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1.
Investig. psicol. (La Paz, En línea) ; (supl.): 85-92, sept. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1343824

ABSTRACT

El marketing actual encuentra a una sociedad anestesiada, evitativa y un poco aislada, por lo cual deberá buscar mecanismos alternos para intervenirla en base a un abordaje que se guíe por los sentidos. Esta última década será decisiva para el marketing olfativo porque de una tendencia, ahora se transforma en una opción para acercar, estimular, crear y enriquecer experiencias sensoriales perdurables en el tiempo, su formato de ingreso a la mente es sutil, oculto e implacablemente inmediato, porque su objetivo es seducir instantáneamente al cerebro


Current marketing finds a society anesthetized, avoidant and a bit isolated, so it must look for alternative mechanisms to intervene based on an approach that is guided by the senses. This last decade will be decisive for olfactory marketing because from a trend, it is now transformed into an option to bring, stimulate, create and enrich sensorial experiences that last over time, its entry format to the mind is subtle, hidden and relentlessly immediate, because its goal is to instantly seduce the brain.


O marketing atual encontra uma sociedade anestesiada, evitativa e um pouco isolada, para a qual deve buscar mecanismos alternativos para intervir a partir de uma abordagem orientada pelos sentidos. Esta última década será decisiva para o marketing olfativo porque de tendência, agora se transforma em opção de trazer, estimular, criar e enriquecer experiências sensoriais que perduram no tempo, seu formato de entrada para a mente é sutil, oculto e implacavelmente imediato, porque seu objetivo é seduzir instantaneamente o cérebro.


Subject(s)
Marketing , Smell , Advertising
2.
Rev. Rede cuid. saúde ; 15(1): [57-74], 15/07/2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1282400

ABSTRACT

Os meios de comunicação digitais tornaram-se uma ferramenta amplamente utilizada para fins pessoais e profissionais por grande parte da população. Diante dessa realidade contemporânea, o marketing digital vem trazendo facilidades e vantagens para o cotidiano, sendo considerado uma excelente proposta de divulgaçãopor parte dos cirurgiões-dentistas em busca de melhores resultados na odontologia.Com base nessa perspectiva, o presente estudo avaliou o conhecimento de estudantes de odontologia sobre a importância do marketing digital para o sucesso e bom desenvolvimento na prática odontológica. A coleta de dados foi realizada no Centro Universitário Serra dos Órgãos ­ UNIFESO, localizado no município de Teresópolis-RJ. Participaram do estudo, 151 estudantes devidamente matriculados no 1º ao 5º ano do curso de graduação em odontologia, que responderam um questionário, pré testado, contendo 10 perguntas do tipo objetivas diretas. Com base nos resultados, observou-se respostas consideravelmente proporcionais quando comparadas por diferentes anos da graduação, não demonstrando crescente avanço no conteúdo com o decorrer do curso de graduação, portanto, cabe ressaltar que o assunto precisa ser melhor abordado, devendo ser considerada e analisada essa possibilidade pelas diversas instituições por todo o país.


The digital media became a widely used tool for personal and professional purposes by much of the population. Before this contemporary reality, digital marketing has brought daily facilities and advantages, being considered an excellent proposal of disclosure by dentists in search of better results in dentistry. Based on this perspective, this study evaluated dentistry students knowledge of the importance of digital marketing for success and good development in dental practice. The data collection was performed at the Serra dos Orgãos University Center - UNIFESO, located in the municipality of Teresópolis-RJ. The study included 151 students properly enrolled in the 1st to 5th year of the undergraduate course in dentistry, who answered a pre-testedquestionnairecontaining 10 direct objective questions. Based on the results, it was observed considerably proportional responses when compared for different years of graduation, not demonstrating increasing progress in content over the course of the undergraduate, therefore, it may to stand out that the topic needs to be better approached, this possibility should be considered and analyzed by the various institutions throughout the country.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Students, Dental , Communications Media , Marketing
3.
Rev. enferm. neurol ; 20(1): 3-13, ene.-abr. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1349306

ABSTRACT

Las personas adultas mayores (PAM) como sujetos de derecho, tienen múltiples necesidades de apoyo en las diferentes esferas físicas, psicosociales y espirituales. Por lo general, éstas se resuelven mediante la figura del cuidador, definido como la persona con formación teórica e instrumental para satisfacer las demandas mencionadas. En la dimensión sociodemográfica los requerimientos de la población se correlacionan con la transición demográfica, manifestada por la reducción de la fecundidad y mortalidad de la población en general; por consiguiente, acrecentar la esperanza de vida y longevidad de la población.1 El incremento de PAM en México, implica el aumento de demanda de servicios2 de cuidado y mantenimiento de la funcionalidad del adulto mayor (AM). Desde otro panorama, el marketing ofrece grandes beneficios a los prestadores de cuidados para maximizar la satisfacción de los consumidores y mejorar la calidad de vida de las personas; es vital establecer un grado de conocimiento de los cuidadores sobre la mercadotecnia y se apoye para determinar sus niveles de aplicabilidad en el ámbito asistencial del AM, con la finalidad de incorporar nuevas destrezas a los cuidadores de PAM, promocionar el cuidado a domicilio, la participación de profesionales de otras disciplinas que capaciten a los cuidadores en diversas áreas del cuidado3 para mejorar el capital humano ofrecido a organizaciones gerontológicas.


Older adults (OA) as subjects of law, have multiple needs for support in different physical, psychosocial and spiritual spheres. In general, these are resolved through the figure of the caregiver, defined as the person with theoretical and instrumental training to satisfy the aforementioned demands. In the sociodemographic dimension, the population's requirements are correlated with the demographic transition, manifested by the reduction in fertility and mortality of the population in general; consequently, increase the life expectancy and longevity of the population.1 The increase in MAP in Mexico implies an increase in demand for services2 for the care and maintenance of the functionality of the elderly (OA). From another perspective, marketing offers great benefits to caregivers to maximize consumer satisfaction and improve people's quality of life; It is vital to establish a degree of knowledge of caregivers about marketing and support to determine its levels of applicability in the field of OA care, in order to incorporate new skills to MAP caregivers, promote home care, participation professionals from other disciplines who train caregivers in various areas of care3 to improve the human capital offered to gerontological organizations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Caregivers , Marketing , Health Services Needs and Demand , Home Care Services , Longevity
4.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(1): 51-55, feb. 2021. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1147087

ABSTRACT

Internet permitió expandir la promoción de alimentos/bebidas a diferentes medios. El objetivo del estudio fue identificar las estrategias de marketing en sitios web de marcas de alimentos y bebidas consumidos por niños/as y adolescentes, y clasificarlos según las recomendaciones de las Guías Alimentarias para la Población Argentina.Se seleccionaron los alimentos/bebidas más consumidos por la población infantojuvenil según la Encuesta Alimentaria Nutricional de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires. Se identificaron las páginas web de las marcas; se analizaron las estrategias de marketing y se clasificaron los alimentos/bebidas promocionados según las Guías.Se encontraron 80 páginas web, donde las estrategias más frecuentes fueron identificación de la marca, beneficios y declaraciones, y vínculos a páginas web y/o redes sociales. El 30 % de los sitios estaban dirigidos a niños/as/adolescentes, donde el 75 % de los alimentos/bebidas promocionados correspondieron al grupo de dulces y grasas, que incluye aquellos de bajo valor nutricional.


The Internet has allowed the expansion of food and beverage advertising in different media. The objective of this study was to identify the marketing strategies used in brand websites of foods and beverages consumed by children and adolescents, and classify them based on the Food Guidelines for the Argentinean Population.The foods and beverages most commonly consumed by the child and adolescent population as per the Survey on Nutritional Food Intake of the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires were selected. Brand websites were identified; marketing strategies were analyzed and marketed foods and beverages were classified based on the Guidelines.A total of 80 websites were found; the most common strategies were brand identity, benefits and claims, and links to websites and/or social media. Also, 30 % of sites were aimed at children and adolescents, and 75 % of marketed foods and beverages corresponded to the group of sweets and fats, including those of low nutritional value


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Advertising/methods , Information Dissemination/methods , Marketing/methods , Persuasive Communication , Argentina , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Food and Beverages , Internet , Food Preferences/psychology
5.
Article in English | ID: biblio-1344705

ABSTRACT

The industrial manufacturing of natural products for veterinary use represents a major weakness in the veterinary sector despite increased interest and the traditional ancestral knowledge that supports them. A cross-sectional, descriptive observational study was conducted to characterize the veterinary herbal products marketed worldwide during 2018 and 2019. A comprehensive thematic search limited to the 2018-2019 period was performed in the ScienceDirect, Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, ResearchGate, and Academic Search Complete databases. The investigation identified 487 products registered in the global market manufactured by 54 companies, led by India, The Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. The market segments of animal production and phytomedicines were dominant with 73.7% and 53.0% of products, respectively. Cattle (22.2%), sheep-goats (16.2%), and canines (16.2%) were the most favored species. The most represented therapeutic indications were those intended to treat gastrointestinal disorders (30.47%), antimicrobials (16.66%), and antiparasitic agents (10.47%). The families Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Apiaceae, Malvaceae, and Rutaceae stood out because of their frequent use, encompassing 35.0% of the 137 declared species. Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees and Withania somnifera (Lin) Dunal were the most important species. Oral formulations for internal use (72%) and liquids (51%) in 100 mL, 500 mL, and 1 L presentations showed the highest prevalence on the market. The global market for veterinary herbal products during the 2018-2019 period was relevant in the productive and medical animal sector. No differences were found between medicinal plant species used to formulate herbal products for human and animal use.(AU)


A fabricação industrial de produtos naturais para uso animal é uma das grandes fragilidades do setor veterinário, apesar de um crescente interesse e do suporte dado pelos conhecimentos tradicionais ancestrais. Foi realizado um estudo observacional descritivo transversal para caracterizar os fitoterápicos veterinários comercializados mundialmente no período de 2018-2019 através de uma busca temática exaustiva nas bases de dados ScienceDirect, Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, ResearchGate e Academic Search Complete. O estudo mostrou a existência de 487 produtos registrados no mercado mundial, fabricados por 54 empresas, lideradas pela Índia, Holanda e Reino Unido. Os segmentos Danimal produtivo e fitomedicamentos dominam o mercado com 73,7% e 53,0% dos produtos, respectivamente. Bovinos (22,2%), ovinos-cabras (16,2%) e caninos (16,2%) foram as espécies mais favorecidas. As indicações terapêuticas mais representadas foram aquelas destinadas à correção de distúrbios gastrointestinais (30,47%), antimicrobianos (16,66%) e antiparasitários (10,47%). Devido à alta frequência de uso, destacam-se as famílias Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Apiaceae, Malvaceae e Rutaceae, que compreendem 35,0% das 137 espécies declaradas a saber, Andrographis paniculata(Burm.f.) Nees e Withania somnífera (Lin) Dunal, são as mais importantes. Constatou-se que as formulações para uso interno via oral (72%) e líquida (51%) em embalagens de 100, 500 e 1000 mL são as que prevalecem no mercado. O mercado global de produtos fitoterápicos durante o período de 2018-2019 foi relevante para animais produtivos e o setor médico. Não foram encontradas diferenças entre as espécies de plantas medicinais utilizadas em formulações de produtos fitoterápicos para uso humano e animal.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Health Care Sector/economics , Marketing , Phytotherapeutic Drugs , Veterinary Medicine
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879122

ABSTRACT

Classic prescriptions, hospital preparations and famous traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) experience prescriptions are the main sources of new drug development and innovation. The multi-components and multi-targets treatment characteristics of TCM are advantages, but at the same time, broad indications, unclear clinical positioning and lack of evidence-based evidence support are the key problems affecting the play of TCM efficacy and restricting its promotion and application. The hot in recent research was to how to break through the bottleneck, precise clinical positioning, highlight the advantages of the classic TCM prescriptions, and complete the transformation from clinical practice, clinical research to clinical evidence, but at the same time, it is also the difficulty. The clinical research model of the combination of disease and syndrome can fully reflect the ancient medical case evidence of classic TCM prescriptions, the historical experience of human used and the characteristics of syndrome differentiation and treatment, and highlight the advantages of Chinese medicine. At the same time, under the modern disease classification system and research mode, is conducive to established the standardized clinical evidence report and evaluation system, is conducive to promote the integration of clinical research evidence, and avoids excessive attenuation of information. Based on the previous work of our team, the intention of this study was to make a comment about the key points of the post-marketing evaluation of the classic TCM prescriptions under the combination of disease and syndrome and includes key points:(1)With the syndrome as the carrier, connected with the classical prescription and clinical diseases, focused on the clinical positioning on macroscopically.(2)The combination of syndrome visualization, standardization and pharmacological molecular basis, focus on clinical precise positioning in microscopic.(3)Innovating therapeutic effect evaluation methods, reflecting the curative effect characteristics based on syndrome differentiation.(4)The combination of "randomized controlled evidence-based studies" and "real world evidence-based evaluation", focusing on clinical advantages, fully evidence-based evidence.(5)Make full use of clinical registration studies and pay attention to safety.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Marketing , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Prescriptions , Reference Standards
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879121

ABSTRACT

Traditional Chinese medicines(TCMs) have certain limitations in the clinical research design in their post-marketing evaluation, so that randomized controlled programs cannot be strictly implemented in some studies, while the objective performance criteria is a reasonable external controlled research method that has been gradually recognized at home and abroad in recent years in addition to randomized controlled trial(RCT) method. It is more mature in medical devices, surgery and other research fields, but there is no relevant report in the field of post-marketing evaluation of Chinese patent medicines. In this paper, the application prospect of the objective performance criteria and the problems were discussed in the field of post-marketing evaluation of TCM. The characteristics of as TCM are more consistent with the scope of the objective performance criteria, the application of the objective performance criteria in post-marketing evaluation of Chinese patent medicines, especially in single arm research, can break through the limitations of existing conventional clinical research methods, and improve the level of evidence, with good feasibility and advantages. However, in the application process, we should pay attention to the key issues such as the selection of index, research population, follow-up period and the reference selection, to ensure the quality of research. This research group has carried out some exploration and practice in the field of post-marketing evaluation of TCM injections by using single arm combined with the objective performance criteria, hoping to establish the key technology in this field, and provide certain research and design reference for the secondary development of Chinese patent medicines.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Marketing , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Nonprescription Drugs , Product Surveillance, Postmarketing , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879120

ABSTRACT

Post-marketing evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) is an important research stage in the life cycle of a drug, and the add-on-design is a common method for its post-marketing evaluation. This article introduces the basic concept of add-on-design, and points out that it is suitable for use based on the principles of medical ethics when the standard treatment should not be interrupted. The post-marketing evaluation of TCM should be carried out based on human experience and in compliance with regulations and ethics. The clinical values of TCM, such as the therapeutic effect for disease, improvement of disease symptoms, improvement in quality of life, as well as the synergism and toxicity attenuation of combined use of TCM and chemical drugs, should be fully reflected through the clinical trials designed with add-on-design. The key points of add-on-design are accurate clinical positioning, scientific estimation of sample size, and rigorous standard treatment. Standard treatment should be a recognized one, consistent and stable; appropriate and recognized efficacy indicators and targeted safety indicators should be selected; the design and operation of clinical research scheme should meet the requirements of randomization and blind method, with special emphasis on the production of qualified placebo. The add-on-design has the advantages that the rights and interests of the subjects are adequately protected. Besides, the research conclusions are easily put into clinical application. But there are also many difficulties, such as the influence of confounding bias, the "ceiling" effect of clinical efficacy, and the difficulty of interpretation of adverse events. Therefore, a rigorous research quality assu-rance system should be established, and the quality control of evaluation consistency of researchers should be emphasized to ensure strict quality control in the research process.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Marketing , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Quality Control , Quality of Life
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879119

ABSTRACT

Classical Chinese patent medicines(CPMs) are a kind of modern preparation developed from the experience of compatibility and application about ancient prescriptions. Its rich history of human use and reliable clinical efficacy imply the unique theoretical essence and precious value of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM). With the development of evidence-based medicine and the improvement of medical policy, it is particularly urgent to evaluate the clinical values of post-marketing classical CPMs. In this paper, some problems on the clinical value evaluation of CPMs would be described, and it is considered that the simplified evaluation procedures can lead to the lack of evidence for evaluating clinical value of CPMs, causing the difficulty in evaluating the quality of CPM, lack of R&D motivation of enterprises, low content of science and technology, and poor international development. Based on this background, it points out that the clinical value evaluation is the core of the post-marketing evaluation of the classical CPMs, and the eva-luation should be based on the direction of literature research and the latest practice. We should adhere to the research mode of combination disease with syndrome, and select the appropriate type of trials, with clinical efficacy, health economic benefits and safety eva-luation as the main content of the studies, in order to refine the indications and standardize the clinical positioning. Clinical value eva-luation is the basis and main content of post-marketing comprehensive researches on classic and famous CPMs to clarify their clinical value, obtain the conditions for continued marketingand standardize their clinical application, so as to optimize the evidence and quality service of classic and famous CPMs and inherit the core value concept of Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Marketing , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Nonprescription Drugs
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879118

ABSTRACT

Traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) is an important feature of cancer treatment in China. The methods to tap the advantages of TCM, reasonably evaluate and accurately apply Chinese patent medicines have become current research hotspots and difficulties. TCM takes syndrome differentiation and treatment as the core, with the characteristics of overall regulation and multi-targets efficacy. Therefore, the post-marketing survival benefit evaluation of Chinese patent medicines for cancer is different from that in modern medicine. The primary treatment goals in cancer patients include to improve the disease control rate and prolong their survival time. At present, Chinese patent medicines for cancer patients are lacking indepth studies on survival benefit at the post-marketing stage. In addition, the characteristics of individualized treatment with TCM have also increased the complexity of clinical research on TCM. Therefore, it is of certain practical significance and necessity to evaluate the survival benefit of Chinese patent medicines for cancer after marketing. Based on this, in this paper, we first summarized the technical methodological means of survival benefit evaluation at this stage, and then explored the post-marketing survival benefit evaluation of Chinese patent medicines for cancer from three aspects: the evaluation of cancer treatment effect based on survival time and quality of life, treatment-related toxicity and the auxiliary effect of TCM, and the improvement effect for tumor-related symptoms. Based on the practices of early clinical researches, and according to the insufficient efficacy evaluation of current clinical research on Chinese patent medicines, this paper proposed to improve the evaluation system for clinical researches on Chinese patent medicines, establish the evaluation method with TCM characteristics, clarify the dominant population, lay a theoretical foundation for the evaluation of post-marketing survival benefits of Chinese patent medicines for cancer in the future, and promote the modernization process of TCM.


Subject(s)
China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Marketing , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Nonprescription Drugs/therapeutic use , Quality of Life
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879116

ABSTRACT

The article summarized the relevant researches on the clinical orientation of Chinese patent medicines, and put forward the post-marking principle and strategies of the clinical orientation. The principle could be illustrated by four criteria: overall design, step-by-step implementation, from easiness to hardness, gradual concentration. The strategies were as follows: first carrying out the projects with little cost of money and time, and then the projects requiring much cost of money and time, so that the possibility of fai-lure would be put forward at an early stage to reduce the loss caused by research failure as much as possible by consolidating the research projects with less investment at the early stage and gradually increasing the research projects with more investment at the later stage. On this basis, the "three dimensions and four stages" key technology was proposed for the post-marketing clinical orientation of traditional Chinese medicine. Medicines, diseases and patients were the "three dimensions", so we should understand the features and interaction of the target indications, symptoms and population to establish a three-dimensional clinical positioning coordinate system. "Four stages" were the four steps of clues analyzing, hypothesis orientation, preliminary verification and clinical validation. Each latter stage should be started after full completion of the former one, and the latter stage results shall be used to validate and revise the former clinical orientational hypothesis, continuously forming a feedback circle. Based on the sufficient verification of previous study, prospective clinical trials were implemented at last to get the best evidence-based evidence of clinical orientational hypothesis.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Marketing , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Nonprescription Drugs , Prospective Studies
12.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(4): e00129919, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285833

ABSTRACT

A Norma Brasileira de Comercialização de Alimentos para Lactentes e Crianças de Primeira Infância, Bicos, Chupetas e Mamadeiras (Lei Federal nº 11.265/2006) visa controlar o marketing abusivo de produtos que competem com o aleitamento materno. O objetivo foi avaliar o impacto de uma intervenção educativa sobre o cumprimento da Lei em farmácias. Pesquisa de intervenção randomizada conduzida em 155 farmácias que infringiam a Lei na Zona Sul do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. A prática comercial das farmácias foi avaliada antes e depois da intervenção com o farmacêutico e com o gerente, comparados ao grupo controle. O intervalo entre a intervenção e a segunda avaliação foi de um mês. Para aferir as mudanças no quantitativo de farmácias com infração à Lei, antes e depois da intervenção, foi utilizado o teste de McNemar. O teste de Wilcoxon foi usado para comparar a variação no número de infrações em cada grupo de alocação. Um mês após a intervenção houve redução de 16,1% (n = 25) no total de farmácias com infração. Houve redução de 18,7% para 12,9% em produtos cuja promoção comercial é proibida (p = 0,093) e de 92,9% para 80,5% nos produtos lácteos (p = 0,001), mas entre alimentos de transição houve aumento de 28,5% para 42,3% de farmácias com promoção ilegal (p = 0,006). O grupo intervenção com farmacêutico apresentou redução estatisticamente significativa nas infrações relacionadas a descontos de preço (p = 0,022) e a exposições especiais (p = 0,002). A intervenção educativa reduziu a quantidade de farmácias que infringia essa Lei, principalmente quando esta intervenção foi realizada com o farmacêutico.


The Brazilian Code of Marketing of Infant and Toddlers Food, Nipples, Pacifiers, and Baby Bottles (Federal Law n. 11,265/2006) aims to control the abusive marketing of products that compete with breastfeeding. The objective was to assess the impact of an educational intervention on compliance with this law by pharmacies. A randomized intervention study was conducted in 155 pharmacies that were infringing the law in the Southern Zone of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The pharmacies' commercial practices were assessed before and after the intervention with the pharmacist and manager, compared to the control group. The interval between the intervention and the second assessment was one month. McNemar test was used to measure changes in the number of pharmacies infringing the law before and after the intervention. Wilcoxon test was used to compare variation in the number of violations in each group. A month after the intervention, there was a 16.1% reduction (n = 25) in the number of pharmacies committing violations. There was a decrease from 18.7% to 12.9% in products whose commercial promotion is banned by the law (p = 0.093) and from 92.9% to 80.5% in milk products (p = 0.001), but among processed complementary food there was an increase from 28.5% to 42.3% of pharmacies with illegal promotions (p = 0.006). The intervention group with the pharmacists showed a statistically significant reduction in violations related to discount prices (p = 0.022) and special displays (p = 0.002). The educational intervention reduced the number of pharmacies that infringed the law, mainly when the intervention involved the pharmacist.


La Norma Brasileña de Comercialización de Alimentos para Lactantes y Niños de la Primera Infancia, Tetillas, Chupetes y Biberones (Ley Federal nº 11.265/2006) tiene como finalidad controlar el márketing abusivo de productos que compiten con la lactancia materna. El objetivo fue evaluar el impacto de una intervención educativa sobre el cumplimiento de la ley en farmacias. Se realizó una investigación de intervención aleatoria, llevada a cabo en 155 farmacias que infringían la ley en la zona sur de Río de Janeiro, Brasil. La práctica comercial de las farmacias fue evaluada antes y después de la intervención con el farmacéutico y con el gerente, comparadas con el grupo de control. El intervalo entre la intervención y la segunda evaluación fue de un mes. Para evaluar los cambios en lo cuantitativo de farmacias con infracción a la ley, antes y después de la intervención, se utilizó el test de McNemar. El test de Wilcoxon se utilizó para comparar la variación en el número de infracciones en cada grupo de asignación. Tras un mes de la intervención hubo una reducción de un 16,1% (n = 25) en el total de farmacias con infracción. Hubo una reducción desde un 18,7% a un 12,9% en productos cuya promoción comercial está prohibida (p = 0,093) y de un 92,9% a un 80,5% en productos lácteos (p = 0,001). Sin embargo, entre alimentos de transición hubo un aumento de un 28,5% a un 42,3% de farmacias con promoción ilegal (p = 0,006). El grupo de intervención con el farmacéutico presentó una reducción estadísticamente significativa en las infracciones relacionadas con descuentos de precio (p = 0,022) y respecto a exposiciones especiales (p = 0,002). La intervención educativa redujo la cantidad de farmacias que infringía esta ley, principalmente cuando la intervención educativa se realizó con el farmacéutico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant , Pharmacies , Breast Feeding , Brazil , Family , Marketing
13.
Rev. cuba. salud pública ; 46(3): e1645, jul.-set. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1149927

ABSTRACT

Mientras que en salud pública se conoce y se emplea poco el marketing, en la esfera comercial y política, no solo se aplica, sino que ya se transita hacia el neuromarketing. De ahí que el presente artículo tenga el objetivo de debatir y hacer pensar si resulta necesario o no utilizar el marketing en la salud pública, siempre que se defiendan y se conserven las políticas públicas que protejan a la población. El neuromarketing es la aplicación de las técnicas de la Neurociencia para la comprensión de la dinámica cerebral ante los estímulos del marketing. Es el encuentro y el diálogo entre el marketing y el conocimiento científico que aportan la neurología, la sicología, la siquiatría y la economía. Su marco conceptual y la investigación que avale que puede superar a los estudios tradicionales de mercado para una segmentación más certera aún son insuficientes. Se puede observar que sus resultados se pueden utilizar para transgredir la privacidad y manipular a las personas y para ello aplican la Neurociencia. A modo de consideraciones finales se puede decir que las falacias que subyacen en torno al tema hacen necesario definir si el neuromarketing tiene en realidad respaldo científico comprobado y, si así fuera, propiciar su empleo en la investigación de mercado y valorar si es posible aplicarlo para vender salud. La implicación ética ocasionada por la Neurociencia para apoyar este enfoque para proyectos con intención lucrativa causaría un nuevo problema para la salud pública y hay que estar preparados para detectarlo y enfrentarlo(AU)


While marketing is poorly known and used in public health, in the commercial and political spheres it is not only used but it is transiting to neuromarketing. That is the reason for the present article to have the aim of debating and thinking about if it is needed or not to use marketing in public health, as long as public policies that protect the population will be defended and preserved. Neuromarketing is the use of all the techniques of Neurosciences for the understanding of the brain dymanics after the stimulus of marketing. The relation between marketing and scientific knowledge contributes to the encounter and dialogue among neurology, psychology, psychiatry and economy. Neuromarketing conceptual framework and a research which endorses that it can go beyond the traditional market studies for an accurate segmentation are still poor. It can be observed that its results might be used to infringe privacy and to manipulate people using neurosciences. As final considerations, it can be said that the fallacies underlying this issue makes necessary to define if neuromarketing has an actual proved scientific evidence, and if it will be the case, to favor its use in market researches and to evaluate if it is possible to apply it to sell health. The ethical implication that can promote the support of neurosciences to this approach for the implementation of projects with lucrative purposes might cause a new problem for public health, and it is needed to be prepared for detecting and facing it(AU)


Subject(s)
Marketing
14.
Rev. cuba. salud pública ; 46(2): e963, abr.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126856

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los estudiantes de medicina están expuestos con frecuencia al marketing farmacéutico. Esta interacción compromete la integridad personal y profesional del futuro médico. Objetivo: Determinar la actitud que asumen los estudiantes de medicina de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos con respecto al marketing farmacéutico. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio analítico de corte transversal con estudiantes de medicina que cursaban las materias preclínicas y clínicas. Se aplicó el cuestionario de Sierles y otros, que consta de 37 ítems. Se estimaron frecuencias y porcentajes para las variables categóricas. Como medida de asociación se usó razón de prevalencias crudas y ajustadas, mediante regresión de Poisson, la variable dependiente fue el desarrollo de una actitud pro-marketing. Para el análisis de resultados se usó Excel 2013 y Stata 12. Resultados: Se registraron 407 encuestas. El promedio de edad fue 23 ± 3 años, predominó el sexo masculino. El 66,8 por ciento de estudiantes tienen una actitud pro-marketing. Entre los factores asociados se encontró: haber recibido un regalo (RP: 3,57 [IC: 95 por ciento, 1,93 - 6,6]) o revista (RP: 0,7 [IC: 95 por ciento, 0,65 - 0,77]), haber llevado un curso previo de ciencias de la salud (RP: 1,38 [IC: 95 por ciento, 1,20 - 1,6]) y el estar en cursos de clínicas (RP: 1,6 [IC: 95 por ciento, 1,24-2,06]). Entre los estudiantes de clínicas llevar las prácticas en hospitales del seguro social también resulta ser un factor asociado (RP: 1,16 [IC: 95 por ciento, 1,02-1,33]). Conclusiones: Se evidencia que los estudiantes de medicina van a desarrollar una actitud pro-marketing asociada a la exposición en sus años académicos a las estrategias de mercadeo de las industrias farmacéuticas, con énfasis en los que han realizados sus prácticas en las instituciones del Seguro Social de Salud peruano(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: Medical students are frequently exposed to pharmaceutical marketing. This interaction compromises the personal and professional integrity of the future doctors. Objective: To determine the attitude towards pharmaceutical marketing assumed by the medical students at the National University of San Marcos. Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted to medical students studying pre-clinical and clinical subjects. Sierles questionnaire and others were applied consisting in 37 items. Frequencies and percentages for categorical variables were estimated. As a measure of association, it was used crude and adjusted prevalence ratio through Poisson regression, and the dependent variable was the development of a pro-marketing attitude. Excel 2013 and Stata 12 were used for the analysis of the results. Results: There were recorded 407 surveys. The average age was 23 ± 3 years, and males were predominant. The 66.8 percent of students have a pro-marketing attitude. Among the associated factors were found: having received a gift (RP: 3.57 [CI: 95 percent, 1.93 - 6.6]) or magazine (RP: 0.7 [CI: 95 percent, 0.65 - 0.77]); having taken a previous course on health sciences (RP: 1.38 [CI: 95 percent 1.20 - 1.6]); and being enrolled in courses at clinics (RP: 1.6 [CI: 95 percent CI 1.24-2.06]). Among the students of clinics doing practices in social security hospitals also happens to be an associated factor (RP: 1.16 [CI 95 percent1.02-1.33]). Conclusions: There is evidence that medical students are going to develop a pro-marketing attitude associated with the exposure in their academic years to marketing strategies of the pharmaceutical industries, with emphasis on those who have done their practices in Peruvian Social Health Insurance´s institutions(AU)


Subject(s)
Students, Medical , Marketing , Pharmaceutical Trade , Peru , Cross-Sectional Studies
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828420

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the economy and applicability of Jinye Baidu Granules in the treatment of acute upper respiratory tract infection, a randomized, double-blind, positive drug parallel control clinical trial was conducted in this study. Stratified block random, double-blind and double simulation test was used. The experimental group took Jinye Baidu Granules, 10 g/time, three times a day, and Compound Shuanghua Granules placebo, 6 g/time, four times a day. The control group took Compound Shuanghua Granules, 6 g/time, 4 times a day, and Jinye Baidu Granules placebo, 10 g/time, 3 times a day. The course of treatment was 5 days. The total cost of this study included direct medical cost and indirect medical cost. The incremental cost-effect analysis method was used for evaluation. Treeage Pro software was used to build a pharmaco-economics model and make statistical analysis. Patients from 10 hospitals were divided into experimental group(304 cases) and control group(302 cases). The baseline values of age, sex ratio, clinical symptoms and signs scores, and important physical examination indexes of the two groups were compared. After 5 days of treatment, the cost per capita of the experimental group was(388.06±94.17) Yuan, and that of the control group was(378.47±95.46) Yuan. The cost of direct medical treatment per capita was(271.24±54.11) Yuan for the experimental group and(264.88±112.71) Yuan for the control group. The average cost of indirect medical treatment was(116.82±82.75) Yuan in the experimental group and(113.59±87.77) Yuan in the control group, with no significant difference in the cost of medical treatment per capita, the cost of direct medical treatment per capita and the cost of indirect medical treatment per capita between both groups. The results of incremental cost-effect analysis based on the total score difference in symptoms and signs after 5 days of treatment showed that ICER=23.39 Yuan/score, which was less than the willingness to pay 100 Yuan/score determined through expert interviews. The experimental group had economic advantages over the experimental group, with the economic probability of 53%. Sensitivity analysis supported the robustness of the results. The results of incremental cost-effect analysis based on the total recovery rate of symptoms and signs showed that compared with the experimental group, the control group had lower cost, better effect and absolute economic advantage, with a corresponding probability of 55%. Based on the above results, it is concluded that there is no significant difference in economic outcome between Jinye Baidu Gra-nules and Compound Shuanghua Granules in the treatment of acute upper respiratory tract infection.


Subject(s)
Cost-Benefit Analysis , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Marketing , Respiratory Tract Infections
16.
Psicol. Estud. (Online) ; 25: e44779, 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1091752

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Estudos indicam que as mulheres enfrentam mais dificuldades nas áreas empresariais (gestão, contabilidade, finanças, ciências do comportamento e gestão de pessoas) do que os seus colegas homens, devido a considerações estereotipadas sobre o seu papel, que têm consequências negativas nas oportunidades no local de trabalho. Neste sentido, a liderança surge, nesta investigação, com um papel reforçado e como uma ferramenta crucial no apoio à gestão do marketing (em específico, o caso da comunicação e da publicidade) e na sua relação com o sexismo e a igualdade do género. Em específico, torna-se necessário compreender até que ponto a comunicação social e a indústria publicitária influenciam os estereótipos que vão ditar a ascensão ou não da liderança feminina. O presente trabalho visa contribuir, em nível teórico, para a compreensão deste fenómeno, reunindo alguns dos principais contributos da literatura. Estudos futuros deverão conduzir os investigadores no sentido de testar empiricamente qual o papel da liderança na definição das políticas e planos de comunicação das organizações (em específico, a promoção da igualdade de género). Numa perspetiva interdisciplinar, o presente estudo pretende contribuir para o marketing e para o comportamento organizacional. Futuros trabalhos deverão conduzir à elaboração de focus group e entrevistas em profundidade reunindo alguns agentes da tomada de decisão (na ótica da empresa) e consumidores (na ótica da procura).


RESUMEN Los estudios indican que las mujeres se enfrentan a más dificultades en las áreas empresariales (gestión, contabilidad, finanzas, ciencias de comportamiento y gestión de personas) que sus colegas varones, debido a consideraciones estereotipadas sobre su papel, que tienen consecuencias negativas en las oportunidades en el lugar de trabajo. En este sentido, el liderazgo surge en esta investigación con un papel reforzado y como una herramienta crucial en el apoyo a la gestión del marketing (en particular, el caso de la comunicación y la publicidad) y en su relación con el sexismo y la igualdad de género. En concreto, es necesario comprender hasta qué punto la comunicación social y la industria publicitaria influencian los estereotipos que van a dictar la ascensión o no del liderazgo femenino. El presente trabajo pretende contribuir, en nivel teórico, a la comprensión de este fenómeno, reuniendo algunas de las principales contribuciones de la literatura. Los estudios futuros deben conducir a los investigadores a probar empíricamente cuál es el papel del liderazgo en la definición de las políticas y planes de comunicación de las organizaciones (en particular, la promoción de la igualdad de género). En una perspectiva interdisciplinaria, el presente estudio pretende contribuir al marketing y al comportamiento organizacional. Los futuros trabajos conducen a la elaboración de focus group y entrevistas en profundidad reuniendo algunos agentes de la toma de decisión (en la óptica de la empresa) y consumidores (en la óptica de la demanda).


ABSTRACT Studies show us that women face more difficulties in business (management, accounting, finance, behavioral sciences and people management) than their male counterparts because of stereotypical considerations about their role, which have negative consequences on opportunities on the workplace. So, leadership emerges in this research with a reinforced role and as a crucial way in supporting marketing management (specifically the case of communication and advertising) and in its relation to sexism and gender equality. It is necessary to understand to what extent the media and the advertising industry influences the stereotypes that will dictate the rise or not of female leadership. The present work aims to contribute, theoretically, to the understanding of this phenomenon, gathering some of the main contributions of the existent literature. Future studies should lead researchers to empirically test the role of leadership in shaping organizations' communication policies and plans (specifically, promoting gender equality). In an interdisciplinary perspective, this study intends to contribute to marketing and to organizational behavior. Future work will help to the elaboration of a focus group and in-depth interviews bringing together some decision-making agents (in the company's perspective) and consumers (from a demand perspective).


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Women, Working/psychology , Advertising/ethics , Marketing/ethics , Sexism/psychology , Leadership and Governance Capacity/ethics , Personnel Management , Professional Competence , Women/psychology , Work/ethics , Behavioral Sciences , Cultural Characteristics/history , Decision Making/ethics , Education/trends , Employee Performance Appraisal/ethics , Gender Equity , Gender Identity
17.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 36(9): e00196619, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124339

ABSTRACT

As children are particularly vulnerable to marketing, this study analyzes marketing techniques and health/nutrition claims in food packaging and evaluates the nutritional quality in three food categories: sweet biscuits, breakfast cereals and dairy-based desserts. This descriptive study analyzed marketing techniques and claims included in food packaging (n = 301) in one of the largest retailers in Argentina. Trained researchers coded data following an adapted version of the INFORMAS protocol to account for local food packaging regulations. Nutritional quality was assessed using both Pan American Health Organization Nutrient Profile (PAHO NPM) and the WHO Regional Office for Europe Nutrient Profile (WHO Euro NPM) models. Under the PAHO model, 87% (n 262) of the product sample presented excess content of at least one nutrient ("less healthy" products), and 91% (n = 273) should not be marketed to children according to the WHO Euro model. Almost 40% of less healthy food products displayed nutrition claims on their package. Characters or celebrity endorsements, which are particularly attractive to children, featured in 32% of less healthy products, being more frequent in less healthy food products than in healthier ones. Results indicate that packaging for food products with low nutritional value often includes powerful marketing elements in Argentina, which renders young children very vulnerable to obesogenic influence. Moreover, the real nutritional value of the products analyzed were often at odds with the health claims shown on its package. Food labeling policies must be improved in Argentina to guarantee people's health protection against deceptive advertising.


Los niños son particularmente vulnerables a la mercadotecnia; este estudio analiza las técnicas de mercadotecnia y la propaganda sobre salud/nutrición en los paquetes de comida, además de evaluar la calidad nutricional en tres categorías de comida: galletas dulces, cereales para el desayuno y postres lácteos. Este estudio descriptivo analizó las técnicas de mercadotecnia y propaganda incluida en los embalajes de galletas dulces, cereales para el desayuno y postres (n = 301) en uno de los distribuidores más grandes de Argentina. Investigadores cualificados codificaron los datos siguiendo una versión adaptada del protocolo INFORMAS, con el fin de evaluar la regulación respecto a los embalajes de comida local. La calidad nutricional fue evaluada usando tanto los modelos del Perfil Nutricional de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS NPM) y Organización Munidal de la Salud (OMS Euro NPM). Un 87% (n = 262) de la muestra del producto presentó un exceso de contenido de al menos un nutriente (productos "menos saludables"), según el OPS NPM, y un 91% (n = 273) de la muestra no debería haber sido etiquetada para niños, según el OMS Euro NPM. Casi un 40% de los productos menos saludables contaban con propaganda nutricional en sus embalajes. Personajes infantiles o el respaldo de famosos, que son particularmente atractivos para los niños, fueron destacados en un 32% de los productos menos sanos, y fueron más frecuentes entre los productos menos sanos que entre los más saludables. Los resultados indican que los embalajes de productos alimenticios con un valor nutricional bajo, a menudo incluyen elementos poderosos de mercadotecnia en Argentina, lo que provoca que los niños más jóvenes sean más vulnerables a la influencia obesogénica. Asimismo, el valor real nutricional de los productos analizados estuvo a menudo en conflicto con la propaganda sobre los beneficios para la salud mostrados en su embalaje. Las políticas de etiquetado deberían mejorar en Argentina para garantizar la protección a la salud de toda la población frente a la publicidad engañosa.


As crianças são particularmente vulneráveis ao marketing. O estudo analisa as técnicas publicitárias e alegações nutricionais e de saúde nas embalagens de alimentos e avalia a qualidade nutricional de três categorias de alimentos: biscoitos, cereais matinais e sobremesas lácteas. O estudo descritivo analisou as técnicas de marketing e as alegações impressas nas embalagens de biscoitos, cereais matinais e sobremesas lácteas (n = 301) em uma das maiores cadeias de varejo da Argentina. Pesquisadores treinados codificaram os dados de acordo com uma versão adaptada do protocolo INFORMAS para levar em conta a regulamentação argentina de rotulagem de alimentos. A qualidade nutricional foi avaliada com os modelos de Perfil de Nutrientes da Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde (OPAS NPM) e da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS Euro NPM). Ao todo, 87% (n = 262) das amostras dos produtos apresentavam um conteúdo excessivo de pelo menos um ingrediente (os produtos "menos saudáveis") de acordo com o OPAS NPM, enquanto 91% (n = 273) dos produtos não deveriam ser promovidos para crianças, de acordo com o OMS Euro NPM. Quase 40% dos produtos alimentícios menos saudáveis mostravam alegações nutricionais nas embalagens. Personagens conhecidos pelo público infantil, além do endosso de celebridades, que são particularmente atraentes para as crianças, foram destacados em 32% dos produtos menos saudáveis, e eram mais frequentes nos produtos menos saudáveis do que nos mais saudáveis. Os resultados indicam que as embalagens dos produtos alimentícios com menor valor nutritivo muitas vezes fazem uso de elementos poderosos de marketing na Argentina, deixando as crianças altamente vulneráveis à influência obesogênica. Muitas vezes o verdadeiro valor nutritivo dos produtos analisados não estava de acordo com as alegações de saúde nas embalagens. As políticas de rotulagem de alimentos devem ser melhoradas na Argentina para garantir a proteção da saúde da população inteira contra a publicidade enganosa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Edible Grain , Breakfast , Argentina , Brazil , Marketing , Europe , Food Labeling , Nutritive Value
18.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058891

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To assess if the commercialization of infant formulas, baby bottles, bottle nipples, pacifiers and nipple protectors is performed in compliance with the Norma Brasileira de Comercialização de Alimentos para Lactentes e Crianças de Primeira Infância e de Produtos de Puericultura Correlatos (NBCAL - Brazilian Code of Marketing of Infant and Toddlers Food and Childcare-related products). The commercial promotion of these products is prohibited by the Law 11,265. METHOD Cross-sectional study conducted in 2017 through a census of all pharmacies, supermarkets and department stores that sold products covered by NBCAL in the South Zone of Rio de Janeiro. Health professionals trained at NBCAL used structured electronic form for direct observation of establishments and for interviews with their managers. We created indicators to evaluate commercial practices and performed descriptive analyses. RESULTS A total of 352 commercial establishments were evaluated: 240 pharmacies, 88 supermarkets and 24 department stores, of which 88% sold products whose promotion is prohibited by NBCAL. Illegal commercial promotions were found in 20.3% of the establishments that sold the products we investigated: 52 pharmacies (21.9%), four supermarkets (7.5%) and seven department stores (33.3%). The most frequent commercial promotion strategies were discounts (13.2%) and special exposures (9.3%). The products with the highest prevalence of infractions of NBCAL were infant formulas (16.0%). We interviewed 309 managers of commercial establishments; 50.8% reported unfamiliarity with the law. More than three-quarters of the managers reported having been visited at the establishments by commercial representatives of companies that produce infant formulas. CONCLUSION More than a fifth of commercial establishments promoted infant formulas, baby bottles and nipples, although this practice has been banned in Brazil for thirty years. We think it is necessary to train those managers. Government agencies must monitor commercial establishments in order to inhibit strategies of persuasion and induction to sales of these products, ensuring mothers' autonomy in the decision on the feeding of their children.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Avaliar se a comercialização de fórmulas infantis, mamadeiras, bicos, chupetas e protetores de mamilo é realizada em cumprimento com a Norma Brasileira de Comercialização de Alimentos para Lactentes e Crianças de Primeira Infância e de Produtos de Puericultura Correlatos (NBCAL). A promoção comercial desses produtos é proibida pela Lei 11.265. MÉTODOS Estudo transversal conduzido em 2017 por meio de um censo de todas as farmácias, supermercados e lojas de departamento que comercializavam produtos abrangidos pela NBCAL na Zona Sul do Rio de Janeiro. Profissionais de saúde capacitados na NBCAL utilizaram formulário eletrônico estruturado para observação direta dos estabelecimentos e para entrevista com seus responsáveis. Foram criados seis indicadores de avaliação das práticas comerciais e realizadas análises descritivas. RESULTADOS Foram avaliados 352 estabelecimentos comerciais: 240 farmácias, 88 supermercados e 24 lojas de departamento, dos quais 88% comercializavam produtos cuja promoção é proibida pela NBCAL. Foram encontradas promoções comerciais ilegais em 20,3% daqueles que comercializavam os produtos investigados: 52 farmácias (21,9%), quatro supermercados (7,5%) e sete lojas de departamento (33,3%). As estratégias de promoção comercial mais frequentes foram os descontos (13,2%) e as exposições especiais (9,3%). Os produtos com maior prevalência de infrações à NBCAL foram as fórmulas infantis (16,0%). Foram entrevistados 309 responsáveis por estabelecimentos comerciais, 50,8% relatando não conhecer a lei. Mais de três quartos dos responsáveis relataram receber visitas nos estabelecimentos de representantes comerciais de empresas fabricantes de fórmulas infantis. CONCLUSÃO Mais de um quinto dos estabelecimentos comerciais faziam promoção comercial de fórmulas infantis para lactentes, mamadeiras e bicos, apesar de essa prática ser proibida no Brasil há trinta anos. É necessária a capacitação dos seus responsáveis. Os órgãos governamentais devem realizar fiscalização dos estabelecimentos comerciais para coibir estratégias de persuasão e indução à vendas desses produtos, garantindo às mães autonomia na decisão sobre a alimentação de seus filhos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Pacifiers , Marketing/legislation & jurisprudence , Infant Formula/legislation & jurisprudence , Milk Substitutes/legislation & jurisprudence , Direct-to-Consumer Advertising , Brazil , Breast Feeding , Cross-Sectional Studies , Infant Food , Legislation, Food
19.
Psicol. USP ; 31: e190113, 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1135793

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este artigo problematiza o aspecto fetichista da imagem do corpo ideal a partir da discussão do calendário de uma clínica de nutrição e estética. Discute-se a dinâmica de formação de massas, conforme a teoria freudiana, para pensar como um padrão de corpo perfeito pode ser eleito como ideal a ser alcançado por indivíduos nas sociedades contemporâneas. A lógica do mercado sustenta a imagem dos corpos ditos perfeitos na posição de fetiche e oferece acesso a essa suposta conquista por meio de produtos e serviços que trariam plenitude. Tal estratégia busca velar a castração oferecendo um substituto palpável que nega a falta e afirma a completude do outro, sustentando uma legião de pessoas que se envolve numa busca quase compulsiva pela realização desse ideal.


Abstract This article analyzes the calendar of a nutrition and aesthetics clinic to discuss the fetishistic aspect of the ideal body image. We verify the dynamics of mass formation, according to Freudian theory, to posit how a perfect body pattern can be elected as the ideal to be achieved by individuals in contemporary societies. The logic of the market sustains the image of the so-called perfect bodies in the position of a fetish, offering access to this supposed conquest through products and services that would lead to fulfilness. This strategy aims to veil castration by offering a palpable substitute that denies the faults and affirms the completeness of others, sustaining a legion of people engaged in an almost compulsive quest towards accomplishing this ideal.


Résumé Cet article questionne l'aspect fétichiste de l'image du corps idéal par l'analyse du calendrier d'une clinique de nutrition et d'esthétique. Nous discutons de la dynamique de la formation de masse, selon la théorie freudienne, pour réfléchir comment un modèle corporel parfait peut être élu comme idéal à atteindre par les individus dans les sociétés contemporaines. La logique du marché soutient l'image des corps dits parfaits comme un fétiche et permet d'accéder à cette supposée conquête à travers des produits et services qui en apporteraient la plénitude. Cette stratégie vise à assurer la castration en offrant un substitut qui nie le manque et affirme la perfection de l'autre, soutenant une légion de personnes qui se lancent dans une quête compulsive pour la réalisation de cet idéal.


Resumen El presente artículo problematiza el aspecto fetichista de la imagen del cuerpo ideal a partir del análisis del calendario de una clínica de nutrición. Se discute la dinámica de formación de masas, según la teoría freudiana, para pensar cómo un patrón de cuerpo perfecto puede ser elegido como lo ideal a ser alcanzado por individuos en las sociedades contemporáneas. La lógica del mercado sostiene la imagen de cuerpos perfectos en fetiches y ofrece acceso a esa supuesta conquista por medio de productos y servicios que traerían la plenitud. Tal estrategia pretende velar la castración, ofreciendo un sustituto que niega la falta y afirma la completud del otro, lo que sostiene una legión de personas involucradas en una búsqueda casi compulsiva para concretizar ese ideal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Body Image/psychology , Physical Appearance, Body , Marketing , Social Networking
20.
Rev. bras. cancerol ; 66(2): 1-10, 20200402.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1097277

ABSTRACT

Introdução: No Brasil, cada vez mais são identificadas ações ilegais de publicidade, propaganda e patrocínio por parte da indústria do tabaco em eventos musicais e por meio das redes sociais, voltadas a atrair principalmente o público jovem para o uso do cigarro. Objetivo: Desenvolver uma metodologia que permita estabelecer um parâmetro de quantificação dos impactos negativos para o setor saúde desse descumprimento da lei. Método: Combinaram-se as informações nacionais existentes sobre i) a equivalência entre "custo direto médio da assistência médica" e "mortes por doenças atribuíveis ao tabagismo" e ii) a equivalência entre "a parcela do lucro revertido em ações de marketing" e "mortes de fumantes que contribuíram para a geração desse lucro por meio da compra de cigarros", de forma a se obter a relação "custo direto do tratamento" vs "parcela do lucro revertido em ações de marketing". As doenças selecionadas foram aquelas que apresentam os maiores custos diretos de tratamento atribuíveis ao fumo. Resultados: Para cada centavo investido em marketing pela indústria do tabaco, o Brasil tem um gasto com tratamento de doenças relacionadas ao tabaco 1,93 vezes superior ao dinheiro investido pela indústria. Conclusão: A mensuração da responsabilização dos violadores da legislação nacional para o controle do tabaco é fundamental para compensar parte dos custos associados ao tratamento de pacientes e aos programas de cessação ao fumo, favorecendo assim a redução do tabagismo no país.


Introduction: In Brazil, illegal actions of advertising, promotion, and sponsorship by part of the tobacco industry are increasingly identified in music events, and through social media, aimed mainly to attract young people to use cigarettes. Objective: To develop a methodology that allows the creation of a parameter of quantification of the negative impacts to the health sector of non-compliance with the law. Method: Combination of the current national information about i) the equivalence between "mean direct cost of medical care" and "deaths by diseases attributable to tobacco addiction" and ii) the equivalence between "the portion of the profit translated into marketing actions" and "deaths of smokers who contributed for the generation of this profit through purchase of cigarettes" in order to obtain the relation between "direct cost of the treatment" vs "portion of the profit translated into market actions". The diseases selected were those that presented the biggest direct cost of treatment attributable to tobacco. Results: For every cent invested in marketing strategies by the tobacco industry, Brazil spends 1.93 times more financial resources to treat tobacco-related diseases. Conclusion: The measurement of the liability for non-compliance of the tobacco national legislation is essential to offset part of the associated costs of the treatment of patients and programs of tobacco cessation to favor the reduction of smoking prevalence in Brazil.


Introducción: En Brasil, es cada vez más común identificar acciones ilegales de publicidad, promoción y patrocinio del tabaco por parte de la industria tabacalera en eventos musicales y a través de redes sociales, destinadas principalmente a atraer al público joven al consumo de cigarrillos. Objetivo: Desarrollar una metodología que permita establecer un parámetro para cuantificar los impactos negativos al setor de la salud de esa acción ilegal de la ley. Método: El artículo integra la información nacional existente sobre i) la equivalencia entre el "costo directo promedio de asistencia médica" y "muertes por enfermedades atribuibles al tabaquismo" y ii) la equivalencia entre "la parte del ingreso usado en acciones de marketing" y "las muertes de fumadores que han contribuido a la generación de estos ingresos a través de la compra de cigarrillos", para obtener la relación "costo directo del tratamiento" vs "parte de los ingresos usados en acciones de marketing". Las enfermedades seleccionadas fueron las que presentaron los costos más altos de tratamiento directo atribuibles al uso del tabaco. Resultados: Por cada centavo invertido en marketing por la industria tabacalera, Brasil tiene un gasto en tratamiento de enfermedades relacionadas con el tabaco 1,93 veces mayor que el monto invertido por la industria. Conclusión: Medir la responsabilidad de los infractores de la legislación nacional de control del tabaco es esencial para compensar parte de los costos asociados con el tratamiento de los pacientes y com los programas para dejar de fumar, favoreciendo así la reducción del consumo de tabaco en el país.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Tobacco Use Disorder/economics , Tobacco Industry/economics , Tobacco-Derived Products Publicity , Tobacco Use Disorder/mortality , Brazil , Compensation and Redress , Marketing/statistics & numerical data
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