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1.
Arq. Ciênc. Vet. Zool. UNIPAR (Online) ; 24(1, cont.): e2409, jan-jun. 2021. mapas, graf
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-1283535

ABSTRACT

Leishmanioses são causadas por protozoários do gênero Leishmania, parasitos que infectam grande número de mamíferos, incluindo o homem. A Leishmaniose Visceral (LV) é a forma mais severa da doença e invariavelmente leva ao óbito, se não diagnosticada e tratada precocemente. O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar uma análise de natureza documental, descritiva e analítica, de abordagem quantitativa das informações contidas no banco de dados Fundação Ezequiel Dias/Gerenciador de Ambientes Laboratoriais (FUNED/GAL), da Secretaria Estadual de Saúde de Minas Gerais. Os dados epidemiológicos que compõe este estudo são registros de casos positivos e negativos da cidade de Patos de Minas-MG e 18 municípios das mesorregiões do Triângulo Mineiro e Alto Paranaíba, Noroeste de Minas e Norte de Minas. No período compreendido entre janeiro de 2010 e junho de 2019 foram notificados um total de 1170 indivíduos suspeitos de Leishmaniose Visceral Canina e/ou Humana. 304 (25,98%) indivíduos receberam o resultado positivo, enquanto 866 foram negativos, e em alguns casos, inconclusivos. Os dados obtidos no estudo revelaram a tendência temporal crescente e alta prevalência da doença, mostrando que a doença está em expansão na região estudada onde o cão é o principal reservatório doméstico da doença, permanecendo como principal elo de ligação entre o protozoário e o hospedeiro humano.(AU)


Leishmaniasis are caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania, parasites that infect a large number of mammals, including humans. Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is the most severe form of the disease and invariably leads to death if not diagnosed and treated early. The objective of this study was to carry out a documentary, descriptive and analytical analysis, with a quantitative approach to the information contained in the Fundação Ezequiel Dias/Manager of Laboratory Environments (FUNED/GAL) database from the Minas Gerais State Health Secretariat. The epidemiological data that make up this study are records of positive and negative cases in the city of Patos de Minas - MG and of 18 municipalities in the mesoregions of the Triângulo Mineiro and Alto Paranaíba, Northwest of Minas and North of Minas. In the period between January 2010 and June 2019, a total of 1170 individuals suspected of Canine and/or Human Visceral Leishmaniasis were notified. A total of 304 (25.98%) individuals received a positive result, while 866 were considered negative, and in some cases, inconclusive. The data obtained in the study revealed the growing temporal trend and high prevalence of the disease, showing that the disease is expanding in the studied region where the dog is presented as the main domestic reservoir of the disease, remaining as the main link between the protozoan and the human host.(AU)


Leishmaniosis son causadas por protozoos del género Leishmania, parásitos que infectan a un gran número de mamíferos, incluyendo el hombre. La Leishmaniosis Visceral (LV) es la forma más grave de la enfermedad e invariablemente conduce a la muerte, si no se la diagnostica y la trata a tiempo. El objetivo de ese estudio fue realizar un análisis de naturaleza documental, descriptivo y analítico, de enfoque cuantitativo de las informaciones contenidas en la base de datos Fundação Ezequiel Dias/Gerente de Ambientes de Laboratorio (FUNED /GAL), de la Secretaría de Salud del Estado de Minas Gerais. Los datos epidemiológicos que conforman este estudio son registros de casos positivos y negativos en la ciudad de Patos de Minas-MG y 18 municipios de las mesorregiones del Triângulo Mineiro y Alto Paranaíba, Noroeste de Minas y Norte de Minas. En el período comprendido entre enero de 2010 y junio de 2019, se notificó a un total de 1170 personas sospechosas de Leishmaniosis Visceral Canina y/o Humana. 304 (25,98%) individuos recibieron un resultado positivo, mientras que 866 fueron negativos y, en algunos casos, no concluyentes. Los datos obtenidos en el estudio revelaron la tendencia creciente temporal y la alta prevalencia de la enfermedad, mostrando que la enfermedad se está expandiendo en la región estudiada donde el perro es el principal reservorio doméstico de la enfermedad, permaneciendo como principal conexión entre el protozoo y el hospedero humano.(AU)


Subject(s)
Time , Records , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Mammals/microbiology , Leishmania/pathogenicity
2.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1237-1248, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878627

ABSTRACT

RNA interference (RNAi) is one of the important mechanisms to regulate gene expression in eukaryotes. One of the original functions of RNAi is to facilitate the antiviral strategy of host. Early studies reveal that invertebrates can use RNAi to resist viruses. However, if this mechanism exists in mammals is still controversial. The latest studies confirm that mammals do have the RNAi-based immunity, and researchers believe that RNAi-based antiviral immunity is a brand-new immunological mechanism that was neglected in the past. It is worthy to note that virus can also use RNAi to enhance its infectivity and immune escape in host cells. This review introduces the research history of RNAi-based antiviral immunity in animals and summarizes the main findings in this field. Last but not least, we indicate a series of unresolved questions about RNAi-based antiviral immunity, and explore the relationship between RNAi-based antiviral immunity and other innate immunological pathways. The virus-mediated RNAi pathway in animal is not only an interesting basic biology question, but also has important guiding roles in the development of antiviral drugs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antiviral Agents , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Mammals , RNA Interference , RNA, Small Interfering/genetics , RNA, Viral
3.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e200427, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279456

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Trypanosomatids are widespread and cause diseases - such as trypanosomiasis, sleeping sickness, Chagas disease, and cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis - in animals and humans. These diseases occur in both rural and urban regions due to unplanned growth and deforestation. Thus, wild and synanthropic reservoir hosts living in residential areas are risk factors. OBJECTIVE We aimed to evaluate the diversity of small mammals (rodents and marsupials), and the occurrence of trypanosomatids, especially Leishmania, in the rural settlement of Presidente Figueiredo, Amazonas. METHODS Animals were collected using Sherman, Tomahawk, and Pitfall traps along 16 trails in four landscapes: continuous forest, forest with planting, planting, and peridomiciliar. Leishmania sp. was detected in liver samples by polymerase chain reaction targeting kDNA. FINDINGS Diversity was higher in forests with planting and lower around residences. In total, 135 mammals (81 rodents and 54 marsupials covering 14 genera) were captured. Rodents presented infection rates (IR) of 74% and marsupials of 48%. Rodents in domicile landscapes presented a higher IR (92.9%), while marsupials showed a higher IR in forests (53.3%). MAIN CONCLUSIONS The results suggest high prevalence of trypanosomatids across 12 mammalian genera possibly involved as reservoir hosts in the enzootic transmission of leishmaniasis in the Amazon's rural, peridomiciliar landscape.


Subject(s)
Animals , Leishmania , Marsupialia , Rodentia , Brazil/epidemiology , Mammals
4.
Acta amaz ; 50(2): 142-148, abr - jun. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118376

ABSTRACT

This is the first study to investigate mercury (Hg) contamination in felid species in the Brazilian Amazon. We collected 26 fur samples from wild felids of four species (Puma concolor, Panthera onca, Leopardus pardalis and Leopardus wiedii) occurring in the Mamirauá and Amanã sustainable development reserves, in the state of Amazonas. Samples were from museum specimens, except for five P. onca samples collected from free-living individuals. Total Hg concentrations ranged from 0.12 to 48.1 µg g-1. Concentrations of Hg did not differ significantly between museum specimens and live individuals of P. onca, but varied significantly among species, with significantly higher concentrations for P. onca and L. pardalis, which could be related to factors such as diet and habitat. (AU)


Subject(s)
Metals, Heavy , Bioaccumulation , Mammals , Amazonian Ecosystem , Mercury/toxicity
7.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1041-1050, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826872

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the demand of biologics has increased rapidly. Cell culture process with perfusion mode has become more and more popular due to its high productivity, good quality and high efficiency. In this paper, the unique operation and the details of process optimization for perfusion culture mode are discussed by comparing with traditional batch culture process. Meanwhile, the progress and strategies in the development and optimization of perfusion culture process in recent years are summarized to provide reference for the future development of mammalian cell perfusion culture technology.


Subject(s)
Animals , Batch Cell Culture Techniques , Bioreactors , Reference Standards , CHO Cells , Cricetulus , Mammals , Perfusion
8.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(2): 195-218, abr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003667

ABSTRACT

This study organizes all available information about viral and bacterial pathogens of wild mammals in Chile. This was done in order to identify pathogens that have been well-documented and recognize those that have not been properly studied, determine the number of articles that have been published annually about this topic and identify regions in Chile that concentrate the highest and lowest number of studies concerning viral and bacterial pathogens. A total of 67 scientific articles published in peer-reviewed journals from 1951 to 2018 were selected for revision. Results indicate that the number of publications has increased per decade but there are years in which no articles were published. Most studies addressed Leptospira, rabies, hantavirus, Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (MAP) and distemper. Rodentia, Carnivora, Chiroptera and Cetartiodactyla were the most studied mammal orders. Information about presence/absence of pathogens was found for 44 wild mammal species. Research was mainly carried out in central and southern Chile and the most commonly employed methods for pathogen diagnosis were serology and molecular techniques. Overall, research in wild mammals has been directed towards the evaluation of zoonotic diseases, while vector-borne and non-zoonotic diseases have been mostly neglected by the scientific community over the years.


Subject(s)
Animals , Zoonoses/microbiology , Zoonoses/virology , Animals, Wild/microbiology , Animals, Wild/virology , Mammals/microbiology , Mammals/virology , Time Factors , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Bacterial Infections/transmission , Virus Diseases/transmission , Virus Diseases/virology , Zoonoses/transmission , Bibliometrics , Chile
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(2): 201-207, Apr.-June 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989446

ABSTRACT

Abstract The avoidance of vertebrate herbivory is thought to be one of the possible drivers for the evolution of epiphytism. Scarce literature suggests that epiphyte herbivory is mainly related to insect attack on reproductive structures. In a pine-oak forest we observed almost all inflorescences of an epiphytic bromeliad (Tillandsia carlos-hankii) with signs of florivory; the degree of damage suggested that vertebrate herbivores could be involved. To assess the intensity of vertebrate florivory damage we recorded the percentage of damaged individuals in a 500 m2 plots during two flowering seasons. To identify possible vertebrate herbivores, we installed 20 mixed capture stations, 10 photo-traps focused on bromeliads and analyzed stomach contents of captured vertebrates. Florivory was observed on 62% of individuals during the first flowering season and 77% on the second; and average one individual lost 41% of reproductive structures. Vertebrates associated with florivory were a bird, Icterus bullockii (Aves, Passeriformes, Icteridae), a squirrel Sciurus aureogaster (Mammalia, Rodentia, Sciuridae), and mice, Peromyscus gratus, P. levipes and P. aztecus (Mammalia, Rodentia, Cricetidae). Our results suggest that vascular epiphytes are used as opportunistic resources for small vertebrates during seasons when preferred resources are scarce.


Resumo Acredita-se que a prevenção da herbivoria dos vertebrados é um dos possíveis impulsores da evolução da epífita. A literatura escassa sugere que a herbivora em epífitas está relacionada principalmente ao ataque de insetos as estruturas reprodutivas. Em uma floresta de pinheiros observamos que quase da todas as inflorescências de uma bromélia epífita (Tillandsia carlos-hankii) apresentavam sinais de florivoria; o grau de danos sugeria que herbívoros majores (vertebrados) pudessem estar envolvidos. Para avaliar a intensidade do dano de florivoria de vertebrados, registramos a porcentagem de indivíduos danificados em quadrantes de 500 m2 durante duas estações de florescimento. Para identificar possíveis herbívoros vertebrados, instalamos 20 estações de captura mista e analisamos o conteúdo estomacal de vertebrados capturados. Além disso, foram instaladas 10 foto-armadilhas focadas em bromélias. A florivoria foi observada em 62% dos indivíduos durante a primeira estação de floração e 77% na segunda. Os vertebrados associados à florivoria foram pássaro, Icterus bullockii (Aves, Passeriformes, Icteridae), um esquilo Sciurus aureogaster (Mammalia, Rodentia, Sciuridae) e ratos, Peromyscus gratus, P. levipes e P. aztecus (Mammalia, Rodentia, Cricetidae). Assim, nossos resultados sugerem que epífitas vasculares são usadas como recurso facultativo para estes animais durante as estações, quando os recursos preferidos estão escassos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Tillandsia , Inflorescence/physiology , Herbivory/physiology , Birds/physiology , Mammals/physiology
10.
Actual. osteol ; 15(1): 20-33, ene. abr. 2019. ilus., graf., tab.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048986

ABSTRACT

Published evidence reports the existence of two routes for the transformation of 7-dehydrocholecalciferol into previtamin D3: a photochemical route with the participation of UVB photons and another route that occurs in the darkness. Several reports appears to support the presence of these two routes in some mammals, birds, nonvascular plants (e.g.: mosses), vascular plants (e.g.: angiosperms) and lichens. The reviewed evidence suggests that in the darkness, the synthesis of vitamin D3 follows the same scheme of the photochemical pathway, but at a reduced rate respect to the synthesis under UVB radiation. The process of vitamin D synthesis in the dark, then, may be taken as an insurance for survival, at least for mammals and birds. The low rate of the synthesis of vitamin D3 in the absence of light produce low concentrations of vitamin D3 metabolites in plasma. Long term survival under these circumstances might be possible through upregulation of vitamin D receptors (VDRs). In mole rats (South African rodents that live in the dark in underground tunnels), the reduced rate of vitamin D3 synthesis produce low levels of plasma vitamin D3 and their metabolites 25(OH) D3 and 1α,25OH2 D3 . The fact that Kd and ßmax of the complex 1α,25(OH)2 D3 -VDR from the intestinal mucosa, kidneys and the Harderian glands of the mole rat Heterocephalus glaber are significantly different in each one of these tissues, is interpreted as an indicator that the VDRs are, in each tissue, adapted to the maintenance of normal physiological functions. (AU)


Varios trabajos publicados han informado que existen dos mecanismos para la transformación de 7-dehidrocolecalciferol en previtamina D3 : uno iniciado con el auxilio de fotones UVB y un segundo que ocurre en la oscuridad, sin el auxilio de radiación ultravioleta. Una serie de publicaciones contienen información que apoya la presencia de estos dos mecanismos en mamíferos, pájaros, plantas no vasculares (musgos), vasculares (angiospermas) y líquenes. La evidencia revisada sugiere que, en la oscuridad, la síntesis de vitamina D3 sigue el mismo esquema que la ruta fotoquímica y generalmente ocurre a una tasa reducida respecto de la síntesis bajo irradiación ultravioleta. La operación de la síntesis de vitamina D3 en la oscuridad, por lo menos para mamíferos y pájaros, puede tomarse como un reaseguro de sobrevida. La reducida tasa de síntesis de vitamina D en ausencia de luz produce bajas concentraciones en plasma de los metabolitos de la vitamina. La sobrevida saludable en estas condiciones sería posible mediante upregulation de los receptores. En las ratas topo Heterocephalus glaber (roedores sudafricanos que viven en permanente oscuridad, en túneles subterráneos), la reducida tasa de síntesis de vitamina D3 es la causa de los bajos niveles plasmáticos de la vitamina y sus metabolitos: 25(OH)D3 y 1α,25OH2 D3 . El hecho de que el Kd y ßmax del complejo 1α,25(OH)2 D3 -Vitamina-D-Receptor del intestino, riñón y glándulas de Harder de Heterocephalus glaber sean significativamente diferentes entre sí indicaría que los receptores se han modificado para mantener funciones fisiológicas normales en cada tejido. (AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Vitamin D/chemical synthesis , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Vitamin D/biosynthesis , Vitamin D/metabolism , Birds/physiology , Darkness , Bryophyta/chemistry , Tracheophyta/chemistry , Lichens/chemistry , Mammals/physiology
11.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(1): 168-171, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042496

ABSTRACT

Abstract Animals reared in restricted environments are highly susceptible to gastrointestinal infection by helminths and protozoa and therefore zoos are characterized as being parasite-rich environments. Successful implementation of control programs of these parasites in zoo environment depends upon precise and rapid diagnosing of gastrointestinal infections. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the role of the Mini-FLOTAC technique in combination with Fill-FLOTAC for rapidly diagnosing parasitic infections in zoo mammals. Fecal samples were collected from 70 animals in four different zoos located in central and southern Italy. All the samples were analyzed using Mini-FLOTAC in combination with Fill-FLOTAC. Out of the 70 pooled samples examined, 80% (24/30) were positive for at least one parasite. Among the gastrointestinal nematodes, Strongyles were the most frequent (40%), followed by Trichuris spp. (23.3%), Parascaris spp. (13.3%) and Capillaria spp. (3.3%). Among the protozoa, Blastocystis spp., Giardia spp. and Eimeria spp. were detected in 6.6%, 3.3% and 3.3%, respectively. These results show that Mini-FLOTAC in combination with Fill-FLOTAC can be used, not only for rapidly diagnosing parasitic infections in zoo mammals, but also for monitoring control programs in which large numbers of fecal samples need to be examined rapidly and reliably.


Resumo Animais criados em ambiente restritos são altamente suscetíveis a infecção gastrointestinal por helmintos e protozoários, constituindo os zoológicos em ambientes com alta contaminação por parasitos. O sucesso da implementação de programas de controle contra estes parasitos em zoológicos depende do rápido diagnóstico das infecções por parasitas gastrointestinais. O objetivo deste estudo foi demonstrar o papel da técnica do Mini-FLOTAC em combinação com o Fill-FLOTAC no diagnóstico rápido das infecções parasitárias em mamíferos em zoológicos. Amostras de fezes foram coletadas de 70 animais de quatro diferentes zoológicos no centro e sudoeste da Itália. Todas as amostras foram analisadas pela técnica do Mini-FLOTAC em combinação com o Fill-FLOTAC. Do total de 70 pools de fezes examinadas, 80% (24/30) foram positivas para pelo menos um parasito. Entre os nematoides gastrointestinais a maior frequência foi observada para estrongilídeos (40%), seguida por Trichuris spp. (23,3%), Parascaris spp. (13,3%) e Capillaria spp. (3,3%). Entre os protozoários Blastocystis spp., Giardia spp. e Eimeria spp. foram detectados em 6,6%, 3,3% e 3,3%, respectivamente. Estes resultados demonstram que a técnica do Mini-FLOTAC em combinação com o Fill-FLOTAC pode ser utilizada não somente para o diagnóstico rápido das infecções parasitárias em mamíferos em zoológicos, mas também no monitoramento de programas de controle onde grande número de amostras fecais devem ser examinadas de forma rápida e confiável.


Subject(s)
Animals , Parasitic Diseases, Animal/diagnosis , Protozoan Infections/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Diseases/veterinary , Helminthiasis, Animal/diagnosis , Animals, Zoo/parasitology , Mammals/parasitology , Parasitic Diseases, Animal/parasitology , Protozoan Infections/parasitology , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Sensitivity and Specificity , Feces/parasitology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Diseases/parasitology , Helminthiasis, Animal/parasitology
12.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(1): 43-67, feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003655

ABSTRACT

Resumen Este estudio organiza toda la información disponible acerca de los patógenos virales y bacterianos de mamíferos silvestres en Chile. Esto fue realizado con el objetivo de identificar patógenos que han sido bien documentados y reconocer aquellos que no han sido apropiadamente estudiados, determinar el número de artículos que han sido publicados anualmente acerca de este tópico e identificar las regiones en Chile que han concentrado el mayor y menor número de estudios relacionados con patógenos virales y bacterianos. Para lograr esto, se seleccionó para revisión un total de 67 artículos científicos publicados en revistas evaluadas por pares desde 1951 al 2018. Los resultados indican que el número de publicaciones ha incrementado por década y hay años en los cuales no se publicaron artículos. La mayoría de los estudios se relacionan con Leptospira, rabia, hantavirus, Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (MAP) y distémper. Rodentia, Carnivora, Chiroptera y Cetartiodactyla fueron los órdenes de mamíferos más estudiados. Información acerca de la presencia/ausencia de patógenos fue encontrada en 44 especies de mamíferos silvestres. La mayor parte de las investigaciones buscaron patógenos en Chile sur y central y los métodos de diagnóstico más empleados para el diagnóstico de patógenos fueron serología y técnicas moleculares. En general, la investigación en mamíferos silvestres ha sido dirigida a la evaluación de enfermedades zoonóticas, mientras que aquellas enfermedades transmitidas por vectores y enfermedades no zoonóticas han sido mayormente ignoradas por la comunidad científica.


This study organizes all available information about viral and bacterial pathogens of wild mammals in Chile. This was done in order to identify pathogens that have been well-documented and recognize those that have not been properly studied, determine the number of articles that have been published annually about this topic and identify regions in Chile that concentrate the highest and lowest number of studies concerning viral and bacterial pathogens. A total of 67 scientific articles published in peer-reviewed journals from 1951 to 2018 were selected for revision. Results indicate that the number of publications has increased per decade but there are years in which no articles were published. Most studies addressed Leptospira, rabies, hantavirus, Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (MAP) and distemper. Rodentia, Carnivora, Chiroptera and Cetartiodactyla were the most studied mammal orders. Information about presence/absence of pathogens was found for 44 wild mammal species. Research was mainly carried out in central and southern Chile and the most commonly employed methods for pathogen diagnosis were serology and molecular techniques. Overall, research in Chilean wild mammals has been directed towards the evaluation of zoonotic diseases, while vector-borne and non-zoonotic diseases have been mostly neglected by the scientific community.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bacteria/pathogenicity , Viruses/pathogenicity , Animals, Wild/microbiology , Animals, Wild/virology , Mammals/microbiology , Mammals/virology , Time Factors , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Bacterial Infections/transmission , Virus Diseases/transmission , Virus Diseases/virology , Zoonoses/microbiology , Zoonoses/transmission , Zoonoses/virology , Bibliometrics , Chile
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786637

ABSTRACT

Isthmiophora hortensis (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) is a dominant echinostome in animal reservoir hosts and humans in the Republic of Korea (Korea). We intended to investigate the infection status with this echinostome species in the several species of wild animals and describe the morphological characteristics in the faunistic view point. A total of 175 animal carcasses belonging to 3 families, i.e., Canidae, Felidae and Mustelidae, were collected from the southern regions of Korea from March 2010 to July 2017. Isthmiophora spp. worms were recovered from the small intestines of each animal under a stereomicroscope after washing of intestinal contents. Isthmiophora hortensis was recovered from 4 species of wild carnivores, i.e., Nyctereutes procyonoides (3/107: 2.8%), Mustela sibirica (11/31: 35.5%), Meles lucurus (2/3: 33.3%) and Martes flavigula (1/2: 50%). The other 3 carnivores comprising stray dogs, cat and leopard cat were negative for I. hortensis infection (0/2, 0/10 and 0/12, respectively). Specimens obtained from the Lutra lutra (6/8: 75%) were identified as a distinct species, I. inermis, by morphological comparison. Isthmiophora inermis has thinner body, elongate testes and different anterior limits of vitelline fields. Detailed morphological descriptions and comparisons with the morphological characteristics are provided. Conclusively, it was confirmed for the first time that 3 species of mustelid mammals, i.e., M. sibirica, M. lucurus, and M. flavigula, are to be the new definitive hosts of I. hortensis in Korea. Additionally, I. inermis is to be newly added in the Korean echinostome fauna.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Wild , Canidae , Cats , Dogs , Felidae , Gastrointestinal Contents , Humans , Intestine, Small , Korea , Mammals , Mustelidae , Otters , Panthera , Raccoon Dogs , Republic of Korea , Testis , Vitellins
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786610

ABSTRACT

Anisakidosis is a term that collectively refers to a human infection caused by larvae of the family Anisakidae. Because Anisakis simplex was the main cause, it was originally called anisakiasis or anisakiosis, but since other parasites such as Pseudoterranova decipiens also cause similar diseases, the family name is now used as the diagnostic name. Anisakidosis cases have been increasing steadily owing to the propagation of the Japanese raw-fish-eating culture, such as sushi and sashimi, around the world; the traditional raw-fish-eating habits of individual countries; the establishment of marine mammal protection laws; and the development of endoscopic diagnostic techniques. The disease continues to occur in Korea, where most human parasites are believed to have been eradicated and is probably the most common parasitic disease encountered in clinical practice. Anisakidosis is a disease associated with acute abdominal pain. Anisakid larvae can invade the entire digestive tract and abdominal cavity and cause abdominal pain and a variety of digestive system symptoms. Thus, the history of eating raw fish is very important for its differential diagnosis. The lack of a precise understanding of the pathogenesis and clinical course of this disease may lead to unnecessary surgery. Anisakidosis may also manifest as allergic symptoms. Therefore, it is necessary to understand anisakidosis from the perspective of public health, food hygiene, and preventive medicine.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Cavity , Abdominal Pain , Anisakiasis , Anisakis , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Diagnosis, Differential , Digestive System , Eating , Food Hypersensitivity , Gastrointestinal Tract , Host-Parasite Interactions , Humans , Hygiene , Jurisprudence , Korea , Larva , Mammals , Parasites , Parasitic Diseases , Preventive Medicine , Public Health , Raw Foods , Unnecessary Procedures
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785836

ABSTRACT

Space traveling is imperative for mankind in the future. Expectedly, hibernation will become an option for space traveler to overcome the endless voyage. With regard to some of the studies pointed out that during hibernation, muscle will undergo atrophy and meantime neurogenesis will reduce, these obstacles were frequently related with stem cell regeneration. Thus, investigation on whether hibernation will lead to dysfunction of stem cell becomes an important issue. By going through four main systems in this article, such as, hematopoietic system, skeletal muscle system, central nervous system and orthopedic system, we are expecting that stem cells regeneration capacity will be affected by hibernation. To date, these researches are majorly the read-out from short term or seasonal hibernating mammals. Proposing and creating a simulated long-term hibernation animal model is turning essential for the further investigation on the effect of longer period of hibernation to human stem cells.


Subject(s)
Adult Stem Cells , Adult , Arousal , Atrophy , Central Nervous System , Hematopoietic System , Hibernation , Humans , Mammals , Models, Animal , Muscle, Skeletal , Neurogenesis , Orthopedics , Regeneration , Seasons , Stem Cells , Torpor
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741993

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To achieve pulp-dentin complex regeneration with tissue engineering, treatment efficacies and safeties should be evaluated using in vivo orthotopic transplantation in a sufficient number of animals. Mice have been a species of choice in which to study stem cell biology in mammals. However, most pulp-dentin complex regeneration studies have used large animals because the mouse tooth is too small. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the utility of the mouse tooth as a transplantation model for pulp-dentin complex regeneration research. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Experiments were performed using 7-week-old male Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice; a total of 35 mice had their pulp exposed, and 5 mice each were sacrificed at 1, 2, 4, 7, 9, 12 and 14 days after pulp exposure. After decalcification in 5% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, the samples were embedded and cut with a microtome and then stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Slides were observed under a high-magnification light microscope. RESULTS: Until 1 week postoperatively, the tissue below the pulp chamber orifice appeared normal. The remaining coronal portion of the pulp tissue was inflammatory and necrotic. After 1 week postoperatively, inflammation and necrosis were apparent in the root canals inferior to the orifices. The specimens obtained after experimental day 14 showed necrosis of all tissue in the root canals. CONCLUSIONS: This study could provide opportunities for researchers performing in vivo orthotopic transplantation experiments with mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biology , Dental Pulp Cavity , Dental Pulp Necrosis , Edetic Acid , Eosine Yellowish-(YS) , Hematoxylin , Humans , Inflammation , Male , Mammals , Mice , Necrosis , Pulpitis , Regeneration , Safety , Stem Cells , Tissue Engineering , Tooth
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764407

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Oral cancer has a high incidence worldwide and has been closely associated with smoking, alcohol, and infection by the human papillomavirus. Metastasis is highly important for oral cancer survival. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid mediator that promotes various cellular processes, including cell survival, proliferation, metastasis, and invasion. Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STATs) are transcription factors that mediate gene expression. Among the seven types of STATs in mammals, STAT3 is involved in invasion and metastasis of numerous tumors. However, little is known about the role of STAT3 in oral tumor invasion. In the present study, we hypothesized that STAT3 mediates LPA-induced oral cancer invasion. METHODS: Immunoblotting was performed to analyze LPA-induced STAT3 activation. 3-(4,5-Dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was performed to assess the survival rates of YD-10B cells. STAT3 levels in LPA-treated oral tumor cells were evaluated by performing in vitro invasion assay. RESULTS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that LPA enhances STAT3 phosphorylation in oral cancer. In addition, treatment with WP1066, a selective inhibitor of STAT3, at a concentration that does not cause severe reduction in cell viability, significantly attenuated LPA-induced YD-10B cancer cell invasion. CONCLUSION: The results suggested that LPA induces oral tumor cells with greater invasive potential via STAT3 activation. Our findings provided important insights into the mechanisms underlying mouth neoplasms.


Subject(s)
Cell Survival , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Gene Expression , Humans , Immunoblotting , In Vitro Techniques , Incidence , Lysophospholipids , Mammals , Mouth Neoplasms , Neoplasm Metastasis , Phosphorylation , Smoke , Smoking , STAT3 Transcription Factor , Survival Rate , Transcription Factors , Transducers
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764063

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Genomic imprinting modulates growth and development in mammals and is associated with genetic disorders. Although uniparental embryonic stem cells have been used to study genomic imprinting, there is an ethical issue associated with the destruction of human embryos. In this study, to investigate the genomic imprinting status in human neurodevelopment, we used human uniparental induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) that possessed only maternal alleles and differentiated into neural cell lineages. METHODS: Human somatic iPSCs (hSiPSCs) and human parthenogenetic iPSCs (hPgiPSCs) were differentiated into neural stem cells (NSCs) and named hSi-NSCs and hPgi-NSCs respectively. DNA methylation and gene expression of imprinted genes related neurodevelopment was analyzed during reprogramming and neural lineage differentiation. RESULTS: The DNA methylation and expression of imprinted genes were altered or maintained after differentiation into NSCs. The imprinting status in NSCs were maintained after terminal differentiation into neurons and astrocytes. In contrast, gene expression was differentially presented in a cell type-specific manner. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that genomic imprinting should be determined in each neural cell type because the genomic imprinting status can differ in a cell type-specific manner. In addition, the in vitro model established in this study would be useful for verifying the epigenetic alteration of imprinted genes which can be differentially changed during neurodevelopment in human and for screening novel imprinted genes related to neurodevelopment. Moreover, the confirmed genomic imprinting status could be used to find out an abnormal genomic imprinting status of imprinted genes related with neurogenetic disorders according to uniparental genotypes.


Subject(s)
Alleles , Astrocytes , Cell Lineage , DNA Methylation , Embryonic Stem Cells , Embryonic Structures , Epigenomics , Ethics , Gene Expression , Genomic Imprinting , Genotype , Growth and Development , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells , Mammals , Mass Screening , Neural Stem Cells , Neurons
19.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2019. 208 p. ilus.
Thesis in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177897

ABSTRACT

O filo Acanthocephala é caracterizado por não possuir trato digestório e por apresentar na região anterior uma probóscide munida de ganchos que retrai-se para dentro de um receptáculo. Este grupo é dividido em quatro classes Archiacanthocephala, Palaeacanthocephala, Eoacanthocephala e Polyacanthocephala baseado em características morfológicas, biológicas e ecológicas. Dentre os filos dos helmintos estudados em mamíferos brasileiros, o filo Acanthocephala se destaca por apresentar lacunas no que se refere às informações taxonômicas, filogenéticas e ecológicas. O objetivo geral deste trabalho foi realizar a taxonomia integrativa dos acantocéfalos recuperados em mamíferos das famílias Procyonidae, Myrmecophagidae e Cricetidae de diferentes regiões geográficas do Brasil, armazenados e disponibilizados pela coleção do Laboratório de Biologia e Parasitologia de mamíferos Silvestres Reservatórios (LABPMR) utilizando características morfologicas, moleculares e ecológicas. Os acantocéfalos recuperados foram identificados através da microscopia de luz (ML) e por microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV). Foi também realizada a análise filogenética molecular dos acantocéfalos com os marcadores moleculares do gene ribossomal da subunidade maior (28S rRNA) e do gene mitocondrial citocromo oxidase da subunidade 1 (MT-CO1). Além disto, foi determinada a prevalência e abundância dos ovos de Acanthocephala através da análise coproparasitológica de fezes de quati Nasua nasua e de cachorro-do-mato Cerdocyon thous, avaliando a influencia dos fatores bióticos e abióticos na infecção.


Os espécimes de acantocéfalos foram descritos e identificados em duas novas espécies Pachysentis n. sp. (Archiacanthocephala: Oligacanthorhynchidae) parasitando Nasua nasua (quati) proveniente do Mato Grosso do Sul do bioma Pantanal e Moniliformis n. sp. (Archiacanthocephala: Moniliformidae) em Necromys lasiurus (ratinho-do-cerrado) da região de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais do bioma Cerrado; e redescrita a espécie Gigantorhynchus echinodiscus (Archiacanthocephala: Gigantorhynchidae) em Myrmecophaga tridactyla (Tamanduá-bandeira) da Estação Ecológica Santa Bárbara, São Paulo, bioma cerrado. As análises filogenéticas moleculares sugeriram que a espécie G. echinosdichus está relacionada com Mediorhynchus sp. formando um grupo monofilético, assim como Moniliformis n. sp. está relacionado com as espécies do gênero Moniliformis também formando grupo monofilético. A análise ecológica foi realizada com 118 amostras fecais de 55 espécimes de cachorro-do-mato e 72 amostras fecais de 61 espécimes de quatis sugerindo a influência da sazonalidade na abundância dos acantocéfalos para ambos os hospedeiros e que os atributos relacionados ao hospedeiro como sexo e idade também constituíram fatores importantes associados à prevalência e às cargas parasitárias. O presente trabalho acrescentou informações morfológicas, moleculares e ecológicas, enfatizando a importância de adotar abordagem da taxonomia integrativa nos estudos com Acanthocephala. (AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Classification , Acanthocephala , Helminths , Animals, Wild , Mammals
20.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 27(4): 481-487, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977925

ABSTRACT

Abstract Recent genetic population studies on Toxoplasma gondii in Brazil have shown large genetic variability. The objective of the present study was to isolate and genotypically characterize T. gondii from free-ranging and captive wild mammals and birds in Pernambuco state, Brazil. Fragments of heart, brain, skeletal muscle and diaphragm tissue from 71 birds and 34 mammals, which were either free-ranging or captive, were collected. Samples from 32 of these animals were subjected to bioassays in mice. Samples from the remaining 73 animals underwent biomolecular diagnosis, using PCR technique, targeting a repetitive DNA fragment of 529 bp in T. gondii. A non-virulent isolate (TgButstBrPE1) was obtained from a free-ranging striated heron (Butorides striata) and, based on primary samples, seven animals were found to be positive. The primary samples and the isolate obtained were subjected to PCR-RFLP using the markers SAG1, 5'3'SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, Apico and CS3. ToxoDB-RFLP genotype #13 from the striated heron isolate and Type BrIII genotype from a captive otter ( Lontra longicaudis) (PS-TgLonloBrPE1) were obtained. The present study describes the first isolation and genotypic characterization of T. gondii in free-ranging striated heron, and the first genotypic characterization of T. gondii in a captive otter.


Resumo Recentes estudos genéticos nas populações deste parasita no Brasil têm mostrado grande variabilidade genética. O objetivo do presente estudo foi isolar e caracterizar genotipicamente T. gondii de aves e mamíferos de vida livre e de cativeiro no estado de Pernambuco, Brazil. Fragmentos de tecido do coração, cérebro, músculo esquelético e diafragma de 71 aves e 34 mamíferos de vida livre ou cativeiro foram colhidos. Amostras de 32 destes animais foram submetidas a bioensaios em camundongos. As amostras dos 73 animais restantes foram submetidas a diagnóstico biomolecular usando a técnica de PCR, tendo como alvo o fragmento repetitivo de 529 pb do DNA de T. gondii. Dentre os 32 bioensaios conduzidos, obteve-se um isolado não-virulento (TgButstBrPE1) de um socozinho (Butorides striata ) de vida livre, e dentre as amostras primárias, sete animais foram positivos. As amostras primárias e o isolado foram submetidos a PCR-RFLP usando os marcadores SAG1, 5'3'SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, Apico e CS3. Foram obtidos o genótipo ToxoDB-RFLP #13 do isolado do socozinho e o genótipo Type BrIII de uma lontra (Lontra longicaudis) de cativeiro (PS-TgLonloBrPE1). O presente estudo descreve o primeiro isolamento e caracterização genotípica de T. gondii em socozinho de vida livre, e a primeira caracterização genotípica de T. gondii em lontra em cativeiro.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Toxoplasma/isolation & purification , Birds/parasitology , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , DNA, Protozoan/analysis , Mammals/parasitology , Toxoplasma/genetics , Toxoplasma/immunology , Genetic Variation , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Brazil , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Genotype , Mammals/classification
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