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1.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-4, 01/jan./2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369163

ABSTRACT

Introduction: One of the challenges of maxillofacial surgery is the rehabilitation of patients with severe bone loss, using implant-supported prostheses. This challenge is based on the small remaining bone structure, and on the need to reconstruct the structure for the rehabilitation with autogenous or exogenous grafts. Case report: We report the case of a patient with severe maxillary atrophy, where a skullcap graft was performed associated with implant placement and prosthetic completion 14 months after the start of treatment. Final considerations: We demonstrate clinical safety for the use of extraoral grafts without complications, representing a good alternative treatment for this group of patients.


Introdução: um dos desafios da cirurgia bucomaxilofacial é a reabilitação de pacientes com perda óssea severa, utilizando próteses implantossuportadas. Este desafio baseia-se na pequena estrutura óssea remanescente e na necessidade de reconstrução da estrutura para a reabilitação com enxertos autógenos ou exógenos. Relato de caso: Relatamos o caso de um paciente com atrofia maxilar grave, onde foi realizado enxerto de calota craniana associado à instalação de implante, com finalização protética 14 meses após o início do tratamento. Consideracoes finais: Demonstramos segurança clínica para o uso de enxertos extrabucais sem complicações, representando uma boa alternativa de tratamento para este grupo de pacientes.


Subject(s)
Mandible , Patients , Prostheses and Implants , Atrophy , Skull , Surgery, Oral , Jaw, Edentulous
2.
Rev. Odontol. Araçatuba (Impr.) ; 43(3): 17-23, set.-dez. 2022. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1381053

ABSTRACT

O nervo mandibular V3 é a terceira divisão do nervo trigêmeo, apresenta fibras motoras e sensitivas, sendo a ramificação mista deste nervo. Seus ramos eferentes são responsáveis pela motricidade dos músculos mastigatórios, inerva os músculos milo-hióideo, ventre anterior do digástrico, tensor do véu palatino e tensor do tímpano. Suas fibras aferentes são responsáveis pela sensibilidade da região inferior da face e cavidade oral, dentes inferiores, parte da língua e propriocepção da cápsula da articulação temporomandibular ATM. O objetivo deste estudo é explanar as possíveis lesões no nervo mandibular, suas ramificações e estruturas adjacentes no caso de fraturas na mandíbula, colaborando com informações detalhadas para posterior estudo de acadêmicos e cirurgiões dentistas. Foi realizada uma pesquisa de campo, exploratória e descritiva, com abordagem quanti-qualitativa, para descrição e análise do trajeto do V3 até a sua chegada no osso mandibular, assim como de estruturas que compõem a topografia adjacente a mesma utilizando uma hemiface intacta de um cadáver do sexo masculino no Laboratório de Anatomia Humana das Faculdades Nova Esperança, na cidade de João Pessoa. Devido à proximidade do nervo mandibular com o processo coronoide, fraturas nesta parte do osso mandíbula, podem ocasionar lesões no V3, além de traumas no osso temporal, e consequentemente de todo o gânglio trigeminal. Além destas, estruturas adjacentes como a glândula parótida, artérias maxilar e facial, ATM, e os nervos alveolar inferior, mentual e lingual, podem ser lesionadas em uma fratura mandibular. As lesões nestes nervos, podem resultar em redução grave da qualidade de vida e dor crônica, gerando desconfortos para o paciente. Diante do exposto fica evidente a importância de conhecer a anatomia topográfica da mandíbula e suas estruturas vasculonervosas, seu trajeto e a localização. Houve dificuldade na discussão devido à escassez da literatura em relação à temática proposta. Dessa forma, é necessário motivar novos estudos sobre a temática a fim de ampliar o conhecimento dos profissionais de saúde e estimular novas técnicas para diagnóstico precoce e melhorar os resultados terapêuticos, impactando positivamente na sobrevida de pacientes com fraturas de mandibulares(AU)


The mandibular nerve V3 is the third division of the trigeminal nerve, has motor and sensory fibers, being the mixed branch of this nerve. Its efferent branches are responsible for the motricity of the masticatory muscles, innervating the mylohyoid muscles, anterior belly of the digastric, soft palate tensor and tympanic tensor. Its afferent fibers are responsible for the sensitivity of the lower face and oral cavity, lower teeth, part of the tongue and proprioception of the capsule of the temporomandibular joint TMJ. The aim of this study is to explain the possible injuries to the mandibular nerve, its ramifications and adjacent structures in the case of mandible fractures, collaborating with detailed information for further study by academics and dentists. A field research, exploratory and descriptive, with a quantitative-qualitative approach, was carried out to describe and analyze the path of the V3 until its arrival in the mandibular bone, as well as structures that make up the topography adjacent to it using na intact hemiface of a male cadaver at the Human Anatomy Laboratory of Faculdades Nova Esperança, in João Pessoa city. Due to the proximity of the mandibular nerve with the coronoid process, fractures in this part of the mandible bone can cause injuries to the V3, in addition to trauma to the temporal bone, and consequently to the entire trigeminal ganglion. In addition to these, adjacent structures such as the parotid gland, maxillary and facial arteries, TMJ, and the inferior alveolar, mental and lingual nerves can be injured in a mandibular fracture. Damage to these nerves can result in severely reduced quality of life and chronic pain, causing discomfort for the patient. Given the above, the importance of knowing the topographic anatomy of the mandible and its vascular-nervous structures, its path and location is evident. There was difficulty in the discussion due to the scarcity of literature regarding the proposed theme. Thus, it is necessary to motivate further studies on the subject in order to expand the knowledge of health professionals and encourage new techniques for early diagnosis and improve therapeutic results, positively impacting the survival of patients with mandibular fractures(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Trigeminal Nerve Injuries , Mandibular Nerve Injuries , Mandibular Fractures , Mandible/anatomy & histology , Mandibular Nerve , Mandibular Nerve/anatomy & histology
3.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 21: e226585, jan.-dez. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1393018

ABSTRACT

Aim: This study aimed to systematically review existing literature regarding the association between dental procedures­such as tooth extractions and periodontal therapy­and occurrence of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) in individuals using bone-modifying drugs. Methods: Search strategies were performed in PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Cochrane Library for a timeframe ending in December 2021. Study selection, data extraction and risk of bias were analyzed independently by two researchers. Three meta-analyses were performed, estimating the crude risk ratio (RR), the adjusted odds ratio (OR) and the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for the association between tooth extraction and MRONJ. Results: Of the 1,654 studies initially retrieved, 17 were ultimately included. The majority of patients with MRONJ in these studies were female, with a mean age of 64 years. Zoledronic acid was the most commonly used drug among patients with MRONJ, and cancer was the most frequent underlying health condition. Regarding the performed meta-analyses, crude and adjusted analyses demonstrated that tooth extraction increased the risk for MRONJ by 4.28 (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 1.73­10.58), the OR for MRONJ by 26.94 (95%CI: 4.17­174.17), and the HR for MRONJ by 9.96 (95%CI: 4.04­24.55). Conclusion: It was concluded that performing dental procedures, especially tooth extraction, in patients using bone-modifying drugs increased the risk of MRONJ occurrence and, therefore, should be avoided. Further studies, using adjusted data, are warranted


Subject(s)
Surgery, Oral , Bone Density Conservation Agents , Bisphosphonate-Associated Osteonecrosis of the Jaw/epidemiology , Mandible
4.
Rev. cir. traumatol. buco-maxilo-fac ; 22(3): 46-50, jul.-set. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1400137

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: As fraturas do complexo zigomático-maxilar (CZM) constituem as principais fraturas do terço médio da face. O diagnóstico é complexo, por envolver uma área alternente sensorial e nobre da face. Portanto o tratamento não visa apenas devolver os contornos ósseos, mas também preservar as funções oculares. No presente caso paciente apresentou severo trauma facial associado a TCE com afundamento do frontal e teto de órbita. Relato de caso: Paciente do sexo masculino, 33 anos, vítima de queda da própria altura. No exame físico notou-se FCC extenso em região frontal, se estendendo para a região supra-orbital esquerda, blefaroedema periorbital esquerdo, com oclusão palpebral e distopia ocular. Escoriações em face e afundamento em região fronto parietal esquerda e perda de consciência. O diagnóstico apontou para fratura do complexo zigomático-maxilar associada a afundamento do osso frontal. Paciente submetido à osteossíntese das fraturas com por meio da ferida e complementado com acesso subciliar e caldwel luc. Foi alcançada boa reabilitação estética e funcional. Conclusão: Portanto, a redução aberta com fixação funcional estável com placas e parafusos segue sendo o padrão ouro para o tratamento de fraturas complexas do CZM. Sendo imperativo uma adequada redução e o reestabelecimento do continente orbitário... (AU)


Objective: Fractures of the zygomatic-maxillary complex are the main fractures of the middle third of the face. The diagnosis is complex, as it involves an alternating sensory and noble area of the face. Therefore, the treatment is not only aimed at restoring bone contours but also preserving ocular functions. In the present case, the patient presented severe facial trauma associated with TBI with frontal and orbital sinking. Case Report: Male patient, 33 years old, victim of a fall from standing height. Physical examination revealed extensive CCF in the frontal region, extending to the left supraorbital region, left periorbital blepharoedema, with eyelid occlusion and ocular dystopia. Excoriations on the face and sinking in the left fronto-parietal region and loss of consciousness. The diagnosis pointed to fracture of the zygomatic-maxillary complex associated with frontal bone sinking. Patient undergoing osteosynthesis of fractures through the wound and complemented with subciliary access and caldwell luc. Good aesthetic and functional rehabilitation were achieved. Conclusion: Therefore, open reduction with stable functional fixation with plates and screws remains the gold standard for the treatment of complex ZMC fractures. An adequate reduction and reestablishment of the orbiting continent is imperative... (AU)


Objetivo: Las fracturas del complejo cigomático maxilar son las principales fracturas del tercio medio de la cara. El diagnóstico es complejo, ya que involucra una zona sensorial y noble alternada de la cara. Por lo tanto, el tratamiento no solo está dirigido a restaurar los contornos óseos sino también a preservar las funciones oculares. En el presente caso, el paciente presentó trauma facial severo asociado a TCE con hundimiento frontal y orbitario. Caso Clínico: Paciente masculino, 33 años, víctima de caída desde altura de pie. A la exploración física destacaba FCC extensa en región frontal, con extensión a región supraorbitaria izquierda, blefaroedema periorbitario izquierdo, con oclusión palpebral y distopía ocular. Excoriaciones en la cara y hundimiento en la región fronto-parietal izquierda y pérdida del conocimiento. El diagnóstico apuntó a fractura del complejo cigomático-maxilar asociada a hundimiento del hueso frontal. Paciente con osteosíntesis de fractura a través de herida y complemento acceso subciliar y calwell luc. Se logró una buena rehabilitación estética y funcional. Conclusión: Por lo tanto, la reducción abierta con fijación funcional estable con placas y tornillos sigue siendo el estándar de oro para el tratamiento de fracturas CCM complejas. Es imperativo una adecuada reducción y restablecimiento del continente en órbita... (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Zygomatic Fractures , Open Fracture Reduction , Fracture Fixation, Internal , Mandible/surgery , Maxilla/injuries , Accidents, Home , Maxillofacial Injuries
5.
Rev. flum. odontol ; 3(59): 43-48, set.-dez. 2022. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1380559

ABSTRACT

O granuloma periférico de células gigantes (GPCG) é uma lesão hiperplásica benigna causada por trauma local ou trauma crônico. Origina-se do ligamento periodontal ou mucoperiósteo. O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar um caso de GPCG em mandíbula tratada com sucesso através de excisão cirúrgica, curetagem e ostectomia periférica.


Peripheral giant cell granuloma (PGCG) is a benign hyperplastic lesion caused by local trauma or chronic trauma. It originates from the periodontal ligament or mucoperiosteum. The objective of this work is to present a case of PGCG in the mandible successfully treated through surgical excision, curettage and peripheral ostectomy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Granuloma, Giant Cell/diagnosis , Giant Cells , Dentistry , Granuloma/diagnosis , Mandible
6.
Alerta (San Salvador) ; 5(2): 92-97, jul. 22, 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1379899

ABSTRACT

El síndrome de Sagliker es el conjunto de alteraciones craneofaciales y esqueléticas producidas por la elevación de la hormona paratiroidea y la alteración en el metabolismo del calcio, secundarios a la insuficiencia renal crónica. Consiste en una osteodistrosfia renal que se manifiesta como apariencia desfigurada del rostro, entre las más comunes, la protrusión del maxilar y de la mandíbula, la hiperplasia de los tejidos blandos del paladar, la pérdida de la anatomía nasal, la deformidad dental y de los dedos y una estatura baja. Este síndrome fue descrito por Sagliker et al. en 2004. Se ha reportado una incidencia del 0,5 % de los pacientes que se encuentran en hemodiálisis y se presenta con mayor frecuencia en el sexo femenino entre los 18 y los 39 años de. En este caso se presenta el manejo y tratamiento de un paciente con tumor pardo de maxilar con síndrome de Sagliker que acude al servicio de cirugía oral y maxilofacial del Hospital Nacional Rosales de El Salvador


Sagliker syndrome is the set of craniofacial and skeletal alterations produced by elevated parathyroid hormone and altered calcium metabolism, secondary to chronic renal failure. It consists of a renal osteodystrophy that manifests itself as a disfigured appearance of the face, among the most common, the protrusion of the maxilla and mandible, hyperplasia of the soft tissues of the palate, loss of nasal anatomy, dental deformity and fingers and short stature. This syndrome was described by Sagliker et al. in 2004. An incidence of 0.5% of patients on hemodialysis has been reported and it occurs more frequently in females between 18 and 39 years of age. In this case, the management and treatment of a patient with a brown maxillary tumor with Sagliker syndrome who attends the oral and maxillofacial surgery service of the Rosales National Hospital in El Salvador.


Subject(s)
Palate , Syndrome , Congenital Abnormalities , Craniofacial Abnormalities , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Mandible , Maxilla , Neoplasms
7.
Rev. cir. traumatol. buco-maxilo-fac ; 22(2): 6-11, abr.-jun. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1398969

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar retrospectivamente as mudanças ocorridas nas vias aéreas superiores (VAS) pós cirurgia ortognática bimaxilar. Metodologia: A amostra compreendeu 14 pacientes, que foram divididos em dois grupos, conforme o tipo de movimentação realizada na cirurgia: grupo 1 (n = 6), avanço bimaxilar; grupo 2 (n = 8) cirurgia de avanço de maxila e recuo de mandíbula. Foram realizadas tomografias computadorizadas no pré-operatório (T0) e pós-operatório de 1 ano (T1). Através do software Dolphin Imaging procedeu-se a análise das VAS em três parâmetros: área total (AT), volume total (VT) e área axial mínima (AAM), que foram comparadas entre T0 e T1 em um mesmo grupos pelo Teste de Wilcoxon e entre grupos pelos Teste de Mann-Whitney (p < 0.05). Resultados: Ambos os grupos apresentaram aumento significativo de AT, VT e AAM entre T0 e T1. Contudo, essas variações foram estatisticamente maiores no grupo 1 quando comparadas ao grupo 2. Conclusão: As cirurgias bimaxilares promoveram o aumento da AT, VT e AAM das VAS e essas mudanças foram significativamente superiores nos pacientes submetidos ao avanço bimaxilar... (AU)


Objective: The objective of the present study was to retrospectively evaluate the changes that occurred in the upper airways (UAS) after bimaxillary orthognathic surgery. Methodology: The sample comprised 14 patients, who were divided into two groups, according to the type of movement performed in the surgery: group 1 (n = 6), bimaxillary advancement; group 2 (n = 8) maxillary advancement and mandibular setback surgery. Computed tomography scans were performed preoperatively (T0) and 1 year postoperatively (T1). Through the Dolphin Imaging software, the analysis of the UAS was carried out in three parameters: total area (TA), total volume (TV) and minimum axial area (MAA), which were compared between T0 and T1 in the same groups by the Wilcoxon Test and between groups by the Mann-Whitney test (p < 0.05). Results: Both groups showed a significant increase in TA, TV and MAA between T0 and T1. However, these variations were statistically higher in group 1 when compared to group 2. Conclusion: Bimaxillary surgeries promoted an increase in the TA, TV and MAA of the UAS and these changes were significantly higher in patients undergoing bimaxillary advancement... (AU)


Objetivo: El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar retrospectivamente los cambios ocurridos en las vías aéreas superiores (VAS) después de la cirugía ortognática bimaxilar. Metodología: La muestra estuvo compuesta por 14 pacientes, quienes fueron divididos en dos grupos, según el tipo de movimiento realizado en la cirugía: grupo 1 (n = 6), avance bimaxilar; grupo 2 (n = 8) cirugía de avance maxilar y retroceso mandibular. Las tomografías computarizadas se realizaron antes de la operación (T0) y 1 año después de la operación (T1). A través del software Dolphin Imaging se realizó el análisis de la VAS en tres parámetros: área total (AT), volumen total (VT) y área axial mínima (AAM), los cuales fueron comparados entre T0 y T1 en los mismos grupos por el Prueba de Wilcoxon y entre grupos por la prueba de Mann Whitney (p < 0,05). Resultados: Ambos grupos mostraron un aumento significativo de AT, VT y AAM entre T0 y T1. Sin embargo, estas variaciones fueron estadísticamente mayores en el grupo 1 en comparación con el grupo 2. Conclusión: Las cirugías bimaxilares promovieron un aumento de la AT, VT y AAM de las VAS y estos cambios fueron significativamente mayores en los pacientes sometidos a avance bimaxilar... (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Orthognathic Surgery , Dentofacial Deformities , Mandible/surgery , Maxilla/surgery , Airway Management
8.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(3): 688-696, jun. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385684

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The aim of this study was to determine the morphologic characteristics of the lingual foramen and lateral lingual foramen using cone-beam CT in elderly Korean. Cone-beam CT images were obtained from 80 Korean older than 50 years (mean age, 65.2 years). The prevalence of the lingual and lateral lingual foramina at the lingual aspect of the mandible was determined. The diameter and height to the upper margin of the foramina from the mandibular inferior margin, and the bone height to the alveolar crest from the mandibular inferior margin were measured. In addition, the location of the lateral lingual foramen, the direction of its canal, and the presence of communication with the mandibular canal were evaluated. All of elderly Korean possessed at least one lingual foramen, with two or three foramina occurring in 77.5 % of Korean. A lateral lingual foramen was observed in 91.3 % of Korean, with the prevalence being highest at the second premolar in dentulous cases (21.6 %; 33/153). The very high frequencies of these foramina were attributable to high frequencies of relatively small-diameter inferior lingual foramen and lateral lingual foramen in the incisor region. The prevalence of a large-diameter (≥1 mm) superior lingual foramen was high, at 31.0 %. A large-diameter lateral lingual foramen in the premolar region occurred at a frequency of 17.0 %; communication with the mandibular canal was observed in 70.0 % of these cases. These quantitative data on the lingual and lateral lingual foramina of the mandible provide valuable information that could help to avoid surgical complications during implant placement in elderly Korean.


RESUMEN: El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar las características morfológicas del foramen lingual y del foramen lingual lateral mediante TC de haz cónico en adultos mayores coreanos. Se obtuvieron imágenes de TC de haz cónico de 80 coreanos mayores de 50 años (edad media, 65,2 años). Se determinó la prevalencia de los forámenes linguales y linguales laterales en la cara lingual de la mandíbula. Se midió el diámetro y la altura hasta el margen superior de los forámenes desde el margen inferior mandibular, y la altura ósea hasta la cresta alveolar desde el margen inferior mandibular. Además, se evaluó la ubicación del foramen lingual lateral, la dirección de su canal y la presencia de comunicación con el canal mandibular. Todos los adultos mayores coreanos tenían al menos un foramen lingual, con dos o tres forámenes en el 77,5 %. Se observó un foramen lingual lateral en el 91,3 %, siendo la prevalencia más alta en el segundo premolar en casos dentados (21,6 %; 33/ 153). Las mayores frecuencias de estos forámenes se atribuyeron a altas frecuencias de foramen lingual inferior y foramen lingual lateral de diámetro relativamente pequeño en la región de los incisivos. La prevalencia de un foramen lingual superior de gran diámetro (≥1 mm) fue alta, del 31,0 %. Un foramen lingual lateral de gran diámetro en la región premolar ocurrió con una frecuencia del 17,0 %; se observó comunicación con el canal mandibular en el 70,0 % de estos casos. Estos datos cuantitativos sobre los forámenes linguales y linguales laterales de la mandíbula proporcionan información valiosa que podría ayudar a evitar complicaciones quirúrgicas durante la colocación de implantes en adultos mayores coreanos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Tongue/anatomy & histology , Tongue/diagnostic imaging , Mandible/anatomy & histology , Mandible/diagnostic imaging , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography
9.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(3): 584-594, jun. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385683

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: Se ha postulado que la posición postural mandibular (PPM) no presentaría la menor actividad electromiográfica (EMG) de los músculos masetero y temporal, y que esta menor actividad se encontraría en una apertura mayor. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la PPM en pacientes con diferentes relaciones oclusales y según tipo de método de posicionamiento, relacionándolo con la actividad EMG de los músculos Masetero y Temporal, además del registro de la actividad EMG en diferentes aperturas orales. Se analizó una muestra de 25 adultos de 18 a 28 años. Estos fueron clasificados según su sexo y clasificación de Angle. Se realizaron simultáneamente registros de EMG de superficie -masetero y porción anterior del temporal- y de EMA -posición de la mandíbula respecto al maxilar obteniendo distancia y ángulo- en diferentes posiciones mandibulares: PPM-considerando método sin comando y de deglución- y apertura gradual hasta alcanzar la máxima apertura. Se realizó un análisis estadístico descriptivo. La menor PPM obtenida fue de 1,0 ± 0,6 mm en mujeres Clase III y utilizando la técnica sin comando; el mayor fue de 2,5 ± 0,2 mm en mujeres Clase II y utilizando la técnica de deglución. La apertura angular presentó menor variabilidad que las distancias lineales. La actividad de los músculos Maseteros derecho e izquierdo presentaron valores similares entre sí, al igual que en los rangos de apertura hasta 30 mm en hombres y mujeres y en las diferentes relaciones oclusales. La actividad de los Temporales para hombres y mujeres y en las diferentes relaciones oclusales mostraron variaciones importantes entre derecha e izquierda y en los diferentes grados de apertura. La técnica presentada permitió el estudio de la dimensión vertical y aperturas orales a través de EMA y EMG.


SUMMARY: It has been postulated that the mandibular postural position (MPP) could not present the lower electromyographic activity (EMG) of the Masseter and Temporal muscles, and that the lower activity could be found in a larger opening. The objective of this study was to analyze the PPM in patients with different occlusal relationships and according to the positioning method, relating it to the EMG activity of the Masseter and Temporal muscles, in addition to recording the EMG activity in different oral openings. A sample of 25 adults aged 18 to 28 years was analyzed. Participants were classified according to their sex and Angle classification. Simultaneous recordings of surface EMG -Masseter and anterior portion of the Temporal- and EMA -position of the Mandible with respect to the Maxilla obtaining distance and angle- were performed in different mandibular positions: PPM-considering the method "without command" and "swallowing"- and gradual opening until the maximum opening is reached. A descriptive statistical analysis was performed. The lowest PPM obtained was 1.0 ± 0.6 mm in Class III women and using the "without command" method; the largest was 2.5 ± 0.2 mm in Class II women and using the "swallowing" method. The angular opening presented less variability than the linear distances. The activity of the right and left masseter muscles presented similar values, as well as in the opening ranges up to 30 mm in men and women and in the different occlusal relationships. The activity of the Temporals for men and women and in the different occlusal relationships showed important variations between right and left and in the different degrees of opening. The presented technique allowed the study of the vertical dimension and oral openings through EMA and EMG.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Vertical Dimension , Electromyography , Malocclusion , Mandible/anatomy & histology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dental Occlusion , Masticatory Muscles/physiology
10.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 11(1): 1-8, may. 11, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1399824

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The aim of this study was to assess the agreement between oral and maxillofacial radiologists (OMFR) and oral and maxillofacial surgeons (OMFS) for the detection of bifid mandibular canal (BMC) and accessory mental foramen (AMF) using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Material and Methods: This retrospective study involved 22 examiners (11 OMFR and 11 OMFS) who independently assessed 30 CBCT volumes from patients (n = 60 hemi-mandibles) under preoperative radiographic evaluation for implant placement. The examiners scored the presence of BMC and AMF in each hemimandible. The interexaminer agreements were assessed using Fleiss' kappa statistics. Results: For intra-examiner agreement, 40% of the sample was reevaluated. The interexaminer agreement between OMFR and OMFS was slight (0.12) for the detection of BMC and fair (0.24) for AMF. The agreement among OMFR for detection of BMC was fair (0.22), and it was slight among OMFS (0.15). The agreement among OMFR for detection of AMF was substantial (0.61), and among OMFS it was fair (0.22). Agreements between OMFR and OMFS were slight for BMC and fair for AMF, independently of the years of experience. Intraexaminer agreement ranged from 60% to 90% among OMFR and from 55% to 90% among OMFS. Conclusion: A slight and a fair agreement between OMFR and OMFS was found for the detection of BMC and AMF, respectively. In general, OMFR obtained higher agreement among themselves, mainly for detection of AMF.


Introducción: El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la con-cordancia entre los radiólogos orales y maxilofaciales (ROMF) y los cirujanos orales y maxilofaciales (COMF) para la detección del canal mandibular bífido (CMB) y el foramen mentoniano accesorio (FMA) mediante tomografía computarizada de haz cónico. CBCT). Material y Métodos: Este estudio retrospectivo involucró a 22 examinadores (11 ROMF y 11 COMF) que evaluaron de forma independiente 30 volúmenes CBCT de pacientes (n = 60 hemimandíbulas) bajo evaluación radiográfica preoperatoria para la colocación de implantes. Los examinadores puntu-aron la presencia de CMB y FMA en cada hemimandíbula. Los acuerdos entre examinadores se evaluaron utilizando las estadísticas kappa de Fleiss. Resultados: Por concordancia intraexaminador se reeva-luó el 40% de la muestra. El acuerdo entre examinadores entre ROMF y COMF fue ligero (0,12) para la detección de CMB y regular (0,24) para FMA. La concordancia entre ROMF para la detección de CMB fue regular (0,22) y leve entre COMF (0,15). El acuerdo entre ROMF para la detección de FMA fue sustancial (0,61), y entre COMF fue justo (0,22). Los acuerdos entre ROMF y COMF fueron leves para CMB y justos para FMA, independientemente de los años de experiencia. La concordancia entre examinadores varió del 60 % al 90 % entre ROMF y del 55 % al 90 % entre COMF. Conclusión: Se encontró un acuerdo leve y justo entre ROMF y COMF para la detección de CMB y FMA, respec-tivamente. En general, se obtuvo mayor acuerdo entre ROMF, principalmente para la detección de FMA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons , Radiologists , Mental Foramen/diagnostic imaging , Mandibular Canal/diagnostic imaging , Brazil , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Anatomic Variation , Mandible/diagnostic imaging
11.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 11(1): 1-14, may. 11, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1399980

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This study aimed to determine the prevalence and length of the anterior loop (AL) of the inferior alveolar nerve, and evaluate the emergence direction of the mental nerve and the location of mental foramen in a group of Iranian patients. Material and Methods: This study was carried out on CBCT scans of 150 patients (57 males and 93 females; mean age 40.8 ±14.33 years). The presence and extent of the AL was determined in reconstructed images. The emergence path of the mental nerve was classified into three groups: anteriorly directed emergence, right-angled pattern of emergence, and posteriorly directed emergence. The location of mental foramen relative to adjacent premolars was determined. Results: AL was identified in 14.7% of the cases with a mean length of 1.39± 0.91 mm (range 0.25 to 3.50 mm). No significant differences were observed in the prevalence and extent of the AL between genders (p>0.05). The right-angled pattern of emergence was more dominant (43.7%). The most prevalent location of mental foramen was between the first and second premolars (68.3%). There was no significant association between the presence of AL with the path of emergence of the mental nerve (p=0.627) or the location of the mental foramen (p= 0.10 0). Conclusion: The prevalence of anterior loop was relatively low in the present sample (14.7%) with a length range of 0.25 to 3.5 mm. Due to the importance of this anatomic variation in implant surgery, it is suggested to carefully assess CBCT images before the surgical procedure to avoid neurosensory complications.


Propósito: Este estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar la prevalencia y la longitud del loop anterior (LA) del nervio alveolar inferior, y evaluar la dirección de emergencia del nervio mentoniano y la ubicación del foramen mentoniano en un grupo de pacientes iraníes. Material y Métodos: Este estudio se llevó a cabo en exploraciones de tomografía computarizada de haz cónico de 150 pacientes (57 hombres y 93 mujeres; edad media 40,8 ± 14,33 años). La presencia y extensión de la LA se determinó en imágenes reconstruidas. La vía de emergencia del nervio mentoniano se clasificó en tres grupos: emergencia dirigida anteriormente, patrón de emergencia en ángulo recto y emergencia dirigida posteriormente. Se determinó la ubicación del foramen mentoniano en relación con los premolares adyacentes. Resultados: Se identificó LA en el 14,7% de los casos con una longitud media de 1,39± 0,91 mm (rango 0,25 mm a 3,50 mm). No se observaron diferencias significativas en la prevalencia y extensión de la AL entre sexos (p>0,05). El patrón de emergencia en ángulo recto fue más dominante (43,7%). La localización más prevalente del foramen men-toniano fue entre el primer y segundo premolar (68,3%). No hubo asociación significativa entre la presencia de AL con la vía de emergencia del nervio mentoniano (p=0,627) o la ubicación del foramen mentoniano p=0,100).Conclusión: La prevalencia de asa anterior fue rela-tivamente baja en la presente muestra (14,7%) con un rango de longitud de 0,25 mm a 3,5 mm. Debido a la importancia de esta variación anatómica en la cirugía de implantes, se sugiere evaluar cuidadosamente las imágenes de tomografía computarizada de haz cónico antes del procedimiento quirúrgico para evitar complicaciones neurosensoriales.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Dental Implants , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Mandible/surgery , Mandible/diagnostic imaging , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Anatomic Variation , Mental Foramen/surgery , Iran , Mandibular Nerve/surgery
12.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 88(2): 228-234, Mar.-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374717

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Obstructive sleep apnea is characterized by a reduced airflow through the upper airways during sleep. Two forms of obstructive sleep apnea are described: the central form and the obstructive form. The obstructive form is related to many factors, such as the craniofacial morphology. Objective: To evaluate the correlation between the morphology of the cranial base, of the mandible and the maxilla, and obstructive sleep apnea severity. Methods: Eighty-four patients, mean age of 50.4 years old; 73 males and 11 females with obstructive sleep apnea were enrolled in the present study. Patients with high body mass index and comorbidities were excluded. Lateral cephalograms and polysomnography were collected for each patient to evaluate the correlation between craniofacial morphology and obstructive sleep apnea severity. A Spearman's rho correlation test between cephalometric measurements and obstructive sleep apnea indexes was computed. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: Patients with a severe obstructive sleep apnea presented a reduction of sagittal growth of both effective mandibular length and cranio-basal length. The mandibular length was the only variable with a statistical correlation with apnea-hypopnea index. Vertical dimension showed a weak correlation with the severity of obstructive sleep apnea. No correlation with maxillary sagittal dimension was shown. Conclusion: Obstructive sleep apnea severity may be correlated to mandibular and cranial base growth. Facial vertical dimension had no correlation with obstructive sleep apnea severity.


Resumo Introdução: A apneia obstrutiva do sono é caracterizada por um fluxo de ar reduzido nas vias aéreas superiores durante o sono. Duas formas de apneia são descritas: a forma central e a forma obstrutiva. A forma obstrutiva tem sido relacionada a vários fatores, como a morfologia craniofacial. Objetivo: Avaliar a correlação entre a morfologia da base do crânio, da mandíbula e da maxila e a gravidade da apneia obstrutiva do sono. Método: Foram incluídos no presente estudo 84 pacientes com apneia obstrutiva do sono, com média de 50,4 anos; 73 homens e 11 mulheres. Pacientes com alto índice de massa corpórea e comorbidades foram excluídos. Foram coletados cefalogramas laterais e polissonografia para cada paciente para avaliar a correlação entre a morfologia craniofacial e a gravidade da apneia. Foi computado o coeficiente de correlação de postos de Spearman (rho) entre medidas cefalométricas e índices de apneia obstrutiva do sono. A significância estatística foi estabelecida em p < 0,05. Resultados: Pacientes com apneia obstrutiva do sono grave apresentaram redução do crescimento sagital do comprimento mandibular efetivo e do comprimento crânio-basal. O comprimento mandibular foi a única variável que apresentou correlação estatística com o índice de apneia-hipopneia. A dimensão vertical mostrou uma fraca correlação com a gravidade da apneia. Não foi demonstrada correlação com a dimensão maxilar sagital. Conclusão: A gravidade da apneia obstrutiva do sono pode estar correlacionada ao crescimento da base mandibular e craniana. A dimensão facial vertical não apresentou correlação com a gravidade da apneia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnostic imaging , Cephalometry/methods , Polysomnography , Mandible/diagnostic imaging , Maxilla/diagnostic imaging , Middle Aged
13.
Rev. cir. traumatol. buco-maxilo-fac ; 22(1): 6-12, jan.-mar. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1391387

ABSTRACT

As fraturas dos ossos da região maxilofacial são ocorrências que podem se apresentar como quadros de urgência e/ou emergência na rotina das unidades de pronto atendimento e hospitais do mundo inteiro, principalmente em localidades com altos índices de violência interpessoal e infrações de trânsito. Um grande número de traumatismos na face, tanto em tecidos moles como duros acontece devido à enorme exposição e a pouca proteção desta região o que acarreta frequentemente lesões graves. Objetivo: O presente estudo tem como objetivo avaliar a prevalência das fraturas no complexo maxilofacial em uma unidade hospitalar pública, a partir de um estudo epidemiológico, sendo analisados os fatores relacionados a ocorrência do trauma, agente etiológico, distribuição das fraturas, gênero e idade dos indivíduos acometidos. Metodologia: O presente estudo do tipo transversal retrospectivo, onde foram avaliados 268 prontuários de pacientes diagnosticados com fraturas dos ossos da face atendidos no Hospital Regional Justino Luz, localizado na cidade de Picos, no estado do Piauí, Brasil, no período de janeiro de 2015 até janeiro de 2017, os prontuários foram analisados no setor de arquivo médico do HRJL. Resultados: os fatores etiológicos mais observados foram os acidentes motociclísticos, seguidos de agressão física e quedas da própria altura, o tipo de fratura mais comum foi a do Complexo Orbito-Zigomático-Maxilar (33,2%), seguido da Mandíbula (23,7%) e dos Ossos Próprios do Nariz (17%), sendo o gênero masculino o mais acometido por fraturas. Conclusão: a partir desse estudo podemos concluir que os acidentes motociclísticos configuram-se como o principal fator etiológico relacionado as fraturas de face, sendo o gênero, masculino o mais atingido e o tipo de fratura mais prevalente foi a fratura do Complexo Orbito-Zigomático-Maxilar... (AU)


Bone fractures in the maxillofacial region are occurrences that can present themselves as urgent and/or emergencies in the routine of emergency care units and hospitals around the world, especially in locations with high rates of interpersonal violence and traffic violations. A large number of injuries to the face, both in soft and hard tissue, occur due to the enormous exposure and poor protection of this region, which often leads to serious injuries. Objective: This study aims to assess the prevalence of fractures in the maxillofacial complex in a public hospital, based on an epidemiological study, analyzing the factors related to the occurrence of trauma, etiological agent, fracture distribution, gender, and age of patients affected individuals. Methodology: This retrospective cross-sectional study evaluated 268 medical records of patients diagnosed with fractures of the facial bones treated at the Justino Luz Regional Hospital, located in the city of Picos, in the state of Piauí, Brazil, in January 2015 until January 2017, the medical records were analyzed in the medical file sector of the HRJL. Results: the most observed etiological factors were motorcycle accidents, followed by physical aggression and fall from own height, the most common type of fracture was the Orbit-zygomatic-Maxillary Complex (33,2%), followed by the mandible (23,7%) and the nose bonés (17%), being the male gender the most affected by fractures. Conclusion: from this study, we can conclude those motorcycle accidents are the main etiological factor related to facial fractures, with the male gender being the most affected and the most prevalent type of fracture was the fracture of the orbit-zygomatic-maxillary complex... (AU)


Las fracturas óseas en la región maxilofacial son eventos que pueden presentarse como urgentes y/o emergencias en la rutina de las unidades de atención de emergencia y hospitales de todo el mundo, especialmente en lugares con altos índices de violencia interpersonal e infracciones de tránsito. Un gran número de lesiones en la cara, tanto en tejidos blandos como duros, se producen debido a la enorme exposición y escasa protección de esta región, lo que a menudo conduce a lesiones graves. Objetivo: Este estudio tiene como objetivo evaluar la prevalencia de fracturas en el complejo maxilofacial en un hospital público, a partir de un estudio epidemiológico, analizando los factores relacionados con la ocurrencia del trauma, agente etiológico, distribución de la fractura, sexo y edad de los pacientes afectados. Metodología: Este estudio transversal retrospectivo evaluó 268 historias clínicas de pacientes con diagnóstico de fracturas de los huesos faciales atendidos en el Hospital Regional Justino Luz, ubicado en la ciudad de Picos, en el estado de Piauí, Brasil, en enero de 2015 hasta enero de 2017. , las historias clínicas fueron analizadas en el sector de expediente médico del HRJL. Resultados: los factores etiológicos más observados fueron los accidentes de motocicleta, seguido de agresión física y caída de propia altura, el tipo de fractura más común fue el Complejo Órbita-cigomático-Maxilar (33,2%), seguido de la mandíbula (23,7 %) y la nariz bonés (17%), siendo el género masculino el más afectado por las fracturas. Conclusión: de este estudio podemos concluir que los accidentes de motocicleta son el principal factor etiológico relacionado con las fracturas faciales, siendo el género masculino el más afectado y el tipo de fractura más prevalente fue la fractura del complejo orbitario-cigomático-maxilar... (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Zygomatic Fractures , Motorcycles , Facial Bones , Facial Bones/surgery , Land Transport Accidents , Jaw Fractures , Mandible , Maxilla , Epidemiologic Studies , Emergencies , Ambulatory Care , Protective Factors , Hospitals, Public
14.
Rev. cir. traumatol. buco-maxilo-fac ; 22(1): 30-35, jan.-mar. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1391753

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O cisto ósseo simples (COS) é definido como uma cavidade intraóssea de etiologia desconhecida, desprovida de revestimento epitelial e vazia ou preenchida com líquido. Na região facial, o COS é mais comumente observado no corpo da mandíbula. Objetivo: O objetivo deste artigo é relatar uma série de casos de COS, discutindo aspectos relevantes das características clínicas e terapêutica adequada. Relato de caso: A série de casos demonstrou que a presença de lesões radiolúcidas assintomáticas nos maxilares, nos quais os diagnósticos clínico, laboratorial e imaginológico não foram conclusivos, a realização de uma biópsia é sempre indicada. Considerações finais: Os casos de múltiplas lesões de COS, ou quando estão associadas a displasias cemento-ósseas, uma abordagem cirúrgica torna-se imperiosa... (AU)


Introduction: Simple bone cyst (COS) is defined as an intraosseous cavity of unknown etiology, devoid of epithelial lining and empty or filled with fluid. In the facial region, COS is most commonly seen in the body of the mandible. Objective: The aim of this article is to re port a series of COS cases, discussing relevant aspects of the clinical characteristics and adequate treatment. Case report: The case series demonstrated that the presence of asymptomatic radiolucent lesions in the jaws, in which clinical, laboratory and imaging diagnoses were not conclusive, a biopsy is always indicated. Final considerations: In cases of multiple COS lesions, or when they are associated with cemento-osseous dysplasias, a surgical approach is imperative... (AU)


Introducción: El quiste óseo simple (COS) se define como una cavidad intraósea de etiología desconocida, desprovista de revestimiento epitelial y vacía o llena de líquido. En la región facial, la COS se observa con mayor frecuencia en el cuerpo de la mandíbula. Objetivo: El objetivo de este artículo es reportar una serie de casos de COS, discutiendo aspectos relevantes de las características clínicas y el tratamiento adecuado. Caso clínico: La serie de casos demostró que ante la presencia de lesiones radiotransparentes asintomáticas en los maxilares, en las que los diagnósticos clínicos, de laboratorio y de imagen no fueron concluyentes, siempre está indicada una biopsia. Consideraciones finales: En casos de múltiples lesiones de COS, o cuando se asocian a displasias cemento-óseas, es imprescindible un abordaje quirúrgico... (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Bone Cysts , Jaw Cysts , Jaw , Mandible/surgery , Maxilla/surgery , Dental Cementum
15.
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 74(1): 88-91, feb. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388923

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Las lesiones autoinfligidas por armas de fuego con cañón largo en la zona cérvico-facial no siempre logran consumar el suicidio y pueden ocasionar una herida avulsiva de esta región anatómica. Objetivo: Socializar los beneficios del tratamiento multidisciplinario inmediato en la atención al paciente con traumatismo facial complejo. Caso clínico: Paciente masculino de 60 años de edad con intento autolítico por arma de fuego, con pérdida importante de tejido a nivel mandibular y compromiso de la vía aérea. Resultados: Las distintas etapas de accionar quirúrgico se lograron en las primeras cuatro horas desde que sucedió el incidente. El paciente no presentó complicaciones posoperatorias ni necesidad de una nueva operación. Discusión: En la actualidad existe la tendencia a realizar tratamiento definitivo en un solo tiempo quirúrgico inicial. Conclusión: La intervención inmediata y protocolizada de las especialidades cirugía general, maxilofacial y cirugía plástica-reconstructiva en pacientes con heridas avulsivas de la región cérvico facial pueden lograr un tratamiento definitivo en un único tiempo quirúrgico y con resultados favorables.


Introduction: Self-inflicted injuries by long-barreled firearms in the cervico-facial area do not always succeed in consummating suicide and may result in an avulsive injury of this anatomical region. Aim: Socializing the benefits of the immediate multidisciplinary treatment in the medical care of patients with complex facial trauma. Clinical case: A 60-year-old male patient with an autolytic attempt by firearm, with loss of tissue at the mandibular level, as well as airway compromise. Results: The different stages of the surgical action were achieved during the first four hours since the incident occurred. The patient was discharged without the need for a new surgical procedure. Discussion: Currently there is e tendency to perform definitive treatment in a single initial surgical procedure. Conclusión: The immediate and protocolized intervention of specialties such as General Surgery, Maxillofacial and Plastic-Reconstructive Surgery in patients with avulsive wounds of the cervical-facial region can achieve a definitive treatment in a single surgical time and with favorable results.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Wounds, Gunshot , Mandible/surgery , Tracheostomy/methods , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/methods , Cricoid Cartilage/surgery
16.
Rev. Fac. Odontol. (B.Aires) ; 37(85): 67-76, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1411632

ABSTRACT

Se realizó una revisión sistemática de la literatura científica en relación con las variantes de tratamien-to que recibieron las piezas dentarias permanentes asociadas a la presencia de una fístula cutánea. Se incluyeron reportes de casos clínicos en inglés, pu-blicados en los últimos diez años. Se obtuvieron 481 artículos, 359 excluidos por escasez de datos en títu-lo e incumplimiento de criterios de selección. Se ex-cluyeron 89 por carecer de tratamiento. Se incluye-ron 33 artículos. Se analizaron fístulas de 45 piezas dentarias, superiores e inferiores, anteriores y pos-teriores. En base a los resultados obtenidos se llegó a la conclusión de que las fístulas cutáneas faciales de origen odontogénico se diagnostican de manera errónea; esto conduce a un tratamiento inadecuado y secuela estéticas. Realizar un correcto diagnóstico y adecuado plan de tratamiento permite una curación rápida y predecible. Los hallazgos obtenidos estable-cen que realizar un correcto tratamiento endodóntico en la pieza afectada, es la terapéutica adecuada para lograr el cierre definitivo de la fístula, sin necesidad de tratar quirúrgicamente la misma (AU)


A systematic review of the scientific literature was carried out in relation to the variants of treatment received by permanent teeth associated with the presence of a cutaneous sinus tract. Clinical case reports in English, published in the last ten years, were included. A total of 481 articles were obtained, 359 were excluded due to lack of title data and non-compliance with selection criteria. 89 were excluded due to lack of treatment. 33 articles were included Cutaneous sinus tracts of 45 teeth, upper and lower, anterior and posterior, were analyzed. Based on the results obtained, it was concluded that facial cutaneous sinus tracts of odontogenic origin are misdiagnosed, leading to inadequate treatment and aesthetic sequelae. Carrying out a correct diagnosis and adequate treatment plan allows a quick and predictable healing. The findings obtained establish that performing a correct endodontic treatment in the affected piece is the appropriate therapy to achieve the definitive closure of the cutaneous sinus tract, without the need to surgically treatment (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cutaneous Fistula/diagnosis , Cutaneous Fistula/therapy , Focal Infection, Dental/complications , Root Canal Therapy/methods , Diagnosis, Differential , Age and Sex Distribution , Mandible , Maxilla
17.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(5): 1361-1367, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405288

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: La cirugía ortognática se realiza en sujetos con algún tipo de alteración esqueletal. Los movimientos maxilo mandibulares tienen impacto en la vía aérea (VA) y este aspecto se debe incorporar en la planificación quirúrgica. El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar los cambios generados en la VA después de realizada la cirugía ortognática. Se realizó un estudio piloto incluyendo 51 sujetos con deformidad facial de clase II y clase III; se incluyeron en base al estudio del ángulo ANB y el tipo de oclusión dentaria. Se realizaron estudios con tomografía de haz cónico identificando el volumen máximo en la vía área y las áreas mínimas y máximas; además se incluyó la posición del hueso hioide y la inclinación del plano mandibular para relacionar con la morfología de la VA; para definir significancia estadística se estableció un valor de p<0,05 incluyendo las pruebas T de student y T test. Los resultados indicaron que los sujetos clase II aumentaron significativamente el volumen y áreas máximas y mínimas de la VA; los sujetos de clase III esqueletal no presentaron diferencias significativas entre la etapa pre y post quirúrgica; el hueso hioides se presentó significativamente más anterior en ambos en casos de clase II y clase III. Es posible concluir que la VA mejora sustancialmente en sujetos con clase esqueletal facial tipo II y que se mantiene sin cambios en sujetos con clase facial tipo III.


SUMMARY: Orthognathic surgery is performed in subjects with some type of skeletal alteration. Maxillomandibular movements have an impact on the airway (AW) and this aspect must be included into surgical planning. The aim of this research is to determine the changes in the AW after orthognathic surgery. A pilot study was conducted including 51 subjects with class II and class III facial deformity; they were included using the ANB angle and the type of dental occlusion. Cone beam computed tomography were performed showing the maximum volume in the airway and the minimum and maximum areas; in addition, the position of the hyoid bone and the angle of the mandibular plane were included to relate it to the morphology of the AW; to define statistical significance, a value of p<0.05 was established, including the student's t-test and the t-test. The results showed that class II subjects significantly increased the volume and maximum and minimum areas of the AW; skeletal class III subjects did not presented significant differences between the pre- and post-surgical stage; the hyoid bone was in an anterior position in both class II and class III cases. It is possible to conclude that AW improves substantially in subjects with facial class II and remains unchanged in subjects with facial class III.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sleep Apnea Syndromes , Orthognathic Surgical Procedures/methods , Hyoid Bone/anatomy & histology , Malocclusion, Angle Class II/surgery , Malocclusion, Angle Class III/surgery , Mandible/surgery
18.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(4): 883-894, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405260

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Sex estimation is the first step in human identification. The mandibular ramus and the condyle have been widely used as indicators for sexual diagnosis because they are regions that undergo important morphological changes which increase sexual dimorphism. The object of the present study was to carry out a systematic review to determine the metric parameters of the mandibular ramus that present the greatest sexual dimorphism, and to sex estimation from the angle of mandible (MA). We included documents in English, Spanish and Portuguese which analysed sex estimation or sex diagnosis by metric analysis of the mandibular ramus in humans. The search was conducted in PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, up to December 2020. The risks of bias were analysed using the AQUA tool. The search identified 538 studies. After exclusion of duplicates and irrelevant articles, 39 studies were included for qualitative analysis. Of these, 18 studies were carried out on dry mandibles and 21 by imaging techniques, totalling 7270 participants of 14 different nationalities. We found 14 sex-estimation parameters in the mandibular ramus, plus the MA. Sex estimation by the MA is variable; it is a good predictor only for some populations. The height of the mandibular ramus, the angle of mandible, the bicondylar angle and the height of the coronoid process were the estimation parameters cited in the greatest number of studies. The mandibular ramus presents great sexual dimorphism and can be used as a sex predictor in different populations. Although some parameters of the mandibular ramus can present accuracy of almost 80 % when analysed in isolation, more accurate sex estimation is achieved when the parameters are analysed in conjunction.


RESUMEN: La estimación sexual es el primer paso en la identificación humana. La rama mandibular y el cóndilo se han utilizado ampliamente como indicadores para el diagnóstico sexual debido a que son regiones que sufren cambios morfológicos importantes, aumentando el dimorfismo sexual. El objetivo del presente estudio fue realizar una revisión sistemática a fin de determinar los parámetros métricos de la rama mandibular que presentan mayor dimorfismo sexual, bien estimar el sexo a través del ángulo de la mandíbula (AM). Se incluyeron artículos en Inglés, Español y Portugués que analizaron la predicción sexual o el diagnóstico sexual mediante análisis métrico de la rama mandibular en humanos. La búsqueda fue realizada a través de PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, con límite hasta Diciembre 2020. El análisis de los riesgos de sesgos se realizó con la herramienta AQUA. Fueron identificados 538 estudios. Tras la exclusión de duplicados y estudios fuera del tema fueron incluidos 39 estudios para análisis cualitativa. De estos, 18 estudios fueron realizados en mandíbulas secas y 21 en exámenes de imagen, totalizando 7270 participantes de 14 nacionalidades distintas. Fueron encontrados 14 parámetros predictores del sexo en la rama mandibular más el AM. La predicción sexual a través del AM es variable, siendo un buen predictor solamente para algunas poblaciones. La altura de la rama mandibular, ángulo bigoníaco, ángulo bicondilar y la altura del proceso coronoides fueron los parámetros predictivos citados en mayor número de estudios. La rama mandibular presenta gran dimorfismo sexual y puede ser utilizada como predictor del sexo en diferentes poblaciones. A pesar que algunos parámetros de la rama mandibular pueden presentar una precisión de casi 80 % cuando analizadas de forma aislada, una mayor predicción sexual es alcanzada cuando los parámetros son analizados en conjunto.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Sex Determination by Skeleton , Mandible/anatomy & histology , Sex Characteristics
19.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(4): 973-980, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405254

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: En condiciones normales, la mandíbula y sus estructuras anatómicas (dientes, musculatura, piel), son inervadas por los ramos de la tercera división del nervio trigémino (nervio mandibular), sin embargo, existen reportes que evidencian inervación suplementaria de los dientes inferiores y la zona del ángulo mandibular. Lo último podría ser responsable del fracaso del bloqueo nervioso con anestesia local. El objetivo principal de esta investigación fue revisar artículos que describen la participación de otros nervios como el milohioideo y los ramos superficiales del plexo cervical, los cuales pueden ingresar a la mandíbula a través de forámenes ubicados a lo largo de su arquitectura. Para esto, se realizó una revisión narrativa de la literatura científica, en inglés y español, desde el año 1971 hasta el año 2019, utilizando las plataformas digitales PubMed, EBSCO, Cochrane library, Scielo y Google Scholar, literatura gris y además de una búsqueda manual. Acorde a los resultados de la revisión, se confirma la existencia de fracasos de técnicas anestésicas mandibulares debido a la inervación accesoria de la mandíbula y de los dientes inferiores, donde los tres principales nervios revisados tienen incidencia en este postulado. Finalmente se plantea un orden de ejecución para realizar la infiltración de anestésico local en la mandíbula para lograr un bloqueo exitoso durante los procedimientos odontológicos que la requieran.


SUMMARY: Under normal conditions, the mandible and its anatomical structures (teeth, muscles, skin) are innervated by the branches of the third division of the trigeminal nerve (mandibular nerve), however, there are reports that show supplementary innervation of the lower teeth and the mandibular angle area. The latter could be responsible for the failure of the nerve block under local anesthesia. The main objective of this research; is to review articles that describe the participation of other nerves such as the mylohyoid nerve, and the superficial branches of the cervical plexus, which can enter the mandible through foramina located along its architecture. For this, a narrative review of the scientific literature was carried out, in English and Spanish, from 1971 to 2019, using the digital platforms PubMed, EBSCO, Cochrane library, Scielo and Google Scholar, gray literature and in addition to a search Handbook. According to the results of the review, the existence of the failures of the mandibular anesthetic techniques due to the accessory innervation of the mandible and the lower teeth is confirmed, where the three main nerves reviewed have an impact on this postulate. In conclusion, an order of execution is proposed to perform local anesthetic infiltration into the jaw to achieve a successful block during dental procedures that require it.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mandible/innervation , Mandibular Nerve/anatomy & histology , Treatment Failure , Anesthesia, Dental
20.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(4): 1025-1034, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405235

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The aim of this research was to evaluate the changes obtained with the mentoplasty technique in the increase of the airway imaging. A systemic review was performed using the parameters of the prism matrix, in the PubMed, Science Direct, Redalyc database, covering the years 1984 to 2019 with the use of defined inclusion criteria. The authors independently applied the selected parameter of data extraction, study selection and risk-to-bias assessment. A total of 1,251 articles were obtained among the 3 databases, of which 10 met the inclusion criteria. The variables studied were: type of research, sample size, sex, age, dento-skeletal diagnosis, airway classification, diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), type of imaging evaluation, variables evaluated in the image, pre and post-operative values, surgical technique and type of fixation used, other surgical procedures applied, and complications. In the cases of linear evaluation with cephalometric analysis (9 articles) they used PAS (posterior airspace), MP-H (mandibular plane to the hyoid) and SNB (saddle-nasion-point B), and SCSA (section area as the most relevant points, smallest cross section) and VT (total volume) in the volumetric evaluations (2 articles). The average change in posterior airspace achieved by the cited authors is 4.2 mm with standard deviation of 1.4 mm with the use of advancement mentoplasty. The most widely used technique was mentoplasty with a horizontal osteotomy by 5 authors. Based on the research there is a positive relationship between the increase in the airway and the advancement mentoplasty procedure, however, more standardized studies associated with the way of measuring and evaluating the relationship between advancement and the airway are necessary.


RESUMEN: El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar los cambios obtenidos con la técnica de mentoplastia en el incremento de la via aérea. Una revisión sistemática fue realizada utilizando parámetros de la matriz prisma, en PubMed, Science Direct, Redalyc database, cubriendo los años 1984 a 2019 con criterios de inclusión definidos. Los autores aplicaron de forma independiente los parámetros de selección y extracción de datos, selección de estudios y riesgos de sesgo. Un total de 1251 artículos fueron obtenidos de las 3 bases de dato, donde 10 artículos cumplieron los criterios de inclusión. Las variables estudiadas fueron: tipo de investigación, tamaño de la muestra, genero, edad, diagnóstico dento esqueletal, clasificación de la vía aérea, diagnostico de síndrome de apnea del sueño (SAOS), tipo de evaluación de la imagen, variables evaluadas en la imagen en pre y postoperatorio, técnica quirúrgica y tipo de fijación utilizada, otros procedimientos quirúrgicos y complicaciones. En el caso de la evaluación linear con cefalometria (9 artículos), usaron PAS (posterior airspace), MP-H (plano mandibular hacia el hueso hioide) y SNB (silla turca-nasion- punto B) y SCSA (sección de puntos mas relevantes, menores transfversales) y el VT (volumen total) en las evaluaciones volumétricas (2 artículos). El promedio de cambio posterior de la vía aérea citado por autores fue de 4,2 mm con una desviación estándar de 1,4 mm con el uso de la mentoplastia de avance. La técnica mas habitual fue la mentoplastia con osteotomía horizontal (5 autores). Basados en esta investigación existe una relación positiva entre el incremento de la vía aérea y el avance con genioplastia; sin embargo, mas estudios estandarizados junto con medidas definidas y la evaluación correcta del avance y la vía área son necesarios.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pharynx/anatomy & histology , Chin/anatomy & histology , Genioplasty , Mandibular Advancement , Mandible/anatomy & histology
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