positive. No mixed infections were detected. A partial region of the RdRp gene was sequenced in five calicivirus positive-samples; 4 of them belonged to Norovirus genus and one to Sapovirus genus. The phylogenetic analysis of norovirus-positive-samples revealed the presence of strains from genogroups GI and GII; genotypes GII- 4, GII-b and GII-17 were identified within the latter. Phylogenetic the sapovirus-positive-sample revealed the presence of genotype GI-1. This study represents a follow-up of the of molecular epidemiology analysis of calicivirus associated to gastroenteritis outbreaks that have been carried out by our group since 2004, and constitutes the first report of the circulation of genotype GII-17 in Argentina.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Caliciviridae Infections/virology , Caliciviridae/isolation & purification , Disease Outbreaks , Gastroenteritis/virology , RNA, Viral/genetics , Argentina/epidemiology , Astroviridae Infections/epidemiology , Astroviridae Infections/virology , Base Sequence , Caliciviridae Infections/epidemiology , Caliciviridae/genetics , Genotype , Gastroenteritis/epidemiology , Molecular Sequence Data , Mamastrovirus/isolation & purification , Norovirus/genetics , Norovirus/isolation & purification , Phylogeny , Rotavirus Infections/epidemiology , Rotavirus Infections/virology , Rotavirus/isolation & purification , Sequence Alignment , Sapovirus/genetics , Sapovirus/isolation & purification
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