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1.
Rev. biol. trop ; 70(1)dic. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1387723

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Los mamíferos marinos se ven afectados por diversas amenazas que deben identificarse para los esfuerzos de mitigación. Objetivo: Cuantificar visualmente las amenazas a los mamíferos marinos en Colombia e identificar acciones de mitigación. Métodos: Georreferenciamos las amenazas con base en la literatura, cubriendo 35 especies en el período 1991-2020, y las superpusimos en mapas de distribución de especies. Resultados: 22 especies presentaron al menos una amenaza. La captura incidental y las interacciones con los artes de pesca afectaron a 16 especies, seguidas de la captura directa (8 especies), el tráfico/tránsito de embarcaciones (6 especies) y la alteración de la física oceánica (6 especies). Las especies más afectadas, en cuanto a mayor diversidad de amenazas, son: ballena jorobada (Megaptera novaeangliae), manatí antillano del Caribe (Trichechus manatus), el tucuxi marino (Sotalia guianensis) y el delfín nariz de botella (Tursiops truncatus). Casi todo el territorio marino de Colombia presenta algún grado de riesgo para los mamíferos marinos. Las áreas de alto riesgo son Buenaventura, Guapi, Golfo de Cupica y Tumaco en el Pacífico; y Golfo de Urabá, Golfo de Darién, Golfo de Morrosquillo, frente a Barranquilla, Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta y Golfo de Coquivacoa en el Caribe. Conclusión: Los mamíferos marinos en Colombia se encuentran actualmente en riesgo debido a varias amenazas, especialmente relacionadas con actividades de pesca, caza/captura y transporte marítimo, principalmente en las zonas costeras. Se necesitan acciones urgentes de evaluación y gestión en las diez áreas de alto riesgo identificadas en este estudio.


Abstract Introduction: Marine mammals are affected by diverse threats that must be identified for mitigation efforts. Objective: To visually quantify threats to marine mammals in Colombia, and to identify mitigation actions. Methods: We georeferenced threats based on the literature, covering 35 species in the period 1991-2020, and superimposed them on species range maps. Results: 22 species had at least one threat. Bycatch and interactions with fishing gear affected 16 species, followed by direct capture (8 species), vessel traffic/transit (6 species) and alteration of ocean physics (6 species). The most affected species, in terms of the greatest diversity of threats, are: humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae), Caribbean West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus), marine tucuxi (Sotalia guianensis) and bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Nearly all of Colombia's marine territory presents some degree of risk for marine mammals. High-risk areas are Buenaventura, Guapi, Cupica Gulf and Tumaco in the Pacific; and Urabá Gulf, Darién Gulf, Morrosquillo Gulf, off Barranquilla, Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta and Coquivacoa Gulf in the Caribbean. Conclusion: Marine mammals in Colombia are currently at risk due to several threats, especially related to fishing, hunting/capture and shipping activities, mainly in coastal areas. Urgent evaluation and management actions are needed in the ten high-risk areas identified in this study.


Subject(s)
Animals , Marine Fauna , Geographical Localization of Risk , Mammals/classification , Colombia
2.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(7): 523-529, July 2019. tab, graf, ilus, mapas
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1040706

ABSTRACT

The aim of this work was to determine the main species of stranded seabirds at the Northeastern coast of Brazil in addition to the most frequent causes of stranding and mortality. The study was conducted in a monitored area for three years (2012-2014), from the coastline of south Alagoas through north coast of Bahia encompassing 254km of coast. The seabirds found alive during the monitoring were sent to rehabilitation, clinically examined and the carcasses were removed, necropsied and histopathologically analyzed. A total of 1.347 seabirds were found stranded. Of these, 378 were found alive and sent to rehabilitation. From the 969 dead seabirds 806 were unsuitable for necropsy, being only 163 submitted to necropsy and histopathological analysis. Calonectris borealis, Puffinus gravis and Puffinus puffinus were the main seabirds stranded in the studied area. Most stranding occurred from March to June with an increase during April and May for the most species of seabirds. The main clinical signs of stranded seabirds consisted of inappetence, apathy, low body score, hypothermia, flying or movement difficulty and prolonged recumbency. Natural causes followed by infectious diseases and anthropogenic environmental factors were the main causes of death of seabirds stranded on the Northeastern coast of Brazil.(AU)


O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar as principais espécies de aves marinhas encalhadas na costa do Nordeste do Brasil, bem como as mais frequentes causas de encalhe e mortalidade. O estudo foi desenvolvido em área monitorada durante três anos (2012-2014), entre o litoral sul de Alagoas e o litoral norte da Bahia, perfazendo um total de 254km de extensão da costa. As aves encontradas vivas foram encaminhadas para reabilitação e examinadas clinicamente; as carcaças foram removidas, necropsiadas e os órgãos foram analisados por meio da histopatologia. Um total de 1.347 aves foi encontrado, encalhadas. Dessas, 378 estavam vivas e foram encaminhadas para a reabilitação. Das 969 aves marinhas mortas, 806 estavam impróprias para realização de necropsia, sendo apenas 163 submetidas à necropsia e análise histopatológica. Calonectris borealis, Puffinus gravis e Puffinus puffinus foram as principais espécies encontradas na área estudada. A maioria dos encalhes para grande parte das aves marinhas ocorreram de março a junho, com um aumento durante abril e maio. Os principais sinais clínicos das aves marinhas consistiram em inapetência, apatia, baixo escore corporal, hipotermia, dificuldade de voo ou movimento e decúbito prolongado. Causas naturais, seguidas de doenças infecciosas e fatores antropogênicos, foram as principais causas de mortes de aves marinhas encalhadas na costa do Nordeste do Brasil.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Birds , Marine Fauna , Mortality , Brazil , Conservation of Natural Resources , Animals, Wild
3.
Rev. biol. trop ; 67(1): 213-223, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041905

ABSTRACT

Resumen Los mares ocupan aproximadamente tres cuartas partes de la tierra constituyendo el hábitat de una gran cantidad de especies de flora y fauna. Como parte de los organismos marinos, los phylum bioquímicamente más estudiados son Porífera, Cnidaria y más recientemente Ascomycota, de todos ellos se han aislado e identificado un gran número de compuestos químicos, los cuales han mostrado diferentes tipos de actividades biológicas, principalmente citotóxica, bactericida y antioxidante, entre otras. En esta investigación se estudió la esponja marina Iotrochota birotulata recolectada en Punta Bello-Córdoba en el Caribe colombiano lográndose determinar su perfil lipídico a partir del análisis de los correspondientes espectros de masas de sus compuestos constituyentes, fueron identificados 19 ácidos grasos, los cuales son reportados por primera vez para esta especie. Además fueron identificados 10 esteroles. Se encontraron ácidos grasos con cadenas carbonadas entre C15 y C27, mostrando una amplia diversidad estructural lo cual es característico del phylum porífera. En cuanto a los esteroles se encontraron estructuras principalmente con núcleos Δ5 y Δ7 que son los más abundantes en las esponjas. Se encontró moderada actividad antioxidante en la estabilización del catión radical ABTS+• y baja actividad en la estabilización del radical DPPH•, el mayor valor de inhibición se encontró en el extracto acuoso con un valor de IC50 de 43.9 µg/ml frente al catión radical ABTS+•, mostrando que I. birotulata puede producir compuestos con moderada actividad antioxidante. En el ensayo de actividad insecticida, se encontró afectación larval en los extractos metanólico y acuoso en todas las concentraciones y en todos los tiempos de exposición evaluados frente a Spodoptera frugiperda, también se determinó que estos extractos inducen un efecto antialimentario en las larvas como parte del mecanismo insecticida. Se determinaron las condiciones y los tiempos de exposición óptimos para la mejor eficiencia del ensayo, las cuales fueron de 3 000 µg/ml y 48 h para el extracto metanólico y 2 000 µg/ml y 24 h para el extracto acuoso, respectivamente. En conclusión, los extractos evaluados de I. birotulata mostraron moderada actividad antioxidante y buenas e interesantes actividades insecticida y antialimentaria.(AU)


Abstract It is estimated that three quarters of earth´s surface is occupied by the oceans. This constitutes the habitat of a large number of species of flora and fauna. As part of the marine organisms, the most studied biochemical phylum are Porifera, Cnidaria and more recently Ascomycota, from which a large number of chemical compounds have been isolated and identified. These have shown different types of biological activities, mainly cytotoxic, bactericidal and antioxidant. In this research the marine sponge Iotrochota birotulata collected in Punta Bello-Córdoba in the Colombian Caribbean was studied, and its lipid profile from the analysis of the corresponding mass spectra of its constituent compounds was determined, 19 fatty acids were identified, which are reported for the first time for this specie, besides 10 sterols were identified. Fatty acids with carbon chains between C15 and C27 were found, showing a wide structural diversity, which is characteristic of the porifera phylum. The sterols showed structures mainly with nucleus Δ5 and Δ7, which are the most abundant in sponges. Moderate antioxidant activity was found in the stabilization of the radical cation ABTS+• and low activity in the stabilization of the radical DPPH•, the highest inhibition value was found in the aqueous extract with an IC50 de 43.9 µg/ml against the radical cation ABTS+•, showing that I. birotulata can produce compounds with moderate antioxidant activity. In the insecticidal activity test, larval affectation was found in methanolic and aqueous extracts at all concentrations and at all times of exposure evaluated against Spodoptera frugiperda, it was also determined that these extracts induce an antifeedant effect on the larvae as part of the mechanism insecticide. The optimal conditions and exposure times were determined for the best efficiency of the assay, which were 3 000 µg/ml and 48 h for the methanolic extract and 2 000 µg/ml and 24 h for the aqueous extract, respectively. In conclusion, the evaluated extracts of the I. birotulata showed moderate antioxidant activity and good and interesting insecticidal and antifeedant activities.(AU)


Subject(s)
Marine Fauna/analysis , Spodoptera , Lipid Metabolism , Fatty Acids , Antioxidant Response Elements , Colombia
4.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 55(2): 138436, 26 jul. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-913468

ABSTRACT

This report describes the successful rehabilitation of two species of pelagic seabirds (Macronectes halli and Macronectes giganteus) rescued on the southern coast of the state of São Paulo, Brazil, and taken to the IPeC rehabilitation center (S25°023258 W-47°928737). Data on the enclosures, diet, clinical management and laboratory tests were detailed during the 75 d of treatment, during which the birds remained at the center. This report demonstrates that a combination of environmental and nutritional management with a proper diagnosis and adequate clinical treatment naturally lead to a shorter period in captivity, which is crucial to the successful rehabilitation of these birds. The enclosures should have visual isolation and animals kept separate from other birds. The form of offering food differs based on the feeding habits and taxon. At the time of release back into the wild, the site chosen should be isolated to enable the bird to feel more secure when taking flight. The present report describes the first record of the rehabilitation and release of these two species in Brazil.(AU)


Este relato descreve a reabilitação bem-sucedida de duas espécies de aves marinhas pelágicas (Macronectes halli e Macronectes giganteus) resgatadas no litoral sul de São Paulo e levadas ao Centro de Reabilitação IPeC (S-25°023258 W-47°928737). As medidas de ambientação dos recintos, dieta, manejo clínico e exames laboratoriais, implementadas nos 75 dias em que as aves permaneceram no Centro, foram detalhadamente descritas. Este relato demonstrou que a combinação de um correto manejo ambiental e nutricional com o diagnóstico e tratamento clínico adequados leva naturalmente à uma brevidade nos dias de cativeiro, todos considerados fatores essenciais para o sucesso na reabilitação dessas aves. Os recintos devem ter isolamento visual, e os animais devem ser mantidos separados de outras aves. A alimentação e a forma de ofertar o alimento variam de acordo com hábitos alimentares e táxon. No momento da soltura, o lugar deve ser isolado, deixando o animal mais seguro para alçar voo. Este relato descreve o primeiro registro de reabilitação e soltura de ambas as espécies no Brasil.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Birds , Hypothermia/veterinary , Marine Fauna , Pneumonia/veterinary , Treatment Outcome
5.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 55(2): 138489, 26 jul. 2018. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-913473

ABSTRACT

The use of alternative therapeutic approaches in wild animals has gained notoriety due to its efficiency, low cost and reduced or nonexistent stressors. The present study evaluated the efficacy of treatment of a bilateral excoriative lesion in the region of the dorsal metacarpus in a Chilean skua (Catharacta chilensis) in a rehabilitation process with the use of a porous cell membrane, sold commercially, in concomitance with moxibustion sessions with herbs (Artemisia vulgaris). The healing time of 14 days was reduced when compared to traditional techniques and proved the viability and efficacy of the treatment.(AU)


O uso de abordagens terapêuticas alternativas em animais selvagens tem ganhado notoriedade em virtude de sua eficiência, baixo custo e estímulos estressores reduzidos ou inexistentes. Este estudo avaliou a eficácia do tratamento de uma lesão escoriativa bilateral em região do dorsal metacarpo em um mandrião chileno (Catharacta chilensis) em processo de reabilitação com o uso de uma membrana celular porosa vendida comercialmente, em concomitância com sessões de moxabustão com ervas (Artemisia vulgaris). O tempo de cicatrização de catorze dias mostrou-se reduzido quando comparado ao de outras técnicas tradicionais e provou a viabilidade e eficácia do tratamento.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Artemisia , Biocompatible Materials/therapeutic use , Birds/injuries , Metacarpus/injuries , Moxibustion/veterinary , Wound Healing , Marine Fauna
6.
Rev. biol. trop ; 66(2): 776-787, abr.-jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-977344

ABSTRACT

Resumen Holothuria grisea, a pesar de no ser considerado un recurso comercial, ha sido objeto de extracciones ilegales en Colombia, hecho que se vuelve más grave debido al vació de información biológica de estos organismos. Por esta razón, se estimó la densidad poblacional y estructura de talla de H. grisea en tres sectores del sur del golfo de Morrosquillo de abril a noviembre 2015. Para ello, se ubicaron mensualmente tres transectos circulares en cada sector de muestreo abarcando un área de 300 m2, donde se contabilizaron y midieron in situ los individuos encontrados. La densidad media de H. grisea en el área estudiada fue 0.4 ind m-2, presentándose los mayores valores en el sector La Ahumadera (1.09 ± 0.11 ind m-2) y los menores valores en el Banco de Arena (0.02 ± 0.004 ind m-2). El análisis de varianza señalo una diferencia significativa en los valores de densidad y talla de H. grisea en los sectores estudiados. La especie presentó una distribución de tallas unimodal, registrándose una talla promedio de 13.5 ± 0.91 cm con una talla mínima de 2.5 y una máxima de 30 cm, en general las tallas intermedias presentaron una mayor representatividad a lo largo de este estudio (77.2 %). Los aspectos biológicos presentados en este documento son de gran importancia para la conservación de esta especie y corresponde a un avance en el conocimiento de la clase Holothuroidea en el Caribe Colombiano.


Abstract Holothuria grisea, despite not being considered a commercial resource has been the subject of illegal extractions in Colombia, a fact that becomes more serious due to the empty of biological information of these organisms. For this reason the density population and size structure of H. grisea were evaluated in three sectors south of the gulf of Morrosquillo from April to November 2015. To this end, three circular transects were located each month in each sampling site covering an area of 300 m2, where individuals were counted and measured in situ. The average density of H. grisea in the study area was 0.4 ind m-2, with the highest values in the La Ahumadera (1.09 ± 0.11 ind m-2) and the lowest values in Banco de Arena (0.02 ± 0.004 ind m-2). The analysis of variance showed a significance in the values of density and size of H. grisea in the studied sectors. The species presented a unimodal distribution of sizes with an average size of 13.5 ± 0.9 cm with a minimum size of 2.5 and a maximum of 30 cm, intermediate sizes generally showed a higher representativeness throughout this study (77.2 %). The biological aspects presented in this paper are of great importance for the conservation of this species and corresponds to an advance in the knowledge of the Holothuroidea class in the Colombian Caribbean. Rev. Biol. Trop. 66(2): 776-787. Epub 2018 June 01.


Subject(s)
Animals , Sea Cucumbers/growth & development , Marine Fauna/analysis , Population Density , Invertebrates , Colombia , Holothuria/anatomy & histology
7.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-954807

ABSTRACT

Viruses exhibit rapid mutational capacity to trick and infect host cells, sometimes assisted through virus-coded peptides that counteract host cellular immune defense. Although a large number of compounds have been identified as inhibiting various viral infections and disease progression, it is urgent to achieve the discovery of more effective agents. Furthermore, proportionally to the great variety of diseases caused by viruses, very few viral vaccines are available, and not all are efficient. Thus, new antiviral substances obtained from natural products have been prospected, including those derived from venomous animals. Venoms are complex mixtures of hundreds of molecules, mostly peptides, that present a large array of biological activities and evolved to putatively target the biochemical machinery of different pathogens or host cellular structures. In addition, non-venomous compounds, such as some body fluids of invertebrate organisms, exhibit antiviral activity. This review provides a panorama of peptides described from animal venoms that present antiviral activity, thereby reinforcing them as important tools for the development of new therapeutic drugs.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Antiviral Agents , Peptides , Poisons , Biological Products , Marine Fauna/analysis
8.
Rev. biol. trop ; 63(2): 501-514, Apr.-Jun. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: lil-764982

ABSTRACT

A new species of round stingray, Urobatis pardalis sp. nov., is described from material collected in the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. This new species differs from its congeners by the color pattern of the dorsal surface and by several proportional measurements. A key to all species of the genus is provided.


Nueva especie del género Urobatis (Myliobatiformes: Urotrygonidae) del Pacífico oriental tropical. Una nueva especie de raya redonda con espina, Urobatis pardalis sp. nov., es descrita a partir de material recolectado en las costas del Pacífico de Costa Rica. Esta nueva especie difiere de sus congéneres por el patrón de la coloración dorsal del disco y por varias relaciones de medidas. Se presenta una clave para la determinación taxonómica de las especies del género.


Subject(s)
Skates, Fish/anatomy & histology , Marine Fauna , Aquatic Organisms , Costa Rica , Marine Biology
9.
Rev. biol. trop ; 63(supl.1): 395-406, abr. 2015. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-958150

ABSTRACT

Resumen Golfo Dulce es un estuario en forma de fiordo, localizado en el Pacífico Sur de Costa Rica. Este ecosistema marino-costero contiene una importante biodiversidad marina que incluye cetáceos. Este estudio describe la estructura de la comunidad de cetáceos en Golfo Dulce, sustentado en la diversidad de hábitats. Datos sobre avistamientos colectados en muestreos periódicos sistemáticos, han resultado en 943 registros (2005-2014≈3 490h≈64 533km) de siete especies de la familia Delphinidae, una Balaenopteridae y una especie de la familia Kogiidae. Se observa un gradiente en la diversidad de cetáceos desde la cuenca interna de Golfo Dulce hasta la zona de transición- oceánica en la entrada al Golfo. La dominancia se establece por la forma costera del delfín nariz de botella y el delfín manchado en la cuenca interna, mientras que T. truncatus junto con ballenas jorobadas migrantes ejercen la dominancia en el área del Umbral. El área transicional oceánica sostiene la mayor diversidad, dominada por especies de delfínidos de naturaleza piscívora, incluyendo la forma oceánica del delfín nariz de botella y la subespecie "Centroamericana" del delfín tornillo. Nosotros proponemos la hipótesis de una forma potencial particular del delfín manchado pantropical para Golfo Dulce, en contraste con S. attenuatta graffmani en aguas abiertas costeras del Pacífico Costarricense. El patrón de la estructura comunitaria de cetáceos se establece por la dinámica en uso de área por las especies presentes, lo cual debería ser considerado para el diseño de estrategias de manejo y conservación.


Abstract Golfo Dulce is a fiord-lilke embayment located in the southern Pacific of Costa Rica, this coastal-marine ecosystem harbors an important wealth in marine biodiversity, including cetaceans. In this study we describe the cetacean community of Golfo Dulce, in relation to the diversity of habitats constituting the seascape. Sighting data collected in periodic systematic surveys has yielded 943 records (2005-2014≈3 490h≈64 533km), of 12 species of cetaceans. A gradient of cetacean diversity is observed from the inner basin to the transitional-oceanic area at the entrance of the Gulf, with coastal bottlenose dolphin and spotted dolphin dominating the inner basin, and bottlenose dolphins and migratory humpback whales the sill area. Transitional oceanic habitat holds the greatest species diversity dominated by oceanic species, particularly piscivorous delphinids, including the off-shore form of bottlenose dolphins and the "Central American" spinner dolphin. We hypothesize the potential occurrence of a morphotype of pantropical spotted dolphins within Golfo Dulce, in contrast with S. attenuatta graffmani outside in open Pacific coastal waters. The pattern of cetacean community structure is established by the dynamic of area use by the species, which should be considered for the establishment of management and conservation strategies. Rev. Biol. Trop. 63 (2): 395-406. Epub 2015 June 01.


Subject(s)
Animals , Marine Fauna/analysis , Cetacea/classification , Dolphins/classification , Stenella/classification , Humpback Whale/classification , Costa Rica
10.
Gac. méd. espirit ; 17(1): 78-85, ene.-abr. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-743974

ABSTRACT

Fundamento: La didáctica de las ciencias estomatológicas cubanas acumula experiencias que justifican las características actuales del proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje en la asignatura Ortodoncia de la carrera de estomatología. Objetivo: Identificar los aspectos históricos que distinguen el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje en la asignatura Ortodoncia, en la educación estomatológica cubana. Metodología: Se empleó el método analítico-sintético, el histórico-lógico y el análisis documental con la revisión de bases de datos médicas de reconocido prestigio. Desarrollo: Se logró establecer una secuencia lógica de hechos trascendentes en la enseñanza-aprendizaje de la asignatura Ortodoncia desde sus inicios, cuatro décadas posteriores al comienzo de la estomatología, su evolución con variaciones en la denominación, inclusión de temáticas, ubicación en el plan de estudios e identificación de insuficiencias, presentes en la actualidad Conclusiones: A pesar del perfeccionamiento ascendente aún existen deficiencias en la enseñanza-aprendizaje de la asignatura Ortodoncia que se pueden superar al asumir lo más actual de la didáctica contemporánea.


Background: The didactics of Cuban stomatological sciences accumulates experiences that justify the current characteristics of the teaching-learning process in the subject of Orthodontics in the dentistry career. Objective: To identify the historical aspects that distinguish the process of teaching and learning in the subject of Orthodontics in Cuban stomatological education. Methodology: the analytic-synthetic method, logical and historical method and document analysis with review of medical databases of well-recognized prestige were used. Development: It was possible to establish a logical sequence of significant events in the teaching and learning of the subject of Orthodontics since its inception, four decades after the start of stomatology, its evolution with variations on the name, including themes, location in the study plan and identifying shortcomings, currently present. Conclusions: Despite the ascending improvement there are still shortcomings in the teaching and learning of the subject of Orthodontics that can be overcome by taking the most contemporary of didactic teaching today.


Subject(s)
Fishes, Poisonous/injuries , Poisoning/epidemiology , Toxicity , Aquatic Fauna , Bites and Stings/epidemiology , Marine Fauna
11.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 13(1): 53-60, Jan-Mar/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-744501

ABSTRACT

A new species of Barathronus (Ophidiiformes: Aphyonidae) is described from a single, mature male specimen (101 mm SL) bottom trawled on the continental slope of Rio Grande do Norte, northeastern Brazil, between 1,964 and 2,045 m depth. The new species is diagnosed among congeners by the following combination of characters: peritoneum transparent, deep-set eyes not visible, eight fangs on vomer, anal fin rays 69, predorsal length 42.0% SL, preanal length 49.5% SL, penis long, slender, and lacking a pair of lobes at its base, and presence of a ventral flexure of the anterior 2-3 vertebrae. Additionally, morphological data of three specimens of Barathronus bicolor collected in Brazilian waters are presented and compared with those from 51 specimens from the western Central Atlantic.


Uma nova espécie de Barathronus (Ophidiiformes: Aphyonidae) é descrita a partir de um único exemplar macho (101 mm CP) coletado com arrasto de fundo no talude continental do Rio Grande do Norte, nordeste do Brasil, entre 1.964 e 2.045 m de profundidade. A espécie nova é diagnosticada entre as congêneres pela seguinte combinação de caracteres: peritônio transparente, olhos alojados profundamente e não distinguíveis, oito presas no vômer, nadadeira anal com 69 raios, comprimento pré-dorsal 42,0% CP, comprimento pré-anal 49,5% CP, pênis longo, afilado e sem um par de lobos em sua base, e presença de flexão ventral nas 2-3 vértebras anteriores. Adicionalmente, dados morfológicos dos três espécimes de Barathronus bicolor coletados em águas brasileiras são apresentados e comparados com aqueles de 51 espécimes do Atlântico Central ocidental.


Subject(s)
Animals , Marine Fauna/analysis , Fishes/classification , Species Specificity
12.
Acta sci., Biol. sci ; 36(3): 357-364, jul.-set. 2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-848712

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the community structure of metazoan parasites of Trichiurus lepturus from Ubatuba, Brazil. Fifty fish were collected in February 2008. Our statistical approach consisted in evidencing the most interesting infrapopulations, in order to try to understand the relationship between the variables regulating them. This analysis was based on a Poisson generalized linear model (GLM) developed with selection of variables using the corrected Akaike Information Criterion (AICc) and AIC weight. Larvae of Anisakidae and Lecithochirium microstomum seems to play an important role on this host-parasite system and their abundances were influenced by the ontogenetic shift in feeding of the hosts. Changes in characteristics of hosts included a negative relationship between increased abundance of anisakids' larvae and reduction in host weight. Gender biases were statistically consistent, but further long-term research is required to confirm them. Finally, we show the challenges that may be addressed in future research.


O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a estrutura da comunidade de parasitos metazoários de Trichiurus lepturus de Ubatuba, Brasil. Em fevereiro de 2008, foram coletados 50 peixes. Nossa abordagem estatística consistiu em evidenciar as infrapopulações mais interessantes, para posteriormente tentar entender as relações entre as variáveis que as regulam. Essa análise foi baseada em um modelo linear generalizado (MLG), família Poisson, desenvolvido com seleção de variáveis usando o Akaike Information Criteria corrigido (AICc) e o peso de AIC. Larvas de Anisakidae e Lecithochirium microstomum parecem desempenhar importante papel nesse sistema parasito-hospedeiro e suas abundâncias foram influenciadas pela alteração ontogenética na alimentação dos hospedeiros. Alterações nas características dos hospedeiros parecem ocorrer com uma relação negativa entre o aumento da abundância de larvas de anisaquídeos e a diminuição do peso dos hospedeiros. Vieses sexuais foram estatisticamente consistentes, porém pesquisas adicionais de longo prazo são necessárias para confirmá-los. Com isto, exibimos desafios que podem ser caminhos para futuras pesquisas.


Subject(s)
Marine Fauna , Parasites , Perciformes
13.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 12(1): 165-175, Jan-Mar/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-709829

ABSTRACT

A comparative study involving three mesotidal beaches from reflective to estuarine states was conducted between October 2010 and September 2011 in the estuary of Mamanguape River, northeastern Brazil. The aim was to test for differences in fish assemblages along a morphodynamic continuum, particularly the effects of wave action. In total, 3,732 fish from 71 species were examined; Rhinosardinia bahiensis and Atherinella brasiliensis dominated the estuarine beach, whereas Trachinotus carolinus dominated the reflective beach. Fish assemblages were structured by spatial differences among the sites, and overall abundance, richness and biomass demonstrated a clear increasing trend from the reflective to the estuarine beaches, indicating a primary influence of wave exposure in the measured parameters. The Mamanguape River estuary plays a crucial ecological role as a nursery for several species that depend on its resources and have adapted to the high variability of its physical and chemical factors and the diversity of its habitats. Um estudo comparativo envolvendo três praias mesotidais do estado refletivo para o estuarino foi realizado entre outubro de 2010 e setembro de 2011 no estuário do rio Mamanguape, Nordeste do Brasil. O objetivo foi testar as diferenças nas assembleias de peixes ao longo de um continuum morfodinâmico, particularmente os efeitos da ação das ondas. No total, 3.732 peixes de 71 espécies foram examinados; Rhinosardinia bahiensis e Atherinella brasiliensis dominaram a praia estuarina, enquanto Trachinotus carolinus dominou a praia refletiva. As assembleias de peixes foram estruturadas por diferenças espaciais entre locais de amostragem, e a abundância total, riqueza e biomassa demonstraram uma clara tendência crescente da praia refletiva à praia estuarina, indicando uma influência primária de exposição às ondas nos parâmetros medidos. O estuário do rio Mamanguape desempenha um papel ecológico importante como um berçário para várias espécies que dependem de seus recursos e se adaptaram à alta variabilidade de seus fatores físico-químicos e da diversidade de seus habitats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bathing Beaches , Marine Fauna/analysis , Fishes/classification
14.
Rev. biol. trop ; 62(supl.1): 373-390, feb. 2014. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: lil-753747

ABSTRACT

The ecology of tidepool fishes has been extensively investigated worldwide over the past 40 years. As in many other ecological fields, studies in temperate zones outnumber studies carried out in tropical areas. Here, we document the short-term spatio-temporal variation of a tidepool fish assemblage from the Tropical Eastern Pacific (Gorgona Island, Colombia), compare our data with previous surveys made in 1993 and provide the first latitudinal comparison of tidepool fish assemblages in the Eastern Pacific coast (43°N to 36°S). During April-July 2006, monthly samplings were carried in 18 tidepools located at three sites this Island. A relatively species-rich tidepool fish assemblage (53 species) was found at Gorgona Island. Labrisomidae, Gobiidae and Gobiesocidae were the dominant resident components of this assemblage, whereas Pomacentridae, Muraenidae and Labridae constituted the transient component. Although the same dominant species were observed in surveys from 1993 and 2006, suggesting a high persistence of this assemblage over time, clear differences in the relative abundance of some species were also detected. These differences were partly the result of using different sampling methodologies (rotenone vs clove oil). Comparisons with other studies performed in tropical and temperate areas of the Eastern Pacific coast indicate a clear latitudinal pattern in the composition of these assemblages that correspond to well-documented biogeographic subdivisions of the marine fauna in this region. Further investigation of the ecological role that tidepool fishes play in rocky intertidal and subtidal areas of Gorgona Island and the whole Tropical Eastern Pacific region will benefit our understanding of the functioning of these important coastal ecosystems. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (Suppl. 1): 373-390. Epub 2014 February 01.


A nivel mundial, la ecología de peces de charcos intermareales ha sido ampliamente investigada durante los últimos 40 años, especialmente en zonas templadas. En este trabajo, se documenta la variación espacio-temporal en corta escala de un ensamblaje de peces de charcos intermareales en el Pacífico Oriental Tropical (Isla Gorgona, Colombia), y se comparan nuestros resultados, con los resultados obtenidos durante muestreos realizados en la misma localidad en 1993. Además se realiza la primera comparación latitudinal de estos ensamblajes para la costa oriental del Océano Pacífico (43°N a 36°S). Durante abril a junio de 2006, se realizaron muestreos mensuales en 18 charcos intermareales distribuidos en tres localidades de Isla Gorgona, estableciendo un ensamblaje de peces de charcos intermareales con una alta riqueza de especies (53 especies). Labrisomidae, Gobiidae and Gobiesocidae fueron los componentes residentes dominantes en el ensamblaje, mientras que Pomacentridae, Muraenidae and Labridae fueron los componentes transitorios. Aunque el registro de las mismas especies dominantes en 1993 y 2006 sustenta la idea de una alta persistencia temporal de este ensamblaje, se detectaron diferencias significativas en la abundancia relativa de las especies. Estas diferencias podrían ser el resultado de las diferentes técnicas de captura utilizadas durante 1993 y 2006 (rotenona vs aceite de clavo). Al comparar los estudios sobre peces intermareales realizados en la zona tropical y zona templada de la costa oriental del Océano Pacífico, se identificó un claro patrón latitudinal en la composición de los ensamblajes, que es consecuente con la ampliamente documentada subdivisión biogeográfica de la fauna marina de esta región. Para comprender el funcionamiento de los ecosistemas costeros del Pacífico Oriental tropical, es necesario que futuros esfuerzos de investigación se encaminen a conocer el papel ecológico de los peces intermareales en esta región.


Subject(s)
Marine Fauna/analysis , Wetlands , Spatio-Temporal Analysis , Fishes/classification , Colombia
15.
Rev. MVZ Córdoba ; 18(supl.1): 3633-3641, dic. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: lil-701775

ABSTRACT

Objetivo. Evaluar la actividad antiproliferativa y genotóxica de una fracción con actividad citotóxica obtenida de la esponja marina del Caribe colombiano Topsentia ophiraphidites (Fracción T4). Materiales y métodos. La fracción T4 de la esponja marina Topsentia ophiraphidites fue obtenida en el laboratorio de Productos Naturales Marinos de la Universidad de Antioquia. La actividad antiproliferativa se evaluó mediante ensayos de eficiencia de clonación, función de acumulación y cinética proliferativa por intercambio de cromátidas hermanas (ICH); la actividad genotóxica se evaluó mediante electroforesis en gel de células individuales (Ensayo cometa) e intercambio de cromátidas hermanas (ICH). Todas las pruebas fueron realizadas sobre las líneas celulares Jurkat y CHO. Resultados. La fracción T4 afectó el ciclo celular de las células CHO y mostró daño genotóxica crónico en las células Jurkat. Conclusiones. Se recomienda la evaluación de la fracción T4 en otras líneas celulares derivadas de tumor con el fin de determinar un posible efecto diferencial, además de evaluar otras actividades de tipo antimicrobiano, antimalárico, entre otros.


Objective. To evaluate the antiproliferative and genotoxic activity of a fraction (T4 fraction) of the Colombian Caribbean marine sponge Topsentia ophiraphidites, with cytotoxic activity. Materials and methods. T4 fraction from the marine sponge Topsentia ophiraphidites was provided by the group of marine natural products from Universidad de Antioquia. The antiproliferative activity was evaluated by cloning efficiency tests, accumulation function, and proliferative kinetics by sister chromatid exchange (SCE), genotoxic activity was evaluated by SCE and gel electrophoresis of individual cells (Comet assay). All tests were performed on Jurkat and CHO cell lines. Results. The T4 fraction affected the cell cycle of CHO cells and presented chronic genotoxic damage in Jurkat cells. Conclusions. It is recommended to evaluate the T4 fraction in other derived tumor cell lines, in order to observe a possible differential effect, and to evaluate antimicrobial and antimalarial activities among others.


Subject(s)
Cytotoxicity, Immunologic , Genotoxicity , Marine Fauna
16.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2013. 70 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-716902

ABSTRACT

Durante a temporada de nidação, fêmeas de tartarugas marinhas costumam reduzir ou cessar por completo a ingestão de alimentos. Este fato sugere que o armazenamento de energia e nutrientes para a reprodução ocorra durante o período que antecede a migração para os sítios reprodutivos, enquanto estes animais ainda se encontram nas áreas de alimentação. Do ponto de vista fisiológico, tartarugas em atividade reprodutiva são capazes de permanecer longos períodos em jejum. Fatores neuroendócrinos vêm sendo recentemente apontados como os mais relevantes para a manutenção da homeostase energética de todos os vertebrados; entre eles, a leptina (hormônio anorexígeno) e a grelina (peptídeo orexígeno). Com o objetivo de compreender o mecanismo de fome e saciedade nas tartarugas marinhas, investigamos os níveis séricos destes hormônios e de outros indicadores nutricionais em fêmeas de Eretmochelys imbricata desovando no litoral do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil. Foram coletadas amostras de sangue de 41 tartarugas durante as temporadas reprodutivas de 2010/2011 e 2011/2012. Os níveis séricos de leptina diminuíram significativamente ao longo do período de nidação, de modo a explicar a busca por alimentos ao término da temporada. Ao mesmo tempo, registramos uma tendência crescente nos níveis séricos de grelina, fator este que também justifica a remigração para as áreas de alimentação no fim do período. Não foram observadas tendências lineares para alguns dos parâmetros avaliados, entre eles: hematócrito, alanina aminotransferase (ALT), aspartato aminotransferase (AST), fosfatase alcalina (FA), gama glutamil transferase (GGT), lipoproteínas de baixa densidade (LDL) e lipoproteínas de alta densidade (HDL). É possível que a maior parte dos indicadores nutricionais tenha apresentado redução gradativa devido ao estresse fisiológico decorrente da vitelogênese e de repetidas oviposições. No entanto, é valido ressaltar que o quadro de restrição calórica por tempo prolongado ...


Reproductive female sea turtles rarely have been observed foraging during the nesting season. This suggests that prior to their reproductive migration to nesting beaches, the adult females must store sufficient energy and nutrients at their foraging grounds, and must be physiologically capable of undergoing months without feeding. Leptin (an appetite-suppressing protein) and ghrelin (a hunger-stimulating peptide) affect body weight by influencing energy intake in all vertebrates. We investigated the levels of these hormones and other physiological and nutritional parameters in nesting female hawksbill sea turtles in Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil, by collecting consecutive blood samples from 41 turtles during the 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 reproductive seasons. We found that levels of serum leptin decreased over the nesting season, which potentially relaxed appetite suppression and led females to begin foraging either during or after the post-nesting migration. Concurrently, we recorded an increasing trend in ghrelin, which stimulated appetite towards the end of the nesting season. Both findings are consistent with the prediction that post-nesting females will begin to forage, either during or just after their post-nesting migration. We observed no seasonal trend for other physiological parameters: PCV values, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) serum levels. The observed downward trends in general serum biochemistry levels were likely due to the physiological stress of vitellogenesis and nesting in addition to limited energy resources and probable fasting


Subject(s)
Animals , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Turtles/physiology , Nesting Behavior/physiology , Ghrelin/blood , Fasting/physiology , Leptin/blood , Marine Fauna , Reproduction/physiology , Satiety Response/physiology , Caloric Restriction/adverse effects , Telemetry/trends
17.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2013. xviii,127 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-681309

ABSTRACT

Neste estudo foi avaliada a condição de vulnerabilidade ambiental e da saúde humana em decorrência dos impactos e alterações observados nos oceanos nas últimas décadas, incluindo o foco sobre as mudanças climáticas, florações de algas tóxicas, contaminação microbiológica e química nas águas marinhas e bioinvasão de espécies exóticas. Além disso, foi abordada a relação dos valores benéficos que os oceanos proporcionam à saúde e bem-estar da humanidade. Esta primeira fase do estudo mostrou a interface entre o estado de conservação dos oceanos e sua relação com a economia e saúde humana. Mais adiante neste manuscrito foi realizado um estudo sazonal das concentrações de metais tóxicos (Hg, Al e As), micro (Zn, Cu, Fe, Se e Sr) e macronutrientes (Na, K, Ca e Mg) em amostras de músculo de lula (Loligo plei) e peixes marinhos pelágicos (Sardinella brasiliensis, Trichiurus lepturus e Coryphaena hippurus) com importância para a pesca, considerando o fenômeno temporal (inverno e verão) da ressurgência de Cabo Frio. As concentrações de As e Cu ultrapassaram os limites máximos de tolerância para o consumo humano. Foram observadas diferenças sazonais em alguns indivíduos, porém associação antagônica temporal entre as espécies, algumas apresentando concentrações mais elevadas durante o verão enquanto outras mostraram concentrações maiores no inverno para um determinando elemento. Foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre as concentrações detectadas nas diferentes espécies. No geral a lula (L. plei) e a sardinha-verdadeira apresentaram concentrações superiores dos elementos.


Foram detectadas correlações interelementares com destaque para associação entre Mg-Se e Ca-Sr. Um outra abordagem foi empregada com a finalidade de se estudar as concentrações de elementos tóxicos (Hg, Al e As), micronutrientes (Zn, Cu, Fe, Sr e Se) e macronutrientes (Na, K, Ca e Mg) em amostras de mexilhão (Perna perna), lula (Loligo plei), peixes pelágicos (Sardinella brasiliensis, Trichiurus lepturus e Coryphaena hippurus), tartaruga marinha (Chelonia mydas), ave marinha (Sula leucogaster) e mamíferos marinhos, incluindo duas espécies de golfinhos (Tursiops truncatus e Steno bredanensis) e uma espécie de baleia (Balaenoptera brydei). As coletas foram conduzidas na área de influência da ressurgência costeira de Cabo Frio, sendo estas espécies representativas deste hábitat. Foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre as concentrações detectadas nas diversas espécies. Uma distribuição trófica na concentração dos elementos foi percebida para Hg e Fe. Concentrações de Al também foram expressivamente elevadas para as amostras de lula e mexilhão. Foram observadas correlações interelementares significativas entre as espécies avaliadas variando para cada espécie. As concentrações de macronutrientes foram expressivas se comparadas aos demais estudos publicados. Os resultados encontrados mostram que a região de ressurgência de Cabo Frio parece exercer papel importante na biodisponibilização de elementos para a estrutura trófica marinha.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chemical Contamination , Marine Biology , Marine Fauna , Metals , Threshold Limit Values , Environmental Health
18.
Rev. biol. trop ; 60(supl.3): 303-319, nov. 2012. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: lil-672098

ABSTRACT

The deepwater faunas of oceanic islands and seamounts of the Eastern Tropical Pacific are poorly known. From 11-22 September 2009, we conducted an exploration of the deepwater areas around Isla del Coco National Park and Las Gemelas Seamount, located about 50km southwest of Isla del Coco, Costa Rica using a manned submersible to survey the seafloor habitats. The goal of the exploration was to characterize the habitats and biota, and conduct quantitative surveys of the deepwater portions of Isla del Coco National Park and Las Gemelas. We completed a total of 22 successful submersible dives, spanning more than 80hr underwater, and collected a total of 36hr of video. With respect to invertebrates, our objectives were to gather quantitative information on species composition, density, distribution and habitat associations as well as to compare the invertebrate communities between the two sites. A total of 7 172 invertebrates were counted from analysis of the video collected on this project. Larger organisms were counted and placed into 27 taxonomic groups to characterize the deepwater invertebrate fauna of Las Gemelas Seamount and Isla del Coco National Park. The Shannon-Weiner Index for biodiversity (H’) was calculated to be 0.14 ± 0.02 for Isla del Coco and 0.07 ± 0.03 for Las Gemelas surveys. Although richness was fairly equal between the two sites, evenness was greater at Isla del Coco (J = 0.04 ± 0.006) when compared to Las Gemelas (J = 0.02 ± 0.01). This lower level of evenness in the community at Las Gemelas was a result of high densities of a few dominant species groups, specifically sea urchins and black corals. We also evaluated invertebrate percent cover at both Isla del Coco and Las Gemelas Seamount with respect to habitat type, slope and rugosity. Results indicated that highly rugose habitats contained the highest frequencies of all invertebrates at both sites, with the exception of glass sponges and polychaetes at Isla del Coco, which were found in greater quantities at intermediate levels of rugosity. Information obtained from these submersible surveys indicate that seamounts in the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean may be an important source of biodiversity and that more quantitative surveys are needed to characterize the fauna of the region.


La fauna de aguas profundas de islas oceánicas y de montes submarinos del Pacífico Tropical Oriental son muy poco conocidas. Para caracterizar las faunas de aguas profundas del Parque Nacional Isla del Coco y el Monte Submarino Las Gemelas, Costa Rica, llevamos a cabo un estudio cuantitativo de los hábitats y su fauna. Se tomaron videos de transectos desde un sumergible entre 50 y 402m de profundidad del 11 al 22 de setiembre 2009. Se recolectó información cuantitativa de la composición de especies de invertebrados, densidad, distribución y hábitats asociados en ambas localidades y se comparó. Se contaron 7,172 invertebrados en los videos analizados, y se ubicaron en 27 categorías taxonómicas. El Índice de Shannon-Weiner (H’) fue de 0.14 ± 0.02 para la Isla del Coco y 0.07 ± 0.03 para Las Gemelas. La riqueza fue parecida en ambos sitios pero la equitabilidad fue mayor en la Isla del Coco (J = 0.04 ± 0.006) comparado con Las Gemelas (J = 0.02 ± 0.01). Este menor nivel de equitabilidad en Las gemelas de debió a la alta densidad de unos pocos grupos dominantes, específicamente erizos de mar y coral negro. También evaluamos el porcentaje de cobertura de los invertebrados con respecto a tipo de hábitat, pendiente y rugosidad del sustrato. Los resultados indican que hábitats con alta rugosidad contiene más invertebrados en ambos sitios, excepto la esponjas silíceas y los poliquetos en la Isla del Coco, que se encontraron en mayor cantidad en niveles intermedios de rugosidad. La información obtenida con este estudio indican que los montes submarinos en el Pacífico Tropical Oriental pueden ser una fuente importante de biodiversidad y que se necesitan más estudios cuantitativos para caracterizar la fauna de la región.


Subject(s)
Pacific Islands , Marine Fauna/analysis , Biodiversity , Invertebrates/classification , Sampling Studies , Costa Rica
19.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 43(2): 711-715, Apr.-June 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-644489

ABSTRACT

Terrestrial isopods are widely infected with Wolbachia. However, little is known about the presence of bacteria in the Neotropical species. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis of presence of Wolbachia infection in the native species of terrestrial isopods, Atlantoscia floridana and Circoniscus bezzii, and in the introduced species Burmoniscus meeusei.


Subject(s)
Animals , Base Sequence , Gene Amplification , In Vitro Techniques , Rickettsiaceae Infections/genetics , Isopoda/genetics , Marine Fauna , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Rickettsiaceae/genetics , Wolbachia/genetics , Diagnosis , Methods
20.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 42(4): 1560-1568, Oct.-Dec. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-614622

ABSTRACT

Despite the large number of reports describing sponge-microbe associations, limited knowledge is available about associated fungi and their relationships with the hosts. In this work, specific fungal strains were obtained directly from in vitro sponge cell cultures (primmorphs) and single sponge cells (cytospins) and compared with those obtained from whole tissue preparations. A total of 27 fungal strains were isolated from the marine sponges Hymeniacidon heliophila and Haliclona melana. Fifteen strains, nine from H. heliophila and six from H. melana, were obtained from whole tissue and were considered as possible mesohyl associated or transient fungi. Twelve strains were isolated from in vitro sponge cell cultures (primmorphs) and were, therefore, considered as cell associated. From these, five different strains were obtained from H. heliophila isolated cells, while five were identified from cytospins and two from primmorphs of H. melana. The fungal strains obtained from cell cultures from both sponge species were different, and none of them were detected in the whole tissue preparations of the same species. Nine H. heliophila and seven H. melana strains shows low similarity with the sequences available in public databases and belong to potentially new species. This is the first report of fungi isolated directly from sponge cells, which allowed the observation and selection of specific strains that probably would not be obtained by usual culture dependent techniques.


Subject(s)
Cell Culture Techniques , Aquatic Fungi/analysis , In Vitro Techniques , Marine Environment , Marine Fauna , Porifera/microbiology , Environmental Microbiology , Methods , Methods
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