Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 591
Filter
1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e243666, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339361

ABSTRACT

Abstract Brazil is the world's richest country in biodiversity, including mammal species. In the Brazilian Cerrado biome, mammalian diversity is vast, with about 251 species, 32 of them are endemic and 22 listed as threatened species. In this work, we investigated species diversity of medium- and large-sized mammals in the private protected area RPPN Pontal do Jaburu (RPPN-PJ) and its surroundings, which is a flooded area located in an important biological corridor in the Cerrado-Amazon ecotone zone, a priority area for biodiversity conservation in Brazil. We used camera-trapping, active search (night and day), and track survey during dry season (Apr - Aug 2016). We recorded 29 mammal species, being the Carnivora order the most representative with 11 species. Regarding threat status, 35.7% of the recorded species were listed as threatened in Brazil and 32.1% worldwide. We highlight the high relative frequency of threatened species records such as Tapirus terrestris, Panthera onca, Blastocerus dichotomus, Pteronura brasiliensis, Priodontes maximus, and other, as well as the presence of the newly described aquatic mammal species Inia araguaiaensis. We stress the importance of RPPN-PJ and its surroundings for mammal conservation, which include complex habitats (wetlands) located in an important ecotone zone.


Resumo O Brasil é o país mais rico em biodiversidade no mundo, incluindo espécies de mamíferos. No bioma Cerrado, a diversidade de mamíferos é enorme, com cerca de 251 espécies, sendo 32 delas endêmicas e 22 listadas como ameaçadas de extinção. Neste estudo, investigamos a diversidade de espécies de mamíferos de médio e grande porte da RPPN Pontal do Jaburu (RPPN-PJ) e seu entorno, que é uma floresta de inundação localizada em um importante corredor biológico na zona de ecótono Cerrado-Amazonia, uma área prioritária para conservação da biodiversidade no Brasil. Os dados foram coletados por armadilhas fotográficas, busca ativa (noturna e diurna) e identificação de pegadas durante a estação seca (abril - agosto de 2016). Registramos um grande número de espécies de mamíferos (n = 29), sendo a ordem carnívora a mais representativa com 11 espécies. Com relação ao status de ameaça, 34,5% das espécies registradas foram listadas como ameaçadas na lista vermelha do Brasil e 20,7% na lista vermelha da IUCN. Destacamos a alta frequência relativa de registros de espécies ameaçadas como Tapirus terrestris, Panthera onca, Blastocerus dichotomus, Pteronura brasiliensis, Priodontes maximus, bem como a presença da recém descrita espécie de mamífero aquático Inia araguaiaensis. Nós discutimos a importância da RPPN-PJ e seus arredores para a conservação de espécies de mamíferos, onde inclui habitats complexos (áreas de inundação) localizados em uma importante zona de ecótono.. Os resultados reforçam a relevância desta área para a conservação de mamíferos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Wetlands , Mammals , Brazil , Endangered Species , Conservation of Natural Resources , Biodiversity
2.
Rev. biol. trop ; 70(1)dic. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1387723

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Los mamíferos marinos se ven afectados por diversas amenazas que deben identificarse para los esfuerzos de mitigación. Objetivo: Cuantificar visualmente las amenazas a los mamíferos marinos en Colombia e identificar acciones de mitigación. Métodos: Georreferenciamos las amenazas con base en la literatura, cubriendo 35 especies en el período 1991-2020, y las superpusimos en mapas de distribución de especies. Resultados: 22 especies presentaron al menos una amenaza. La captura incidental y las interacciones con los artes de pesca afectaron a 16 especies, seguidas de la captura directa (8 especies), el tráfico/tránsito de embarcaciones (6 especies) y la alteración de la física oceánica (6 especies). Las especies más afectadas, en cuanto a mayor diversidad de amenazas, son: ballena jorobada (Megaptera novaeangliae), manatí antillano del Caribe (Trichechus manatus), el tucuxi marino (Sotalia guianensis) y el delfín nariz de botella (Tursiops truncatus). Casi todo el territorio marino de Colombia presenta algún grado de riesgo para los mamíferos marinos. Las áreas de alto riesgo son Buenaventura, Guapi, Golfo de Cupica y Tumaco en el Pacífico; y Golfo de Urabá, Golfo de Darién, Golfo de Morrosquillo, frente a Barranquilla, Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta y Golfo de Coquivacoa en el Caribe. Conclusión: Los mamíferos marinos en Colombia se encuentran actualmente en riesgo debido a varias amenazas, especialmente relacionadas con actividades de pesca, caza/captura y transporte marítimo, principalmente en las zonas costeras. Se necesitan acciones urgentes de evaluación y gestión en las diez áreas de alto riesgo identificadas en este estudio.


Abstract Introduction: Marine mammals are affected by diverse threats that must be identified for mitigation efforts. Objective: To visually quantify threats to marine mammals in Colombia, and to identify mitigation actions. Methods: We georeferenced threats based on the literature, covering 35 species in the period 1991-2020, and superimposed them on species range maps. Results: 22 species had at least one threat. Bycatch and interactions with fishing gear affected 16 species, followed by direct capture (8 species), vessel traffic/transit (6 species) and alteration of ocean physics (6 species). The most affected species, in terms of the greatest diversity of threats, are: humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae), Caribbean West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus), marine tucuxi (Sotalia guianensis) and bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Nearly all of Colombia's marine territory presents some degree of risk for marine mammals. High-risk areas are Buenaventura, Guapi, Cupica Gulf and Tumaco in the Pacific; and Urabá Gulf, Darién Gulf, Morrosquillo Gulf, off Barranquilla, Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta and Coquivacoa Gulf in the Caribbean. Conclusion: Marine mammals in Colombia are currently at risk due to several threats, especially related to fishing, hunting/capture and shipping activities, mainly in coastal areas. Urgent evaluation and management actions are needed in the ten high-risk areas identified in this study.


Subject(s)
Animals , Marine Fauna , Geographical Localization of Risk , Mammals/classification , Colombia
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936337

ABSTRACT

RNA binding protein (RBP) plays a key role in gene regulation and participate in RNA translation, modification, splicing, transport and other important biological processes. Studies have shown that abnormal expression of RBP is associated with a variety of diseases. The Musashi (Msi) family of mammals is an evolutionarily conserved and powerful RBP, whose members Msi1 and Msi2 play important roles in the regulation of stem cell activity and tumor development. The Msi family members regulate a variety of biological processes by binding and regulating mRNA translation, stability and downstream cell signaling pathways, and among them, Msi2 is closely related to embryonic growth and development, maintenance of tumor stem cells and development of hematological tumors. Accumulating evidence has shown that Msi2 also plays a crucial role in the development of solid tumors, mainly by affecting the proliferation, invasion, metastasis and drug resistance of tumors, involving Wnt/β-catenin, TGF-β/SMAD3, Akt/mTOR, JAK/STAT, Numb and their related signaling pathways (Notch, p53, and Hedgehog pathway). Preclinical studies of Msi2 gene as a therapeutic target for tumor have achieved preliminary results. This review summarizes the molecular structure, physiological function, role of Msi2 in the development and progression of various solid tumors and the signaling pathways involved.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hedgehog Proteins , Mammals/metabolism , Neoplasms/genetics , Neoplastic Stem Cells , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Signal Transduction
4.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 316-335, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929165

ABSTRACT

Recent advances in genome editing, especially CRISPR-Cas nucleases, have revolutionized both laboratory research and clinical therapeutics. CRISPR-Cas nucleases, together with the DNA damage repair pathway in cells, enable both genetic diversification by classical non-homologous end joining (c-NHEJ) and precise genome modification by homology-based repair (HBR). Genome editing in zygotes is a convenient way to edit the germline, paving the way for animal disease model generation, as well as human embryo genome editing therapy for some life-threatening and incurable diseases. HBR efficiency is highly dependent on the DNA donor that is utilized as a repair template. Here, we review recent progress in improving CRISPR-Cas nuclease-induced HBR in mammalian embryos by designing a suitable DNA donor. Moreover, we want to provide a guide for producing animal disease models and correcting genetic mutations through CRISPR-Cas nuclease-induced HBR in mammalian embryos. Finally, we discuss recent developments in precise genome-modification technology based on the CRISPR-Cas system.


Subject(s)
Animals , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , DNA/genetics , Embryo, Mammalian/metabolism , Endonucleases/metabolism , Gene Editing , Mammals/metabolism
5.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 505-518, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929088

ABSTRACT

The axon initial segment (AIS) is a specialized structure that controls neuronal excitability via action potential (AP) generation. Currently, AIS plasticity with regard to changes in length and location in response to neural activity has been extensively investigated, but how AIS diameter is regulated remains elusive. Here we report that COUP-TFI (chicken ovalbumin upstream promotor-transcription factor 1) is an essential regulator of AIS diameter in both developing and adult mouse neocortex. Either embryonic or adult ablation of COUP-TFI results in reduced AIS diameter and impaired AP generation. Although COUP-TFI ablations in sparse single neurons and in populations of neurons have similar impacts on AIS diameter and AP generation, they strengthen and weaken, respectively, the receiving spontaneous network in mutant neurons. In contrast, overexpression of COUP-TFI in sparse single neurons increases the AIS diameter and facilitates AP generation, but decreases the receiving spontaneous network. Our findings demonstrate that COUP-TFI is indispensable for both the expansion and maintenance of AIS diameter and that AIS diameter fine-tunes action potential generation and synaptic inputs in mammalian cortical neurons.


Subject(s)
Action Potentials , Animals , Axon Initial Segment , COUP Transcription Factor I , DNA-Binding Proteins/physiology , Mammals , Mice , Transcription Factors
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929061

ABSTRACT

Toxoplasma gondii is a worldwide parasite that can infect almost all kinds of mammals and cause fatal toxoplasmosis in immunocompromised patients. Apoptosis is one of the principal strategies of host cells to clear pathogens and maintain organismal homeostasis, but the mechanism of cell apoptosis induced by T. gondii remains obscure. To explore the apoptosis influenced by T. gondii, Vero cells infected or uninfected with the parasite were subjected to apoptosis detection and subsequent dual RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). Using high-throughput Illumina sequencing and bioinformatics analysis, we found that pro-apoptosis genes such as DNA damage-inducible transcript 3 (DDIT3), growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible α (GADD45A), caspase-3 (CASP3), and high-temperature requirement protease A2 (HtrA2) were upregulated, and anti-apoptosis genes such as poly(adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribose) polymerase family member 3 (PARP3), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), and baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) repeat containing 5 (BIRC5) were downregulated. Besides, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 1 (TRAF1), TRAF2, TNF receptor superfamily member 10b (TNFRSF10b), disabled homolog 2 (DAB2)‍-interacting protein (DAB2IP), and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 3 (ITPR3) were enriched in the upstream of TNF, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathways, and TRAIL-receptor 2 (TRAIL-R2) was regarded as an important membrane receptor influenced by T. gondii that had not been previously considered. In conclusion, the T. gondii RH strain could promote and mediate apoptosis through multiple pathways mentioned above in Vero cells. Our findings improve the understanding of the T. gondii infection process through providing new insights into the related cellular apoptosis mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Chlorocebus aethiops , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Mammals/genetics , Toxoplasma/genetics , Toxoplasmosis/pathology , Vero Cells , ras GTPase-Activating Proteins/genetics
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929000

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Acute kidney injury (AKI) can be caused by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), nephrotoxin, and sepsis, with poor prognosis and high mortality. Leptin is a protein molecule that regulates the body's energy metabolism and reproductive activities via binding to its specific receptor. Leptin can inhibit cardiomyocyte apoptosis caused by I/R, but its effect on I/R kidney injury and the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. This study aims to investigate the effect and mechanisms of leptin on renal function, renal histopathology, apoptosis, and autophagy during acute I/R kidney injury.@*METHODS@#Healthy adult male mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: a sham+wild-type mice (ob/+) group, a sham+leptin gene-deficient mice (ob/ob) group, an I/R+ob/+ group, and an I/R+ob/ob group (n=8 per group). For sham operation, a longitudinal incision was made on the back of the mice to expose and separate the bilateral kidneys and renal arteries, and no subsequent treatment was performed. I/R treatment was ischemia for 30 min and reperfusion for 48 h. The levels of BUN and SCr were detected to evaluate renal function; HE staining was used to observe the pathological changes of renal tissue; TUNEL staining was used to observe cell apoptosis, and apoptosis-positive cells were counted; Western blotting was used to detect levels of apoptosis-related proteins (caspase 3, caspase 9), autophagy-related proteins [mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), phosphorylated mTOR (p-mTOR), LC3 I, LC3 II], mTOR-dependent signaling pathway proteins [phosphate and tension homology (PTEN), adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), protein kinase B (AKT), extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK), phosphorylated PTEN (p-PTEN), phosphorylated AMPK (p-AMPK), phosphorylated AKT (p-AKT), phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK)].@*RESULTS@#There was no significant difference in the levels of BUN and SCr between the sham+ob/+ group and the sham+ob/ob group (both P>0.05). The levels of BUN and SCr in the I/R+ob/+ group were significantly higher than those in the sham+ob/+ group (both P<0.05). Compared with the mice in the sham+ob/ob group or the I/R+ob/+ group, the levels of BUN and SCr in the I/R+ob/ob group were significantly increased (all P<0.05). There was no obvious damage to the renal tubules in the sham+ob/+ group and the sham+ob/ob group. Compared with sham+ob/+ group and sham+ob/ob group, both the I/R+ob/+ group and the I/R+ob/ob group had cell damage such as brush border shedding, vacuolar degeneration, and cast formation. Compared with the I/R+ob/+ group, the renal tubules of the mice in the I/R+ob/ob group were more severely damaged. The pathological score of renal tubular injury showed that the renal tubular injury was the most serious in the I/R+ob/ob group (P<0.05). Compared with the sham+ob/+ group, the protein levels of caspase 3, caspase 9, PTEN, and LC3 II were significantly up-regulated, the ratio of LC3 II to LC3 I was significantly increased, and the protein levels of p-mTOR, p-PTEN, p-AMPK, p-AKT, and p-ERK were significantly down-regulated in the I/R+ob/+ group (all P<0.05). Compared with the sham+ob/ob group, the protein levels of caspase 3, caspase 9, PTEN, and LC3 II were significantly up-regulated, and the ratio of LC3 II to LC3 I was significantly increased, while the protein levels of p-mTOR, p-PTEN, p-AMPK, p-AKT, and p-ERK were significantly down-regulated in the I/R+ob/ob group (all P<0.05). Compared with the I/R+ob/+ group, the levels of p-mTOR, p-PTEN, p-AMPK, p-AKT were more significantly down-regulated, while the levels of caspase 3, caspase 9, PTEN, and LC3 II were more significantly up-regulated, and the ratio of LC3 II to LC3 I was more significantly increase in the I/R+ob/ob group (all P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Renal function and tubular damage, and elevated levels of apoptosis and autophagy are observed in mice kidneys after acute I/R. Leptin might relieve I/R induced AKI by inhibiting apoptosis and autophagy that through a complex network of interactions between mTOR-dependent signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Animals , Apoptosis , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/pharmacology , Autophagy , Caspase 3/metabolism , Caspase 9/metabolism , Female , Humans , Ischemia , Kidney/pathology , Leptin/pharmacology , Male , Mammals/metabolism , Mice , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Reperfusion/adverse effects , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928993

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Electroacupuncture can enhance autophagic flow, promote neuronal regeneration, axonal and myelin remodeling to achieve the protection of spinal cord injury, but its role in neurogenic urine retention is not completely clear. This study aims to investigate whether the mechanism of electroacupuncture in the treatment of neurogenic urine retention is through autophagy mediated by adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway.@*METHODS@#A rat model of neurogenic urine retention after sacral spinal cord injury was established. The rats with successful model were randomly divided into a model group, an electroacupuncture group (electro-acupuncture for Ciliao, Zhongji, and Sanyinjiao by electronic stimulation, once a day, 20 min each time for 7 days), and an electroacupuncture+AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor group (on the basis of the treatment of electroacupuncture group, 100 μg of AMPK inhibitor compound C was injected intramuscularly around the L2-3 intervertebral space on the 1st and 4th day). The normal group did not receive any treatment. The maximum bladder volume, bladder basal pressure, leak point pressure, and bladder compliance were recorded by multi-channel physiological recorder; the morphology of bladder tissue was observed by HE staining; autophagy was observed under transmission electron microscope; the expressions of LC3II and Beclin1 protein were observed by immunofluorescence staining; the protein levels of AMPK, phosphorylated-AMPK (p-AMPK), mTOR, phosphorylated-mTOR (p-mTOR), microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) II and Beclin1 in bladder tissue were detected by Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the normal group, the maximum bladder capacity, leak point pressure, bladder compliance, p-AMPK, LC3II, Beclin1 protein expressions in the bladder tissue of the model group increased, and the p-mTOR protein expressions were decreased (all P<0.05); compared with the model group, the maximum bladder capacity, bladder compliance, p-mTOR protein expression in the bladder tissue of the electroacupuncture group were decreased, and the p-AMPK, LC3II, and Beclin1 protein expressions were increased (all P<0.05); compared with the electroacupuncture group, the maximum bladder capacity, bladder compliance, p-mTOR protein expression in the bladder tissue of the electroacupuncture+AMPK inhibitor group were increased, the p-AMPK, LC3II, and Beclin1 protein expressions were decreased (all P<0.05). In the model group, the bladder became larger, with unclear and varying degrees of degeneration, severe tissue damage and autophagosome appeared; the bladder of the electroacupuncture group was smaller than that of the model group, and all levels were clearly visible with autophagy bodies; the layers were slightly disordered and damaged in the electroacupuncture + AMPK inhibitor group.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Electroacupuncture can activate autophagy through AMPK/mTOR pathway, thereby reducing neurogenic urine retention caused by spinal cord injury.


Subject(s)
AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Animals , Autophagy , Beclin-1 , Electroacupuncture , Mammals , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Spinal Cord Injuries , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928942

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To reveal the neuroprotective effect and the underlying mechanisms of a mixture of the main components of Panax notoginseng saponins (TSPN) on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury and oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) of cultured cortical neurons.@*METHODS@#The neuroprotective effect of TSPN was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, flow cytometry and live/dead cell assays. The morphology of dendrites was detected by immunofluorescence. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was developed in rats as a model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. The neuroprotective effect of TSPN was evaluated by neurological scoring, tail suspension test, 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) and Nissl stainings. Western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence were used to measure the changes in the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway.@*RESULTS@#MTT showed that TSPN (50, 25 and 12.5 µ g/mL) protected cortical neurons after OGD/R treatment (P<0.01 or P<0.05). Flow cytometry and live/dead cell assays indicated that 25 µ g/mL TSPN decreased neuronal apoptosis (P<0.05), and immunofluorescence showed that 25 µ g/mL TSPN restored the dendritic morphology of damaged neurons (P<0.05). Moreover, 12.5 µ g/mL TSPN downregulated the expression of Beclin-1, Cleaved-caspase 3 and LC3B-II/LC3B-I, and upregulated the levels of phosphorylated (p)-Akt and p-mTOR (P<0.01 or P<0.05). In the MCAO model, 50 µ g/mL TSPN improved defective neurological behavior and reduced infarct volume (P<0.05). Moreover, the expression of Beclin-1 and LC3B in cerebral ischemic penumbra was downregulated after 50 µ g/mL TSPN treatment, whereas the p-mTOR level was upregulated (P<0.05 or P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#TSPN promoted neuronal survival and protected dendrite integrity after OGD/R and had a potential therapeutic effect by alleviating neurological deficits and reversing neuronal loss. TSPN promoted p-mTOR and inhibited Beclin-1 to alleviate ischemic damage, which may be the mechanism that underlies the neuroprotective activity of TSPN.


Subject(s)
Animals , Beclin-1 , Brain Ischemia/metabolism , Glucose , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/drug therapy , Mammals/metabolism , Neuroprotection , Neuroprotective Agents/therapeutic use , Oxygen , Panax notoginseng , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Saponins/therapeutic use , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
10.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 176-184, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929190

ABSTRACT

Studies of human and mammalian have revealed that environmental exposure can affect paternal health conditions as well as those of the offspring. However, studies that explore the mechanisms that meditate this transmission are rare. Recently, small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs) in sperm have seemed crucial to this transmission due to their alteration in sperm in response to environmental exposure, and the methodology of microinjection of isolated total RNA or sncRNAs or synthetically identified sncRNAs gradually lifted the veil of sncRNA regulation during intergenerational inheritance along the male line. Hence, by reviewing relevant literature, this study intends to answer the following research concepts: (1) paternal environmental factors that can be passed on to offspring and are attributed to spermatozoal sncRNAs, (2) potential role of paternal spermatozoal sncRNAs during the intergenerational inheritance process, and (3) the potential mechanism by which spermatozoal sncRNAs meditate intergenerational inheritance. In summary, increased attention highlights the hidden wonder of spermatozoal sncRNAs during intergenerational inheritance. Therefore, in the future, more studies should focus on the origin of RNA alteration, the target of RNA regulation, and how sncRNA regulation during embryonic development can be sustained even in adult offspring.


Subject(s)
Animals , Environmental Exposure , Epigenesis, Genetic , Female , Humans , Male , Mammals/genetics , Pregnancy , RNA, Small Untranslated/genetics , Spermatozoa
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940981

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the protective effects of curcumin(CUR) and its mechanism on a rat model of neurotoxicity induced by manganese chloride (MnCl2), which mimics mangnism.@*METHODS@#Sixty male SD rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, with 12 rats in each group. Control group received 0.9% saline solution intraperitoneally (ip) plus double distilled water (dd) H2O intragastrically (ig), MnCl2 group received 15 mg/kg MnCl2(Mn2+ 6.48 mg/kg) intraperitoneally plus dd H2O intragastrically, CUR group received 0.9% saline solution intraperitoneally plus 300 mg/kg CUR intragastrically, MnCl2+ CUR1 group received 15 mg/kg MnCl2 intraperitoneally plus 100 mg/kg curcumin intragastrically, MnCl2+ CUR2 group received 15 mg/kg MnCl2 intraperitoneally plus 300 mg/kg CUR intragastrically, 5 days/week, 4 weeks. Open-field and rotarod tests were used to detect animals' exploratory behavior, anxiety, depression, movement and balance ability. Morris water maze (MWM) experiment was used to detect animals' learning and memory ability. ICP-MS was used to investigate the Mn contents in striata. The rats per group were perfused in situ, their brains striata were removed by brains model and fixed for transmission electron microscope (TEM), histopathological and immunohistochemistry (ICH) analyses. The other 6 rats per group were sacrificed. Their brains striata were removed and protein expression levels of transcription factor EB (TFEB), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), p-mTOR, Beclin, P62, microtubule-associated protein light chain-3 (LC3) were detected by Western blotting. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transterase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining was used to determine neurocyte apoptosis of rat striatum.@*RESULTS@#After exposure to MnCl2 for four weeks, MnCl2-treated rats showed depressive-like behavior in open-field test, the impairments of movement coordination and balance in rotarod test and the diminishment of spatial learning and memory in MWM (P < 0.05). The striatal TH+ neurocyte significantly decreased, eosinophilic cells, aggregative α-Syn level and TUNEL-positive neurocyte significantly increased in the striatum of MnCl2 group compared with control group (P < 0.05). Chromatin condensation, mitochondria tumefaction and autophagosomes were observed in rat striatal neurocytes of MnCl2 group by TEM. TFEB nuclear translocation and autophagy occurred in the striatum of MnCl2 group. Further, the depressive behavior, movement and balance ability, spatial learning and memory ability of MnCl2+ CUR2 group were significantly improved compared with MnCl2 group (P < 0.05). TH+ neurocyte significantly increased, the eosinophilic cells, aggregative α-Syn level significantly decreased in the striatum of MnCl2+ CUR2 group compared with MnCl2 group. Further, compared with MnCl2 group, chromatin condensation, mitochondria tumefaction was alleviated and autophagosomes increased, TFEB-nuclear translocation, autophagy was enhanced and TUNEL-positive neurocyte reduced significantly in the striatum of MnCl2+ CUR2 group (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Curcumin alleviated the MnCl2-induced neurotoxicity and α-Syn aggregation probably by promoting TFEB nuclear translocation and enhancing autophagy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Autophagy , Chromatin , Curcumin/pharmacology , Male , Mammals , Manganese/toxicity , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Saline Solution/pharmacology , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases
12.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 463-472, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939901

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#"Multi-targeting" drugs can prove fruitful to combat drug-resistance of multifactorial disease-cervical cancer. This study envisioned to reveal if Thuja homeopathic mother tincture (MT) and its bioactive component could combat human papillomavirus (HPV)-16-infected SiHa cervical cancer cells since it is globally acclaimed for HPV-mediated warts.@*METHODS@#Thuja MT was studied for its antiproliferative and antimigratory properties in SiHa cells followed by microscopic determination of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA) staining and loss in mitochondrial membrane potential (MtMP) by rhodamine 123 (Rh123) staining. Apoptosis and autophagy inductions were studied by acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) staining and immunoblot analyses of marker proteins. The bioactive component of Thuja MT detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was studied for antiproliferative and antimigratory properties along with in silico prediction of its cellular targets by molecular docking and oral drug forming competency.@*RESULTS@#Thuja MT showed significant antiproliferative and antimigratory potential in SiHa cells at a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 17.3 µL/mL. An increase in DCFDA fluorescence and loss in Rh123 fluorescence prove that Thuja MT acted through the burst of ROS and loss in MtMP respectively. AO/EB-stained cells under the microscope and immunoblot analyses supported Thuja-induced cellular demise via dual pathways-apoptosis and autophagy. Immunoblots showed cleavage of caspase-3 and poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) along with upregulation of Beclin-1, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3B (LC3B)-II, and p62 proteins. Hence, the apoptotic cascade followed a caspase-3-dependent pathway supported by PARP-1 cleavage, while autophagic death was Beclin-1-dependent and mediated by accumulation of LC3BII and p62 proteins. Thujone, detected as the bioactive principle of Thuja MT, showed greater anti-proliferative and anti-migratory potential at an IC50 of 77 µg/mL, along with excellent oral drug competency with the ability for gastrointestinal absorption and blood-brain-barrier permeation with nil toxicity. Molecular docking depicted thujone with the strongest affinity for mammalian target of rapamycin, phosphoinositide 3-kinase, and protein kinase B followed by B-cell lymphoma 2, murine double minute 2 and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, which might act as upstream triggers of apoptotic-autophagic crosstalk.@*CONCLUSION@#Robust "multi-targeting" anticancer potential of Thuja drug and thujone for HPV-infected cervical cancer ascertained its therapeutic efficacy for HPV infections.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Autophagy , Beclin-1/pharmacology , Bicyclic Monoterpenes , Caspase 3 , Cell Line, Tumor , Female , Humans , Mammals/metabolism , Mice , Molecular Docking Simulation , Papillomavirus Infections/drug therapy , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Thuja/metabolism , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/pathology
13.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 476-489, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939867

ABSTRACT

Cell therapy approaches that employ engineered mammalian cells for on-demand production of therapeutic agents in the patient's body are moving beyond proof-of-concept in translational medicine. The therapeutic cells can be customized to sense user-defined signals, process them, and respond in a programmable and predictable way. In this paper, we introduce the available tools and strategies employed to design therapeutic cells. Then, various approaches to control cell behaviors, including open-loop and closed-loop systems, are discussed. We also highlight therapeutic applications of engineered cells for early diagnosis and treatment of various diseases in the clinic and in experimental disease models. Finally, we consider emerging technologies such as digital devices and their potential for incorporation into future cell-based therapies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Engineering , Gene Regulatory Networks , Genetic Engineering , Humans , Mammals/genetics , Synthetic Biology
14.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 769-784, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939838

ABSTRACT

In mammals, the piezoelectric protein, Prestin, endows the outer hair cells (OHCs) with electromotility (eM), which confers the capacity to change cellular length in response to alterations in membrane potential. Together with basilar membrane resonance and possible stereociliary motility, Prestin-based OHC eM lays the foundation for enhancing cochlear sensitivity and frequency selectivity. However, it remains debatable whether Prestin contributes to ultrahigh-frequency hearing due to the intrinsic nature of the cell's low-pass features. The low-pass property of mouse OHC eM is based on the finding that eM magnitude dissipates within the frequency bandwidth of human speech. In this study, we examined the role of Prestin in sensing broad-range frequencies (4-80 kHz) in mice that use ultrasonic hearing and vocalization (to >100 kHz) for social communication. The audiometric measurements in mice showed that ablation of Prestin did not abolish hearing at frequencies >40 kHz. Acoustic associative behavior tests confirmed that Prestin-knockout mice can learn ultrahigh-frequency sound-coupled tasks, similar to control mice. Ex vivo cochlear Ca2+ imaging experiments demonstrated that without Prestin, the OHCs still exhibit ultrahigh-frequency transduction, which in contrast, can be abolished by a universal cation channel blocker, Gadolinium. In vivo salicylate treatment disrupts hearing at frequencies <40 kHz but not ultrahigh-frequency hearing. By pharmacogenetic manipulation, we showed that specific ablation of the OHCs largely abolished hearing at frequencies >40 kHz. These findings demonstrate that cochlear OHCs are the target cells that support ultrahigh-frequency transduction, which does not require Prestin.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cochlea/metabolism , Hair Cells, Auditory, Outer/metabolism , Hearing , Humans , Mammals/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Molecular Motor Proteins/metabolism
15.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 741-752, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939833

ABSTRACT

Environmental threats often trigger innate defensive responses in mammals. However, the gradual development of functional properties of these responses during the postnatal development stage remains unclear. Here, we report that looming stimulation in mice evoked flight behavior commencing at P14-16 and had fully developed by P20-24. The visual-evoked innate defensive response was not significantly altered by sensory deprivation at an early postnatal stage. Furthermore, the percentages of wide-field and horizontal cells in the superior colliculus were notably elevated at P20-24. Our findings define a developmental time window for the formation of the visual innate defense response during the early postnatal period and provide important insight into the underlying mechanism.


Subject(s)
Animals , Evoked Potentials, Visual , Fear/physiology , Mammals , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Neurons/physiology , Superior Colliculi/physiology
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939830

ABSTRACT

Folic acid belongs to the group of water-soluble B vitamins and naturally exists in multiple forms in a wide variety of foods such as legumes, vegetables, liver, and milk (Iyer and Tomar, 2009; Lyon et al., 2020). It is involved in many biochemical reactions critical for cell division, such as purine and pyrimidine biosynthesis, DNA/RNA biosynthesis, and amino acid metabolism (Iyer and Tomar, 2009). Mammals cannot synthesize folic acid and thus they must acquire it from food. Although folic acid is ubiquitous in foods, folic acid deficiency still often occurs due to various causes such as unhealthy diet (Hildebrand et al., 2021; Iimura et al., 2022), disease-related malabsorption (Arcot and Shrestha, 2005), medication-related depletion (Arcot and Shrestha, 2005), or vitamin B12 deficiency (Fishman et al., 2000). Folic acid deficiency has been associated with several health problems, such as anemia (Carmel, 2005; Bailey and Caudill, 2012), cancer (Duthie, 1999), cardiovascular diseases (Wald et al., 2002), neural tube defects in newborns (van der Put et al., 2001), neuropsychiatric dysfunction (Shea et al., 2002), depression (Falade et al., 2021), inflammatory diseases (Suzuki and Kunisawa, 2015; Jones et al., 2019), and eye diseases (Sijilmassi, 2019). To prevent folic acid deficiency, its daily intake (400 μg/d) has been recommended for adults in the European Union, and its increased intake (600 μg/d) is advised for women before and during pregnancy (FAO/WHO, 2002; IOM, 2004). The New Zealand government mandated the fortification of non-organic wheat flour with folic acid in July 2021, and the UK government mandated the fortification of non-wholemeal wheat flour with folic acid in September 2021 (Haggarty, 2021).


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Female , Flour , Folic Acid/metabolism , Folic Acid Deficiency/prevention & control , Food, Fortified , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Mammals/metabolism , Pregnancy , Triticum/metabolism
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939825

ABSTRACT

Mammalian bone is constantly metabolized from the embryonic stage, and the maintenance of bone health depends on the dynamic balance between bone resorption and bone formation, mediated by osteoclasts and osteoblasts. It is widely recognized that circadian clock genes can regulate bone metabolism. In recent years, the regulation of bone metabolism by non-coding RNAs has become a hotspot of research. MicroRNAs can participate in bone catabolism and anabolism by targeting key factors related to bone metabolism, including circadian clock genes. However, research in this field has been conducted only in recent years and the mechanisms involved are not yet well established. Recent studies have focused on how to target circadian clock genes to treat some diseases, such as autoimmune diseases, but few have focused on the co-regulation of circadian clock genes and microRNAs in bone metabolic diseases. Therefore, in this paper we review the progress of research on the co-regulation of bone metabolism by circadian clock genes and microRNAs, aiming to provide new ideas for the prevention and treatment of bone metabolic diseases such as osteoporosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Circadian Clocks/genetics , Circadian Rhythm/genetics , Mammals/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , Osteogenesis/genetics , Osteoporosis/genetics
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939811

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D plays an important role in mineral and bone homeostasis, immune responses, cardiovascular function and keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation. Vitamin D performs most of its functions by binding to vitamin D receptors (VDR), which interact with other intracellular signaling pathways to regulate bone metabolism, inflammation, immunity, cell cycle progression and apoptosis. Autophagy is a basic stress response in yeast, plants and mammals, and plays a critical role in maintaining optimal functional states at the level of cells and organs. Vitamin D/VDR plays an anti-infection role via inducing and regulating autophagy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Autophagy , Humans , Inflammation , Mammals/metabolism , Receptors, Calcitriol/metabolism , Vitamin D/physiology , Vitamins
19.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 443-460, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939579

ABSTRACT

The mammalian internal circadian clock system has been evolved to adapt to the diurnal changes in the internal and external environment of the organism to regulate diverse physiological functions, such as the sleep-wake cycle and feeding rhythm, thereby coordinating the rhythmic changes of energy demand and nutrition supply in each diurnal cycle. The circadian clock regulates glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, and hormones secretion in diverse tissues and organs, including the liver, skeletal muscle, pancreas, heart, and vessels. As a special "organ" of the host, the gut microbiota, together with the intestinal microenvironment (tissues, cells, and metabolites) in a co-evolutionary process, constitutes a micro-ecosystem and plays an important role in the process of nutrient digestion and absorption in the intestine of the host. In recent years, accumulating evidence indicates that the compositions, quantities, colonization, and functional activities of the gut microbiota exhibit significant circadian variations, which are closely related to the changes of various physiological functions under the regulation of host circadian clock system. In addition, several studies have shown that the gut microbiota can produce many important metabolites such as the short-chain fatty acids through the degradation of indigestive dietary fibers. A portion of gut microbiota-derived metabolites can regulate the circadian clock system and metabolism of the host. This article mainly discusses the interaction between the host circadian clock system and the gut microbiota, and highlights its influence on energy metabolism of the host, providing a novel clues and thought for the prevention and treatment of metabolic diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Circadian Clocks/physiology , Circadian Rhythm/physiology , Ecosystem , Energy Metabolism , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Lipid Metabolism/physiology , Mammals
20.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 238-242, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928542

ABSTRACT

Cilium, an organelle with a unique proteome and organization, protruding from the cell surface, generally serves as a force generator and signaling compartment. During ciliogenesis, ciliary proteins are synthesized in cytoplasm and transported into cilia by intraflagellar transport (IFT) particles, where the inner counterparts undergo reverse trafficking. The homeostasis of IFT plays a key role in cilial structure assembly and signaling transduction. Much progress has been made on the mechanisms and functions of IFT; however, recent studies have revealed the involvement of IFT particle subunits in organogenesis and spermatogenesis. In this review, we discuss new concepts concerning the molecular functions of IFT protein IFT25 and how its interactions with other IFT particle subunits are involved in mammalian development and fertility.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biological Transport , Carrier Proteins/metabolism , Cilia/metabolism , Flagella/metabolism , Male , Mammals/metabolism , Organogenesis , Proteins/metabolism , Signal Transduction
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL