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1.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 88(2): 228-234, Mar.-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374717

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Obstructive sleep apnea is characterized by a reduced airflow through the upper airways during sleep. Two forms of obstructive sleep apnea are described: the central form and the obstructive form. The obstructive form is related to many factors, such as the craniofacial morphology. Objective: To evaluate the correlation between the morphology of the cranial base, of the mandible and the maxilla, and obstructive sleep apnea severity. Methods: Eighty-four patients, mean age of 50.4 years old; 73 males and 11 females with obstructive sleep apnea were enrolled in the present study. Patients with high body mass index and comorbidities were excluded. Lateral cephalograms and polysomnography were collected for each patient to evaluate the correlation between craniofacial morphology and obstructive sleep apnea severity. A Spearman's rho correlation test between cephalometric measurements and obstructive sleep apnea indexes was computed. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: Patients with a severe obstructive sleep apnea presented a reduction of sagittal growth of both effective mandibular length and cranio-basal length. The mandibular length was the only variable with a statistical correlation with apnea-hypopnea index. Vertical dimension showed a weak correlation with the severity of obstructive sleep apnea. No correlation with maxillary sagittal dimension was shown. Conclusion: Obstructive sleep apnea severity may be correlated to mandibular and cranial base growth. Facial vertical dimension had no correlation with obstructive sleep apnea severity.


Resumo Introdução: A apneia obstrutiva do sono é caracterizada por um fluxo de ar reduzido nas vias aéreas superiores durante o sono. Duas formas de apneia são descritas: a forma central e a forma obstrutiva. A forma obstrutiva tem sido relacionada a vários fatores, como a morfologia craniofacial. Objetivo: Avaliar a correlação entre a morfologia da base do crânio, da mandíbula e da maxila e a gravidade da apneia obstrutiva do sono. Método: Foram incluídos no presente estudo 84 pacientes com apneia obstrutiva do sono, com média de 50,4 anos; 73 homens e 11 mulheres. Pacientes com alto índice de massa corpórea e comorbidades foram excluídos. Foram coletados cefalogramas laterais e polissonografia para cada paciente para avaliar a correlação entre a morfologia craniofacial e a gravidade da apneia. Foi computado o coeficiente de correlação de postos de Spearman (rho) entre medidas cefalométricas e índices de apneia obstrutiva do sono. A significância estatística foi estabelecida em p < 0,05. Resultados: Pacientes com apneia obstrutiva do sono grave apresentaram redução do crescimento sagital do comprimento mandibular efetivo e do comprimento crânio-basal. O comprimento mandibular foi a única variável que apresentou correlação estatística com o índice de apneia-hipopneia. A dimensão vertical mostrou uma fraca correlação com a gravidade da apneia. Não foi demonstrada correlação com a dimensão maxilar sagital. Conclusão: A gravidade da apneia obstrutiva do sono pode estar correlacionada ao crescimento da base mandibular e craniana. A dimensão facial vertical não apresentou correlação com a gravidade da apneia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnostic imaging , Cephalometry/methods , Polysomnography , Mandible/diagnostic imaging , Maxilla/diagnostic imaging , Middle Aged
2.
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 27(1): e222098, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1364784

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Orthodontic mini-implants (MI) are a reliable alternative to provide temporary orthodontic anchorage. Prior to miniscrew insertion, the best approach would be to evaluate each possible insertion site and measure the cortical bone thickness, and verify whether it would provide adequate primary stability. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the difference in cortical bone thickness in areas of mini-implants insertion in patients of different ages, by means of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methods: The sample of this retrospective study was composed of 123 CBCT scans, which were used to measure cortical bone thickness in the buccal and palatal inter-radicular space in the mesial region of the first permanent molars. These measures were compared by using the Student's t-test, ANOVA/Tukey tests, and Linear regression between male and female subjects, from 12 to 30 years old. Results: No significant difference was found in cortical bone thickness between sex, race and sagittal facial patterns. Significantly higher measurement values were observed in patients older than 12 years of age at all sites evaluated. The coefficient β at the adjusted linear regression analysis showed that at each increment in age, mean cortical thickness values increased by 0.06mm in the mandible, 0.03mm in the buccal region and 0.02mm in the palatal region of the maxilla. Conclusions: The increase in cortical bone thickness was positively associated with age; that is, the more advanced the patient's age was, the less chance there was of failure due to primary stability.


RESUMO Introdução: Os mini-implantes ortodônticos (MI) são uma alternativa confiável para fornecer ancoragem esquelética temporária. Antes da inserção do mini-implante, a melhor abordagem seria avaliar cada local de inserção possível, medir a espessura do osso cortical e verificar se proporcionaria uma adequada estabilidade primária. Objetivo: O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a diferença na espessura do osso cortical em áreas de inserção dos mini-implantes em pacientes de diferentes idades, por meio da tomografia computadorizada de feixe cônico. Métodos: A amostra desse estudo retrospectivo foi composta por 123 tomografias computadorizadas de feixe cônico, que foram utilizadas para medir a espessura do osso cortical nos espaços inter-radiculares vestibular e palatino na região mesial dos primeiros molares permanentes. Essas medidas foram comparadas por meio dos testes t de Student, ANOVA/Tukey e regressão linear entre os sexos masculino e feminino, de 12 a 30 anos. Resultados: Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa na espessura cortical, quando comparados sexo, cor da pele e padrão facial sagital. Foram verificadas medidas significativamente maiores em pacientes com idade superior a 12 anos em todos os sítios avaliados. O coeficiente β da análise de regressão linear ajustada mostrou que, a cada incremento da idade, os valores médios da espessura cortical aumentaram 0,06 mm na mandíbula, 0,03 mm na região vestibular e 0,02 mm na região palatina da maxila. Conclusão: O aumento da espessura do osso cortical teve associação positiva com a idade, ou seja, quanto mais avançada a idade do paciente, menor a chance de falha, devido à estabilidade primária.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Dental Implants , Orthodontic Anchorage Procedures/methods , Retrospective Studies , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography/methods , Cortical Bone/diagnostic imaging , Mandible/surgery , Mandible/diagnostic imaging , Maxilla/diagnostic imaging
3.
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 26(4): e2119347, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1339808

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: This study aimed to (I) assess the morphology of the symphysis and soft tissue chin associated with sex, age and sagittal/vertical skeletal patterns, and (II) identify the individual and combined contributions of these variables to different portions of the symphysis. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 195 lateral cephalometric radiographs from untreated adults. Alveolar, basal, and soft tissue of the symphysis were measured by an X/Y cranial base coordinate system, and divided in accordance to four predictor variables: sex, age, and sagittal/vertical skeletal patterns. Parametric tests were conducted for comparison and correlation purposes, while multiple regression analysis was performed to explore combined interactions. Results: Alveolar inclination is related to sagittal and vertical patterns, and both explained 71.4% of the variations. Alveolar thickness is weakly predicted and poorly influenced by age. Symphysis height was 10% higher in males, and associated with a vertical skeletal pattern and sex, and both explained 43.6% of variations. Basal symphyseal shows an individual thickness, is larger in males, and vertically short-positioned with age. Soft tissue chin is not necessarily related to the size of the underling skeletal pattern, and enlarges with age, even in adulthood. Conclusions: The symphysis and surrounding tissues are influenced by sex, age, and sagittal and vertical patterns, acting differently on the alveolar, basal and soft tissue portions. Sagittal and vertical skeletal patterns are the strongest association on alveolar symphysis inclination, whereas sex and age acts on the vertical symphysis position and soft tissues thickness.


RESUMO Introdução: O presente estudo objetivou: 1) avaliar a morfologia da sínfise mandibular e dos tecidos tegumentares do mento, associada ao sexo, idade, padrões sagital e vertical; e 2) identificar as contribuições dessas variáveis, individualmente ou combinadas, às diferentes regiões da sínfise. Métodos: Este estudo transversal incluiu 195 radiografias cefalométricas laterais de adultos não tratados ortodonticamente. Os tecidos alveolar, basal e mole da sínfise foram medidos por um sistema de coordenadas x, y e z da base do crânio e divididos de acordo com quatro variáveis preditoras: sexo, idade e padrões esqueléticos sagitais e verticais. Testes paramétricos foram conduzidos para fins de comparação e correlação, enquanto a análise de regressão múltipla foi realizada para explorar as interações combinadas. Resultados: A inclinação alveolar está relacionada aos padrões sagitais e verticais, e ambos explicaram 71,4% das variações. A espessura alveolar é fracamente prevista e pouco influenciada pela idade. A altura da sínfise foi 10% maior no sexo masculino e esteve associada ao padrão esquelético vertical e ao sexo, sendo que ambos explicaram 43,6% das variações. A sínfise basal mostra espessura individual, é maior no sexo masculino e verticalmente curta com a idade. O tecido mole do mento não está necessariamente relacionado ao tamanho do padrão esquelético subjacente e aumenta com a idade, mesmo na idade adulta. Conclusões: A sínfise e os tecidos circundantes são influenciados pelo sexo, idade e padrões sagitais e verticais, que atuam de forma diferenciada nas porções alveolar, basal e de tecidos tegumentares. Os padrões esqueléticos sagitais e verticais são a associação mais forte na inclinação da sínfise alveolar, enquanto o sexo e a idade atuam na posição vertical da sínfise e na espessura dos tecidos tegumentares.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Mandible/diagnostic imaging , Radiography , Cephalometry , Cross-Sectional Studies , Chin/anatomy & histology , Chin/diagnostic imaging
4.
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 26(3): e2119234, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1286212

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: This study aims at identifying anatomical dimensions of dental arches, based on landmarks currently used in the lingual orthodontic technique, and create an archwire form template to be used in orthodontic clinics. Methods: Maxillary and mandibular dental casts of 140 Caucasian individuals with natural and normal occlusion were digitized (3D), and the images were analyzed with Delcam Power ShapeTM 2010 software. The dental arch shapes and sizes were obtained from 14 landmarks selected on the lingual surface of the teeth. Points and segments defined by the software were used to create an archwire form template. Results: Various dental arch patterns were found for both maxilla and mandible. The smallest sizes were found in females, and the largest were found in male subjects. Six categories were defined for each gender, three for the maxilla and three for the mandible (Small, Medium and Large). A template was created with eighteen anatomic lingual archwire designs, nine for the maxilla and nine for the mandible, for both genders. Conclusions: Landmarks evaluated in this study showed dental arch differences between genders. This information enables making orthodontic lingual archwires that are more compatible with the anatomical forms and sizes of the maxilla and mandible. The findings also allowed the creation of a template for an anatomic lingual metallic archwire form to be used in the lingual technique.


RESUMO Objetivo: O presente estudo tem como objetivo encontrar as formas anatômicas e dimensões das arcadas dentárias com base em pontos de referência utilizados na técnica ortodôntica lingual, e criar um diagrama com um maior número de arcos metálicos para serem utilizados na clínica ortodôntica. Métodos: 140 modelos de indivíduos caucasianos com oclusão normal e natural foram digitalizados (3D) e as imagens, analisadas com o software Delcam Power ShapeTM 2010. A determinação das formas e tamanhos das arcadas dentárias foi obtida a partir de 14 pontos selecionados na superfície lingual dos dentes. Outros pontos e segmentos foram utilizados, com o auxílio do software, para definir um diagrama. Resultados: Foram encontrados diferentes tamanhos de arcadas dentárias linguais, tanto para a maxila quanto para a mandíbula. Os menores tamanhos foram os femininos, e os maiores, os masculinos. Definiram-se seis tamanhos para cada sexo, sendo três para a maxila e três para a mandíbula, nomeados como P, M e G. Foi criado um diagrama com dezoito desenhos de arcos linguais anatômicos, nove para a maxila e nove para a mandíbula, para ambos os sexos. Conclusões: A posição dos pontos de referência nesse estudo evidenciou diferenças entre os sexos, o que permitiu a criação de arcos mais compatíveis com as formas e dimensões anatômicas da maxila e mandíbula. A diferença entre os tamanhos das arcadas dentárias linguais possibilitou a criação de um diagrama com formas de arcos metálicos linguais anatômicos para serem utilizados na técnica lingual, para auxiliar o profissional a criar os seus próprios arcos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Orthodontic Wires , Dental Arch/diagnostic imaging , Technology , Orthodontic Appliance Design , Models, Dental , Mandible/diagnostic imaging , Maxilla/diagnostic imaging
5.
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 26(3): e2119288, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1286209

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate characteristics of African-Brazilians young adults with excellent dental occlusion, including bimaxillary protrusion; compare them to European-American Caucasian standards, and determine whether there is sexual dimorphism in the display of this phenotype. Methods: Lateral cephalometric radiographs were obtained from 43 African-Brazilians within military personnel (28 males and 15 females, average age 22.4 ± 3.4 years) with normal occlusion, selected from a group of 394 volunteers. Thirty-one angular and linear measurements were evaluated. Student's t-test for independent samples was used to compare results with those established by European-American standards, previously described in the literature. Results: Considering the dentoalveolar pattern, seven angular and six linear measurements showed statistically significant differences (p< 0.001) when compared to Caucasian cephalometric standards. African-Brazilians' subjects showed lower cranial base angle (SNAr = 119.87 ± 5.66º) and anterior cranial base length (SN-distance = 68.63 ± 4.50 mm) (p< 0.001). The maxilla (SNA = 88.51 ± 3.23º) and the mandible (SNB = 85.06 ± 3.24º) were protruded in relation to the SN line (p< 0.001). Sexual dimorphism was significant for L1.NB (degrees) (p< 0.01), and interincisal angle (U1.L1) (p< 0.05). Conclusion: African-Brazilian young adults presented differences regarding dental and craniofacial characteristics, when compared to European-American norms. It can be stated that Caucasian cephalometric norms should not be applied to African-Brazilian faces.


RESUMO Objetivo: O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar características de jovens adultos afro-brasileiros com oclusão excelente, incluindo protrusão bimaxilar, e compará-los com os padrões caucasianos europeu-americanos, para determinar se há dimorfismo sexual na exibição desse fenótipo. Métodos: Radiografias cefalométricas laterais foram obtidas de 43 afro-brasileiros militares (28 homens e 15 mulheres, idade média de 22,4 ± 3,4 anos) com oclusão normal, selecionados de um grupo de 394 voluntários. Foram avaliadas 31 medidas angulares e lineares. O teste t de Student para amostras independentes foi utilizado para comparar os resultados com os estabelecidos pelos padrões caucasianos europeu-americanos, descrito previamente na literatura. Resultados: Considerando o padrão dentoalveolar, sete medidas angulares e seis lineares apresentaram diferenças estatisticamente significativas (p< 0,001) quando comparadas aos padrões cefalométricos caucasianos. Sujeitos afro-brasileiros apresentaram menor ângulo da base do crânio (SNAr = 119,87 ± 5,66º) e comprimento da base craniana anterior (distância SN = 68,63 ± 4,50 mm) (p< 0,001). A maxila (SNA = 88,51 ± 3,23º) e a mandíbula (SNB = 85,06 ± 3,24º) estavam protruídas em relação à linha SN (p< 0,001). O dimorfismo de sexo foi significativo para L1.NB (graus) (p< 0,01) e ângulo interincisal (U1.L1) (p< 0,05). Conclusão: Jovens adultos afro-brasileiros apresentaram diferenças em relação às características dentárias e craniofaciais, quando comparados às normas europeias-americanas. Pode-se afirmar que as normas cefalométricas caucasianas não devem ser aplicadas às faces de indivíduos afro-brasileiros.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Mandible/diagnostic imaging , Maxilla/diagnostic imaging , Brazil , Cephalometry , Prospective Studies
6.
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 26(3): e21bbo3, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1286211

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Skeletal posterior crossbite (SPCB) has a multifactorial etiology, as it may be caused by parafunctional habits, atypical position of the tongue, tooth losses and maxillary or mandibular transverse skeletal asymmetries. Skeletal involvement may lead to facial changes and an unfavorable aesthetic appearance. The treatment of SPCB diagnosed in an adult patient should be correctly approached after the identification of its etiologic factor. Surgically-assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME), one of the techniques used to correct SPCB in skeletally mature individuals, is an efficient and stable procedure for the correction of transverse discrepancies that may be performed in the office or in a hospital. Objective: This study discusses the results of asymmetrical SARME used to correct unilateral SPCB associated with transverse mandibular asymmetry. Conclusion: The treatment alternative used in the reported case was quite effective. At the end of the treatment, the patient presented adequate occlusion and facial aesthetics.


RESUMO Introdução: A mordida cruzada posterior esquelética (MCPE) apresenta etiologia multifatorial, podendo ser causada por hábitos parafuncionais, posição atípica da língua, perdas dentárias e assimetrias esqueléticas transversais da maxila ou da mandíbula. Alterações faciais podem estar presentes quando há envolvimento esquelético, levando a estética desfavorável. O tratamento da MCPE, quando diagnosticada no paciente adulto, requer abordagem correta, com identificação do fator etiológico. Entre as técnicas utilizadas para correção da MCPE em pacientes esqueleticamente maduros, cita-se, em especial, a Expansão Rápida de Maxila Assistida Cirurgicamente (ERMAC). Essa modalidade tem se mostrado bastante eficiente na correção dos problemas transversais, apresenta estabilidade e pode ser realizada em ambiente ambulatorial ou hospitalar. Objetivo: O objetivo do presente trabalho será discutir os resultados da ERMAC assimétrica para correção da MCPE unilateral associada a assimetria transversal da mandíbula. Conclusão: A alternativa de tratamento utilizada no caso relatado mostrou-se bastante eficiente. Ao fim do tratamento, o paciente apresentou adequada oclusão e boa estética facial.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Tooth , Malocclusion/therapy , Malocclusion/diagnostic imaging , Palatal Expansion Technique , Facial Asymmetry/surgery , Facial Asymmetry/diagnostic imaging , Mandible/surgery , Mandible/diagnostic imaging , Maxilla
7.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1154999

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the intra-examiner and inter-examiner reliability of linear and curvilinear measurements for the complete assessment of implant sites and jaw pathologies using Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT). Material and Methods: Fifty cone-beam computed tomographic images of patients were retrieved from the archives of Dentomaxillofacial Radiology. CBCT images taken for implant planning and evaluation of intrabony jaw pathologies (benign cyst/tumor) were included. Two expert oral and maxillofacial radiologists analyzed the images independently and made the measurements. The images for implant planning were analyzed for width, the height of the edentulous site, and the qualitative analysis of bone in the region. Jaw pathologies were assessed for linear dimensions and curvilinear measurements. Results: The inter-observer measurement error for implant site analysis ranged from 0.12 to 0.42 mm with almost perfect agreement (ICC: 0.94 to 1). The inter-observer measurement error for jaw pathology was 0.09 to 0.25 mm (ICC: 0.98-1). Curvilinear measurements showed perfect agreement between the observers. The intraobserver reliability for the various parameters used for the assessment of the implant site and jaw pathologies indicated almost perfect agreement. Conclusion: Reliability between the radiologists is high for various measurements on CBCT images taken for implant planning and jaw pathologies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pathology, Oral , Diagnostic Imaging/instrumentation , Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted/instrumentation , Dental Implantation/instrumentation , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Mandible/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Observational Studies as Topic/methods , Dimensional Measurement Accuracy , Radiologists , India/epidemiology , Jaw , Mandible/pathology
8.
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 26(1): e211965, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1154060

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the thickness of the zygomatic-maxillary cortical bone using computed tomography in different skeletal patterns. Methods: A total of 54 patients of both sexes, divided into three groups according to the vertical skeletal pattern, were evaluated for cortical bone thickness of the anterior slope of the zygomatic process of the maxilla, using cone beam computed tomography. Measurements were made at 2mm, 4mm, 6mm, 8mm and 10mm above from first molar mesial root apex. Vertical skeletal pattern was determined by Frankfurt mandibular angle (FMA). Results: The hyperdivergent pattern had the lowest cortical thickness value, nevertheless, no patient in the hyperdivergent group presented cortical thickness exceeding 2mm, and no patient in the hypodivergent group presented cortical thickness less than 1mm. However, the correlation between cortical thickness and mandibular plane angle was weak and not significant. Conclusion: Although higher prevalence of thick cortical was observed in the hypodivergent patients, and thin cortical groups in the hyperdivergent group, the vertical skeletal pattern could not be used as determinant of the zygomatic-maxillary cortical thickness.


RESUMO Objetivo: O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a espessura da cortical óssea zigomático-maxilar por meio de tomografia computadorizada em diferentes padrões esqueléticos. Métodos: Um total de 54 pacientes de ambos os sexos, divididos em três grupos, de acordo com o padrão esquelético vertical, foi avaliado quanto à espessura da cortical óssea na vertente anterior do processo zigomático da maxila, por meio de tomografia computadorizada de feixe cônico. As medidas foram feitas a 2mm, 4mm, 6mm, 8mm e 10mm acima do ápice da raiz mesial do primeiro molar. O padrão esquelético vertical foi determinado pelo Ângulo do Plano Mandibular (FMA). Resultados: O padrão hiperdivergente apresentou o menor valor de espessura de cortical. No entanto, nenhum paciente do grupo hiperdivergente apresentou espessura cortical superior a 2mm e nenhum paciente do grupo hipodivergente apresentou espessura cortical inferior a 1mm. No entanto, a correlação entre a espessura da cortical e o ângulo do plano mandibular foi fraca e não significativa. Conclusão: Embora tenha havido uma maior prevalência de cortical espessa no grupo hipodivergente e cortical fina no grupo hiperdivergente, o padrão esquelético vertical não pode ser utilizado como determinante da espessura cortical zigomático-maxilar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cephalometry , Mandible , Maxilla , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Cortical Bone/diagnostic imaging , Mandible/diagnostic imaging , Maxilla/diagnostic imaging
9.
Rev. Ateneo Argent. Odontol ; 64(1): 8-12, 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248117

ABSTRACT

Un cuerpo extraño es un objeto o una estructura que se incluye accidental o intencionalmente en la intimidad de los tejidos orgánicos de un individuo. Puede desencadenar importantes procesos inflamatorios/ infecciosos, dependiendo de su naturaleza, requiriendo en la mayoría de los casos su extracción quirúrgica, con el fin de evitar daños al paciente. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo informar un caso de cuerpo extraño (fragmento de amalgama) incluido iatrogénicamente en la exodoncia de un molar inferior derecho en un paciente que, después de 8 años, optó por hacerse un implante en el área y descubrió la inclusión de este material, siendo necesaria su extracción quirúrgica para la posterior colocación del implante dental en la región. Los autores destacan la necesidad de realizar una minuciosa inspección y toilette de la caja alveolar en el acto de la exodoncia, para evitar incluir cuerpos extraños en el sitio quirúrgico y evitar así, una nueva intervención en el área (AU)


Foreign body is an object or structure included accidentally or intentionally in the intimacy of the organic tissues of individuals. They can trigger important inflammatory / infectious processes, depending on its nature, requiring its surgical removal in most cases, to prevent damage to the patient. This study aimed to report a case of a foreign body (fragment of amalgam) iatrogenically included in extraction of a right lower molar in a patient who, after 8 years, opted to have an implant in the area and discovered the inclusion of this material, requiring its surgical removal for subsequent placement of a dental implant in the region. The authors highlight the need to perform a thorough inspection and toilet of the alveolar box in the act of extraction, to avoid including foreign bodies in the surgical site, avoiding further intervention in the area (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Dental Amalgam/adverse effects , Foreign Bodies , Iatrogenic Disease , Schools, Dental , Tooth Extraction/adverse effects , Radiography, Panoramic , Intraoperative Complications , Mandible/diagnostic imaging , Molar/surgery
10.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 35: e034, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1153609

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of this study was to apply elliptic Fourier analysis (EFA) to find shape differences among skeletal growth patterns in both radiographic and tomographic panoramic views, controlling for asymmetry. Lateral and panoramic images were obtained from 350 patients. After screening patients with asymmetric linear and angular values and natural asymmetric hemimandibular shape, 240 patients were included in the study: 48 with tomographic information and 192 with radiographic information. The images were classified according to the mandibular plane angle and the ANB angle. Mandibular contours were digitized on the panoramic images and EFA was performed with 20 harmonics, filtering rotation, translation and size properties. As there were no differences between radiographic and tomographic panoramic mandibular contours and normal distribution was found in all groups, MANOVA was conducted to determine differences using a Hotelling's p-values with Bonferroni correction and an XY graph tool was applied to visualize these differences graphically. A 95% confidence level was used. Significative differences were found among hypodivergent, normodivergent, and hyperdivergent patterns in Class I, II, and III (p < 0.05), located mainly in the symphyseal region. The results of this study suggest that EFA is a useful tool to mathematically analyze mandibular contours and their morphological differences given by facial biotypes. This method could improve the precision of the mandibular prediction models.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mandible/diagnostic imaging , Cephalometry , Fourier Analysis
11.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(4): 678-684, dic. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134557

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The present study aims to describe, through a case report, the functioning of bone grafts, where they are obtained including bone banks and the different dental areas in which it is used. A 50-year.old female patient HMR, sought the postgraduate college of dentistry CECAPE for oral rehabilitation. The initial clinical examination revealed the absence of several dental elements in both the maxilla and mandi ble, bone resorption in the entire maxillary extension where there was an absence of elements in the anterior region and the presence of a torus in the palatal region. Initial tomographic examinations of the maxilla and mandible were performed, looking for the best conduct regarding the diagnosis and planning of the case. After the clinical and radiographic examinations was performed, and the diagnosis was reached, it was determined as a treatment for oral rehabilitation of the maxilla, bone grafting and an Implant-supported Removable Partial Prosthesis and for the mandible a Dento-muco-supported Removable Partial Prosthesis. Dental treatments and oral rehabilitation from the use of bone tissues and bone grafting have become commonly used. Procedures that would normally lead to failure started to increase the percentage of successes due to the use of these biomaterials. The use of bone grafts in dentistry has been shown to be a very effective and useful resource, considering its great applicability in bone reconstructions in different areas of dentistry.


RESUMEN: El presente estudio tiene como objetivo describir a través de un informe de caso, el funcionamiento de los injertos óseos, donde se obtienen, incluidos los bancos de huesos y las diferentes áreas dentales en las que se emplea. Una paciente HMR, de 50 años de edad, asistió el centro universitario de posgrado CECAPE para rehabilitación oral. El examen clínico inicial reveló la ausencia de varios dientes tanto en el maxilar como en la mandíbula, la resorción ósea en toda la extensión maxilar donde había ausencia de dientes en la región anterior y la presencia de un torus en la región palatina. Se realizaron exámenes tomográficos iniciales del maxilar y mandíbula, buscando la mejor conducta con respecto al diagnóstico y la planificación del caso. Después de los exámenes clínicos y radiográficos realizados y el diagnóstico listo, se determinó como un tratamiento para la rehabilitación oral del maxilar, el injerto óseo y una prótesis removible implantosoportada y para la mandíbula una prótesis parcial removible dento-muco-soportada. Los tratamientos dentales y la rehabilitación oral a partir del uso de tejidos óseos y el injerto óseo se han utilizado comúnmente. Los procedimientos que normalmente conducirían al fracaso comenzaron a aumentar el porcentaje de éxitos debido al uso de estos biomateriales. Se ha demostrado que el uso de injertos óseos en odontología es un recurso muy eficaz y útil, considerando su gran aplicabilidad en las reconstrucciones óseas en diferentes áreas de la odontología.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Bone Transplantation/methods , Dental Implantation, Endosseous/methods , Bone-Implant Interface/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Mandible/diagnostic imaging , Mouth Rehabilitation
12.
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 25(6): 33-42, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1154050

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Controversial reports suggest a relationship between growth pattern and cortical alveolar bone thickness, and its effect in the use of mini-implants. Objective: The main purpose of this study was to assess the influence of the growth pattern on the cortical alveolar bone thickness and on the stability and success rate of mini-implants. Methods: Fifty-six mini-implants were inserted in the buccal region of the maxilla of 30 patients. These patients were allocated into two groups, based on their growth pattern (horizontal group [HG] and vertical group [VG]). Cortical thickness was measured using Cone Beam Computed Tomography. Stability of mini-implants, soft tissue in the insertion site, sensitivity during loading and plaque around the mini-implants were evaluated once a month. Intergroup comparisons were performed using t tests, Mann-Whitney tests, and Fisher exact tests. Correlations were evaluated with Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: The cortical bone thickness was significantly greater in the HG at the maxillary labial anterior region and at the mandibular buccal posterior and labial anterior regions. There was a significant negative correlation between Frankfort-mandibular plane angle (FMA) and the labial cortical thickness of the maxilla, and with the labial and lingual cortical bone thicknesses of the mandible. No significant intergroup difference was found for mini-implant mobility and success rate. No associated factor influenced stability of the mini-implants. Conclusions: Growth pattern affects the alveolar bone cortical thickness in specific areas of the maxilla and mandible, with horizontal patients presenting greater cortical bone thickness. However, this fact may have no influence on the stability and success rate of mini-implants in the maxillary buccal posterior region.


RESUMO Introdução: Relatos controversos sugerem uma relação entre o padrão de crescimento e a espessura do osso alveolar cortical e seu efeito no uso de mini-implantes. Objetivo: Avaliar a influência do padrão de crescimento na espessura do osso cortical alveolar e na estabilidade e taxa de sucesso dos mini-implantes. Métodos: Cinquenta e seis mini-implantes foram inseridos na região vestibular da maxila de trinta pacientes. Esses pacientes foram alocados em dois grupos, com base em seu padrão de crescimento (grupo horizontal [GH] e grupo vertical [GV]). As espessuras corticais foram medidas por meio de tomografias computadorizadas de feixe cônico. A estabilidade dos mini-implantes, tecido mole no local de inserção, sensibilidade durante a carga e o acúmulo de placa ao redor dos mini-implantes foram avaliados uma vez por mês. As comparações intergrupos foram realizadas por testes t de Student, testes de Mann-Whitney e testes exatos de Fisher. As correlações foram avaliadas com o coeficiente de correlação de Pearson. Resultados: A espessura do osso cortical foi significativamente maior no GH na região vestibular anterior da maxila e nas regiões vestibulares posterior e anterior da mandíbula. Houve uma correlação negativa significativa entre o ângulo do plano mandibular (FMA) e a espessura da cortical vestibular da maxila, e com a espessura das corticais vestibular e lingual da mandíbula. Nenhuma diferença significativa entre os grupos foi encontrada com relação à mobilidade do mini-implante e taxa de sucesso. Nenhum fator associado influenciou a estabilidade dos mini-implantes. Conclusões: O padrão de crescimento afeta a espessura da cortical óssea alveolar em áreas específicas da maxila e mandíbula, com pacientes horizontais apresentando maior espessura da cortical óssea. No entanto, esse fato pode não ter influência na estabilidade e na taxa de sucesso dos mini-implantes na região vestibular posterior da maxila.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dental Implants , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Cortical Bone/diagnostic imaging , Mandible , Mandible/diagnostic imaging , Maxilla/diagnostic imaging
13.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 899-902, Aug. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124873

ABSTRACT

La correcta identificación del canal mandibular es esencial cuando se pretende realizar procedimientos quirúrgicos del sector posterior o incluso odontología clínica. La tomografía computarizada de haz cónico (CBCT) utiliza diferentes planos para la evaluación de este. Para conocer las variaciones anatómicas del canal mandibular se lleva a cabo un estudio en 100 adultos mayores de 30 años, donde la ubicación, la forma y la orientación se estudia mediante la tomografía computarizada de haz cónico. Así, el principal objetivo de nuestro estudio es conocer la variabilidad y tipo de presentación del canal bífido en el Canal mandibular en pacientes dentados o parcialmente edéntulos adultos mayores de 30 años.


The correct identification of the mandibular canal is essential when trying to perform surgical procedures in the posterior sector or even clinical dentistry. Computed tomography (CBCT) uses different planes for the evaluation of this. In order to know the anatomical variations of the mandibular canal, a study is carried out in 100 adults over 30 years of age, where the location, shape and orientation is studied by cone beam computed tomography. The main objective of our study is to know the variability and type of presentation of the bifid canal in the mandibular duct in dentate or partially edentulous adult patients over 30 years.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Mandible/anatomy & histology , Mandible/diagnostic imaging , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Age Factors , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Anatomic Variation
14.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 924-932, Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124878

ABSTRACT

El canal mandibular es una estructura de especial interés considerando que es vital su preservación durante actos clínicos. Por encontrarse al interior del hueso requiere un estudio in vivo mediante el uso rayos X, involucrando técnicas entre las que destaca la TC Cone Beam (TCCB). El objetivo de este trabajo es comparar la biometría del canal mandibular humano obtenida en la disección anatómica con la morfometría de las imágenes generadas en TCCB. A partir de cortes coronales realizados en los sectores anterior, medio y posterior del canal mandibular en mandíbulas secas, y mediante imágenes generadas en la TCCB, se obtuvieron 216 mediciones en cada una de técnicas aplicadas. Las mediciones lineales del canal mandibular se efectuaron utilizando marcadores radiopacos que fueron dispuestos en relación a las paredes vecinas que corresponden a las corticales alveolar/residual, basal, interna y externa. Se midió el diámetro vertical y transversal del canal, junto con las distancias entre la cortical alveolar/residual y basal, y entre la cortical interna y externa. Se obtuvieron los valores promedio de cada una de las mediciones lineales, tanto de la biometría en la mandíbula seca como de la morfometría realizada en la TCCB. Luego se determinó las diferencias estadísticas de cada medición (L1-L6 y D1-D2) entre ambas técnicas, utilizando la prueba de correlación de Pearson, donde se obtuvo una correlación positiva muy alta (p›0,987). Adicionalmente se determinó que las mediciones no se ven afectadas por el sector del canal analizado (p›0,987). En las mediciones realizadas L1-L6 y D1-D2, no se encontraron diferencias significativas entre la biometría con respecto a las medidas de morfometría hechas en las imágenes de la TCCB. Las medidas L4 y L5 son las que ofrecen menor diferencias porcentuales con otras investigaciones, debido a una menor absorción de las corticales involucradas.


The mandibular canal is a structure of special interest, considering that its preservation during clinical procedures is vital. Given its location inside the bone, in vivo studies including X-rays and Cone Beam CT (CBCT) analysis are among the techniques required for an evaluation. The aim of this paper is to compare biometrics of the human mandibular canal from an anatomic dissection, with the morphometry of images obtained with CBCT. In this study, 216 measurements were obtained from cross sections carried out in the anterior, middle and posterior sectors of the mandibular canal in dry jaws, through CBCT images. Linear measurements of the mandibular canal were carried out using radiopaque markers that were arranged with respect to the outlying walls that correspond to the alveolar/residual, basal, internal and external corticals. The vertical and transverse diameters of the canal was measured, along with the distances between the alveolar/residual and basal cortex, and between the internal and external corticals. The average values of each of the linear measurements were obtained, both of the biometrics in the dry jaw and the morphometry performed in the CBCT. Then the statistical differences of each measurement (L1-L6 and D1-D2) between both techniques were determined, using the Pearson correlation test, where a very high positive correlation was obtained (p ›0.987). Additionally, it was determined that measurements are not affected by the sector of the analyzed channel (p ›0.987). The measurements made L1-L6 and D1-D2, no significant differences were found between the biometrics with respect to the morphometry measurements made in the CBCT images. Measures L4 and L5 are those that offer the lowest percentage differences with other research, due to lower absorption of the corticals involved.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mandible/anatomy & histology , Mandible/diagnostic imaging , Dissection , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography
15.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 983-989, Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124886

ABSTRACT

Las articulaciones temporomandibulares y la musculatura asociada, permiten que la mandíbula se desplace en los tres planos del espacio (sagital, frontal y horizontal), de esta forma la mandíbula puede realizar movimientos mandibulares complejos. Hace varias décadas que los movimientos bordeantes mandibulares son estudiados, sin embargo, en un principio los estudios se realizaban en dos dimensiones (2D). En la actualidad, gracias al articulógrafo electromagnético (EMA) 3D es posible realizar el estudio de la cinemática mandibular en tres dimensiones (3D). El objetivo del siguiente estudio es analizar los movimientos mandibulares bordeantes (sagital, frontal y horizontal), por medio de la articulografía electromagnética 3D. En el estudio, participaron 11 personas de 31,9 ± 5,7 años en promedio (mujeres 30,2 ± 2,9 y hombres 34,0 ± 7,8) completamente dentados de primer molar a primer molar, sin trastornos temporomandibulares ni tratamiento previo de ortodoncia. Los archivos fueron procesados mediante scripts, desarrolladas en MATLAB®. Entre los resultados más relevantes, se encontró diferencia estadística entre hombres y mujeres en relación al área Frontal del polígono de Posselt, y los resultados del área del polígono sagital de todos los participantes, fue mayor que en estudios previos.


The temporomandibular joints and associated muscles allow the mandible to move in the three planes (sagittal, frontal and horizontal), in this way the jaw can perform complex mandibular movements. For several decades, mandibular border movements have been studied. However, studies were initially carried out in two dimensions (2D). At the present time, it is possible to analyze mandibular kinematics in three dimensions (3D), with the 3D electromagnetic articulograph (EMA). The objective of the study is to evaluate the mandibular border movements (sagittal, frontal and horizontal), using 3D electromagnetic articulation. In this analysis, 11 subjects 31.9 ± 5.7 years of age on average, participated (women 30.2 ± 2.9 and men 34.0 ± 7.8) completely dentate patients, from first to first molar, with no temporomandibular disorders or orthodontic pretreatment. Files were processed using scripts, developed in MATLAB®. Among the most relevant results, a statistical difference was found between men and women in relation to the Frontal area of Posselt polygon, and results of the sagittal polygon area of all the participants were greater than those reported in previous studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Denture, Complete , Mandible/diagnostic imaging , Temporomandibular Joint , Biomechanical Phenomena , Sex Factors , Electromagnetic Phenomena , Mandible/physiology , Movement/physiology
16.
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 25(4): 24-32, July-Aug. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1133681

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the cephalometric and occlusal changes of orthodontically treated Class III malocclusion patients. Methods: The experimental groups comprised 37 Class III patients treated: G1) without (n=19) and G2) with extractions (n=18) . The control group (G3), matched by age and sex with the experimental groups, consisted of 18 subjects with untreated Class III malocclusion. Cephalometric (radiographs) and occlusal (study models) changes were assessed between the beginning (T1) and the end (T2) of treatment. Intergroup comparisons were performed with one-way ANOVA followed by Kruskal-Wallis tests (p< 0.05). Occlusal changes were evaluated by the peer assessment rating (PAR) index (ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis tests), and the treatment outcomes were evaluated by the Objective Grading System (OGS) (t-tests). Results: The experimental groups showed a restrictive effect on mandibular anterior displacement and a discrete improvement in the maxillomandibular relationship. Extraction treatment resulted in a greater retrusive movement of the incisors and significant improvements in the overjet and molar relationship in both groups. The PAR indexes were significantly reduced with treatment, and the OGS scores were 25.6 (G1) and 28.6 (G2), with no significant intergroup difference. Conclusions: Orthodontic treatment of Class III malocclusion patients with fixed appliances improved the sagittal relationships, with greater incisor retrusion in the extraction group. Both the extraction and non-extraction treatments significantly decreased the initial malocclusion severity, with adequate and similar occlusal outcomes of treatment.


RESUMO Objetivos: O objetivo desse estudo retrospectivo foi avaliar as alterações cefalométricas e oclusais de pacientes com má oclusão de Classe III tratados ortodonticamente. Método: Os grupos experimentais compreenderam 37 pacientes Classe III tratados: 19 com extrações dentárias (G1) e 18 sem (G2). O grupo controle (G3), compatibilizado em idade e sexo com os grupos experimentais, consistiu de 18 indivíduos com má oclusão de Classe III não tratada. Alterações cefalométricas (radiografias) e oclusais (modelos de estudo) foram avaliadas ao início (T1) e ao fim (T2) do tratamento. Comparações intergrupos foram realizadas com testes ANOVA a um critério e Kruskal-Wallis (p< 0,05). As alterações oclusais foram avaliadas pelo índice PAR (testes ANOVA e Kruskal-Wallis) e os resultados oclusais dos tratamentos, pelo índice Objective Grading System (OGS) (testes t). Resultados: Os grupos experimentais apresentaram um efeito restritivo no posicionamento anterior da mandíbula e uma discreta melhora na relação maxilomandibular. Os tratamentos com extrações resultaram em um maior movimento retrusivo dos incisivos e melhoras significativas no trespasse horizontal e na relação molar em ambos os grupos. Os índices PAR foram reduzidos significativamente com o tratamento, e os índices OGS foram iguais a 25,6 (G1) e 28,6 (G2), sem diferença significativa entre os grupos. Conclusões: O tratamento ortodôntico de pacientes com má oclusão de Classe III com aparelhos corretivos fixos melhorou as relações sagitais, com maior retrusão dos incisivos no grupo com extrações. Ambos os tratamentos, com e sem extrações dentárias, diminuíram significativamente a severidade inicial da má oclusão, com resultados oclusais do tratamento adequados e similares.


Subject(s)
Humans , Overbite , Malocclusion, Angle Class II , Malocclusion, Angle Class III/therapy , Malocclusion, Angle Class III/diagnostic imaging , Cephalometry , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Mandible/diagnostic imaging
17.
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 25(4): 68-74, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1133672

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the skill of orthodontists and oral/maxillofacial surgeons (OMFS) in providing a prognosis of mandibular third molars spontaneously erupted, through follow-up panoramic analysis. Methods: 22 orthodontic patients treated without extraction, presenting spontaneously erupted mandibular third molars (n = 44) were analyzed through panoramic serial radiographs. The first panoramic radiograph was obtained just after orthodontic treatment (PR1), in patients aging from 13 to 19 years. A second panoramic radiograph (PR2), was obtained in average two years later. The radiographs were randomly analyzed by 54 specialists, 27 orthodontists and 27 OMFS, to obtain the opinion about the approach to be adopted to these teeth in PR1. Then, another opinion was collected by adding a serial radiograph (PR1+2). Results: The concordance of the answers was moderate for OMFS (Kappa 0.44; p< 0.0001) and significant for orthodontists (Kappa 0.39; p< 0.0001). In the analysis of the first radiograph (PR1) of the spontaneously erupted molars, OMFS indicated extraction in 44.5% of cases, while orthodontists indicated in 42%, with no difference between groups (p= 0.22). In PR1+2 analysis, orthodontists maintained the same level of extraction indication (45.6%, p= 0.08), while surgeons indicated more extractions (63.2%, p< 0.0001). Conclusions: Orthodontists and OMFS were not able to predict the eruption of the third molars that have erupted spontaneously. Both indicated extractions around half of the third molars. A follow-up analysis, including one more radiograph, did not improve the accuracy of prognosis among orthodontists and worsened for OMFS.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a habilidade de ortodontistas e cirurgiões bucomaxilofaciais (CBMF) em propor um prognóstico para terceiros molares inferiores. Métodos: Foram analisados 22 pacientes tratados ortodonticamente sem extração, cujos terceiros molares inferiores irrompidos espontaneamente (n= 44) foram avaliados por meio de radiografias panorâmicas seriadas. A primeira radiografia foi obtida logo após o tratamento ortodôntico (RX1), entre 13 e 19 anos de idade. A segunda radiografia (RX2) foi avaliada dois anos depois, em média. As radiografias foram analisadas aleatoriamente por 54 especialistas, 27 ortodontistas e 27 CBMFs, para obter sua opinião sobre a abordagem a ser adotada na RX1. Em seguida, outra opinião foi coletada adicionando-se a segunda radiografia seriada (RX1+2). Resultados: A concordância das respostas foi moderada para os CBMFs (Kappa = 0,44; p< 0,0001) e significativa para os ortodontistas (Kappa = 0,39; p< 0,0001). Após analisar apenas a primeira radiografia (RX1) dos molares antes deles irromperem espontaneamente, os CBMFs indicaram extração em 44,5% dos casos; enquanto os ortodontistas, em 42%, sem diferença entre os grupos (p= 0,22). Na análise de RX1+2, os ortodontistas mantiveram o mesmo nível de indicação de extração (45,6%, p= 0,08), enquanto os cirurgiões passaram a indicar mais extrações (63,2%, p< 0,0001). Conclusões: Ortodontistas e CBMFs não foram capazes de predizer a erupção de terceiros molares por meio da análise de uma única radiografia panorâmica, indicando extrações em cerca da metade dos terceiros molares examinados. Uma análise de acompanhamento, incluindo mais uma radiografia, não melhorou a precisão do prognóstico entre os ortodontistas, e piorou entre os CBMFs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tooth, Impacted/diagnostic imaging , Molar, Third/surgery , Molar, Third/diagnostic imaging , Tooth Eruption , Tooth Extraction , Radiography, Panoramic , Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons , Orthodontists , Mandible/diagnostic imaging , Molar
18.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 714-719, June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098310

ABSTRACT

The morphological variations of the mental foramen (MF) and mandibular foramen (MBF) have been studied for several years, and the prevalence and morphometric characteristics of double and triple foramina have been reported. The objective of this study was to establish the prevalence of variations in the MF and MBF, and to carry out a morphometric analysis of a Chilean population using digital panoramic radiographs. The study included 927 radiographs; the observed prevalence of double MF was 2.58 %, while the prevalence of double MBF was 1.51 %. No cases of triple foramina were found. In men, double MF was found more frequently in the left hemiarch (64.28 % of cases), while in women it was more frequent in the right hemiarch (80 %). Double MBF was found more frequently in the right hemiarch in women (80 % of cases), while the distribution between left and right in men was even. The mean area, width and height of the double MF were 5.46 mm2, 2.77 mm and 2.57 mm respectively. The means of the same morphometric measurements in double MBF were 6.37 mm2, 2.27 mm and 3.19 mm respectively. In both foramina, statistically significant differences were only found between the height of the foramen and the age of the subjects, with the observation that the greater the subject's age, the smaller the height. Dental surgeons must take these anatomical variants into consideration in clinical and surgical actions; timely diagnosis by radiograph is important to avoid possible complications.


Las variaciones morfológicas del foramen mental (FM) y mandibular (FMB) han sido estudiadas durante varios años, reportándose su prevalencia y las características morfométricas de forámenes dobles y triples. El objetivo de este estudio fue establecer la prevalencia de variaciones de los FM y FMB y realizar un análisis morfométrico a través de radiografías panorámicas digitales de una muestra de población chilena. En el estudio se incluyeron 927 radiografías y se observó una prevalencia de FM doble de 2,58 %, mientras que la prevalencia de FMB doble fue de 1,51 %. No se encontraron casos de forámenes triples. En hombres, el FM doble se encontró mayoritariamente en la hemiarcada izquierda (64,28 % de los casos), mientras que en mujeres fue en la hemiarcada derecha (80% de los casos). Para el caso de los FMB dobles, en mujeres se presentó mayoritariamente en la hemiarcada derecha (80 % de los casos), mientras que en hombres fue equitativo en ambos lados. El promedio del área, ancho y alto de los FM dobles fue de 5,46 mm2, 2,77 mm y 2,57 mm, respectivamente. Asimismo, los promedios de estas medidas morfométricas para el FMB doble fueron 6,37 mm2, 2,27 mm y 3,19 mm, respectivamente. Para ambos forámenes sólo se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre el alto y la edad de los sujetos, observando que, a mayor edad menor era el alto del foramen. Los cirujanos dentistas deben tener en consideración estas variantes anatómicas para la realización de distintas acciones clínicas y quirúrgicas, su diagnóstico radiográfico oportuno es importante para prevenir posibles complicaciones.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Anatomic Variation , Mental Foramen/anatomy & histology , Mental Foramen/diagnostic imaging , Mandible/anatomy & histology , Mandible/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Panoramic , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Age and Sex Distribution
19.
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190148, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056580

ABSTRACT

Abstract The site of the sinus tract depends on the rate of resistance against abscess exudate drainage, bone morphology, and distance from the root apex to the outer cortical bone. Objective To assess apical bone thickness in buccal and palatal/lingual aspects of maxillary and mandibular teeth, using a high-resolution cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) system. Methodology In total, 422 CBCT examinations were included in the study, resulting in a sample of 1400 teeth. The scans were acquired by PreXion 3D, with a high-resolution protocol. The bone thickness was taken as the distance between the center of the apical foramen and the buccal and lingual/palatal cortical bone. The quantitative variables were expressed as mean values±standard deviation. The independent samples were analyzed using the t-test or the Mann-Whitney test (p<0.05). Results The lowest mean value of bone thickness was observed in the buccal cortical bone of the upper canines (1.49 mm±0.86) and in the upper central incisors (1.59 mm±0.67). In premolar teeth, the lowest values were found in the buccal cortical bone of upper first premolars (1.13 mm±0.68). In the posterior teeth, the lowest values were found in the buccal cortical bone of upper first molars (1.98 mm±1.33). In the lower second molar region, the buccal cortical bone (8.36 mm±1.84) was thicker than the lingual cortical bone (2.95 mm±1.16) (p<0.05). Conclusions The lowest mean values of bone thickness are in the buccal cortical bone of the maxillary teeth. In the mandible, bone thickness is thinner in the buccal bone around the anterior and premolar teeth, and in the lingual aspect of mandibular molars. All these anatomic characteristics could make the occurrence of the sinus tract more susceptible in these specific regions of the maxillary and mandibular alveolar bone.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Tooth/anatomy & histology , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography/methods , Mandible/anatomy & histology , Maxilla/anatomy & histology , Reference Values , Tooth/diagnostic imaging , Statistics, Nonparametric , Mandible/diagnostic imaging , Maxilla/diagnostic imaging , Odontometry/methods
20.
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190103, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1056583

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective This study aimed to assess the association between tooth size and root canal morphology by using CBCT analysis. Methodology In this retrospective study, tooth anatomic lengths (crown and root lengths, buccolingual and mesiodistal dimensions) of 384 patients were assessed and correlated with Vertucci's root canal morphology classification. Data was analyzed for gender-related differences using the independent sample t-test, ANOVA, and the Pearson's correlation for a possible relation between anatomic lengths and canal morphology. Results The maxillary first and second premolars showed a greater predilection for Type IV and II variants, respectively, while the mandibular first premolar showed a greater predilection for Type II canal system. The root canal system of the mandibular second premolar showed maximal diversity (47% Type I, 30% Type II, and 20% Type III). The dimensions were greater in men regardless of tooth type. The most significant relation (p<0.05) between the anatomic size and canal morphology was observed in the maxillary first premolars, followed by the mandibular canines (buccolingual dimension) and the lower second premolars (crown length). Negative correlations existed between the crown length and the patient's age for the anterior teeth and mandibular second premolar (r=−0.2, p<0.01). Conclusions The most common canal formation for anterior teeth was the Type I. The anatomic lengths had the strongest influence on the canal configuration of the maxillary first premolar, with Type IV being the most common root canal system. The mandibular second premolars showed maximal diversity in the canal classification terms and had a significant correlation with their crown lengths. Clinical Relevance The complex relationship between the canal morphology and anatomic tooth sizes need meticulous awareness and recognition during endodontic procedures, in conjunction with the demographic variabilities.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Tooth/diagnostic imaging , Dental Pulp Cavity/anatomy & histology , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography/methods , Reference Values , Tooth/anatomy & histology , United States , Sex Factors , Retrospective Studies , Analysis of Variance , Dental Pulp Cavity/diagnostic imaging , Mandible/anatomy & histology , Mandible/diagnostic imaging , Maxilla/anatomy & histology , Maxilla/diagnostic imaging , Odontometry/methods
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