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1.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(4): e201900402, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001091

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the effect of amniotic fluid in liver preservation in organ transplantation, and compare it with standard preservation solutions. Methods: The groups consisted of Group 1: Ringer Lactate (RL) group, Group 2: HTK group, Group 3: UW group, Group 4: AF group. The livers of rats from Group 1, 2, 3, and 4 were perfused and placed into falcon tubes containing RL, HTK, UW, and AF solutions at +4‎°C, respectively. The tubes were stored for 12 hours in the refrigerator at +4°C. Tissue samples were taken at the 6th and 12th hours for histopathological examinations of the perfused livers, and storage solutions for biochemical analyzes at 6th and 12th hours. Results: AF was shown to maintain organ viability by reducing the number of cells undergoing apoptosis. Histopathological changes such as sinusoidal dilatation, hydropic degeneration, and focal necrosis were found to be similar to the groups in which the standard organ preservation solutions were used. Additionally, the results of INOS, IL-10, and TNF-α,which were evaluated immunohistochemically, have been shown to be similar to the UW and HTK groups. Conclusions: AF provided conservation similar to UW and HTK in the 12-hour liver SCS process. The fact that apoptosis values are comparable to standard preservation solutions supports the success of AF in the cold storage of the liver.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Cryopreservation/methods , Organ Preservation Solutions/pharmacology , Amniotic Fluid , Liver/blood supply , Liver/pathology , Organ Preservation/methods , Potassium Chloride/pharmacology , Procaine/pharmacology , Reference Values , Time Factors , Tissue Survival , Immunohistochemistry , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Interleukin-10/analysis , Rats, Wistar , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/analysis , Ringer's Solution/pharmacology , Glucose/pharmacology , Mannitol/pharmacology
2.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 33(3): 211-216, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-958403

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: The present study aimed the functional recovery evaluation after long term of cardiac arrest induced by Custodiol (crystalloid-based) versus del Nido (blood-based) solutions, both added lidocaine and pinacidil as cardioplegic agents. Experiments were performed in isolated rat heart perfusion models. Methods: Male rat heart perfusions, according to Langendorff technique, were induced to cause 3 hours of cardiac arrest with a single dose. The hearts were assigned to one of the following three groups: (I) control; (II) Custodiol-LP; and (III) del Nido-LP. They were evaluated after ischemia throughout 90 minutes of reperfusion. Left ventricular contractility function was reported as percentage of recovery, expressed by developed pressure, maximum dP/dt, minimum dP/dt, and rate pressure product variables. In addition, coronary resistance and myocardial injury marker by alpha-fodrin degradation were also evaluated. Results: At 90 minutes of reperfusion, both solutions had superior left ventricular contractile recovery function than the control group. Del Nido-LP was superior to Custodiol-LP in maximum dP/dt (46%±8 vs. 67%±7, P<0.05) and minimum dP/dt (31%±4 vs. 51%±9, P<0.05) variables. Coronary resistance was lower in del Nido-LP group than in Custodiol-LP (395%±50 vs. 307%±13, P<0.05), as well as alpha-fodrin degradation, with lower levels in del Nido-LP group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Del Nido-LP cardioplegia showed higher functional recovery after 3 hours of ischemia. The analysis of alpha-fodrin degradation showed del Nido-LP solution provided greater protection against myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (IR) in this experimental model.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Cardioplegic Solutions/pharmacology , Myocardial Reperfusion/methods , Potassium Compounds/pharmacology , Pinacidil/pharmacology , Heart Arrest, Induced/methods , Lidocaine/pharmacology , Time Factors , Vascular Resistance/physiology , Cardioplegic Solutions/chemistry , Carrier Proteins/analysis , Blotting, Western , Rats, Wistar , Coronary Vessels/physiopathology , Glucose/pharmacology , Glucose/chemistry , Heart/drug effects , Mannitol/pharmacology , Mannitol/chemistry , Microfilament Proteins/analysis
3.
Clinics ; 69(8): 535-541, 8/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-718190

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the isovolumetric distribution kinetics of crystalloid fluid during cardiopulmonary bypass. METHODS: Ten patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting participated in this prospective observational study. The blood hemoglobin and the serum albumin and sodium concentrations were measured repeatedly during the distribution of priming solution (Ringer's acetate 1470 ml and mannitol 15% 200 ml) and initial cardioplegia. The rate of crystalloid fluid distribution was calculated based on 3-min Hb changes. The preoperative blood volume was extrapolated from the marked hemodilution occurring during the onset of cardiopulmonary bypass. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01115166. RESULTS: The distribution half-time of Ringer's acetate averaged 8 minutes, corresponding to a transcapillary escape rate of 0.38 ml/kg/min. The intravascular albumin mass increased by 5.4% according to mass balance calculations. The preoperative blood volume, as extrapolated from the drop in hemoglobin concentration by 32% (mean) at the beginning of cardiopulmonary bypass, was 0.6-1.2 L less than that estimated by anthropometric methods (p<0.02). The mass balance of sodium indicated a translocation from the intracellular to the extracellular fluid space in 8 of the 10 patients, with a median volume of 236 ml. CONCLUSIONS: The distribution half-time of Ringer's solution during isovolumetric cardiopulmonary bypass was 8 minutes, which is the same as for crystalloid fluid infusions in healthy subjects. The intravascular albumin mass increased. Most patients were hypovolemic prior to the start of anesthesia. Intracellular edema did not occur. .


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Blood Volume/physiology , Cardiopulmonary Bypass , Isotonic Solutions/pharmacokinetics , Blood Volume/drug effects , Brain Edema/etiology , Coronary Artery Bypass , Extracellular Space/metabolism , Fluid Shifts/drug effects , Fluid Shifts/physiology , Hemoglobins/analysis , Mannitol/pharmacology , Prospective Studies , Serum Albumin/analysis , Sodium/blood , Sodium/urine , Water-Electrolyte Balance/physiology
4.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Jul; 52(7): 728-738
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-153753

ABSTRACT

Effect of environmental hypertonicity, due to exposure to 300 mM mannitol solution for 7 days, on the induction of ureogenesis and also on amino acid metabolism was studied in the air-breathing walking catfish, C. batrachus, which is already known to have the capacity to face the problem of osmolarity stress in addition to other environmental stresses in its natural habitats. Exposure to hypertonic mannitol solution led to reduction of ammonia excretion rate by about 2-fold with a concomitant increase of urea-N excretion rate by about 2-fold. This was accompanied by significant increase in the levels of both ammonia and urea in different tissues and also in plasma. Further, the environmental hypertonicity also led to significant accumulation of different non-essential free amino acids (FAAs) and to some extent the essential FAAs, thereby causing a total increase of non-essential FAA pool by 2-3-fold and essential FAA pool by 1.5-2.0-fold in most of the tissues studied including the plasma. The activities of three ornithine-urea cycle (OUC) enzymes such as carbamoyl phosphate synthetase, argininosuccinate synthetase and argininosuccinate lyase in liver and kidney tissues, and four key amino acid metabolism-related enzymes such as glutamine synthetase, glutamate dehydrogenase (reductive amination), alanine aminotransaminase and aspartate aminotransaminase were also significantly up-regulated in different tissues of the fish while exposing to hypertonic environment. Thus, more accumulation and excretion of urea-N observed during hypertonic exposure were probably associated with the induction of ureogenesis through the induced OUC, and the increase of amino acid pool was probably mainly associated with the up-regulation of amino acid synthesizing machineries in this catfish in hypertonic environment. These might have helped the walking catfish in defending the osmotic stress and to acclimatize better under hypertonic environment, which is very much uncommon among freshwater teleosts.


Subject(s)
Air , Amino Acids/metabolism , Ammonia/analysis , Animals , Catfishes/growth & development , Catfishes/metabolism , Diuretics, Osmotic/pharmacology , Environment , Hypertonic Solutions/pharmacology , Mannitol/pharmacology , Ornithine/metabolism , Osmosis/drug effects , Respiration , Urea/analysis , Urea/metabolism , Walking
5.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 29(2): 156-162, Apr-Jun/2014. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-719409

ABSTRACT

Introdução: As soluções que provocam parada cardíaca eletiva estão em constante evolução, porém, o composto ideal ainda não foi encontrado. Os autores comparam uma nova solução cardioplégica com histidina-triptofano-glutamato (Grupo 2) com histidina-triptofano-cetoglutarato (Grupo 1) em modelo de coração isolado de rato. Objetivo: Quantificar a dimensão fractal e entropia de Shannon em miócitos de rato submetidos à cardioplegia utilizando solução histidina-triptofano com glutamato em modelo experimental, considerando-se os marcadores caspase, IL-8 e Ki-67. Métodos: Vinte ratos machos de raça Wistar foram anestesiados e heparinizados. O tórax foi aberto, realizado cardiectomia e infundido 40 ml/Kg de solução cardioplégica apropriada. Os corações foram mantidos por 2 horas na mesma solução a 4ºC e, após esse período, colocados em aparato de Langendorff por 30 minutos com solução de Ringer Locke. Foram feitas análises imunohistoquímicas para caspase, IL-8 e KI-67. Resultados: A dimensão fractal e a entropia de Shannon dos corações submetidos à parada cardíaca eletiva nos grupos 1 e 2 não foram diferentes. Conclusão: A quantidade de informações avaliada pela entropia de Shannon e a distribuição das mesmas (dada pela dimensão fractal) nas lâminas de coração de rato submetidas à cardioplegia com solução histidina-triptofano-acetoglutarato ou histidina-triptofano-glutamato não foram diferentes, o que mostra que a solução de histidina-triptofano-glutamato é tão boa quanto a histidina-triptofano-cetoglutarato na preservação dos miócitos em modelo de coração isolado de rato. .


Introduction: Solutions that cause elective cardiac arrest are constantly evolving, but the ideal compound has not yet been found. The authors compare a new cardioplegic solution with histidine-tryptophan-glutamate (Group 2) and other one with histidine-tryptophan-cetoglutarate (Group 1) in a model of isolated rat heart. Objective: To quantify the fractal dimension and Shannon entropy in rat myocytes subjected to cardioplegia solution using histidine-tryptophan with glutamate in an experimental model, considering the caspase markers, IL-8 and KI-67. Methods: Twenty male Wistar rats were anesthetized and heparinized. The chest was opened, the heart was withdrawn and 40 ml/kg of cardioplegia (with histidine-tryptophan-cetoglutarate or histidine-tryptophan-glutamate solution) was infused. The hearts were kept for 2 hours at 4ºC in the same solution, and thereafter placed in the Langendorff apparatus for 30 min with Ringer-Locke solution. Analyzes were performed for immunohistochemical caspase, IL-8 and KI-67. Results: The fractal dimension and Shannon entropy were not different between groups histidine-tryptophan-glutamate and histidine-tryptophan-acetoglutarate. Conclusion: The amount of information measured by Shannon entropy and the distribution thereof (given by fractal dimension) of the slices treated with histidine-tryptophan-cetoglutarate and histidine-tryptophan-glutamate were not different, showing that the histidine-tryptophan-glutamate solution is as good as histidine-tryptophan-acetoglutarate to preserve myocytes in isolated rat heart. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Cardioplegic Solutions/pharmacology , Glutamic Acid/pharmacology , Heart Arrest, Induced/methods , Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects , Caspases/analysis , Disease Models, Animal , Entropy , Fractals , Glucose/pharmacology , Heart/drug effects , Immunohistochemistry , /analysis , /analysis , Mannitol/pharmacology , Potassium Chloride/pharmacology , Procaine/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Time Factors
6.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 28(4): 524-530, out.-dez. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-703122

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Myocardial preservation during open heart surgeries and harvesting for transplant are of great importance. The heart at the end of procedure has to resume its functions as soon as possible. All cardioplegic solutions are based on potassium for induction of cardioplegic arrest. OBJECTIVE: To assess a cardioplegic solution with no potassium addition to the formula with two other commercially available cardioplegic solutions. The comparative assessment was based on cytotoxicity, adenosine triphosphate myocardial preservation, and caspase 3 activity. The tested solution (LIRM) uses low doses of sodium channel blocker (lidocaine), potassium channel opener (cromakalin), and actin/myosin cross bridge inhibitor (2,3-butanedione monoxime). METHODS: Wistar rats underwent thoracotomy under mechanical ventilation and three different solutions were used for "in situ" perfusion for cardioplegic arrest induction: Custodiol (HTK), Braile (G/A), and LIRM solutions. After cardiac arrest, the hearts were excised and kept in cold storage for 4 hours. After this period, the hearts were assessed with optical light microscopy, myocardial ATP content and caspase 3 activity. All three solutions were evaluated for direct cytotoxicity with L929 and WEHI-164 cells. RESULTS: The ATP content was higher in the Custodiol group compared to two other solutions (P<0.05). The caspase activity was lower in the HTK group compared to LIRM and G/A solutions (P<0.01). The LIRM solution showed lower caspase activity compared to Braile solution (P<0.01). All solutions showed no cytotoxicity effect after 24 hours of cells exposure to cardioplegic solutions. CONCLUSION: Cardioplegia solutions without potassium are promised and aminoacid addition might be an interesting strategy. More evaluation is necessary for an optimal cardioplegic solution development.


INTRODUÇÃO: Preservação do miocárdio durante cirurgias cardíacas abertas e de colheita para transplante são de grande importância. O coração ao final do processo tem de retomar as suas funções, logo que possível. Todas as soluções cardioplégicas são baseadas em potássio, para indução de parada cardioplégica. OBJETIVO: Comparar a uma solução cardioplégica sem adição de potássio à sua fórmula com duas outras soluções cardioplégicas disponíveis comercialmente. A avaliação comparativa foi baseada na citotoxicidade, preservação miocárdica (adenosina trifosfato, ATP) e atividade da caspase 3. A solução testada (LIRM) utiliza baixas doses de bloqueador de canal de sódio (lidocaína), abridor do canal de potássio (cromacalina) e inibidor da ponte actina/miosina (2,3-butanodiona monoxima). MÉTODOS: Ratos Wistar foram submetidos à toracotomia sob ventilação mecânica e três soluções diferentes foram utilizadas para perfusão in situ para a indução de parada cardioplégica: soluções Custodiol (HTK) Braile (G/A) e LIRM. Após parada cardíaca, os corações foram retirados e mantidos em câmara fria por 4 horas. Após esse período, o coração foi avaliado com microscopia de luz ótica, o conteúdo de ATP miocárdico e atividade da caspase 3. Todas as três soluções foram avaliadas quanto à citotoxicidade direta com células L929 e WEHI-164. RESULTADOS: A quantidade de ATP foi maior no grupo Custodiol em comparação às com outras duas soluções (P<0,05). A atividade de caspase foi menor no grupo HTK quando comparado às soluções LIRM e G/A (P<0,01). A solução LIRM demonstrou menor atividade da caspase em comparação à solução Braile (P<0,01). Todas as soluções não mostraram qualquer efeito de citotoxicidade após 24 horas de exposição das células às soluções cardioplégicas. CONCLUSÃO: Soluções cardioplégicas sem potássio são uma perspectiva e a adição de aminoácido pode ser uma estratégia interessante. Mais avaliações são necessárias para o desenvolvimento ideal da solução cardioplégica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Cardioplegic Solutions/pharmacology , Heart Arrest, Induced/methods , Heart/drug effects , Organ Preservation/methods , Adenosine Triphosphate/analysis , Cardioplegic Solutions/chemistry , /analysis , Cell Survival/drug effects , Glucose/chemistry , Glucose/pharmacology , Models, Animal , Mannitol/chemistry , Mannitol/pharmacology , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Potassium Chloride/chemistry , Potassium Chloride/pharmacology , Potassium/chemistry , Potassium/pharmacology , Procaine/chemistry , Procaine/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Sodium Channel Blockers/chemistry , Time Factors
7.
Acta cir. bras ; 28(2): 106-111, Feb. 2013. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-662357

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate hemodynamic effects of mannitol infusion in patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage. METHODS: Thirty patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage were enrolled. Transcranial doppler was used to detect variables of bilateral middle cerebral arteria (MCA) including mean velocity (Vm) and pulsitility index (PI) before and after125ml and 250ml mannitol infusion (0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240 min). RESULTS: When 125ml or 250ml mannitol was infused in patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage, Vm of bilateral MCA elevated, and reached the top at 30min, and then decreased. PI decreased in the affected MCA (250ml) and in the unaffected MCA (125ml and 250ml). CONCLUSION: Mannitol infusion in patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage can improve cerebral blood flow in bilateral hemispheres and decrease intracranial pressure in the hemorrhagic hemisphere (250ml) and in the nonhemorrhagic hemisphere (125ml and 250ml).


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Cerebral Hemorrhage/therapy , Cerebrovascular Circulation/drug effects , Diuretics, Osmotic/administration & dosage , Hemodynamics/drug effects , Intracranial Pressure/drug effects , Mannitol/administration & dosage , Acute Disease , Diuretics, Osmotic/pharmacology , Echocardiography, Doppler, Pulsed , Infusions, Intravenous , Mannitol/pharmacology , Middle Cerebral Artery/drug effects
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-124616

ABSTRACT

The activation of nuclear factor of activated T cells 5 (NFAT5), a well-known osmoprotective factor, can be induced by isotonic stimuli, such as activated Toll-like receptors (TLRs). It is unclear, however, how NFAT5 discriminates between isotonic and hypertonic stimuli. In this study we identified a novel context-dependent suppression of NFAT5 target gene expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or a high salt (NaCl) concentration. Although LPS and NaCl both used NFAT5 as a core transcription factor, these stimuli mutually inhibited distinct sets of NFAT5 targets within the cells. Although reactive oxygen species (ROS) are essential for this inhibition, the source of ROS differed depending on the context: mitochondria for high salt and xanthine oxidase for TLRs. Specifically, the high salt-induced suppression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) production was mediated through the ROS-induced inhibition of NFAT5 binding to the IL-6 promoter. The context-dependent inhibition of NFAT5 target gene expression was also confirmed in mouse spleen and kidney tissues that were cotreated with LPS and high salt. Taken together, our data suggest that ROS function as molecular sensors to discriminate between TLR ligation and osmotic stimuli in RAW 264.7 macrophages, directing NFAT5 activity toward proinflammatory or hypertonic responses in a context-dependent manner.


Subject(s)
Animals , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Interleukin-6/biosynthesis , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Macrophages/drug effects , Male , Mannitol/pharmacology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics , Protein Binding/drug effects , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Rotenone/pharmacology , Sodium Chloride/pharmacology , Toll-Like Receptors , Transcription Factors/genetics
9.
J. bras. pneumol ; 38(4): 461-469, jul.-ago. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-647812

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Comparar os achados histopatológicos e de apoptose em pulmões de ratos preservados em soluções low-potassium dextran (LPD, baixo potássio dextrana), histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate (HTK, histidina-triptofano-cetoglutarato) ou salina normal (SN) em 6 h e 12 h de isquemia pela utilização de um modelo experimental de perfusão pulmonar ex vivo. MÉTODOS: Sessenta ratos Wistar foram anestesiados, randomizados e submetidos à perfusão anterógrada pela artéria pulmonar com uma das soluções preservadoras. Após a extração, os blocos cardiopulmonares foram preservados por 6 ou 12 h a 4ºC, sendo então reperfundidos com sangue homólogo em um sistema de perfusão ex vivo durante 60 min. Ao final da reperfusão, fragmentos do lobo médio foram extraídos e processados para histopatologia, sendo avaliados os seguintes parâmetros: congestão, edema alveolar, hemorragia alveolar, hemorragia, infiltrado inflamatório e infiltrado intersticial. O grau de apoptose foi avaliado pelo método TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling. RESULTADOS: A histopatologia demonstrou que todos os pulmões preservados com SN apresentaram edema alveolar após 12 h de isquemia. Não houve diferenças em relação ao grau de apoptose nos grupos estudados. CONCLUSÕES: No presente estudo, os achados histopatológicos e de apoptose foram semelhantes com o uso das soluções LPD e HTK, enquanto a presença de edema foi significativamente maior com o uso de SN.


OBJECTIVE: To compare histopathological findings and the degree of apoptosis among rat lungs preserved with low-potassium dextran (LPD) solution, histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate (HTK) solution, or normal saline (NS) at two ischemia periods (6 h and 12 h) using an experimental rat model of ex vivo lung perfusion. METHODS: Sixty Wistar rats were anesthetized, randomized, and submitted to antegrade perfusion via pulmonary artery with one of the preservation solutions. Following en bloc extraction, the heart-lung blocks were preserved for 6 h or 12 h at 4ºC and then reperfused with homologous blood for 60 min in an ex vivo lung perfusion system. At the end of the reperfusion, fragments of the middle lobe were extracted and processed for histopathological examination. The parameters evaluated were congestion, alveolar edema, alveolar hemorrhage, inflammatory infiltrate, and interstitial infiltrate. The degree of apoptosis was assessed using the TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling method. RESULTS: The histopathological examination showed that all of the lungs preserved with NS presented alveolar edema after 12 h of ischemia. There were no statistically significant differences among the groups in terms of the degree of apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the histopathological and apoptosis findings were similar with the use of either LPD or HTK solutions, whereas the occurrence of edema was significantly more common with the use of NS.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Apoptosis , Lung , Liver/pathology , Organ Preservation Solutions/pharmacology , Organ Preservation/methods , Potassium Chloride/pharmacology , Glucose/pharmacology , Liver/drug effects , Mannitol/pharmacology , Pulmonary Edema , Perfusion/methods , Procaine/pharmacology , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar
10.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 27(1): 110-116, jan.-mar. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-638658

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a growing need to improve myocardial protection, which will lead to better performance of cardiac operations and reduce morbidity and mortality. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of myocardial protection solution using both intracellular and extracellular crystalloid type regarding the performance of the electrical conduction system, left ventricular contractility and edema, after being subjected to ischemic arrest and reperfusion. METHODS: Hearts isolated from male Wistar (n=32) rats were prepared using Langendorff method and randomly divided equally into four groups according the cardioprotective solutions used Krebs-Henseleit-Buffer (KHB), Bretschneider-HTK (HTK), St. Thomas-1 (STH-1) and Celsior (CEL). After stabilization with KHB at 37ºC, baseline values (control) were collected for heart rate (HR), left ventricle systolic pressure (LVSP), maximum first derivate of rise left ventricular pressure (+dP/dt), maximum first derivate of fall left ventricular pressure (-dP/dt) and coronary flow (CF). The hearts were then perfused at 10ºC for 5 min and kept for 2 h in static ischemia at 20ºC in each cardioprotective solution. Data evaluation was done using analysis of variance in completely randomized One-Way ANOVA and Tukey's test for multiple comparisons. The level of statistical significance chosen was P<0.05. RESULTS: HR was restored with all the solutions used. The evaluation of left ventricular contractility (LVSP, +dP/ dt and -dP/dt) showed that treatment with CEL solution was better compared to other solutions. When analyzing the CF, the HTK solution showed better protection against edema. CONCLUSION: Despite the cardioprotective crystalloid solutions studied are not fully able to suppress the deleterious effects of ischemia and reperfusion in the rat heart, the CEL solution had significantly higher results followed by HTK>KHB>STH-1.


INTRODUÇÃO: Existe crescente necessidade de aprimorar a proteção miocárdica, para melhor desempenho das operações cardíacas e diminuição da morbimortalidade. Portanto, o objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a eficácia da proteção miocárdica usando tanto solução cristaloide tipo intracelular como extracelular quanto ao desempenho do sistema de condução elétrica, contratilidade do ventrículo esquerdo e edema, após parada isquêmica e posterior reperfusão. MÉTODOS: Corações isolados de ratos Wistar foram montados em Langendorff e aleatoriamente divididos em quatro grupos. de acordo com as soluções cardioprotetoras utilizadas Krebs-Henseleit-Buffer (KHB), Bretschneider-HTK (HTK), St. Thomas-1(STH-1) e Celsior (CEL). Após a estabilização com KHB a 37ºC, valores basais (controle) foram coletados para frequência cardíaca (FC), pressão sistólica do ventrículo esquerdo (PSVE), derivada máxima de aumento da pressão ventricular esquerda (+dP/dt), derivada máxima de queda da pressão ventricular esquerda (-dP/dt) e fluxo coronariano (FCo). Os corações foram então perfundidos a 10ºC por 5 min e mantidos por 2 h em isquemia estática a 20ºC em cada solução cardioprotetora. Avaliação dos dados foi por análise de variância inteiramente casualizados em One-Way ANOVA e teste de Tukey para comparações múltiplas. O nível de significância estatística escolhido foi P<0,05. RESULTADOS: Houve recuperação da FC com todas as soluções utilizadas. A avaliação da contratilidade ventricular esquerda (PSVE, +dP/dt e -dP/dt) demonstrou que o tratamento com a solução CEL foi melhor em comparação às outras soluções. Ao analisar o CF, a solução HTK indicou melhor proteção contra edema. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar das soluções cristaloides cardioprotetoras estudadas não serem capazes de suprimir os efeitos deletérios da isquemia e reperfusão no coração de ratos, a solução CEL apresentou resultado superior seguido por HTK>KHB>STH-1.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Cardioplegic Solutions/pharmacology , Edema, Cardiac/pathology , Heart Transplantation , Heart Conduction System/drug effects , Isotonic Solutions/pharmacology , Myocardial Contraction/drug effects , Ventricular Function, Left/drug effects , Analysis of Variance , Bicarbonates/pharmacology , Calcium Chloride/pharmacology , Disaccharides/pharmacology , Electrolytes/pharmacology , Glucose/pharmacology , Glutamates/pharmacology , Glutathione/pharmacology , Heart Arrest, Induced/methods , Hemodynamics/drug effects , Histidine/pharmacology , Models, Animal , Magnesium/pharmacology , Mannitol/pharmacology , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Organ Preservation/methods , Potassium Chloride/pharmacology , Procaine/pharmacology , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Sodium Chloride/pharmacology , Tromethamine/pharmacology
11.
Acta cir. bras ; 26(5): 396-403, Sept.-Oct. 2011. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-599643

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) associate with different preservation solutions, in the protecting of gut. METHODS: Four groups of 14 rats underwent laparotomy and collecting 20 cm of ileum, for preservation, at 4ºC, in Belzer (Belz), Ringer (RL), Celsior (Cs) and Custodiol (Cust) solutions, for 24 hours. Prior to collection, half of the animals in each group were subjected to IPC. During preservation, in the periods of zero, 12, 18 and 24 hours, were conducted evaluating the degree of mucosal injury and dosage of malondialdehyde acid (MDA). RESULTS: In all periods the RL group, with and without IPC, presented MDA values higher than the Belz and Cs. The degree of mucosal injury in the non-ipc RLgroup with 12h preservation was higher than the others; with 18 and 24h, the RL and Cust had higher degrees of damage than Cs and Belz. With IPC, in all periods, the group Cs and Belz had lower degrees of injury. CONCLUSION: The Celsior and Belzer solutions had better protective effects on the gut and these effects were enhanced by IPC.


OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos do precondicionamento isquêmico (PCI) associado a diferentes soluções de preservação, na proteção do intestino delgado. MÉTODOS: Quatro grupos de 14 ratos Wistar, foram submetidos à laparotomia e coleta de 20 cm de íleo, para preservação, a 4ºC, nas soluções de Belzer (Belz), Ringer (RL), Celsior (Cs) e Custodiol (Cust) por 24 horas. Previamente à coleta, em metade dos animais de cada grupo, o intestino foi submetido ao PCI. Durante a preservação, nos períodos de Zero, 12, 18 e 24 horas, foram realizados avaliação do grau de lesão da mucosa e dosagem do ácido malondialdeído (MDA). RESULTADOS: Em todos os períodos o grupo RL, sem e com pci, apresentou valores maiores de MDA do que o Belz e Cs. O grau de lesão da mucosa nos grupos sem pci com preservação de 12h, no grupo RL, foi maior que nos demais; com 18h e 24h o grupo RL e Cust apresentaram maiores graus de lesão do que Cs e Belz. Com o pci, em todos os períodos, os grupos Belz e Cs apresentaram menores graus de lesão CONCLUSÃO: As Soluções Celsior e Belzer tiveram melhores efeitos na proteção do intestino e estes efeitos foram incrementados pelo precondicionamento isquêmico.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Intestinal Mucosa , Ischemic Preconditioning , Intestine, Small/blood supply , Organ Preservation Solutions/pharmacology , Organ Preservation/methods , Adenosine/pharmacology , Allopurinol/pharmacology , Disaccharides/pharmacology , Electrolytes/pharmacology , Glucose/pharmacology , Glutamates/pharmacology , Glutathione/pharmacology , Histidine/pharmacology , Insulin/pharmacology , Isotonic Solutions/pharmacology , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Mannitol/pharmacology , Potassium Chloride/pharmacology , Procaine/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Raffinose/pharmacology , Time Factors
13.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2005 Aug; 43(8): 740-5
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-56055

ABSTRACT

In vitro cultures of plant tissues are known to mimic the response of field-grown plants when subjected to stress treatments. This investigation on Triticum aestivum explores the effect of drought stress on somatic embryogenesis and endogenous proline content. Leaf bases were cultured on MS medium supplemented with 2,4-D (10 microM) and different concentrations of PEG (2.5, 5, 7.5%) or mannitol (0.25 and 0.5 M) and also subjected to different periods of aerial drying in the laminar flow for one-day and subsequently transferred to MS basal medium. PEG treatment induced a high percentage (up to 50%) of embryoid formation. However, with mannitol and aerial drying, percentage of embryoid formation decreased with increasing concentrations and duration. After ten days, the endogenous proline content of explants treated with different concentrations of PEG, mannitol and different durations of aerial drying increased with increasing concentration and increasing duration of the treatment, thus, corroborating the role of proline as an osmolyte during stress conditions. Similarly, addition of metals such as cadmium and cobalt caused a reduction in percentage explants depicting embryogenesis. However, when cadmium was employed alone, 22% explants displayed somatic embryogenesis as compared to 54% in 2,4-D treated cultures.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Physiological/drug effects , Dehydration , Mannitol/pharmacology , Metals, Heavy/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/drug effects , Plant Physiological Phenomena/drug effects , Polyethylene Glycols/pharmacology , Seeds/drug effects , Triticum/drug effects
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-160617

ABSTRACT

Transcranial Doppler (TCD) was carried out to determine the resistive index (RI) values of normal canine cerebral arteries and its reproducibility and to evaluate the change of cerebral vascular resistance following diuretics administration. RI values of rostral cerebral artery (RCA) were compared between fontanelle window and temporal window. Normal ranges and reproducibility of the RI values were examined in the rostal cerebral artery (RCA) and caudal cerebral artery (CCA). And after administration of diuretics, TCD-derived RI values were measured at RCA and CCA. Cerebral vascular RI values of RCA and CCA were 0.55 +/- 0.05 and 0.55 +/- 0.03 in the normal dogs, respectively. There was no significant difference of RI between male and female; between fontanelle window and temporal window. Reproducibility of RI measurements between intraobserver and interobserver were relatively high. The RI of RCA and CCA were significantly increased 15 minutes after mannitol administration (p<0.01) and returned to baseline values by 30 minutes, but it did not significantly change after furosemide and saline administration. The results suggest that TCD is a useful test which can obtain reproducible results from any window and has the advantage of detecting subtle changes in cerebral vascular resistance.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cerebral Arteries/drug effects , Diuretics/pharmacology , Dogs/physiology , Feasibility Studies , Furosemide/pharmacology , Mannitol/pharmacology , Reference Values , Reproducibility of Results , Ultrasonography, Doppler/veterinary , Vascular Resistance/drug effects
15.
Neurol India ; 2003 Sep; 51(3): 350-4
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-120608

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although many experimental and clinical studies were performed on the pathophysiology and treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI), the electrophysiological and ultrastructural changes of the spinal cord were not precisely evaluated. AIMS: To investigate the effect of mannitol on Somatosensory Evoked Potentials (SSEP), postoperative neurological recovery and ultrastructural findings after an experimental SCI. Setting: The experimental microsurgery laboratory of a university hospital. DESIGN: A prospective, randomized animal study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were used and divided into three groups (Groups I-III) for this study. Those in Group I were control animals who underwent laminectomy only, and non-traumatized spinal cord samples were obtained 2 weeks later. SCI was produced in Groups II and III using clip compression technique, and cord samples were obtained 2 weeks later. The rats in Group II received 2 g/kg of 20% mannitol intraperitoneally, immediately and three hours after trauma was induced; and those in Group III received the same amount of 0,9% NaCl in the same manner. Preoperative and postoperative SSEP records at the end of 2 weeks were obtained. Electron microscopy examination of the cord samples was done at 2 weeks postoperatively. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Fischer's Exact Test. RESULTS: SSEP records, ultrastructural findings and clinical recovery showed that minor neural damage and significant recovery occurred in Group II. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that the administration of 2 g/kg of 20% mannitol produces significant improvement in the neural structures and protects the spinal cord following injury.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diuretics, Osmotic/pharmacology , Electrophysiology , Male , Mannitol/pharmacology , Microscopy, Electron , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Spinal Cord/pathology , Spinal Cord Injuries/drug therapy
16.
Rev. argent. anestesiol ; 56(4): 242-7, jul.-ago. 1998. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-236512

ABSTRACT

El manitol es un diurético hiperosmolar que se ha utilizado durante los últimos treinta años en procedimientos neuroanestésicos. Se han propuesto múltiples mecanismos para explicar su efecto sobre el edema cerebral: deshidratación cerebral ocasionada por aumento de la osmolaridad plasmática, vasoconstricción en respuesta a disminución de la viscosidad sanguínea y disminución de la formación de líquido cefalorraquídeo. Recientemente se ha estudiado su capacidad para reducir el daño isquémico, al disminuir los niveles de radicales libres en las zonas injuriadas. En la actualidad su uso se halla controvertido. entre sus ventajas se encuentran la disminución rápida y relativamente prolongada de la presión intracraneal, la preservación de la función renal y la forma sencilla de administración. Las alteraciones hidroelectrolíticas, la marcada variación interindividual de sus efectos y el riesgo de producir rebotes en la presión intracraneal demuestran que la infusión de manitol no carece de efectos nocivos. Se revisan las principales características farmacocinéticas, farmacodinámicas, indicaciones y efectos adversos del manitol, así como su utilidad en los principales procedimientos neuroanestésicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anesthesia, General , Diuretics, Osmotic/pharmacokinetics , Intracranial Hypertension/therapy , Mannitol/administration & dosage , Mannitol/adverse effects , Mannitol , Mannitol/pharmacokinetics , Mannitol/pharmacology , Mannitol/therapeutic use , Neurosurgery , Neurosurgical Procedures , Brain Edema/therapy , Brain Injuries/therapy , Brain Ischemia , Hemodynamics , Macular Edema , Water-Electrolyte Balance
17.
Rev. AMRIGS ; 41(1): 41-7, jan.-mar. 1997.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-194042

ABSTRACT

O diurético osmótico manitol é uma droga amplamente utilizada em neurociruriga e neurologia a fim de diminuir a pressäo intracraniana e melhorar a microcirculaçäo cerebral. As teorias sobre seu mecanismo de açäo säo revisadas: gradiente osmótico pela barreira hematoencefálica, auto-regulaçäo vascular e neutralizaçäo dos radicais livres do oxigênio. Sua posologia é empírica, segunda a experiência própria de cada autor. O conhecimento dos critérios básicos para o uso do manitol e de sua reposiçäo hidreletrolítica é fundamental para a manutençäo da osmolaridade sérica em valores terapêuticos


Subject(s)
Mannitol/administration & dosage , Mannitol/pharmacology , Diuretics, Osmotic/administration & dosage , Diuretics, Osmotic/pharmacology , Pseudotumor Cerebri/drug therapy
18.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 59-67, 1996.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-183982

ABSTRACT

Unlike most secretory cells, high extra cellular calcium inhibits rather than stimulates hormonal secretion in several cells such as parathyroid cells, Juxtaglomerular cells and osteoclast. To gain further insight into the common but unique stimulus-secretion coupling mechanism in these cells, bovine parathyroid slices were incubated in various conditions of Krebs-Ringer (KR) solution containing essential amino acids. Parathyroid cells showed the inverse dependency of secretion on extra cellular calcium concentration as we expected. Ammonium acetate overcame the inhibitory effect of 2.5 mM of calcium and the maximum effect was as much as the five times of the basal value, while there was a little additive effect under 0 mM CaCl2. PTH secretion was biphasic according to the change of extra cellular osmolarity and the lowest response was observed at 300 mOsm/l. In Na-rich KR solution, high concentration of nigericin (> 10(-4)M) completely overcame the inhibitory effect of 2.5 mM CaCl2 and the maximum stimulatory effect was 8 times greater whereas it was only 2 times greater without CaCl2. In K-rich KR solution that abolished the K-gradient between the extra cellular solution and the cytoplasm, the rate of PTH secretion increased, and furthermore the addition of nigericin increased the rate of secretion significantly. The results above suggested that the osmotic swelling of the secretory vesicle in parathyroid cells might promote exocytosis as in Juxtaglomerular cells. We propose that the swelling of the vesicle is also prerequisite for secretion in several cells inhibited paradoxically by Ca++, whatever the signal transduction pathway for swelling of the secretory granules induced by the lowering of Ca++ in cytoplasm are.


Subject(s)
Acetates/pharmacology , Animals , Body Fluids/metabolism , Cattle , Cell Membrane Permeability , Ionophores/pharmacology , Mannitol/pharmacology , Nigericin/pharmacology , Osmosis , Parathyroid Glands/drug effects , Parathyroid Hormone/metabolism
19.
Bulletin of Alexandria Faculty of Medicine. 1994; 30 (5): 1275-91
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-121048

ABSTRACT

This work was done on 20 adults patients scheduled for elective brain surgery to compare the effects of hypertonic saline 7.5% [in a dose of 4 ml/kg infused over 10 minutes] and mannitol 20% [in a dose of 1 g/kg]. It was found that hypertonic saline improved circulation by plasma volume expansion with significant increase in MABP and CVP and significant increase in AMBP and CVP and reduction of brain bulk more than mannitol. Serum sodium and osmolality was elevated more with hypertonic saline than in mannitol, while serum potassium was more maintained with hypertonic saline than with mannitol. Urine output increased gradually in hypertonic saline, while in mannitol, there was rapid diuresis. Hypertonic saline is recommended to be a safe method for reduction of ICP


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Electrolytes/physiology , Mannitol/pharmacology , Intracranial Pressure/drug effects , Hemodynamics , Saline Solution, Hypertonic/pharmacology
20.
Acta cir. bras ; 7(4): 138-41, out.-dez. 1992. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-187304

ABSTRACT

Um estudo polarográfico do oxigênio renal, no córtex e na medula, antes e após isquemia renal foi realizado em 27 caes anestesiados, implantando-se 2 eletrodos de platino no rim esquerdo. A pesquisa teve como objetivo o estudo do fenômeno "no-reflow" após 2 e 3 horas de isquemia renal sob proteçao do manitol. A polarografia detectou o fenômeno "no-reflow" e demonstrou o efeito protetor do manitol na isquemia renal.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Ischemia , Kidney/blood supply , Mannitol/pharmacology , Polarography , Kidney Glomerulus/pathology , Kidney Cortex , Kidney Medulla , Kidney/drug effects , Oxygen , Time Factors , Kidney Tubules/pathology
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