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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(2): e178-e182, abr. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1100431

ABSTRACT

La enfermedad de jarabe de arce es una entidad autosómica recesiva producida por un error congénito en el metabolismo de tres aminoácidos esenciales de cadena ramificada: valina, leucina e isoleucina. La forma neonatal de esta enfermedad se manifiesta por un cuadro de compromiso neurológico grave y progresivo, asociado a un olor peculiar de la orina, consecuencia de la eliminación del exceso de estos aminoácidos. Este olor a azúcar quemada remeda a la melaza obtenida de los arces, lo que da nombre a esta enfermedad. El mejor método para eliminar estos tóxicos es la hemodiafiltración, pero, en los centros en los que esta práctica no es posible, la diálisis peritoneal constituye una alternativa.Se presenta a un recién nacido con leucinosis, con compromiso grave del sistema nervioso central, en quien la diálisis peritoneal fue de utilidad para superar la descompensación metabólica.


Maple syrup disease is an autosomal recessive entity caused by a congenital error in the metabolism of three essential branched-chain amino acids: valine, leucine and isoleucine. The neonatal form of this disease is expressed by a severe and progressive neurological compromise, associated with a peculiar smell of urine, a consequence of the elimination of the excess of these amino acids. This smell of burnt sugar mimics the molasses obtained from maples, which gives its name to this disease. The best method to eliminate these toxins is hemodiafiltration, but in centers where this practice is not possible, peritoneal dialysis is an alternative.We present a newborn with leukinosis with severe central nervous system involvement in whom peritoneal dialysis was useful to overcome metabolic decompensation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant, Newborn , Peritoneal Dialysis , Maple Syrup Urine Disease/diagnosis , Urine/chemistry , Weight Loss , Maple Syrup Urine Disease/therapy
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879498

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the clinical and genetic characteristics of a patient with dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase deficiency.@*METHODS@#Potential variants of the DLD gene were detected by whole exome sequencing and verified by Sanger sequencing.@*RESULTS@#Compound heterozygous variants, c.704_705delTT (p.Leu235Argfs*8) and c.1058T>C (p.Ile353Thr), were detected in the DLD gene. The c.1058T>C (p.Ile353Thr) variant was derived from his mother and known to be pathogenic. The c.704_705delTT (p.Leu235Argfs*8) variant was derived from his father and was unreported previously.@*CONCLUSION@#The compound heterozygous variants of c.704_705delTT (p.Leu235Argfs*8) and c.1058T>C (p.Ile353Thr) of the DLD gene probably underlay the disease in this patient. Above finding has facilitated genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis for the family.


Subject(s)
Acidosis, Lactic/genetics , Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase/genetics , Female , Genetic Testing , Genetic Variation , Humans , Male , Maple Syrup Urine Disease/genetics , Pregnancy , Whole Exome Sequencing
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776816

ABSTRACT

Maple syrup disease (MSUD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused primarily by mutations of branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC). BCKDC includes at least four pathogenic genes of BCKDHA, BCKDHB, DLD and DBT. The clinical manifestations of MSUD are complex, and the main symptoms at the early stage include difficulty in feeding, drowsiness, change in muscle tone and special urine flavor of maple syrup. As the disease progresses, convulsion, hypoglycemia, coma and systemic failure may occur. MSUD is easily missed or misdiagnosed during the neonatal period. This paper provides a review for recent progress made in research on MSUD including etiology, physiopathology, clinical manifestation, auxiliary examination and treatment, with a particular emphasis on genetic testing and treatment.


Subject(s)
3-Methyl-2-Oxobutanoate Dehydrogenase (Lipoamide) , Genetics , Humans , Maple Syrup Urine Disease , Diagnosis , Genetics , Therapeutics , Mutation
4.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717164

ABSTRACT

External quality assessment (EQA) trials of conventional newborn screening tests for phenylketonuria, galactosemia, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, maple syrup urine disease, homocystinuria, and congenital hypothyroidism, as well as extended newborn screening tests using tandem mass spectrometry, were performed twice in 2016 and 2017. A total of 44 specimens in the form of dried blood spots were distributed in each trial to 16 laboratories. The response rate of these laboratories was 100%. The mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, median, and cut-offs were evaluated for each analyte in the newborn screening tests. EQA trials for the analyses of methylmalonic acid, vanillylmandelic acid, catecholamines, metanephrines, organic acids, and amino acids were also performed. A well-designed EQA program and continuous education would improve the performance of metabolite testing.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital , Amino Acids , Catecholamines , Congenital Hypothyroidism , Education , Galactosemias , Homocystinuria , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Korea , Maple Syrup Urine Disease , Mass Screening , Methylmalonic Acid , Phenylketonurias , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Vanilmandelic Acid
5.
Rev. méd. hondur ; 85(1-2): 35-39, ene.-jun. 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-884109

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: La Enfermedad de la Orina con olor a Jarabe de Arce es un error innato del metabolismo causada por deficiencia de actividad de la deshidrogenasa de los cetoácidos, que lleva acumular aminoácidos de cadena ramificada que produce una encefalopatía neonatal y al no ser tratada tempranamente, deja secuelas neurológicas permanentes hasta la muerte. Caso Clínico: Recién nacida producto de parto eutocico, a término, respiración espontanea, llanto vigoroso y buen tono muscular, alimentación exclusiva con lactancia materna. Antecedentes maternos de 2 hijos muertos en período neonatal. Paciente se presenta a los 7 días con pobre succión, vómitos, hipoactividad y fiebre. Examen físico: hipoactivo, reflejo de moro incompleto, llanto débil y constante. Posteriormente movimientos en extremidades superiores que simulan "boxeo" e hipertonicos, y pedaleo en extremidades inferiores, fontanela tensa y abombada, respiración irregular y bradipnea, se realiza intubación endotraqueal, ventilación mecánica y manejo en UCIN, EEG actividad eléctrica convulsiva, TAC cerebral normal. Se investiga enfermedad metabólica y se solicita tamizaje neonatal . Se inicia tiamina/levocarnitina ante sospecha de un error innato del metabolismo. A los 23 días de vida los resultados revelan niveles elevados de los aminoácidos específicos de la MSUD. Discusión: MSUD es una entidad rara en el mundo, que cursa con secuelas neurológicas permanentes y muerte de no ser tratada. Honduras no realiza métodos de Tamizaje Neonatal, es importante que el médico sospeche de manera temprana estas enfermedades, realizar un diagnóstico oportuno, se conduzca un tratamiento multidisciplinario y exista una mayor accesibilidad a las fórmulas especializadas..(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant, Newborn , Brain Diseases , Glycine Dehydrogenase , Maple Syrup Urine Disease/diagnosis , Nurses, Neonatal
6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-45810

ABSTRACT

Two external quality assessment (EQA) trials of conventional newborn screening tests for phenylketonuria, galactosemia, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, maple syrup urine disease, homocystinuria, and congenital hypothyroidism, as well as newborn screening tests using tandem mass spectrometry, were performed in 2015. A total of 44 specimens in the form of dried blood spots were distributed to 16 laboratories and the response rate of these laboratories was 100%. The mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, median, and cut-offs were evaluated for each analyte in the newborn screening tests. Two EQA trials for the analyses of methylmalonic acid, vanillylmandelic acid, catecholamines, metanephrines, organic acids, and amino acids were also performed. A well-designed EQA program and continuous education would improve the performance of biochemical genetics tests.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital , Amino Acids , Catecholamines , Congenital Hypothyroidism , Education , Galactosemias , Homocystinuria , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Korea , Maple Syrup Urine Disease , Mass Screening , Methylmalonic Acid , Molecular Biology , Phenylketonurias , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Vanilmandelic Acid
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-340532

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the clinical features of one pair of twin neonates with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) in the Chinese Han population and pathogenic mutations in related genes, and to provide guidance for the early diagnosis and treatment of MSUD.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The clinical and imaging data of the twin neonates were collected. The peripheral blood samples were collected from the twin neonates and their parents to detect the genes related to MSUD (BCKDHA, BCKDHB, DBT, and DLD). The loci with gene mutations were identified, and a bioinformatic analysis was performed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Two mutations were detected in the BCKDHB gene, missense mutation c.304G>A (p.Gly102Arg) and nonsense mutation c.331C>T (p.Arg111*), and both of them were heterozygotes. The mutation c.304G>A (p.Gly102Arg) had not been reported in the world. Their father carried the missense mutation c.304G>A (p.Gly102Arg), and their mother carried the nonsense mutation c.331C>T (p.Arg111*).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The c.331C>T (p.Arg111*) heterozygous mutation in BCKDHB gene is the pathogenic mutation in these twin neonates and provides a genetic and molecular basis for the clinical features of children with MSUD.</p>


Subject(s)
3-Methyl-2-Oxobutanoate Dehydrogenase (Lipoamide) , Genetics , Diseases in Twins , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Maple Syrup Urine Disease , Genetics , Mutation
8.
Acta pediátr. hondu ; 6(1): 423-429, abr.-sep. 2015. ilus, tab.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-884455

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: La enfermedad de orina olor a jarabe de arce (EOJA) es un error congénito del metabolismo de herencia autosómica recesiva, causado por la actividad defectuosa del com- plejo enzimático deshidrogenasa de α -cetoáci- dos, ocasionando que los aminoácidos de cadena ramificada; valina, leucina e isoleucina no puedan catabolizarse completamente. Se trata de lactante menor, tres meses de edad, con antecedente de vómitos frecuentes y rechazo a la alimentación desde la primera semana de vida, tratado por alergia a la proteí- na de la leche de vaca y reflujo gastroesofágico grado IV, con varios cambios de formula en su alimentación. Trasladado al Instituto Hondure- ño del Seguro Social, Hospital Regional del Norte (IHSS-HRN) con historia de cinco días de tos, fiebre y aproximadamente nueve horas de dificultad respiratoria. Tres horas más tarde presenta convulsiones tónicas y choque, por lo que se trasladado a sala de cuidados intensivos pediátricos, acoplándose a ventilador mecáni- co. Laboratorialmente: acidosis metabólica persistente que se logró controlar a las 48 horas, Anión Gap: 17, cetonuria, IRM con impor- tante atrofia cortical. Se encontró elevación de los metabolitos de aminoácidos de cadena ramificada; 2-OH isovalerico, 2- OH isocaproico, 2-ceto-3 methylvalerico, 2 cetoisocaproico consistentes con EOJA y elevación del ácido láctico y alfa cetoglutarato; que podrían indicar defectos en la subunidad E3 de la enzima deshidrogenasa. Conclusiones: Los errores innatos del metabolismo son más frecuente- mente diagnosticados cada día, y deben sospe- charse en los niños con vómitos frecuentes...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Anemia, Neonatal/complications , Congenital Abnormalities , Maple Syrup Urine Disease/diagnosis , Metabolism, Inborn Errors/complications
9.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 91(3): 292-298, May-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-752410

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To characterize a sample of Brazilian patients with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) diagnosed between 1992 and 2011. METHODS: In this retrospective study, patients were identified through a national reference laboratory for the diagnosis of MSUD and through contact with other medical genetics services across Brazil. Data were collected by means of a chart review. RESULTS: Eighty-three patients from 75 families were enrolled in the study (median age, 3 years; interquartile range [IQR], 0.57-7). Median age at onset of symptoms was 10 days (IQR 5-30), whereas median age at diagnosis was 60 days (IQR 29-240, p = 0.001). Only three (3.6%) patients were diagnosed before the onset of clinical manifestations. A comparison between patients with (n = 12) and without (n = 71) an early diagnosis shows that early diagnosis is associated with the presence of positive family history and decreased prevalence of clinical manifestations at the time of diagnosis, but not with a better outcome. Overall, 98.8% of patients have some psychomotor or neurodevelopmental delay. CONCLUSION: In Brazil, patients with MSUD are usually diagnosed late and exhibit neurological involvement and poor survival even with early diagnosis. We suggest that specific public policies for diagnosis and treatment of MSUD should be developed and implemented in the country. .


OBJETIVO: Caracterizar uma amostra de pacientes brasileiros com a doença da urina de xarope de bordo (DXB) diagnosticados entre 1992 e 2011. MÉTODOS: Os pacientes foram identificados por meio de um laboratório de referência nacional para o diagnóstico de DXB e por meio do contato com outros serviços de genética médica no Brasil. Os dados foram coletados por meio de uma revisão de prontuários. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos no estudo 83 pacientes de 75 famílias (idade média: três anos; intervalo interquartil (IQR): 0,57-7). A idade média no surgimento dos sintomas era de 10 dias (IQR: 5-30), ao passo que a idade média no diagnóstico era de 60 dias (IQR: 29-240; p = 0,001). Somente três (3,6%) pacientes foram diagnosticados antes do surgimento de manifestações clínicas. Uma comparação entre pacientes com (n = 12) e sem (n = 71) um diagnóstico precoce mostra que o diagnóstico precoce está associado à presença de histórico familiar positivo e à redução na prevalência de manifestações clínicas no momento do diagnóstico, porém sem melhor resultado. Em geral, 98,8% dos pacientes têm algum atraso no desenvolvimento psicomotor ou neurológico. CONCLUSÃO: No Brasil, os pacientes com DXB normalmente recebem um diagnóstico tardio e exibem um envolvimento neurológico e baixa sobrevivência, mesmo com um diagnóstico precoce. Sugerimos que políticas públicas específicas para o diagnóstico e tratamento da DXB sejam desenvolvidas e implementadas no país. .


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Young Adult , Delayed Diagnosis/statistics & numerical data , Maple Syrup Urine Disease/epidemiology , Neonatal Screening , Brazil/epidemiology , Developmental Disabilities/etiology , Early Diagnosis , Longitudinal Studies , Leucine/blood , Maple Syrup Urine Disease/diagnosis , Maple Syrup Urine Disease/genetics , Retrospective Studies
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-104675

ABSTRACT

Two trials of external quality assessment (EQA) of conventional newborn screening tests for phenylketonuria, galactosaemia, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, maple syrup urine disease, homocystinuria, and congenital hypothyroidism, as well as newborn screening tests were performed using tandem mass spectrometry in 2014. A total of 39 specimens in the form of dried blood spots were distributed to 16 laboratories and the response rate of these laboratories was 100%. Screening tests for phenylketonuria and congenital hypothyroidism did not meet the accepted performance criteria in some laboratories. The mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, median, and cut-offs were evaluated for each analyte in the newborn screening tests. Two trials of EQA for the analyses of methylmalonic acid, vanillylmandelic acid, catecholamines, metanephrines, organic acids, and amino acids were also performed. A well-designed EQA program and continuous education would improve the performance of biochemical genetic testing.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital , Amino Acids , Catecholamines , Congenital Hypothyroidism , Education , Homocystinuria , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Korea , Maple Syrup Urine Disease , Mass Screening , Methylmalonic Acid , Molecular Biology , Phenylketonurias , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Vanilmandelic Acid
11.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 66-70, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-293872

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder that is caused by mutations in the subunits of the branched chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKD) complex. This report presents a Han ethnic Chinese newborn infant with the severe classic form of MSUD caused by two novel missense mutations in the BCKDHB gene.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The clinical and biochemical data of a Chinese neonate with classic form of MSUD were analyzed, and the DNA sequences of BCKDHA, BCKDHB, DBT and DLD genes were investigated for mutations. Then the DNA samples of the proband and the patient's parents were tested with Sanger sequencing.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The manifestations of this patient were poor feeding, low reaction, and compensatory metabolic acidosis. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) showed that leucine and valine were significantly higher than normal. Urine gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) showed significant abnormality. Brain CT scan showed white matter changes. We identified two previously unreported mutations in the BCKDHB gene, p.Leu194Phe (c.580 C>T) and p.Ser199Arg (c.597 T>G) in exon 5. Segregation analysis showed that the novel mutation p.Ser199Arg was maternally inherited and the novel mutation p.Leu194Phe was paternally inherited. Neither mutation was found in the 186 alleles of 93 normal Han ethnic Chinese individuals. In human BCKDHB protein crystal structure, the 194th and 199th amino acids changes are likely to affect the spatial structure of the protein. The 194th and 199th amino acid of human BCKDHB protein was conserved among species. PolyPhen protein function prediction indicated that the 194th and 199th amino acid changes were likely to affect protein function.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Two novel missense mutations were identified in the BCKDHB gene in the Chinese patient with MSUD.</p>


Subject(s)
3-Methyl-2-Oxobutanoate Dehydrogenase (Lipoamide) , Genetics , Alleles , Asians , Base Sequence , DNA , Exons , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Maple Syrup Urine Disease , Genetics , Mutation, Missense , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
12.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 41(3): 304-311, set. 2014. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-728339

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD) is caused by a defect of the ketoacid dehydrogenase enzyme complex of the branched amino acids Valine, Isoleucine and Leucine (VIL). The treatment consists of a leucine-restricted diet. Objective: To evaluate the long-term follow-up in children with MSUD. Methodology: 29 records were reviewed of patients with MSUD, of which 24 were clinically identified (> 5th day of life), 4 cases by MSUD family history and one by neonatal screening (< 5th day of life). Leucine (Leu) levels were measured at diagnosis (Biotronic 2000) and during follow-up (mass spectrometry). The number of decompensation events, Total Intellectual Quotient (TIQ, Bayley and Wechsler scale) and nutritional status were also measured. STATA statistical software version 9.2 was applied (p≤0.05). Results: Mean age at diagnosis was 14 days old. In all cases the diagnosis was confirmed by elevated levels of Leu and alloisoleucin. When comparing the TIQ of 19 cases over 3 years old with their age at diagnosis, it was observed that those cases screened by the 5th day of life had a TIQ 84.6 ± 13, while those diagnosed later had a TIQ 73 ± 17 (p≤0.05). In assessing the number of hospitalizations that occurred during follow-up, we determined that the 5 cases screened early never had a metabolic crisis and had a higher TIQ than those who had had one or more decompensation (92 and 74, respectively, p≤0.05). An inverse correlation was observed between the Leu+Isoleucine value and TIQ. Conclusion: The diagnosis before the 5th day of life and a good metabolic control during follow-up, enables children with MSUD to have normal cognitive development.


La enfermedad de la orina olor a jarabe de arce (EOJA) se produce por un defecto del complejo enzimático deshidrogenasa de los cetoácidos de los aminoácidos ramificados: Valina, Isoleucina, Leucina (VIL). El tratamiento es una dieta restringida en leucina (Leu). Objetivo: evaluar el seguimiento a largo plazo en niños con EOJA. Metodología: Se revisaron 29 fichas de pacientes EOJA, 24 fueron pesquisados por clínica (> 5to día de vida) y 4 casos por antecedentes familiares con EOJA y 1 por pesquisa neonatal (< 5to día de vida). Se midió nivel de Leu al diagnóstico (Biotronic 2000) y durante el seguimiento (Espectrometría de masa), número de descompensaciones, Coeficiente Intelectual Total (CIT) (Escalas de Bayley y Wechsler) y estado nutricional. Se aplicó programa estadístico STATA versión 9.2 (p≤0.05). Resultados: La edad de diagnóstico fue a los 14 días de edad. En todos se confirmó el diagnóstico por los niveles elevados de Leu y presencia de alloisoleucina. Al comparar el CIT de los 19 casos mayores de 3 años con la edad de diagnóstico, se observó que aquellos casos pesquisados antes del 5to día tenían un CIT de 84,6±13, a diferencia de los diagnosticados posteriormente que tenían un CIT=73±17 (p≤0.05). Al evaluar el número de descompensaciones ocurridas durante el seguimiento, se determinó que los 5 casos nunca habían tenido una crisis metabólica, tuvieron un CI mayor que aquellos que habían tenido una o más descompensaciones (92 y 74 respectivamente) (p≤0.05). Cuando se correlacionó el valor de Leu+Iso de seguimiento con el CIT, se observó una correlación inversamente proporcional. Conclusión: el diagnóstico antes de los 5to día de vida y un buen control metabólico durante el seguimiento, permite que los niños con EOJA tengan un desarrollo cognitivo normal.


Subject(s)
Child , Child , Intelligence , Leucine , Maple Syrup Urine Disease , Child Development
14.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(6): 522-526, 06/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-709451

ABSTRACT

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive disease associated with high levels of branched-chain amino acids. Children with MSUD can present severe neurological damage, but liver transplantation (LT) allows the patient to resume a normal diet and avoid further neurological damage. The use of living related donors has been controversial because parents are obligatory heterozygotes. We report a case of a 2-year-old child with MSUD who underwent a living donor LT. The donor was the patient's mother, and his liver was then used as a domino graft. The postoperative course was uneventful in all three subjects. DNA analysis performed after the transplantation (sequencing of the coding regions of BCKDHA, BCKDHB, and DBT genes) showed that the MSUD patient was heterozygous for a pathogenic mutation in the BCKDHB gene. This mutation was not found in his mother, who is an obligatory carrier for MSUD according to the family history and, as expected, presented both normal clinical phenotype and levels of branched-chain amino acids. In conclusion, our data suggest that the use of a related donor in LT for MSUD was effective, and the liver of the MSUD patient was successfully used in domino transplantation. Routine donor genotyping may not be feasible, because the test is not widely available, and, most importantly, the disease is associated with both the presence of allelic and locus heterogeneity. Further studies with this population of patients are required to expand the use of related donors in MSUD.


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Humans , Male , Liver Transplantation , Living Donors , Maple Syrup Urine Disease/surgery , Mutation/genetics , Amino Acids, Branched-Chain/genetics , Genotype , Phenotype , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Treatment Outcome
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-65817

ABSTRACT

Two trials of external quality assessment (EQA) of conventional newborn screening tests for phenylketonuria, galactosaemia, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, maple syrup urine disease, homocystinuria, and congenital hypothyroidism, as well as of newborn screening tests using tandem mass spectrometry were performed in 2013. A total of 32 specimens in the form of dried blood spots were distributed to 16 laboratories and the response rate of these laboratories was 100%. Total T4, free T4, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, leucine, isoleucine, galactose, methionine, alanine, C8/C2, C8/C10, and C5-OH did not meet the accepted performance criteria. The mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, median, and cut-offs were evaluated for each analyte in the newborn screening tests. Two trials of EQA for the analyses of methylmalonic acid, vanillylmandelic acid, very long fatty acids, organic acids, and amino acids were also performed. A well-designed EQA program and continuous education would improve the performance of biochemical genetic tests.


Subject(s)
17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital , Alanine , Amino Acids , Congenital Hypothyroidism , Education , Fatty Acids , Galactose , Homocystinuria , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Isoleucine , Korea , Leucine , Maple Syrup Urine Disease , Mass Screening , Methionine , Methylmalonic Acid , Molecular Biology , Phenylketonurias , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Vanilmandelic Acid
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-7132

ABSTRACT

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a disorder that involves the metabolism of branched chain amino acids, arising from a defect in branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex. Mutations have been identified in the BCKDHA, BCKDHB, or DBT genes, which encode different subunits of the BCKDH complex. Although encephalopathy and progressive neurodegeneration are its major manifestations, the severity of the disease may range from the severe classic type to milder intermediate variants. We report two Korean siblings with the milder intermediate MSUD who were diagnosed with MSUD by a combination of newborn screening tests using tandem mass spectrometry and family genetic screening for MSUD. At diagnosis, the patients' plasma levels were elevated for leucine, isoleucine, valine, and alloisoleucine, and branched-chain alpha-keto acids and branched-chain alpha-hydroxy acids were detected in their urine. BCKDHA, BCKDHB, and DBT analysis was performed, and two novel mutations were identified in BCKDHB. Our patients were thought to have the milder intermediate variant of MSUD, rather than the classic form. Although MSUD is a typical metabolic disease with poor prognosis, better outcomes can be expected if early diagnosis and prompt management are provided, particularly for milder forms of the disease.


Subject(s)
3-Methyl-2-Oxobutanoate Dehydrogenase (Lipoamide) , Amino Acids , Diagnosis , Early Diagnosis , Genetic Testing , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Isoleucine , Leucine , Maple Syrup Urine Disease , Mass Screening , Metabolic Diseases , Metabolism , Plasma , Prognosis , Siblings , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Valine
17.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2013 Oct; 50(5): 442-446
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-150254

ABSTRACT

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is predominantly caused by mutations in the BCKDHA, BCKDHB and DBT genes, which encode for the E1α, E1β and E2 subunits of the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex, respectively. Because disease causing mutations play a major role in the development of the disease, prenatal diagnosis at gestational level may have significance in making decisions by parents. Thus, this study was aimed to screen South Indian MSUD patients for mutations and assess the genotype-phenotype correlation. Thirteen patients diagnosed with MSUD by conventional biochemical screening such as urine analysis by DNPH test, thin layer chromatography for amino acids and blood amino acid quantification by HPLC were selected for mutation analysis. The entire coding regions of the BCKDHA, BCKDHB and DBT genes were analyzed for mutations by PCR-based direct DNA sequencing. BCKDHA and BCKDHB mutations were seen in 43% of the total ten patients, while disease-causing DBT gene mutation was observed only in 14%. Three patients displayed no mutations. Novel mutations were c.130C>T in BCKDHA gene, c. 599C>T and c.121_122delAC in BCKDHB gene and c.190G>A in DBT gene. Notably, patients harbouring these mutations were non-responsive to thiamine supplementation and other treatment regimens and might have a worse prognosis as compared to the patients not having such mutations. Thus, identification of these mutations may have a crucial role in the treatment as well as understanding the molecular mechanisms in MSUD.


Subject(s)
3-Methyl-2-Oxobutanoate Dehydrogenase (Lipoamide)/genetics , DNA Mutational Analysis , Female , Humans , India , Infant , Male , Maple Syrup Urine Disease/enzymology , Maple Syrup Urine Disease/genetics , Mutation , Phenotype
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-320696

ABSTRACT

Maple syrup urine disease is a common amino acids metabolic disease. In most patients, onset occurs in the neonatal period and infancy. In this study, the case of a school boy with acute encephalopathy due to late-onset maple syrup urine disease is summarized. The boy (8.5 years) was admitted because of acute encephalopathy after suffering from infection for two days at the age of eight and a half years. Metabolic acidosis, hyperuricemia and decreased protein level in cerebrospinal fluid were found by general laboratory tests. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed signal intensity abnormalities in the bilateral cerebellum dentate nucleus, brainstem, thalamus, putamen, caudate nucleus and cortex of the cerebral hemispheres. On T1WI and T2WI scanning, hyperintensive signal was found. Blood leucine and valine were significantly elevated. Urinary 2-hydroxy isovaleric acid, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, 2-keto isovaleric acid, and 2-keto acid also increased. Both the blood amino acid and urine organic acid profiles led to the diagnosis of maple syrup urine disease. In the acute period, the patient was treated with a large dose of vitamin B1, glucose, L-carnitine and a protein-restrict diet. The patient's condition improved significantly after five days of treatment, and he recovered completely two days later. Afterwards, treatment with vitamin B1, L-carnitine and a protein-restrict diet (1 g/kg/day) was continued. One and a half months later, blood amino acids and urine organic acids returned to normal. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain also indicated a great improvement. It was concluded that inborn metabolic disease should be considered in the patients with an onset similar to acute encephalopathy. Early diagnosis and proper treatment can prevent brain damage and improve prognosis.


Subject(s)
Acute Disease , Brain Diseases , Child , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Maple Syrup Urine Disease , Diagnosis , Therapeutics
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-320651

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the clinical features of organic acidemia in neonates admitted to the intensive care unit.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The clinical features of neonates from 15 neonatal intensive care units of Henan Province, who were diagnosed with congenital organic acidemia by gaschromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) between June 2008 and August 2011 were retrospectively reviewed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Fifty neonates of 287 high risk neonates were confirmed as having or highly suspected to have inborn errors of metabolism. Of the 50 cases, 32 cases were diagnosed with organic acidemia disease, including 28 cases of methylmalonic acidemia, 2 cases of propionic acidemia, 1 case of maple syrup urine disease and 1 case of isovaleric acldemla. In most cases, disease onset occurred in the first week after birth in most of cases (75%). Neonates whose symptoms occurred immediately after or within a few hours of birth presented with serious conditions. Clinical manifestations were various and mainly related to neurologic, respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms such as poor response, coma, drowsiness, abnormal muscle tone, convulsions, polypnea, dyspnea, milk refusal, diarrhea and jaundice. Initial symptoms were non-specific and included dyspnea, poor response, milk refusal, lethargy and seizures.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Methylmalonic acidemia is a common inherited metabolic disease in the neonatal period. Clinical manifestations of organic acid metabolism abnormalities in neonates are atypical and early onset is associated with more serious conditions.</p>


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Male , Maple Syrup Urine Disease , Diagnosis , Propionic Acidemia , Diagnosis
20.
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 20(2)abr.-maio 2010. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-553652

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: relatar caso de doença da urina do xarope de bordo (leucinose) e demonstrar como obterem-se bons resultados com o tratamento metabólico da doença. Descrição do caso: recém-nascida, desenvolveu no quinto dia de vida dificuldade de sucção, prostração e alternação de hipotonia e hipertonia axial. Foi admitida com 12 dias de vida em unidade de tratamento intensivo com crises de hipertonia, opistótono, movimentos de pedalar e apneia. Foi submetida à CPAP nasal e instituído tratamento de suporte, com triagem infecciosa negativa. A cromatografia sanguínea de aminoácidos revelou aumento pronunciado de leucina (5.986,4 nmol/mL), isoleucina (488,1 nmol/mL) e valina (755,9 mmol/mL), sendo diagnosticada leucinose e iniciado o seu tratamento metabólico. Evoluiu com melhora neurológica, ganho de peso e redução dos níveis de leucina. Recebeu alta em boas condições. Comentários: houve queda mais lenta nos níveis de leucina do que o relatado na literatura, o que pode ser explicado pelo tempo necessário para conseguir-se a dieta especial (MSUD 1) e pelo fato da mistura de aminoácidos usada na nutrição parenteral conter leucina. Poder-se-ia alcançar controle bioquímico mais rápido se houvesse disponibilidade diária da análise sérica quantitativa de aminoácidos e mais agilidade na liberação dos resultados.


Objective: Case report of the maple syrup urine disease (leucinosis) and show how to get good results with the disease metabolic treatment. Case description: newborn developed in the 5th day of life difficulty poor sucking, prostration and alternating axial hypotonia and hypertonia, was admitted with 12 days of life in the intensive treatment unit, with attacks of hypertonia, opisthotonus, paddling movements and apnea. She underwent nasal CPAP and supportive care instituted, with negative infectious screening. The blood amino acid chromatography showed a pronounced increase of leucine(5.986,4 nmol/mL), isoleucine (488,1 nmol/mL) and valine (755,9 mmol/mL), with leucinosis diagnosis and started the metabolic treatment. Evolved with neurological improvement, weight gain and decreased the levels of leucine. She was discharged in good condition. Comments: there was a slower fall in levels of leucine than that reported in the literature, which can be explained by the time needed to get the specialdiet (MSUD 1) and because the mixture of amino acids used in the parenteral nutrition contain leucine. The biochemical control could be achieved faster if there was daily availability of the quantitative analysis of serum amino acids and more speed in the release of results.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant, Newborn , Maple Syrup Urine Disease/diet therapy , Leucine
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