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1.
Rev. cuba. med ; 62(4)dic. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1550883

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las manifestaciones gastrointestinales y en especial la disfunción esofágica son frecuentes en pacientes con diagnóstico de esclerosis sistémica. Objetivos: Determinar los hallazgos manométricos en el esófago de pacientes con esclerosis sistémica. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, en 86 pacientes con diagnóstico de esclerosis sistémica que fueron atendidos en el Servicio de Reumatología del Hospital Hermanos Ameijeiras, en el período comprendido de enero de 2020 a diciembre de 2021. Resultados: La edad media fue de 49,5 ± 15,3 años, (94,3 por ciento) en el sexo femenino. El (90,7 por ciento) tenía trastornos de la motilidad esofágica, principalmente los trastornos mayores (58,1por ciento) y el esfínter esofágico corto (62,8 por ciento). La presencia de síntomas como la regurgitación, la pirosis y la disfagia se relacionaron de forma significativa en la mayoría de los parámetros manométricos. De igual forma, el tiempo de evolución de la enfermedad (10,1 ± 9,1 frente a 5,9 ± 5,9 años), el fenómeno de Raynaud (93,9 por ciento frente a 25,0 por ciento) y la esclerosis sistémica difusa (96,2 por ciento frente a 82,4 por ciento) fueron significativamente mayores en pacientes con trastornos de la motilidad esofágica. La edad y el sexo no mostraron una asociación significativa con las alteraciones manométricas. Conclusiones: Se concluye que los pacientes con esclerosis sistémica difusa, fenómeno de Raynaud, a partir de la presencia de los síntomas y de la evolución de la enfermedad tienen una elevada probabilidad de padecer trastornos de la motilidad esofágica(AU)


Introduction: Gastrointestinal manifestations, and especially esophageal dysfunction, are common in patients diagnosed with systemic sclerosis. Objectives: To determine the manometric findings in the esophagus of patients with systemic sclerosis. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out on 86 patients with a diagnosis of systemic sclerosis who were treated in the Rheumatology Service of Hermanos Ameijeiras Hospital from January 2020 to December 2021. Results: The mean age was 49.5 ± 15.3 years, (94.3percent) in females. 90.7percent had esophageal motility disorders, mainly major disorders (58.1percent) and 62.8percent had short esophageal sphincter. The presence of symptoms such as regurgitation, heartburn and dysphagia were significantly related to most manometric parameters. Similarly, the duration of the disease (10.1 ± 9.1 versus 5.9 ± 5.9 years), Raynaud's phenomenon (93.9percent versus 25.0percent) and sclerosis diffuse systemic (96.2percent vs. 82.4percent) were significantly higher in patients with esophageal motility disorders. Age and sex did not show significant association with manometric alterations. Conclusions: It is concluded that patients with diffuse systemic sclerosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, based on the presence of symptoms, and the evolution of the disease, have high probability of suffering from esophageal motility disorders(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Esophageal Diseases/epidemiology , Manometry/methods , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
2.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 38(4): 632-641, 20230906. tab, fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1509699

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La acalasia es un trastorno motor del esófago caracterizado por la ausencia de peristalsis y la alteración en la relajación del esfínter esofágico inferior. La cardiomiotomía laparoscópica de Heller más funduplicatura parcial es el tratamiento estándar. La mejoría sintomática ha sido bien documentada, pero no hay suficiente información objetiva respecto a los cambios fisiológicos y radiográficos luego del procedimiento. Métodos. Estudio de cohorte bidireccional de pacientes llevados a cardiomiotomía laparoscópica de Heller, entre los años 2018 y 2021, en el Hospital Universitario San Vicente Fundación de Medellín, Colombia. Se describen variables demográficas y clínicas. Se realizaron puntaje sintomático de Eckardt, manometría esofágica y radiografía de esófago en el pre y postoperatorio. Se hizo comparación de síntomas, presión basal del esfínter esofágico inferior, presión de relajación integrada y diámetro del esófago antes y después de la intervención. Resultados. Se incluyeron 24 pacientes. El 63 % fueron mujeres y la edad promedio fue de 44 años. Los valores promedio preoperatorios vs postoperatorios fueron: puntaje de Eckardt 10,6 vs 1,4 puntos (p<0,001), presión basal de 41,4 vs 18,1 mmHg (p=0,004) y presión de relajación integrada de 28,6 vs 12,5 mmHg (p=0,001). El diámetro del esófago no presentó cambios. No hubo correlación de síntomas con los cambios de presión del esfínter esofágico inferior. El tiempo de seguimiento fue de 20 meses. Conclusiones. La cardiomiotomía de Heller es un procedimiento altamente efectivo para el tratamiento definitivo de la acalasia, logrando una mejoría subjetiva y objetiva basada en síntomas y en parámetros de manometría, respectivamente


Introduction. Achalasia is a motor disorder of the esophagus characterized by the absence of peristalsis and impaired relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter. Laparoscopic Heller ́s cardiomyotomy plus partial fundoplication is the standard treatment. Symptomatic improvement has been well documented, but there is insufficient objective information regarding physiologic and radiographic changes after the procedure. Methods. Bidirectional cohort study of patients underwent laparoscopic Heller ́s cardiomyotomy between 2018 and 2021 at the San Vicente Fundación University Hospital in Medellín, Colombia. Demographic and clinical variables are described. Eckardt symptom score, esophageal manometry, and esophageal radiography were performed pre and postoperatively. A comparison of symptoms, baseline lower esophageal sphincter pressure, integrated relaxation pressure, and esophageal diameter before and after intervention were performed.Results. 24 patients were included. 63% were women and the average age was 44 years. The preoperative vs. postoperative mean values were: Eckardt score 10.6 vs. 1.4 points (p<0.001), basal pressure of 41.4 vs. 18.1 mmHg (p=0.004) and integrated relaxation pressure of 28.6 vs. 12.5 mmHg (p=0.001). The diameter of the esophagus did not present changes. There was no correlation of symptoms with lower esophageal sphincter pressure changes. The follow-up time was 20 months. Conclusions. Heller cardiomyotomy is a highly effective procedure for the definitive treatment of achalasia, achieving subjective and objective improvements, based on symptoms and manometry parameters, respectively


Subject(s)
Humans , Esophageal Achalasia , Esophageal Sphincter, Lower , Laparoscopy , Heller Myotomy , Manometry
3.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 43(3): 159-165, July-sept. 2023. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521149

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Distension of the rectum wall and subsequent momentary relaxation of the internal anal sphincter (IAS) trigger a reflex called the rectoanal inhibitory reflex (RAIR). This same rectal distension causes a reflex contraction of the external anal sphincter (EAS), responsible for conscious continence called rectoanal excitatory reflex (RAER). This set of reflexes are named sampling reflex. Objectives: The sampling reflex is necessary to initiate defecation or flatulence. The objective of this study is to evaluate the sampling reflex and its practical applicability as a manometric marker of the main defecation disorders. Methodology: This review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) items. The development method consisted of searching for articles in the research platforms BVS, PubMed, Cochrane Library, SciELO and ScienceDirect and for the selection of articles the Rayyan Platform was used. The articles resulting from the search strategies were added to the platform and five collaborators were invited for the blind selection. Finally, 6 articles were included in the final review. Results: An intact sampling reflex allows the individual to facilitate discrimination between flatus and stool and to choose whether to discharge or retain rectal contents. On the other hand, an impaired sampling reflex can predispose an individual to incontinence. Therefore, it was observed that patients with defecation disorders had an impaired sampling reflex, since it was found that constipated patients have incomplete opening of the IAS, lower amplitude of RAIR and increase of RAER. Most incontinent patients present a failure in the recruitment of the EAS, a decrease in the RAER and an increase in the RAIR, in duration and amplitude. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Anal Canal/physiopathology , Fecal Incontinence/diagnosis , Reflex , Constipation , Manometry
4.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(2): e202202598, abr. 2023. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1418445

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Habitualmente, durante la manometría anorrectal, en lo correspondiente al reflejo rectoanal inhibitorio (RRAI) solo se pesquisa su presencia o ausencia. Estudios han reportado que su análisis detallado puede brindar datos de interés. Nuestra hipótesis es que la medición del RRAI puede dar información para reconocer causas orgánicas (médula anclada, lipoma, etc.) en pacientes en los que previamente se consideró como de causa funcional. Objetivos. Comparar la duración del reflejo rectoanal inhibitorio en la manometría anorrectal de pacientes con constipación funcional refractaria (CFR) y mielomeningocele (MMC). Población y métodos. Estudio observacional, transversal, analítico (2004-2019). Pacientes constipados crónicos con incontinencia fecal funcional y orgánica (mielomeningocele). Se les realizó manometría anorrectal con sistema de perfusión de agua y se midió la duración del RRAI con diferentes volúmenes (20, 40 y 60 cc). Grupo 1 (G1): 81 CFR. Grupo 2 (G2): 54 MMC. Se excluyeron pacientes con retraso madurativo, esfínter anal complaciente, agenesia sacra y aquellos no colaboradores. Resultados. Se incluyeron 135 sujetos (62 varones). La mediana de edad fue G1:9,57 años; G2: 9,63 años. Duración promedio G1 vs. G2 con 20 cc: 8,89 vs. 15,21 segundos; con 40 cc: 11.41 vs. 21,12 segundos; con 60 cc: 14,15 vs. 26,02 segundos. La diferencia de duración del RRAI entre ambos grupos con diferentes volúmenes fue estadísticamente significativa (p = 0,0001). Conclusión. La duración del RRAI aumenta a mayor volumen de insuflación del balón en ambas poblaciones. Pacientes con MMC tuvieron mayor duración del RRAI que aquellos con CFR. En los pacientes con RRAI prolongado, debe descartarse lesión medular.


Introduction. Usually, during anorectal manometry, only the presence or absence of rectoanal inhibitory reflex (RAIR) is investigated. Studies have reported that a detailed analysis may provide data of interest. Our hypothesis is that RAIR measurement may provide information to detect organic causes (tethered cord, lipoma, etc.) in patients in whom a functional cause had been previously considered. Objectives. To compare RAIR duration in anorectal manometry between patients with refractory functional constipation (RFC) and myelomeningocele (MMC). Population and methods. Observational, analytical, cross-sectional study (2004­2019). Patients with chronic constipation and functional and organic fecal incontinence (myelomeningocele). The anorectal manometry was performed with a water-perfused system, and the duration of RAIR was measured with different volumes (20, 40, and 60 cc). Group 1 (G1): 81 RFC. Group 2 (G2): 54 MMC. Patients with developmental delay, compliant anal sphincter, sacral agenesis and non-cooperative patients were excluded. Results. A total of 135 individuals were included (62 were male). Their median age was 9.57 years in G1 and 9.63 years in G2. Average duration in G1 versus G2 with 20 cc: 8.89 versus 15.21 seconds; 40 cc: 11.41 versus 21.12 seconds; 60 cc: 14.15 versus 26.02 seconds. The difference in RAIR duration with the varying volumes was statistically significant (p = 0.0001). Conclusion. RAIR duration was longer with increasing balloon inflation volumes in both populations. RAIR duration was longer in patients with MMC than in those with RFC. Spinal injury should be ruled out in patients with prolonged RAIR.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Anal Canal/physiopathology , Rectum/physiopathology , Meningomyelocele/diagnosis , Meningomyelocele/epidemiology , Constipation/diagnosis , Constipation/epidemiology , Reflex/physiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Manometry/methods
5.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 38(2): 330-338, 20230303. tab, fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1425209

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La acalasia es un trastorno motor del esófago poco común, de etiología no clara, caracterizado por la pérdida de relajación del esfínter esofágico inferior, pérdida del peristaltismo normal, regurgitación y disfagia. Métodos. Se realizó una revisión narrativa de la literatura en revistas científicas y bases de datos en español e inglés, con el fin de presentar información actualizada en lo referente al diagnóstico y tratamiento de esta patología. Resultado. Se presenta la actualización de los criterios de los trastornos motores esofágicos según la clasificación de Chicago (CCv4.0) para el diagnóstico de acalasia y sus subtipos de acuerdo con los nuevos criterios, así como los tratamientos actuales. Conclusión. La acalasia es un trastorno esofágico multimodal, con manifestaciones de predominio gastrointestinal, por lo que su diagnóstico y abordaje terapéutico oportuno es esencial para mejorar la calidad de vida de los pacientes


Introduction. Achalasia is a rare motor disorder of the esophagus of unclear etiology, characterized by loss of lower esophageal sphincter relaxation, loss of normal peristalsis, regurgitation, and dysphagia. Methods. A narrative review of the literature in scientific journals and databases in Spanish and English was carried out, in order to present updated information regarding the diagnosis and treatment of this pathology. Result. The update of the Chicago esophageal motor disorders criteria (CCv4.0) is presented for the diagnosis of achalasia and its subtypes according to the new criteria, as well as current treatments. Conclusion. Achalasia is a multimodal esophageal disorder, with predominantly gastrointestinal manifestations, so its timely diagnosis and therapeutic approach is essential to improve the quality of life of patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Esophageal Achalasia , Heller Myotomy , Deglutition Disorders , Classification , Manometry
6.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 1095-1102, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010127

ABSTRACT

Colonic and anorectal manometry includes anorectal manometry and colonic manometry. Anorectal manometry is a common method to evaluate anorectal function, which can objectively reflect the pathological and physiological abnormalities of outlet obstructive constipation and fecal incontinence, as well as the impact of anorectal surgery on continence. Colonic manometry is a new type of colon motility detection method developed in recent years. It can record the peristalsis and contraction of the whole colon through a pressure measuring catheter, which helps physicians further evaluate various colonic diseases. However, various factors such as testing equipment, operating standards, and evaluation parameters are difficult to unify. There is no consensus on the operation and interpretation of colorectal anal pressure measurement. Under the guidance of the Anorectal Branch of Chinese Medical Doctor Association, in collaboration with Clinical Guidelines Committee, Anorectal Branch of Chinese Medical Doctor Association, Anorectal motility disorders Committee , Colorectal Surgeons Branch of Chinese Medical Doctor Association, Colonic Branch of China international exchange and promotive association for medical and healthcare, Tianjin Union Medical Center is leading the organization of domestic experts in this field. Based on searching relevant literature and combining clinical experience at home and abroad, after multiple discussions, the "Chinese expert consensus on colonic and anorectal manometry" has been prepared. This consensus discusses the indications, contraindications, pre examination management and technical procedures, treatment of complications, and interpretation of examination reports for colonic and anorectal manometry , aiming to guide the standardized clinical practice of colonic and anorectal manometry.


Subject(s)
Humans , Rectum , Consensus , Constipation , Anal Canal , Rectal Diseases , Fecal Incontinence , Manometry/methods , Colorectal Neoplasms/complications
7.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 614-617, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986828

ABSTRACT

In recent years, colonic manometry has been gradually introduced into clinical practice. It helps clinicians to gain a better understanding of the physiology and pathophysiology of colonic contractile activity in healthy adults and patients with colonic dysfunction. More and more patterns of colonic motility are being discovered with the help of colonic manometry. However, the clinical significance of these findings still needs to be further investigated. This review enhances our understanding of colonic motility and the current state of development and application of colonic manometry, as well as the limitations, future directions and potential of the technique in assessing the impact of treatment on colonic motility patterns, by analyzing and summarizing the literature related to colonic manometry.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Gastrointestinal Motility/physiology , Colon/physiology , Colonic Diseases , Manometry/methods , Clinical Relevance , Constipation
8.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 42(3): 210-216, July-Sept. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421990

ABSTRACT

Background: Functional evacuation disorder (FED) is the second most common cause of functional constipation (FC) after constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. However, the data on FED is relatively scanty in our region. Hence, the present study was performed to evaluate the demographics of FED and to find out the predictors of FED in patients with chronic constipation. Methods: A total of 134 patients with chronic constipation diagnosed according to the Rome IV criteria who were referred for high-resolution anorectal manometry (HRAM) were retrospectively enrolled in the present study. All FC patients who underwent HRAM were asked to fill a questionnaire and underwent anorectal manometry and were submitted to the balloon expulsion test (BET). Results: The mean age of patients was 43.09 ± 9.32 years old, with a total of 76 (54%) males. The most common symptom was straining during defecation (87%) followed by incomplete evacuation (86%). The prevalence of FED, diagnosed by HRAM and by the BET was 39%. Patients with FED had a significantly higher percentage of straining and sensation of anorectal blockade compared with those without FED (96 versus 82%; p < 0.01; 81 versus 44%; p < 0.001, respectively). On the multivariate regression analysis, straining > 30 minutes (odds ratio [OR] = 3.63; p = 0.03), maximum squeeze pressure (OR = 1.05; p < 0.001), and balloon volume at maximal sensation (OR = 1.06; p < 0.001) were found to be significant independent predictors of FED. Conclusion: Prolonged straining and sensation of anorectal blockade were significant indicators of FED in patients with chronic constipation. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Prognosis , Constipation/diagnosis , Rectal Diseases , Constipation/epidemiology , Defecation/physiology , Manometry
9.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 1065-1072, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971213

ABSTRACT

Fecal incontinence is one of the common diseases in the field of colorectal and anal surgery. Its etiology is complex, the treatment response is suboptimal, and there are controversies in clinical care. There is no consensus on the clinical practice of fecal incontinence in China currently. Launched by Anorectal Branch of Chinese Medical Doctor Association, Expert Committee on Anorectal Disease of Anorectal Branch of Chinese Medical Doctor Association, and Clinical Guidelines Committee of Anorectal Branch of Chinese Medical Doctor Association, and organized by the editorial board of Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Chinese experts on this field were convened to write the Chinese expert consensus on clinical practice of fecal incontinence based on relevant references. After rounds of discussion, the final consensus combines the latest evidence and experts' clinical experience. This expert group suggested that a comprehensive assessment of fecal incontinence should be conducted before treatment, including medical history, relevant scales, physical examination and special examinations. Special examinations include anorectal endoscopy, anorectal manometry, transrectal ultrasound, magnetic resonance, rectal sensation and compliance, balloon ejection test, pelvic floor electromyography, defecography, colonoscopy and pudendal nerve terminal motor latency. Treatment methods include life style modification, medication, surgery, traditional Chinese medicine and other treatments. This consensus aims to standardize the algorithm of fecal incontinence management and improve therapeutic efficacy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Fecal Incontinence/etiology , East Asian People , Manometry/adverse effects , Rectal Diseases/complications , Anal Canal/innervation
10.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 50(3): e1289, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1357294

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La manometría esofágica de alta resolución es la prueba ideal para el diagnóstico de la acalasia y muestra la presencia de ondas terciarias o aperistalsis y el aumento de presión, con ausencia de relajación, del esfínter esofágico inferior. Objetivo: Evaluar la utilidad de la manometría esofágica de alta resolución en el diagnóstico y clasificación de la acalasia esofágica. Métodos: Se realizó una investigación descriptiva, trasversal, en el Centro Nacional de Cirugía de Mínimo Acceso entre octubre del 2018 y diciembre del 2019, en 46 pacientes con diagnóstico de acalasia esofágica. Se excluyeron aquellos con cirugía previa del esófago. Las variables incluidas fueron: edad, sexo, tiempo de evolución, síntomas y hallazgos manométricos. Para el análisis de las variables cuantitativas se emplearon medidas de tendencia central, media y de dispersión, la desviación estándar. Las frecuencias y proporciones fueron utilizadas para describir las variables cualitativas. Resultados: Predominó la acalasia tipo II, en el sexo femenino (57 por ciento). La disfagia fue el síntoma más frecuente (84, 76 y 100 por ciento en los tipos I, II y III, respectivamente). El 70 por ciento de los casos presentó más de un año de evolución de los síntomas. La media de la presión de relajación integrada estuvo por encima de 21 mmHg independientemente del tipo. No se encontraron pacientes con subtipos de la acalasia tipo III. Conclusiones: La manometría esofágica de alta resolución es útil para el diagnóstico y clasificación de la acalasia esofágica(AU)


Introduction: High-resolution esophageal manometry is the ideal test for the diagnosis of achalasia and shows the presence of tertiary waves or aperistalsis and increased pressure, in the absence of relaxation, of the lower esophageal sphincter. Objective: To assess the usefulness of high-resolution esophageal manometry in the diagnosis and classification of esophageal achalasia. Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional investigation was carried out at the National Center for Minimal Access Surgery, between October 2018 and December 2019, in 46 patients with a diagnosis of esophageal achalasia. Those with previous esophageal surgery were excluded. The variables included were: age, sex, time of evolution, symptoms and manometric findings. For the analysis of the results, the percentage and measures of central tendency (arithmetic mean and standard deviation) were used. Results: Type II achalasia predominated in females (57 percent). Dysphagia was the most frequent symptom (84, 76, and 100 percent in types I, II, and III, respectively). 70 percent of the cases presented more than one year of evolution of the symptoms. Regarding the high-resolution manometry parameters, it was observed that regardless of the type, the mean integrated relaxation pressure was above 21 mmHg. No patients with type III achalasia subtypes were found. Conclusions: High-resolution esophageal manometry is useful for the diagnosis and classification of esophageal acalasia(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Deglutition Disorders , Esophageal Achalasia/diagnostic imaging , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Manometry/methods
11.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(3): 296-301, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345287

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: High-resolution manometry (HRM) represents a potential tool for measuring pharyngoesophageal phonation pressures. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate pharyngeal, esophageal upper sphincteric and esophageal pressures during different phonation tasks. METHODS: 12 (six males, mean age 27 years) professional singers underwent HRM and produced four different vocal tasks at low, medium and high vocal loudness: vowel /ae/, ascending five note scale, word /hey/ and word /go/. Pressures were measured at pharynx, upper esophageal sphincter (UES) and esophagus. Visual analysis of the HRM topographic plots were performed. RESULTS: Esophageal pressures are higher during vocalization than at rest. Pharyngeal and UES phonation pressures does not differ significantly from rest pressures. Visual analysis of the topographic plots showed an important UES pressure increasement during phonation. CONCLUSION: HRM is a valuable tool for measuring pharyngoesophageal pressures during phonation. Esophageal pressures are higher during phonation than at rest and tend to increase with vocal loudness increment. The topographic plot provides additional data about phonatory mechanism physiology, especially at the UES region.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A manometria de alta resolução (MAR) é uma ferramenta de grande potencial para mensuração das pressões faringoesofágicas durante a fonação. OBJETIVO: O estudo visa avaliar pressões faringianas, do esfíncter esofagiano superior e do esôfago durante manobras fonatórias. MÉTODOS: Doze (seis homens, idade média 27 anos) cantores profissionais foram submetidos à MAR e produziram quatro tarefas vocais em intensidade baixa, média e alta: vogal / ae /, escala ascendente de cinco notas, palavras /hey/ e /go/. Pressões aos níveis da faringe, esfíncter esofagiano superior e esôfago foram aferidas além de análise visual dos traçados. RESULTADOS: Pressões esofágicas foram maiores na vocalização que no repouso. Pressões da faringe e esfíncter esofagiano superior durante a fonação não foram diferentes que no repouso. Análise visual dos traçados mostrou importante incremento da pressão do esfíncter durante a fonação. CONCLUSÃO: MAR é uma ferramenta valiosa para mensurar as pressões faringoesofágicas durante a fonação. Pressões esofágicas são maiores durante a fonação que no repouso e tendem a aumentar com maior intensidade sonora. Análise visual dos traçados mostram dados adicionais sobre a fisiologia do mecanismo da fonação, especialmente na região do esfíncter esofagiano superior.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Pharynx , Esophageal Sphincter, Upper , Pressure , Deglutition , Manometry
12.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 36(2): 212-217, abr.-jun. 2021. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289301

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La enfermedad por reflujo gastroesofágico (ERGE) refractaria puede conducir a complicaciones potenciales como la esofagitis persistente, estenosis esofágica, anillo de Schatzki y esófago de Barrett. Este estudio describe la motilidad en pacientes con ERGE refractaria y su relación con síntomas esofágicos. Método: Se realizó un estudio observacional analítico a partir de una cohorte retrospectiva en pacientes con diagnóstico de ERGE refractaria y síntomas esofágicos a quienes se les realizó manometría esofágica de alta resolución más impedanciometría. Se describen las características clínicas y demográficas, y la asociación entre los trastornos manométricos y los síntomas esofágicos. Resultados: Se incluyeron 133 pacientes (edad promedio: 54,1 ± 12,5 años). La pirosis y regurgitación (69,2 %) y la disfagia esofágica (13,5 %) fueron los síntomas más comunes. La motilidad normal (75,2 %), el aclaramiento completo del bolo (75,2 %) y la motilidad esofágica inefectiva (MEI) (18 %) fueron los hallazgos manométricos más frecuentes. La unión gastroesofágica tipos II y IIIb estuvieron presentes en el 35,3% y 33,8 % de los casos, respectivamente. La aperistalsis (3,8 %) y el esófago en martillo neumático (Jackhammer; 0,8 %) fueron infrecuentes. El aclaramiento incompleto del bolo se asoció con disfagia esofágica (p = 0,038) y a MEI (p = 0,008). Ningún síntoma esofágico se relacionó significativamente con trastornos de motilidad. Conclusiones: Los resultados de nuestro estudio sugieren que los trastornos de motilidad son infrecuentes en los pacientes con ERGE refractaria. Adicionalmente, sugieren que la presencia de alteraciones de motilidad esofágica no se relaciona con la presencia de síntomas esofágicos y, por tanto, que el tipo de síntoma presentado no permite predecir la existencia de dichos trastornos.


Abstract Introduction: Refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) can lead to potential complications such as persistent esophagitis, esophageal stricture, Schatzki ring, and Barrett's esophagus. This study describes motility in patients with refractory GERD, and its association with esophageal symptoms. Materials and methods: An analytical observational study was carried out in a retrospective cohort of patients diagnosed with refractory GERD and esophageal symptoms who underwent high-resolution esophageal manometry and impedance testing. Clinical characteristics, demographics, and the association between motility disorders and esophageal symptoms are described. Results: 133 patients were included (mean age 54.1 ± 12.5 years). Heartburn and regurgitation (69.2%), and esophageal dysphagia (13.5%) were the most common symptoms. Normal motility (75.2%), complete bolus clearance (75.2%), and ineffective esophageal motility (IEM) (18%) were the most frequent manometric findings. Type II and IIIb gastroesophageal junction were observed in 35.3% and 33.8% of the cases, respectively. Esophageal aperistalsis (3.8%) and Jackhammer esophagus (0.8%) were rare findings. Incomplete bolus clearance was associated with esophageal dysphagia (p=0.038) and IEM (p=0.008). No esophageal symptoms were significantly related to motility disorders. Conclusions: The results of the present study suggest that motility disorders are rare in patients with refractory GERD. They also suggest that esophageal motility disorders are not associated with the presence of esophageal symptoms and, therefore, the type of symptom experienced does not allow predicting the existence of such disorders.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Esophageal Motility Disorders , Deglutition Disorders , Gastroesophageal Reflux , Esophagitis , Manometry , Patients , Association , Barrett Esophagus , Esophageal Stenosis
13.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(2): 190-194, Apr.-June 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285327

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Obesity is an independent risk factor for esophageal symptoms, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and motor abnormalities. When contemplating bariatric surgery, patients with obesity type III undergo esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and also esophageal manometry (EMN), and prolonged pHmetry (PHM) as part of their pre-operative evaluation. OBJECTIVE: Description of endoscopy, manometry and pHmetry findings in patients with obesity type III preparing for bariatric surgery, and correlation of these findings with the presence of typical GERD symptoms. METHODS: Retrospective study in which clinical symptoms of GERD were assessed, focusing on the presence of heartburn and regurgitation. All patients underwent EMN, PHM and most of them EGD. RESULTS: 114 patients (93 females-81%), average age 36 years old, average BMI of 45.3, were studied. Typical GERD symptoms were referred by 43 (38%) patients while 71 (62%) were asymptomatic. Eighty two patients (72% of total) underwent EGD and 36 (42%) evidenced esophageal abnormalities. Among the abnormal findings, hiatal hernia was seen in 36%, erosive esophagitis (EE) in 36%, and HH+EE in 28%. An abnormal EMN was recorded in 51/114 patients (45%). The main abnormality was a hypotensive lower esophageal sphincter (LES) in 32%, followed by ineffective esophageal motility in 25%, nutcracker esophagus in 19%, IEM + hypotensive LES in 10%, intra-thoracic LES (6%), hypertensive LES (4%), aperistalsis (2%) and achalasia (2%). Among the 43 symptomatic patients, 23 (53%) had abnormal EMN and 31/71 asymptomatic cases (44%) also presented this finding (P=0.30). PHM showed abnormal reflux in 60/114 patients (53%), with a predominance of bi-positional reflux (42%), followed by supine reflux (33%) and upright reflux (25%). Abnormal PHM was found in 26/43 symptomatic cases (60%) and also among 34/71 asymptomatic cases (48%) (P=0.19). CONCLUSION: Manometric abnormalities were common in obesity type III patients, the most frequent being hypotensive LES, followed by IEM. Most patients were asymptomatic. There was no correlation between the finding of motor abnormalities and the presence of symptoms. More than half the patients had abnormal reflux at PHM. We found no significant correlation between abnormal reflux and the presence of symptoms.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A obesidade é fator de risco independente para sintomas esofagianos, doença do refluxo gastroesofágico (DRGE) e alterações motoras. Pacientes com obesidade tipo III, candidatos à cirurgia bariátrica foram submetidos a endoscopia digestiva alta (EDA) e também realizaram esofagomanometria (EMN) e pHmetria prolongada (PHM) como parte da avaliação pré-operatória. OBJETIVO: Em um grupo de pacientes com obesidade tipo III em pré-operatório de cirurgia bariátrica, descrever os achados endoscópicos, manométricos e pHmétricos, correlacionando-os com a presença de sintomas típicos de DRGE. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo, de pacientes com obesidade tipo III, candidatos a cirurgia bariátrica. A avaliação clínica focalizou a presença de sintomas típicos de DRGE (pirose/regurgitação); todos foram submetidos a EMN, PHM e a maior parte à EDA, realizada previamente. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 114 pacientes, 93 (81%) do sexo feminino, média de idade de 36 anos e IMC médio de 45,3. Sintomas típicos de refluxo foram referidos por 43 (38%) pacientes e 71 (62%) eram assintomáticos. EDA foi realizada por 82 (72%) pacientes, havendo anormalidades esofagianas em 36 (42%). Entre os anormais, havia hérnia hiatal (HH) em 36%, esofagite erosiva (EE) em 36% e HH + EE em 28%. A EMN foi anormal em 51/114 (45%). Entre os anormais, predominou o esfíncter esofagiano inferior (EEI) hipotenso em 32%, seguido por motilidade esofagiana ineficaz (MEI) em 25%, esôfago em quebra-nozes (19%), EEI hipotenso + MEI (10%), EEI intra-torácico (6%), EEI hipertenso (4%), aperistalse (2%) e acalasia (2%). Dentre os 43 sintomáticos, 23 (53%) apresentavam EMN anormal, sendo que em 31 dos 71 (44%) assintomáticos a EMN também era anormal (P=0,30). A PHM revelou refluxo anormal em 60 (53%) pacientes. Predominou o refluxo anormal biposicional (42%) seguido do refluxo supino (33%) e refluxo ereto (25%). Dentre os 43 pacientes sintomáticos, 26 (60%) apresentavam PHM anormal, sendo que em 34 dos 71 assintomáticos a PHM também era anormal (48%) - P=0,19. CONCLUSÃO: Alterações manométricas foram comuns em obesidade tipo III, sendo as mais frequentes o EEI hipotenso, seguida de motilidade ineficaz. A maioria dos pacientes era assintomática. Mais da metade dos pacientes apresentou refluxo anormal à PHM. Não houve diferença significativa entre o achado de refluxo anormal e a presença de sintomas. Não houve relação entre o achado de alterações motoras e a presença de sintomas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Esophageal Motility Disorders/diagnosis , Esophageal Motility Disorders/etiology , Gastroesophageal Reflux/complications , Gastroesophageal Reflux/diagnosis , Bariatric Surgery , Retrospective Studies , Heartburn , Manometry
14.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 41(1): 70-78, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286965

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction The present study aims to identify normal high-resolution anorectal manometry (HRAM) values and related factors in healthy Vietnamese adults. Methods The present cross-sectional study was conducted at the Viet Duc hospital, Hanoi, Vietnam, during April and May 2019. Healthy volunteers were recruited to participate in the study. Anorectal measurement values from the digestive tract, including pressure, were recorded. Results A total of 76 healthy volunteers were recruited. The mean functional anal canal length was 4.2 ± 0.5 cm, while the mean anal high-pressure zone length was 3.4 ± 0.5 cm. Themean defecation index was 1.4 ± 0.8, with values ranging from 0.3 to 5.0. The mean threshold volume to elicit the rectoanal inhibitory reflex (RAIR) was 18.1 mL. The mean rectal sensation values were 32.4mL, 81.6mL, and 159 mL for first sensation, desire to defecate, and urge to defecate, respectively. Dyssynergic patterns occurred in ~ 50% of the study participants and included mainly types I (27.6%) and III (14.6%). There were significant differences between male and female patients in terms of maximum anal squeeze pressure, maximum anal cough pressure, maximum anal strain pressure, maximum rectal cough pressure, and maximum rectal strain pressure (all p<0.01). Conclusions The present study establishes normal HRAM values in healthy Vietnamese adults, particularly regarding normal values of anorectal pressure and rectal sensation. Further studies that include larger sample sizes should be conducted to further confirm the constants and their relationships.


Resumo Introdução O presente estudo tem como objetivo identificar valores normais de manometria anorretal de alta resolução e fatores relacionados em adultos vietnamitas saudáveis. Métodos O presente estudo transversal foi conduzido no hospital Viet Duc, Hanói, Vietnã, durante abril e maio de 2019. Voluntários saudáveis foram recrutados para participar do estudo. Valores de medição anorretal, incluindo pressão do trato digestivo, foram registrados. Resultados Um total de 76 voluntários saudáveis foram recrutados. O comprimento funcional médio do canal anal foi de 4,2 ± 0,5 cm, enquanto o comprimento médio da zona anal de alta pressão foi de 3,4 ± 0,5 cm. O índice médio de defecação foi de 1,4 ± 0,8, com valores variando de 0,3 a 5,0. O volume limite médio para eliciar o reflexo inibitório retoanal (RAIR, sigla em inglês) foi de 18,1 mL. Os valores médios da sensação retal foram 32,4mL, 81,6mL e 159 mL para a primeira sensação, o desejo de defecar e a urgência de defecar, respectivamente. Os padrões dissinérgicos ocorreram em aproximadamente 50% dos participantes do estudo e incluíram principalmente os tipos I (27,6%) e III (14,6%). Houve diferenças significativas entre homens e mulheres na pressão de compressão anal máxima, pressão de tosse anal máxima, pressão de distensão anal máxima, pressão de tosse retal máxima e pressão de distensão retal máxima (todos p<0,01). Conclusões O presente estudo estabelece valores normais de HRAM em adultos vietnamitas saudáveis, particularmente no que diz respeito aos valores normais de pressão anorretal e sensação retal. Mais estudos que incluam tamanhos de amostra maiores devemser realizados a fim de confirmar melhor as constantes e suas relações.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Anal Canal/anatomy & histology , Manometry/standards , Manometry/statistics & numerical data
15.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 34(1): 22-29, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154524

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background The early detection of vascular damage in subclinical stages of hypertensive disease may be the key point in the prevention of cardiovascular outcomes. Objectives to correlate parameters of structural vascular damage (measurement of the carotid intima-media thickness) with parameters of functional vascular damage (central hemodynamic measurements) in pre-hypertensive and hypertensive patients taking up to two classes of anti-hypertensive drugs. Methods This was a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted with a convenience sample of patients attending the Liga de Hipertensão Arterial , a multidisciplinary program for the diagnosis and treatment of systemic hypertension, of the Federal university of Goias. Patients with arrythmia, diabetes, previous cardiovascular or cerebrovascular diseases, and end-stage diseases were excluded. Carotid Doppler test, measurements of peripheral and central blood pressure by applanation tonometry (Sphygmocor®) and oscillometry (Mobil-O-Graph®) were performed. The t-test was used for comparisons and the Pearson correlation test for correlations, considering a p<0.05 statistically significant. Results twenty patients (12 women) were evaluated, mean age 53.8 ± 14.3 years. Higher values of central pulse pressure (42.9±13.9 vs. 34.7±9.6, p=0.01) and pulse wave velocity (PWV) (9.0±1.9 vs. 7.9±1.5, p=0.01) were obtained by applanation tonometry compared with oscillometry. No difference between the methods was observed for the other measures. A significant correlation was found between carotid artery intima-media thickness (CA-IMT) and PWV (r=0.659; p=0.002) by the oscillometric test, but not with applanation tonometry. No correlation was found between central hemodynamic variables and the presence of carotid artery plaques. Conclusion PWV, estimated by oscillometry, was the only central hemodynamic parameter that correlated significantly with CA-IMT in pre-hypertensive and hypertensive patients at low cardiovascular risk. International Journal of Cardiovascular Sciences. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Oscillometry , Carotid Artery Injuries/diagnosis , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness/instrumentation , Manometry , Reference Standards , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Hypertension/complications
16.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(1): 131-139, Jan. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287797

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the need of performing esophageal pH monitoring and manometry in patients with clinical suspicion of Gastroesophageal reflux disease, as more accurate and practical complementary exams in the indication of surgical treatment. METHODS: A systematic review was carried out in the PubMed/Medline database, based on the recommendations of the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) protocol, selecting studies in humans, published in Portuguese, Spanish, and English, from January 1, 2009 to August 5, 2020. The following descriptors were used: "reflux gastroesophageal" AND "surgery" AND "surgical treatment" AND "esophageal manometry" OR "pH monitoring". After that, retrospective or prospective observational studies with a sample of less than 100 individuals, or with limited access, reports or case series, review articles, letters, comments, or book chapters were excluded. To facilitate the application of the exclusion criteria, the Rayyan management base was used. RESULTS: Out of the 676 studies found, 19 valid and eligible studies were selected to make inferences. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the best evidence, currently, considering national particularities, performing a 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring and esophageal manometry for all patients undergoing anti-reflux surgery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gastroesophageal Reflux/surgery , Gastroesophageal Reflux/diagnosis , Esophageal pH Monitoring , Retrospective Studies , Observational Studies, Veterinary as Topic , Manometry
18.
ABCD (São Paulo, Impr.) ; 34(4): e1633, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360020

ABSTRACT

RESUMO - RACIONAL: Disfunção do esfíncter esofágico inferior (EEI), doença do refluxo gastroesofágico e esofagite erosiva em pacientes submetidos à gastrectomia subtotal são ocorrências comumente reconhecidas, mas até agora as causas permanecem obscuras. OBJETIVO: A hipótese deste estudo é que a gastrectomia subtotal provoque alterações na pressão de repouso do EEI e na sua competência, devido ao dano anatômico desta, visto que as fibras oblíquas "Sling", um dos componentes musculares do EEI, são seccionadas durante este procedimento cirúrgico. MÉTODOS: Sete cães adultos sem raça definida (18-30 kg) foram anestesiados e submetidos à transecção do estômago proximal. Em seguida, o remanescente gástrico proximal foi fechado por sutura. No intraoperatório, manometria lenta foi realizada em cada cão, em condições basais (com estômago intacto) e no remanescente gástrico proximal fechado. A média dessas medidas é apresentada, com cada cão servindo como seu próprio controle. RESULTADOS: A pressão média do EEI medida no remanescente gástrico proximal, em comparação com a pressão do EEI no estômago intacto, foi diminuída em cinco cães, aumentada em um cão e sem alterações no outro cão. CONCLUSÃO: A secção transversa superior do estômago e o fechamento do remanescente do estômago por sutura provocam alterações na pressão do EEI. Sugerimos que essas mudanças na pressão do EEI são secundárias à secção das fibras oblíquas "Sling" do esfíncter, um de seus componentes musculares. A sutura e o fechamento do remanescente gástrico proximal, reancora essas fibras com mais, menos ou a mesma tensão, modificando ou não a pressão do EEI.


ABSTRACT - BACKGROUND: Dysfunction of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), gastroesophageal reflux disease, and erosive esophagitis in patients undergoing subtotal gastrectomy are commonly recognized occurrences, but until now the causes remain unclear. AIM: The hypothesis of this study is that subtotal gastrectomy provokes changes on the LES resting pressure and its competence, due to the anatomical damage of it, given that the oblique "Sling" fibers, one of the muscular components of the LES, are transected during this surgical procedure. METHODS: Seven adult mongrel dogs (18-30 kg) were anesthetized and admitted for transection of the proximal stomach. Later, the proximal gastric remnant was closed by a suture. Intraoperatively, slow pull-through LES manometries were performed on each dog, under basal conditions (with the intact stomach), and in the closed proximal gastric remnant. The mean of these measurements is presented, with each dog serving as its control. RESULTS: The mean LES pressure (LESP) measured in the proximal gastric remnant, compared with the LESP in the intact stomach, was decreased in five dogs, increased in one dog, and remained unchanged in other dogs. CONCLUSION: The upper transverse transection of the stomach and closing the stomach remnant by suture provoke changes in the LESP. We suggested that these changes in the LESP are secondary to transecting the oblique "Sling" fibers of the LES, one of its muscular components. The suture and closing of the proximal gastric remnant reanchor these fibers with more, less, or the same tension, whether or not modifying the LESP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Dogs , Gastroesophageal Reflux , Esophageal Sphincter, Lower/surgery , Esophagogastric Junction , Gastrectomy/adverse effects , Manometry
19.
ABCD (São Paulo, Impr.) ; 34(1): e1580, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284905

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Due to the lack of normal standards of anorectal manometry in Brazil, data used are subject to normality patterns described at different nationalities. Aim: To determine the values and range of the parameters evaluated at anorectal manometry in people, at productive age, without pelvic floor disorders comparing the parameters obtained between male and female. Methods: Prospective analysis of clinical data, such as gender, age, race, body mass index (BMI) and anorectal manometry, of volunteers from a Brazilian university reference in pelvic floor disorders. Results: Forty patients were included, with a mean age of 45.5 years in males and 37.2 females (p=0.43). According to male and female, respectively in mmHg, resting pressures were similar (78.28 vs. 63.51, p=0.40); squeeze pressures (153.89 vs. 79.78, p=0.007) and total squeeze pressures (231.27 vs. 145.63, p=0.002). Men presented significantly higher values of anorectal squeeze pressures, as well as the average length of the functional anal canal (2.85 cm in male vs. 2.45 cm in female, p=0.003). Conclusions: Normal sphincter pressure levels in Brazilians differ from those used until now as normal literature standards. Male gender has higher external anal sphincter tonus as compared to female, in addition a greater extension of the functional anal canal


RESUMO Racional: Devido à falta de padrões normais de manometria anorretal no Brasil, os dados utilizados estão sujeitos a padrões de normalidade descritos em diferentes nacionalidades . Objetivo: Determinar os valores e a faixa da manometria anorretal de pessoas em idade produtiva, sem distúrbios do assoalho pélvico, comparando os parâmetros obtidos entre homens e mulheres. Métodos: Análise prospectiva de dados clínicos, como gênero, idade, raça, índice de massa corporal (IMC) e manometria anorretal, de voluntários de uma referência universitária brasileira em distúrbios do assoalho pélvico. Resultados: Quarenta pessoas foram incluídas, com idade média de 45,5 anos nos homens e 37,2 nas mulheres (p=0,43). De acordo com homens e mulheres, respectivamente em mmHg, as pressões de repouso foram semelhantes (78,28 vs. 63,51, p=0,40); pressões de contração (153,89 vs. 79,78, p=0,007) e pressão total de compressão (231,27 vs. 145,63, p=0,002). Os homens apresentaram valores significativamente maiores de contração esfincteriana, assim como o comprimento médio do canal anal funcional (2,85 cm nos homens vs. 2,45 cm nas mulheres, p=0,003). Conclusões: Os níveis normais de pressão esfincteriana no Brasil diferem dos utilizados até o momento como padrão normal da literatura. O gênero masculino apresenta maior tônus ​​do esfíncter anal externo em relação ao feminino, além de maior extensão do canal anal funcional


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pelvic Floor Disorders , Anal Canal , Rectum , Volunteers , Brazil , Prospective Studies , Manometry , Middle Aged
20.
Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore ; : 629-637, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887545

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#We aimed to provide a practical and evidence-based guide on the indications, performance and reporting of high-resolution oesophageal manometry (HRM) and ambulatory pH monitoring (PHM) in adult patients in Singapore.@*METHODS@#The guideline committee comprised local gastroenterologists from public and private sectors with particular expertise in aspects of HRM and PHM, and it was tasked to produce evidence-based statements on the indications, performance and reporting of these tests. Each committee member performed literature searches to retrieve relevant articles within the context of domains to which they were assigned.@*RESULTS@#Twelve recommendation statements were created and summarised.@*CONCLUSION@#Standardising key aspects of HRM and PHM is imperative to ensure the delivery of high-quality care. We reported the development of recommendations for the performance and interpretation of HRM and ambulatory reflux monitoring in Singapore.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Esophageal pH Monitoring , Esophagus , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Manometry , Singapore
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