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1.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 251-259, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010332

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the mechanism of electroacupuncture (EA) in promoting recovery of the facial function with the involvement of autophagy, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway.@*METHODS@#Seventy-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into the control, sham-operated, facial nerve injury (FNI), EA, EA+3-methyladenine (3-MA), and EA+GDNF antagonist groups using a random number table, with 12 rats in each group. An FNI rat model was established with facial nerve crushing method. EA intervention was conducted at Dicang (ST 4), Jiache (ST 6), Yifeng (SJ 17), and Hegu (LI 4) acupoints for 2 weeks. The Simone's 10-Point Scale was utilized to monitor the recovery of facial function. The histopathological evaluation of facial nerves was performed using hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. The levels of Beclin-1, light chain 3 (LC3), and P62 were detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC), immunofluorescence, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Additionally, IHC was also used to detect the levels of GDNF, Rai, PI3K, and mTOR.@*RESULTS@#The facial functional scores were significantly increased in the EA group than the FNI group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). HE staining showed nerve axons and myelin sheaths, which were destroyed immediately after the injury, were recovered with EA treatment. The expressions of Beclin-1 and LC3 were significantly elevated and the expression of P62 was markedly reduced in FNI rats (P<0.01); however, EA treatment reversed these abnormal changes (P<0.01). Meanwhile, EA stimulation significantly increased the levels of GDNF, Rai, PI3K, and mTOR (P<0.01). After exogenous administration with autophagy inhibitor 3-MA or GDNF antagonist, the repair effect of EA on facial function was attenuated (P<0.05 or P<0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#EA could promote the recovery of facial function and repair the facial nerve damages in a rat model of FNI. EA may exert this neuroreparative effect through mediating the release of GDNF, activating the PI3K/mTOR signaling pathway, and further regulating the autophagy of facial nerves.


Subject(s)
Rats , Male , Animals , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Electroacupuncture , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/metabolism , Facial Nerve Injuries/therapy , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Beclin-1 , Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Signal Transduction , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Autophagy , Mammals/metabolism
2.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 209-221, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007603

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Bladder cancer, characterized by a high potential of tumor recurrence, has high lifelong monitoring and treatment costs. To date, tumor cells with intrinsic softness have been identified to function as cancer stem cells in several cancer types. Nonetheless, the existence of soft tumor cells in bladder tumors remains elusive. Thus, our study aimed to develop a micro-barrier microfluidic chip to efficiently isolate deformable tumor cells from distinct types of bladder cancer cells.@*METHODS@#The stiffness of bladder cancer cells was determined by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The modified microfluidic chip was utilized to separate soft cells, and the 3D Matrigel culture system was to maintain the softness of tumor cells. Expression patterns of integrin β8 (ITGB8), protein kinase B (AKT), and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) were determined by Western blotting. Double immunostaining was conducted to examine the interaction between F-actin and tripartite motif containing 59 (TRIM59). The stem-cell-like characteristics of soft cells were explored by colony formation assay and in vivo studies upon xenografted tumor models.@*RESULTS@#Using our newly designed microfluidic approach, we identified a small fraction of soft tumor cells in bladder cancer cells. More importantly, the existence of soft tumor cells was confirmed in clinical human bladder cancer specimens, in which the number of soft tumor cells was associated with tumor relapse. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the biomechanical stimuli arising from 3D Matrigel activated the F-actin/ITGB8/TRIM59/AKT/mTOR/glycolysis pathways to enhance the softness and tumorigenic capacity of tumor cells. Simultaneously, we detected a remarkable up-regulation in ITGB8, TRIM59, and phospho-AKT in clinical bladder recurrent tumors compared with their non-recurrent counterparts.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The ITGB8/TRIM59/AKT/mTOR/glycolysis axis plays a crucial role in modulating tumor softness and stemness. Meanwhile, the soft tumor cells become more sensitive to chemotherapy after stiffening, that offers new insights for hampering tumor progression and recurrence.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Humans , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Actins/metabolism , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms , Glycolysis , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Mammals/metabolism , Tripartite Motif Proteins/metabolism , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism , Integrin beta Chains
3.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 21-35, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010788

ABSTRACT

The seat of human intelligence is the human cerebral cortex, which is responsible for our exceptional cognitive abilities. Identifying principles that lead to the development of the large-sized human cerebral cortex will shed light on what makes the human brain and species so special. The remarkable increase in the number of human cortical pyramidal neurons and the size of the human cerebral cortex is mainly because human cortical radial glial cells, primary neural stem cells in the cortex, generate cortical pyramidal neurons for more than 130 days, whereas the same process takes only about 7 days in mice. The molecular mechanisms underlying this difference are largely unknown. Here, we found that bone morphogenic protein 7 (BMP7) is expressed by increasing the number of cortical radial glial cells during mammalian evolution (mouse, ferret, monkey, and human). BMP7 expression in cortical radial glial cells promotes neurogenesis, inhibits gliogenesis, and thereby increases the length of the neurogenic period, whereas Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) signaling promotes cortical gliogenesis. We demonstrate that BMP7 signaling and SHH signaling mutually inhibit each other through regulation of GLI3 repressor formation. We propose that BMP7 drives the evolutionary expansion of the mammalian cortex by increasing the length of the neurogenic period.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Humans , Ependymoglial Cells/metabolism , Hedgehog Proteins/metabolism , Ferrets/metabolism , Cerebral Cortex , Neurogenesis , Mammals/metabolism , Neuroglia/metabolism , Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7/metabolism
4.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 998-1006, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010319

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the mechanism of Radix Scrophulariae (RS) extracts in the treatment of hyperthyroidism rats by regulating proliferation, apoptosis, and autophagy of thyroid cell through the mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 (MST1)/Hippo pathway.@*METHODS@#Twenty-four rats were randomly divided into 4 groups according to a random number table: control, model group, RS, and RS+Hippo inhibitor (XMU-MP-1) groups (n=6 per group). Rats were gavaged with levothyroxine sodium tablet suspension (LST, 8 μ g/kg) for 21 days except for the control group. Afterwards, rats in the RS group were gavaged with RS extracts at the dose of 1,350 mg/kg, and rats in the RS+XMU-MP-1 group were gavaged with 1,350 mg/kg RS extracts and 1 mg/kg XMU-MP-1. After 15 days of administration, thyroid gland was taken for gross observation, and histopathological changes were observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining. The structure of Golgi secretory vesicles in thyroid tissues was observed by transmission electron microscopy. The expression of thyrotropin receptor (TSH-R) was observed by immunohistochemistry. Terminal-deoxynucleoitidyl transferase mediated nick end labeling assay was used to detect cell apoptosis in thyroid tissues. Real-time quantity primer chain reaction and Western blot were used to detect the expressions of MST1, p-large tumor suppressor gene 1 (LATS1), p-Yes1 associated transcriptional regulator (YAP), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), G1/S-specific cyclin-D1 (Cyclin D1), B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Caspase-3, microtubule-associated proeins light chain 3 II/I (LC3-II/I), and recombinant human autophagy related 5 (ATG5). Thyroxine (T4) level was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.@*RESULTS@#The thyroid volume of rats in the model group was significantly increased compared to the normal control group (P<0.01), and pathological changes such as uneven size of follicular epithelial cells, disorderly arrangement, and irregular morphology occurred. The secretion of small vesicles by Golgi apparatus was reduced, and the expressions of receptor protein TSH-R and T4 were significantly increased (P<0.01), while the expressions of MST1, p-LATS1, p-YAP, Caspase-3, LC3-II/I, and ATG5 were significantly decreased (P<0.01). The expressions of Bcl-2, PCNA, and cyclin D1 were significantly increased (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, RS extracts reduced the volume of thyroid gland, improved pathological condition of the thyroid gland, promoted secretion of the secretory vesicles with double-layer membrane structure in thyroid Golgi, significantly inhibited the expression of TSH-R and T4 levels (P<0.01), upregulated MST1, p-LATS1, p-YAP, Caspase-3, LC3-II/I, and ATG5 expressions (P<0.01), and downregulated Bcl-2, PCNA, and Cyclin D1 expressions (P<0.01). XMU-MP-1 inhibited the intervention effects of RS extracts (P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#RS extracts could inhibit proliferation and promote apoptosis and autophagy in thyroid tissues through MST1/Hippo pathway for treating hyperthyroidism.


Subject(s)
Rats , Humans , Animals , Hippo Signaling Pathway , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen/metabolism , Cyclin D1/pharmacology , Caspase 3/metabolism , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/pharmacology , Apoptosis , Hyperthyroidism/drug therapy , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism , Thyrotropin/pharmacology , Mammals/metabolism
5.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 875-884, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010285

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate protective effect of Cordyceps sinensis (CS) through autophagy-associated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway in acute kidney injury (AKI)-induced acute lung injury (ALI).@*METHODS@#Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups according to a random number table, including the normal saline (NS)-treated sham group (sham group), NS-treated ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) group (IRI group), and low- (5 g/kg·d) and high-dose (10 g/kg·d) CS-treated IRI groups (CS1 and CS2 groups), 12 rats in each group. Nephrectomy of the right kidney was performed on the IRI rat model that was subjected to 60 min of left renal pedicle occlusion followed by 12, 24, 48, and 72 h of reperfusion. The wet-to-dry (W/D) ratio of lung, levels of serum creatinine (Scr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin- β and tumor necrosis factor- α, and biomarkers of oxidative stress such as superoxide dismutase, malonaldehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO), were assayed. Histological examinations were conducted to determine damage of tissues in the kidney and lung. The protein expressions of light chain 3 II/light chain 3 I (LC3-II/LC3-I), uncoordinated-51-like kinase 1 (ULK1), P62, AMPK and mTOR were measured by Western blot and immunohistochemistry, respectively.@*RESULTS@#The renal IRI induced pulmonary injury following AKI, resulting in significant increases in W/D ratio of lung, and the levels of Scr, BUN, inflammatory cytokines, MDA and MPO (P<0.01); all of these were reduced in the CS groups (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Compared with the IRI groups, the expression levels of P62 and mTOR were significantly lower (P<0.05 or P<0.01), while those of LC3-II/LC3-I, ULK1, and AMPK were significantly higher in the CS2 group (P<0.05 or P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#CS had a potential in treating lung injury following renal IRI through activation of the autophagy-related AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway in AKI-induced ALI.


Subject(s)
Rats , Male , Animals , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Cordyceps/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Kidney/pathology , Acute Kidney Injury/metabolism , Signal Transduction , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Mammals/metabolism
6.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4849-4860, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008063

ABSTRACT

Transient expression is the major method to express foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsid proteins in mammalian cells. To achieve stable expression of FMDV capsid proteins and efficient assembly of virus like particles (VLPs) in cells, the plasmids of piggyBac (PB) transposon-constitutive expression and PB transposon-tetracycline (Tet) inducible expression vectors were constructed. The function of the plasmids was tested by fluorescent proteins. By adding antibiotics, the constitutive cell pools (C-WT, C-L127P) expressing P12A3C (WT/L127P) genes and the inducible cell pools (I-WT, I-L127P) expressing P12A3C (WT/L127P) genes were generated. The genes of green fluorescent protein, 3C protease and reverse tetracycline transactivator (rtTA) were integrated into chromosome, which was confirmed by fluorescence observation and PCR testing. The cell pool I-L127P has a stronger production capacity of capsid proteins and VLPs, which was confirmed by Western blotting and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. In conclusion, inducing the chromosomal expression of FMDV capsid proteins was firstly reported, which may facilitate the technical process of mammalian production of FMDV VLPs vaccine and the construction of mammalian inducible expression systems for other proteins.


Subject(s)
Animals , Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus/genetics , Capsid Proteins , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Foot-and-Mouth Disease/prevention & control , Tetracyclines/metabolism , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Viral , Mammals/metabolism
7.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3863-3875, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007999

ABSTRACT

Reducing lactate accumulation has always been a goal of the mammalian cell biotechnology industry. When animal cells are cultured in vitro, the accumulation of lactate is mainly the combined result of two metabolic pathways. On one hand, glucose generates lactate under the function of lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA); on the other hand, lactate can be oxidized to pyruvate by LDHB or LDHC and re-enter the TCA cycle. This study comprehensively evaluated the effects of LDH manipulation on the growth, metabolism and human adenovirus (HAdV) production of human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK-293) cells, providing a theoretical basis for engineering the lactate metabolism in mammalian cells. By knocking out ldha gene and overexpression of ldhb and ldhc genes, the metabolic efficiency of HEK-293 cells was effectively improved, and HAdV production was significantly increased. Compared with the control cell, LDH manipulation promoted cell growth, reduced the accumulation of lactate and ammonia, significantly enhanced the efficiency of substrate and energy metabolism of cells, and significantly increased the HAdV production capacity of HEK-293 cells. Among these LDH manipulation measures, ldhc gene overexpression performed the best, with the maximum cell density increased by about 38.7%. The yield of lactate to glucose and ammonia to glutamine decreased by 33.8% and 63.3%, respectively; and HAdV titer increased by at least 16 times. In addition, the ATP production rate, ATP/O2 ratio, ATP/ADP ratio and NADH content of the modified cell lines were increased to varying degrees, and the energy metabolic efficiency was significantly improved.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/genetics , Lactic Acid , Adenoviruses, Human , Ammonia , HEK293 Cells , Glucose/metabolism , Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism , Kidney/metabolism , Mammals/metabolism
8.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 1028-1044, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007879

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore whether the protein Deglycase protein 1 (DJ1) can ameliorate Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like pathology in Amyloid Precursor Protein/Presenilin 1 (APP/PS1) double transgenic mice and its possible mechanism to provide a theoretical basis for exploring the pathogenesis of AD.@*METHODS@#Adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV) of DJ1-overexpression or DJ1-knockdown were injected into the hippocampus of 7-month-old APP/PS1 mice to construct models of overexpression or knockdown. Mice were divided into the AD model control group (MC), AAV vector control group (NC), DJ1-overexpression group (DJ1 +), and DJ1-knockdown group (DJ1 -). After 21 days, the Morris water maze test, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and western blotting were used to evaluate the effects of DJ1 on mice.@*RESULTS@#DJ1 + overexpression decreased the latency and increased the number of platform traversals in the water maze test. DJ1 - cells were cured and atrophied, and the intercellular structure was relaxed; the number of age spots and the expression of AD-related proteins were significantly increased. DJ1 + increased the protein expression of Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), light chain 3 (LC3), phosphorylated AMPK (p-AMPK), and B cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2), as well as the antioxidant levels of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), while decreasing the levels of Kelch-like hydrates-associated protein 1 (Keap1), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), p62/sequestosome1 (p62/SQSTM1), Caspase3, and malondialdehyde (MDA).@*CONCLUSION@#DJ1-overexpression can ameliorate learning, memory, and AD-like pathology in APP/PS1 mice, which may be related to the activation of the NRF2/HO-1 and AMPK/mTOR pathways by DJ1.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Alzheimer Disease/therapy , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor/metabolism , Antioxidants/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Hippocampus/metabolism , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1/metabolism , Mammals/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Presenilin-1/metabolism , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
9.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1747-1758, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981167

ABSTRACT

The gastrointestinal tract is the largest digestive organ and the largest immune organ and detoxification organ, which is vital to the health of the body. Drosophila is a classic model organism, and its gut is highly similar to mammalian gut in terms of cell composition and genetic regulation, therefore can be used as a good model for studying gut development. target of rapmaycin complex 1 (TORC1) is a key factor regulating cellular metabolism. Nprl2 inhibits TORC1 activity by reducing Rag GTPase activity. Previous studies have found that nprl2 mutated Drosophila showed aging-related phenotypes such as enlarged foregastric and reduced lifespan, which were caused by over-activation of TORC1. In order to explore the role of Rag GTPase in the developmental defects of the gut of nprl2 mutated Drosophila, we used genetic hybridization combined with immunofluorescence to study the intestinal morphology and intestinal cell composition of RagA knockdown and nprl2 mutated Drosophila. The results showed that RagA knockdown alone could induce intestinal thickening and forestomach enlargement, suggesting that RagA also plays an important role in intestinal development. Knockdown of RagA rescued the phenotype of intestinal thinning and decreased secretory cells in nprl2 mutants, suggesting that Nprl2 may regulate the differentiation and morphology of intestinal cells by acting on RagA. Knockdown of RagA did not rescue the enlarged forestomach phenotype in nprl2 mutants, suggesting that Nprl2 may regulate forestomach development and intestinal digestive function through a mechanism independent of Rag GTPase.


Subject(s)
Animals , Drosophila/genetics , Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1/metabolism , Mammals/metabolism , Carrier Proteins , Tumor Suppressor Proteins/metabolism , Drosophila Proteins/genetics
10.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 269-278, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981004

ABSTRACT

DMRT, a gene family related to sexual determination, encodes a large group of transcription factors (DMRTs) with the double-sex and mab-3 (DM) domain (except for DMRT8), which is able to bind to and regulate DNAs. Current studies have shown that the DMRT gene family plays a critical role in the development of sexual organs (such as gender differentiation, gonadal development, germ cell development, etc.) as well as extrasexual organs (such as musculocartilage development, nervous system development, etc.). Additionally, it has been suggested that DMRTs may be involved in the cancer development and progression (such as prostate cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer, etc.). This review summarizes the research progress about the mammalian DMRTs' structure, function and its critical role in cancer development, progression and therapy (mainly in human and mice), which suggests that DMRT gene could be a candidate gene in the study of tumor formation and therapeutic strategy.


Subject(s)
Male , Animals , Humans , Mice , Transcription Factors/genetics , Mammals/metabolism , Cell Differentiation , Neoplasms/genetics
11.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 767-779, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980828

ABSTRACT

Alternative splicing (AS) is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism that removes introns and ligates exons to generate mature messenger RNAs (mRNAs), extremely improving the richness of transcriptome and proteome. Both mammal hosts and pathogens require AS to maintain their life activities, and inherent physiological heterogeneity between mammals and pathogens makes them adopt different ways to perform AS. Mammals and fungi conduct a two-step transesterification reaction by spliceosomes to splice each individual mRNA (named cis -splicing). Parasites also use spliceosomes to splice, but this splicing can occur among different mRNAs (named trans -splicing). Bacteria and viruses directly hijack the host's splicing machinery to accomplish this process. Infection-related changes are reflected in the spliceosome behaviors and the characteristics of various splicing regulators (abundance, modification, distribution, movement speed, and conformation), which further radiate to alterations in the global splicing profiles. Genes with splicing changes are enriched in immune-, growth-, or metabolism-related pathways, highlighting approaches through which hosts crosstalk with pathogens. Based on these infection-specific regulators or AS events, several targeted agents have been developed to fight against pathogens. Here, we summarized recent findings in the field of infection-related splicing, including splicing mechanisms of pathogens and hosts, splicing regulation and aberrant AS events, as well as emerging targeted drugs. We aimed to systemically decode host-pathogen interactions from a perspective of splicing. We further discussed the current strategies of drug development, detection methods, analysis algorithms, and database construction, facilitating the annotation of infection-related splicing and the integration of AS with disease phenotype.


Subject(s)
Animals , Alternative Splicing/genetics , RNA Splicing , Spliceosomes/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Communicable Diseases/genetics , Mammals/metabolism
12.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 62-76, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971641

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#The current study evaluated various new colchicine analogs for their anticancer activity and to study the primary mechanism of apoptosis and in vivo antitumor activity of the analogs with selective anticancer properties and minimal toxicity to normal cells.@*METHODS@#Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay was used to screen various colchicine analogs for their in vitro cytotoxicity. The effect of N-[(7S)-1,2,3-trimethoxy-9-oxo-10-(pyrrolidine-1-yl)5,6,7,9-tetrahydrobenzo[a] heptalene-7-yl] acetamide (IIIM-067) on clonogenicity, apoptotic induction, and invasiveness of A549 cells was determined using a clonogenic assay, scratch assay, and staining with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and annexin V/propidium iodide. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were observed using fluorescence microscopy. Western blot analysis was used to quantify expression of proteins involved in apoptosis, cell cycle, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. Pharmacokinetic and in vivo efficacy studies against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) and Ehrlich solid tumor models were conducted using Swiss albino mice.@*RESULTS@#IIIM-067 showed potent cytotoxicity and better selectivity than all other colchicine analogs screened in this study. The selective activity of IIIM-067 toward A549 cells was higher among other cancer cell lines, with a selectivity index (SI) value of 2.28. IIIM-067 demonstrated concentration- and time-dependent cytotoxicity against A549 cells with half-maximal inhibitory concentration values of 0.207, 0.150 and 0.106 μmol/L at 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. It also had reduced toxicity to normal cells (SI > 1) than the parent compound colchicine (SI = 1). IIIM-067 reduced the clonogenic ability of A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner. IIIM-067 enhanced ROS production from 24.6% at 0.05 μmol/L to 82.1% at 0.4 μmol/L and substantially decreased the MMP (100% in control to 5.6% at 0.4 μmol/L). The annexin V-FITC assay demonstrated 78% apoptosis at 0.4 μmol/L. IIIM-067 significantly (P < 0.5) induced the expression of various intrinsic apoptotic pathway proteins, and it differentially regulated the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Furthermore, IIIM-067 exhibited remarkable in vivo anticancer activity against the murine EAC model, with tumor growth inhibition (TGI) of 67.0% at a dose of 6 mg/kg (i.p.) and a reduced mortality compared to colchicine. IIIM-067 also effectively inhibited the tumor growth in the murine solid tumor model with TGI rates of 48.10%, 55.68% and 44.00% at doses of 5 mg/kg (i.p.), 6 mg/kg (i.p.) and 7 mg/kg (p.o.), respectively.@*CONCLUSION@#IIIM-067 exhibited significant anticancer activity with reduced toxicity both in vitro and in vivo and is a promising anticancer candidate. However, further studies are required in clinical settings to fully understand its potential.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Colchicine/pharmacology , Apoptosis , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Mammals/metabolism
13.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 4-16, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971606

ABSTRACT

C-type lectins (CTLs) represent a large family of soluble and membrane-bound proteins which bind calcium dependently via carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs) to glycan residues presented on the surface of a variety of pathogens. The deconvolution of a cell's glycan code by CTLs underpins several important physiological processes in mammals such as pathogen neutralization and opsonization, leukocyte trafficking, and the inflammatory response. However, as our knowledge of CTLs has developed it has become apparent that the role of this innate immune family of proteins can be double-edged, where some pathogens have developed approaches to subvert and exploit CTL interactions to promote infection and sustain the pathological state. Equally, CTL interactions with host glycoproteins can contribute to inflammatory diseases such as arthritis and cancer whereby, in certain contexts, they exacerbate inflammation and drive malignant progression. This review discusses the 'dual agent' roles of some of the major mammalian CTLs in both resolving and promoting infection, inflammation and inflammatory disease and highlights opportunities and emerging approaches for their therapeutic modulation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Inflammation/metabolism , Lectins, C-Type/metabolism , Mammals/metabolism , Membrane Proteins , Polysaccharides/metabolism
14.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 519-530, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971575

ABSTRACT

Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) is one of the most prevalent pathologic processes affecting 5% of people over 50 years of age and contributing to 45% of dementia cases. Increasing evidence has demonstrated the pathological roles of chronic hypoperfusion, impaired cerebral vascular reactivity, and leakage of the blood-brain barrier in CSVD. However, the pathogenesis of CSVD remains elusive thus far, and no radical treatment has been developed. NG2 glia, also known as oligodendrocyte precursor cells, are the fourth type of glial cell in addition to astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes in the mammalian central nervous system. Many novel functions for NG2 glia in physiological and pathological states have recently been revealed. In this review, we discuss the role of NG2 glia in CSVD and the underlying mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Animals , Neuroglia/metabolism , Central Nervous System/metabolism , Astrocytes/metabolism , Oligodendroglia/metabolism , Cerebral Small Vessel Diseases/metabolism , Antigens/metabolism , Mammals/metabolism
15.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 942-960, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970415

ABSTRACT

Collagen, which widely exists in skin, bone, muscle and other tissues, is a major structural protein in mammalian extracellular matrix. It participates in cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and signal transmission, plays an important role in tissue support and repair and exerts a protective effect. Collagen is widely used in tissue engineering, clinical medicine, food industry, packaging materials, cosmetics and medical beauty due to its good biological characteristics. This paper reviews the biological characteristics of collagen and its application in bioengineering research and development in recent years. Finally, we prospect the future application of collagen as a biomimetic material.


Subject(s)
Animals , Collagen/analysis , Tissue Engineering/methods , Extracellular Matrix/metabolism , Biomimetic Materials/chemistry , Bone and Bones , Tissue Scaffolds , Mammals/metabolism
16.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5304-5314, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008728

ABSTRACT

This study aims to observe the effects of diosgenin on the expression of mammalian target of rapamycin(mTOR), sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c(SREBP-1c), heat shock protein 60(HSP60), medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase(MCAD), and short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase(SCAD) in the liver tissue of the rat model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD) and explore the mechanism of diosgenin in alleviating NAFLD. Forty male SD rats were randomized into five groups: a control group, a model group, low-(150 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)) and high-dose(300 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)) diosgenin groups, and a simvastatin(4 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)) group. The rats in the control group were fed with a normal diet, while those in the other four groups were fed with a high-fat diet. After feeding for 8 weeks, the body weight of rats in the high-fat diet groups increased significantly. After that, the rats were administrated with the corresponding dose of diosgenin or simvastatin by gavage every day for 8 weeks. The levels of triglyceride(TG), total cholesterol(TC), alanine transaminase(ALT), and aspartate transaminase(AST) in the serum were determined by the biochemical method. The levels of TG and TC in the liver were measured by the enzyme method. Oil-red O staining was employed to detect the lipid accumulation, and hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining to detect the pathological changes in the liver tissue. The mRNA and protein levels of mTOR, SREBP-1c, HSP60, MCAD, and SCAD in the liver tissue of rats were determined by real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction(RT-qPCR) and Western blot, respectively. Compared with the control group, the model group showed increased body weight, food uptake, liver index, TG, TC, ALT, and AST levels in the serum, TG and TC levels in the liver, lipid deposition in the liver, obvious hepatic steatosis, up-regulated mRNA and protein expression levels of mTOR and SREBP-1c, and down-regulated mRNA and protein expression levels of HSP60, MCAD, and SCAD. Compared with the model group, the rats in each treatment group showed obviously decreased body weight, food uptake, liver index, TG, TC, ALT, and AST levels in the serum, TG and TC levels in the liver, lessened lipid deposition in the liver, ameliorated hepatic steatosis, down-regulated mRNA and protein le-vels of mTOR and SREBP-1c, and up-regulated mRNA and protein levels of HSP60, MCAD, and SCAD. The high-dose diosgenin outperformed the low-dose diosgenin and simvastatin. Diosgenin may prevent and treat NAFLD by inhibiting the expression of mTOR and SREBP-1c and promoting the expression of HSP60, MCAD, and SCAD to reduce lipid synthesis, improving mitochondrial function, and promoting fatty acid β oxidation in the liver.


Subject(s)
Rats , Male , Animals , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/genetics , Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1/metabolism , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Diosgenin/metabolism , Chaperonin 60/therapeutic use , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Liver , Signal Transduction , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Triglycerides , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Simvastatin/therapeutic use , Body Weight , Lipid Metabolism , Mammals/metabolism
17.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5250-5258, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008722

ABSTRACT

To explore the effect and mechanism of Zuogui Pills in promoting neural tissue recovery and functional recovery in mice with ischemic stroke. Male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into a sham group, a model group, and low-, medium, and high-dose Zuogui Pills groups(3.5, 7, and 14 g·kg~(-1)), with 15 mice in each group. The ischemic stroke model was established using photochemical embolization. Stiker remove and irregular ladder walking behavioral tests were conducted before modeling and on days 7, 14, 21, and 28 after medication. Triphenyl tetrazolium chloride(TTC) staining was performed on day 3 after modeling, and T2-weighted imaging(T2WI) and diffusion-weighted imaging(DWI) were performed on day 28 after medication to evaluate the extent of brain injury. Hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining was performed to observe the histology of the cerebral cortex. Axonal marker proteins myelin basic protein(MBP), growth-associated protein 43(GAP43), mammalian target of rapamycin(mTOR), and its downstream phosphorylated s6 ribosomal protein(p-S6), as well as mechanism-related proteins osteopontin(OPN) and insulin-like growth factor 1(IGF-1), were detected using immunofluorescence and Western blot. Zuogui Pills had a certain restorative effect on the neural function impairment caused by ischemic stroke in mice. TTC staining showed white infarct foci in the sensory-motor cortex area, and T2WI imaging revealed cystic necrosis in the sensory-motor cortex area. The Zuogui Pills groups showed less brain tissue damage, fewer scars, and more capillaries. The number of neuronal axons in those groups was higher than that in the model group, and neuronal activity was stronger. The expression of GAP43, OPN, IGF-1, and mTOR proteins in the Zuogui Pills groups was higher than that in the model group. In summary, Zuogui Pills can promote the recovery of neural function and axonal growth in mice with ischemic stroke, and its mechanism may be related to the activation of the OPN/IGF-1/mTOR signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Male , Ischemic Stroke , Recovery of Function/physiology , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/pharmacology , Mice, Inbred C57BL , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Stroke/drug therapy , Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Mammals/metabolism
18.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4147-4155, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008611

ABSTRACT

Based on the androgen receptor(AR)/mammalian target of rapamycin(mTOR)signaling pathway, the effects of Xihuang Pills-medicated serum on the proliferation and apoptosis of prostate cancer LNCaP cells were investigated. The drug-containing serum of SD rats was prepared by intragastric administration of Xihuang Pills suspension. The effects of low-, medium-, and high-dose Xihuang Pills-containing serum on the in vitro proliferation of LNCaP cells were detected by cell counting kit-8(CCK-8). Flow cytometry was used to detect the apoptosis level of LNCaP cells after intervention with different concentrations of Xihuang Pills. Protein expression of cleaved cysteinyl aspartate-specific proteinase caspase-3(cleaved caspase-3), B-cell lymphoma-2(Bcl-2), and AR as well as the phosphorylation level of mTOR protein were detected by Western blot. The results showed that compared with the blank serum, the drug-medicated serum could blunt the activity of LNCaP cells. Low-, medium-, and high-dose Xihuang Pills-containing serum could significantly increase the cell apoptosis rate, increase the expression of cleaved caspase-3 protein, decrease the expression of Bcl-2 protein, reduce the expression of AR protein, and down-regulate the level of phosphorylated mTOR(p-mTOR). To study the effect of Xihuang Pills on the growth of LNCaP cells in vivo, different doses of Xihuang Pills were used to intervene in the subcutaneous graft model in nude mice inoculated with LNCaP cells. The expression levels of AR, mTOR, p-mTOR, Bcl-2, and cleaved caspase-3 were detected by Western blot. The results showed that the volumes of subcutaneous graft tumor in the low-dose, medium-dose, and high-dose Xihuang Pills groups significantly decreased compared with that in the model group. The weight of subcutaneous transplanted tumor in each group with drug intervention was significantly lower than that in the model group. Compared with the model group, the low-dose, medium-dose, and high-dose Xihuang Pills groups showed increased cleaved caspase-3 protein expression, decreased Bcl-2 and AR protein expression, and reduced p-mTOR protein expression. Further experiments showed that AR agonist R1881 could block the anti-proliferation and pro-apoptotic effects of Xihuang Pills. The mechanism of Xihuang Pills against prostate cancer is related to the inhibition of the AR/mTOR signaling pathway, inhibition of LNCaP cell proliferation, and induction of apoptosis in cancer cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Mice , Rats , Animals , Caspase 3/metabolism , Mice, Nude , Cell Line, Tumor , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Cell Proliferation , Apoptosis , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism , Mammals/metabolism
19.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1157-1172, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982467

ABSTRACT

Hv1 is the only voltage-gated proton-selective channel in mammalian cells. It contains a conserved voltage-sensor domain, shared by a large class of voltage-gated ion channels, but lacks a pore domain. Its primary role is to extrude protons from the cytoplasm upon pH reduction and membrane depolarization. The best-known function of Hv1 is the regulation of cytosolic pH and the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase-dependent production of reactive oxygen species. Accumulating evidence indicates that Hv1 is expressed in nervous systems, in addition to immune cells and others. Here, we summarize the molecular properties, distribution, and physiological functions of Hv1 in the peripheral and central nervous systems. We describe the recently discovered functions of Hv1 in various neurological diseases, including brain or spinal cord injury, ischemic stroke, demyelinating diseases, and pain. We also summarize the current advances in the discovery and application of Hv1-targeted small molecules in neurological diseases. Finally, we discuss the current limitations of our understanding of Hv1 and suggest future research directions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Protons , Ion Channels/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Brain/metabolism , NADPH Oxidases , Mammals/metabolism
20.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 459-469, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982299

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate autophagy-related mechanisms of electroacupuncture (EA) action in improving gastrointestinal motility in mice with functional constipation (FC).@*METHODS@#According to a random number table, the Kunming mice were divided into the normal control, FC and EA groups in Experiment I. The autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) was used to observe whether it antagonized the effects of EA in Experiment II. An FC model was established by diphenoxylate gavage. Then the mice were treated with EA stimulation at Tianshu (ST 25) and Shangjuxu (ST 37) acupoints. The first black stool defecation time, the number, weight, and water content of 8-h feces, and intestinal transit rate were used to assess intestinal transit. Colonic tissues underwent histopathological assessment, and the expressions of autophagy markers microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) and Beclin-1 were detected by immunohistochemical staining. The expressions of phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K)-protein kinase B (AKT)-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway members were investigated by Western blot and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, respectively. The relationship between enteric glial cells (EGCs) and autophagy was observed by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy, localization analysis, and electron microscopy.@*RESULTS@#EA treatment shortened the first black stool defecation time, increased the number, weight, and water content of 8-h feces, and improved the intestinal transit rate in FC mice (P<0.01). In terms of a putative autophagy mechanism, EA treatment promoted the expressions of LC3 and Beclin-1 proteins in the colonic tissue of FC mice (P<0.05), with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and LC3 significantly colocalized. Furthermore, EA promoted colonic autophagy in FC mice by inhibiting PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The positive effect of EA on intestinal motility in FC mice was blocked by 3-MA.@*CONCLUSION@#EA treatment can inhibit PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling in the colonic tissues of FC mice, thereby promoting EGCs autophagy to improve intestinal motility.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Electroacupuncture , Beclin-1 , Signal Transduction , Constipation/therapy , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Autophagy , Neuroglia/metabolism , Mammals/metabolism
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