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2.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(2): e149-e161, abr. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS (Americas), BINACIS | ID: biblio-1100327

ABSTRACT

Dentro de las malformaciones congénitas, las cardiopatías son las anomalías más frecuentes y se asocian a una elevada morbimortalidad perinatal y a largo plazo. El objetivo de esta actualización es revisar la tasa de detección prenatal, las características del tamizaje a lo largo del embarazo, tanto en el primero como en el segundo trimestre, las indicaciones de ecocardiografía avanzada, y establecer un algoritmo de manejo ante el diagnóstico prenatal de una cardiopatía congénita. Se discutirán los estudios invasivos y no invasivos que pueden realizarse y el seguimiento obstétrico. Finalmente, se revisarán las características principales de la terapia fetal en anomalías cardíacas, tanto intervencionismo cardíaco como el tratamiento intrauterino de las arritmias.


Among congenital malformations, heart defects are the most common type of anomaly, and these are associated with a high perinatal, long-term morbidity and mortality. The objective of this update was to review the rate of prenatal detection, screening characteristics throughout the pregnancy, in both the first and second trimesters, indications for advanced echocardiography, and to establish a management algorithm in case of prenatal diagnosis of a congenital heart disease. Potential invasive and non-invasive tests and obstetric follow-up will be discussed here. Finally, the main characteristics of fetal therapy in heart anomalies will be reviewed, both cardiac interventions and intrauterine treatment of arrhythmias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Heart Defects, Congenital/diagnostic imaging , Prenatal Diagnosis , Mass Screening , Follow-Up Studies , Fetal Therapies/methods , Fetal Heart/abnormalities
3.
Med. infant ; 27(1): 17-24, Marzo de 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas), BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1118590

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El niño hospitalizado se encuentra en estado de vulnerabilidad nutricional. El tamizaje nutricional permite identificar malnutrición y/o el riesgo de desarrollarla, para realizar un abordaje precoz. El Área de Alimentación del Hospital Garrahan desarrolló la "Herramienta de Tamizaje Nutricional Pediátrico" (HTNP), dada la falta de consenso sobre un estándar de oro y para ajustar criterios a la población asistida. El objetivo de esta investigación fue su validación para niños en cuidados intermedios/ moderados. Métodos: estudio prospectivo, descriptivo y transversal. Entre agosto de 2016 y abril de 2018 se reclutaron niños de 1 a 18 años internados en salas de cuidados intermedios/moderados seleccionadas, que cumplieran los criterios de inclusión. Se aplicaron: la HTNP y la valoración nutricional global subjetiva (VNGS) como prueba de comparación. La HTNP consta de tres criterios: Patología de base y motivo de internación- Disminución de peso- Deterioro de la actitud alimentaria. Se define riesgo nutricional si se cumple con dos criterios. Se analizaron: Sensibilidad, especificidad, valor predictivo positivo (VPP) y valor predictivo negativo (VPN), factibilidad y reproducibilidad. Resultados: Se evaluaron 745 niños (50,1% sexo femenino; mediana de edad: 7,2 años). La HTNP detectó riesgo nutricional en 50,7% (n378) de los niños y la VNGS en 48,7% (n363). La HTNP presentó: Sensibilidad 87,3% (IC95% 83,8-90,9), Especificidad 84,0% (IC95% 80,2-87,8), VPP 83,9% (IC95%: 80,0­87,7) y VPN 87,5% (IC95%: 83,9-91,0). Del análisis de reproducibilidad con dos evaluadores independientes (n42) se obtuvo coeficiente kappa de 0,91 (0,74-1,0) y 0,78 (0,5-1,0) respectivamente. Su implementación llevo un promedio de tres minutos y medio (1-5 minutos). Conclusión: La HTNP es un instrumento simple, reproducible, práctico y factible de implementar para identificar pacientes en riesgo nutricional (AU)


Introduction: Hospitalized children are nutritionally vulnerable. Nutritional screening may identify malnutrition and/or the risk of developing malnutrition in order to start early intervention. The Food Services Area of Garrahan Hospital has developed a "Pediatric Nutritional Screening Tool (PNST) because of the lack of consensus on a gold standard and to finetune the criteria to the care population. The aim of this study was to validate the tool in children in intermediate/moderate care. Methods: A prospective, descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted. Between August 2016 and April 2018 children from 1 to 18 years of age who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled on selected intermediate/ moderate care wards. The PNST was administered together with the Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) as a comparison test. The PNST consists of three criteria: Underlying disease and reason for admission- Weight loss- Deterioration of eating behavior. A patient was defined as being at nutritional risk was defined if two criteria were met. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV), feasibility, and reproducibility were analyzed. Results: 745 children (50.1% female; median age: 7.2 years) were assessed. The PNST detected nutritional risk in 50.7% (n378) and the SGA in 48,7% (n363) of the children. The PNST showed: Sensitivity 87.3% (95%CI: 83.8-90.9), specificity 84.0% (95%CI: 80.2-87.8), PPV 83.9% (95%CI: 80.0­87.7), and NPV 87.5% (95%CI: 83,9-91,0). In a reproducibility analysis with two independent evaluators (n42) kappa coefficients of 0.91 (0.74-1.0) and 0.78 (0.5-1.0) were obtained, respectively. Administration of the tool took a mean of 3.5 inutes (1-5 minutes). Conclusion: The PNST is a simple, reproducible, practical, and feasible tool to use for the identification of patients at nutritional risk (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Child Nutrition Disorders/diagnosis , Nutrition Assessment , Child, Hospitalized , Mass Screening/methods , Nutritional Status , Risk Assessment/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies
4.
Rev. Esc. Enferm. USP ; 54: e03553, 2020. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS (Americas), BDENF | ID: biblio-1091961

ABSTRACT

Abstract OBJECTIVE To perform criterion validation of the Key Question in Portuguese for screening at-risk alcohol use among users of Primary Healthcare services. METHOD This is a psychometric study conducted with users of a Primary Healthcare service located in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Participants responded to the Key Question which was applied in conjunction with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-C for concurrent validation and measurement of psychometric properties. RESULTS The sample consisted of 518 users. The Key Question presented 59% specificity and 99% sensitivity with respect to the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-C in the general population. The accuracy was 81% in relation to this instrument. There was no influence of sociodemographic variables such as gender on the psychometric properties of the Key Question. CONCLUSION The results indicate that the Key Question in Portuguese presented satisfactory psychometric qualities and suggest that its Portuguese version is as efficient for screening at-risk alcohol use as its reference standard, which subsidizes its use in Primary Healthcare.


Resumen OBJETIVO Llevar a cabo la validación de criterio de la pregunta clave en portugués para rastreo del consumo arriesgado del alcohol entre usuarios de los servicios de Atención Primaria de Salud. MÉTODO Se trata de un estudio psicométrico llevado a cabo con usuarios de un servicio de Atención Primaria de Salud ubicado en la ciudad de São Paulo, Brasil. Los participantes respondieron a la pregunta clave que les fue aplicada en conjunto con el Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-C para la validación concurrente y la verificación de las propiedades psicométricas. RESULTADOS La muestra estuvo compuesta de 518 adictos. La pregunta clave presentó especificidad del 59% y sensibilidad del 99% con relación al Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-C en la población en general. La precisión fue del 81% con relación a dicho instrumento. No se observó influencia de variables sociodemográficas, como sexo, por ejemplo, en las propiedades psicométricas de la pregunta clave. CONCLUSIÓN Los resultados señalan que la pregunta clave en portugués presentó calidades psicométricas satisfactorias y sugieren que su versión en portugués sea tan eficiente para el rastreo del consumo arriesgado del alcohol como su estándar de referencia, lo que subsidia su empleo en la Atención Primaria de Salud para el rastreo del consumo arriesgado del alcohol.


Resumo OBJETIVO Realizar a validação de critério da questão-chave em português para rastreamento do uso de risco de álcool entre usuários dos serviços de Atenção Primária à Saúde. MÉTODO Trata-se de um estudo psicométrico realizado com usuários de um serviço de Atenção Primária à Saúde localizado na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil. Os participantes responderam à questão-chave que foi aplicada em conjunto com o Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-C para a validação concorrente e a aferição das propriedades psicométricas. RESULTADOS A amostra foi composta de 518 usuários. A questão-chave apresentou especificidade de 59% e sensibilidade de 99% em relação ao Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-C na população em geral. A acurácia foi de 81% em relação a esse instrumento. Não se observou influência de variáveis sociodemográficas, como sexo, por exemplo, nas propriedades psicométricas da questão-chave. CONCLUSÃO Os resultados indicam que a questão-chave em português apresentou qualidades psicométricas satisfatórias e sugerem que sua versão em português seja tão eficiente para o rastreamento do uso de risco de álcool quanto seu padrão de referência, o que subsidia seu emprego na Atenção Primária à Saúde para o rastreamento do uso de risco de álcool.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Primary Health Care , Mass Screening , Alcohol-Related Disorders , Validation Study , Psychometrics , Primary Care Nursing
5.
Rev. bras. cancerol ; 66(1)20200129.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1088000

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O exame citopatológico é utilizado para detecção precoce das lesões precursoras do câncer do colo uterino. Objetivo: Avaliar os indicadores de qualidade de acordo com o Manual de Gestão da Qualidade para Laboratório de Citopatologia. Método: Verificaram-se os laudos das fichas de requisição dos exames citopatológicos do laboratório clínico da Pontifícia Universidade de Goiás (LC-PUC-Goiás) entre janeiro de 2013 e dezembro de 2017. Resultados: Do total de 6.809 diagnósticos, observaram-se 99,4% (6.768/6.809) satisfatórios, sendo 91,3% (6.215/6.809) resultados negativos, 8,1% (553/6.809) diagnósticos com anormalidades citológicas e 0,6% (41/6.809) de exames insatisfatórios. O índice de positividade dos anos de 2013 a 2017 foram 10,5%, 7,9%, 8,6%, 6,8% e 5,3%, respectivamente. O percentual de exames compatíveis com lesão intraepitelial de alto grau (HSIL) entre os exames satisfatórios no ano de 2013 foi de 1,3%; 2014: 1,0%; 2015: 0,5%; 2016: 0,6%; e 2017: 0,7%, resultados dentro do estabelecido, ≥0,4%. A relação de células escamosas atípicas (ASC)/satisfatórios demostrou valores acima do estabelecido nos anos de 2013 com 6,8% e 2015 com 6,1%. Segundo o Manual de Gestão para Controle de Qualidade, espera-se que, no máximo, 4% a 5% de todos dos exames sejam classificados como ASC. Valores acima de 5% necessitam de uma atenção diferenciada. Conclusão: É de suma importância a educação continuada dos profissionais que participam de todas as etapas do processo, da fase pré-analítica à analítica, para que possíveis erros possam ser corrigidos e medidas preventivas tomadas para uma melhor qualidade na interpretação dos exames citopatológicos.


Introduction: The cytopathological examination is used for early detection of cervical cancer precursor lesions. Objective: Evaluate the quality indicators according to the Quality Management Manual for the Cytopathology Laboratory. Method: The results of the request forms of cytopathological examinations of the Clinical Laboratory of the Pontifical University of Goiás (LC-PUC-Goiás) were verified between January 2013 and December 2017. Results: Of 6,809 diagnoses in total, 99.4% (6,768/6,809) were satisfactory, 91.3% (6,215/6,809) were negative, 8.1% (553/6,809) presented cytological abnormalities and 0.6% (41/6,809) were unsatisfactory. The Positivity Index from 2013 to 2017 was 10.5%, 7.9%, 8.6%, 6.8% and 5.3%, respectively. The percentage of examinations with high-grade intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) among satisfactory examinations in 2013 was 1.3%, in 2014, 1.0%, in 2015, 0.5%, in 2016, 0.6 % and in 2017, 0.7%, results within the established ≥ 0.4%. The atypical squamous cells (ASC)/satisfactory ratio showed values above the standard figures in 2013 with 6.8% and 2015 with 6.1%. According to the Quality Control Management Manual, it is expected that, at the most, 4% to 5% of all exams be classified as ASC. Values above 5% demand differentiated attention. Conclusion: It is of the utmost importance the continued education of professionals who participate in all stages of the process, from the pre-analytical to the analytical phase, so that possible errors can be avoided and preventive measures taken for better quality interpretation of the cytopathological examinations.


Introducción: El examen citopatológico se utiliza para la detección temprana de lesiones precursoras de cáncer cervical. Objetivo: Evaluar los indicadores de calidad de acuerdo con el Manual de Gestión de Calidad para el laboratorio de citopatología. Método: Se verificaron los informes de los formularios de solicitud para los exámenes citopatológicos del Laboratorio Clínico de la Pontificia Universidad de Goiás (LC-PUC-Goiás), de enero de 2013 a diciembre de 2017. Resultados: Del total de 6.809 diagnósticos, se observarán 99,4% (6.768/6.809) diagnósticos satisfactorios, 91,3% (6.215/6.809) resultados negativos, 8,1% (553/6.809) diagnósticos con anomalías citológicas y 0,6% (41/6.809) exámenes insatisfactorios. El índice de positividad de 2013 a 2017 fue de 10,5%, 7,9%, 8,6%, 6,8% y 5,3% respectivamente. El porcentaje de exámenes compatibles con lesiones intraepiteliales de alto grado (HSIL) entre los exámenes satisfactorios en 2013 fue de 1,3%; 2014: 1,0%; 2015: 0,5%; 2016: 0,6%; y 2017: 0,7%, resultados dentro de lo establecido, ≥0,4%. La relación células escamosas atípicas (ASC)/satisfactorio fue más alta que la establecida en 2013 con 6,8% y 2015 con 6,1%. Según el Manual de Gestión de Control de Calidad, se espera que un máximo del 4% al 5% de todos los exámenes se clasifiquen como ASC. Los valores superiores al 5% requieren una atención diferente. Conclusión: Es de suma importancia la educación continua de los profesionales que participan en todas las etapas del proceso, desde la fase preanalítica hasta la analítica, para que se puedan corregir los posibles errores y se tomen medidas preventivas para una mejor calidad en la interpretación de los exámenes citopatológicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Quality Control , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Cervix Uteri/cytology , Quality Assurance, Health Care , Brazil , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Mass Screening/standards , Retrospective Studies , Cytological Techniques , Cytodiagnosis/standards , Papanicolaou Test/standards
6.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 28: e3296, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas), BDENF | ID: biblio-1101741

ABSTRACT

Objective: to assess risk related to drug use in men admitted to a psychiatric hospital and to identify associations with sociodemographic, socioeconomic variables, and risk conditions. Method: a cross-sectional study with the application of a screening test in 209 participants hospitalized for mental and behavioral disorders due to the use of psychoactive substances. Statistical analysis was performed using descriptive statistics and adjustment of a binary logistic regression model for moderate or high risk of drug use. The odds ratio measured the strength of association. Results: high use in life was observed, with alcohol and tobacco experimentation in adolescence. A high prevalence of related risk was observed for alcohol, tobacco, smoked and inhaled cocaine, and marijuana. Moderate and elevated risks were found for tobacco (22.5% and 62.5%, respectively), alcohol (13.5% and 73%), marijuana (16% and 32.5%), smoked cocaine (3% and 41%) and inhaled cocaine (9% and 19.5%). Conclusion: the results showed high use in life, with an age of early experimentation. Tobacco and alcohol are the main drugs used by hospitalized men.


Objetivo: avaliar risco relacionado ao uso de drogas em homens internados em hospital psiquiátrico e identificar associações com variáveis sociodemográficas, socioeconômicas e condições de risco. Método: estudo transversal com aplicação de teste de rastreamento em 209 participantes internados por transtornos mentais e comportamentais, devido ao uso de substâncias psicoativas. A análise estatística foi realizada através de estatísticas descritivas e ajuste de modelo de regressão logística binária para o risco moderado ou elevado relacionado ao uso de drogas. A força de associação foi medida pela razão de chances. Resultados: observou-se elevado uso na vida, com início de experimentação de álcool e tabaco ainda na adolescência. Maiores prevalências de risco relacionado observadas para álcool, tabaco, cocaína fumada e inalada, e maconha. Riscos moderados e elevados foram encontrados para tabaco (22,5 e 62,5%, respectivamente), álcool (13,5 e 73%), maconha (16 e 32,5%), cocaína fumada (3 e 41%) e inalada (9 e 19,5%). Conclusão: os resultados apontaram elevado uso na vida, com idade de experimentação precoce. O tabaco e o álcool são as principais drogas utilizadas pelos homens internados.


Objetivo: evaluar riesgo relacionado al uso de drogas en hombres internados en hospital siquiátrico e identificar asociaciones con variables sociodemográficas, socioeconómicas y condiciones de riesgo. Método: estudio transversal con aplicación de test de rastreo en 209 participantes internados por trastornos mentales y conductuales debido al uso de sustancias psicoactivas. El análisis estadístico fue realizado a través de la estadística descriptiva y ajuste del modelo de regresión logística binaria, para el riesgo moderado o elevado de tipo uso drogas. La fuerza de asociación fue medida por la razón de chances. Resultados: se observó elevado uso en la vida, con inicio de experimentación de alcohol y tabaco en la adolescencia. Fueron observadas mayores prevalencias de riesgo relacionado para alcohol, tabaco, cocaína fumada e inhalada, y mariguana. Riesgos moderados y elevados fueron encontrados para tabaco (22,5% y 62,5%, respectivamente), alcohol (13,5% y 73%), mariguana (16% y 32,5%), cocaína fumada (3% y 41%) e inhalada (9% y 19,5%). Conclusión: los resultados apuntaron elevado uso en la vida, con edad de experimentación precoz. El tabaco y el alcohol son las principales drogas utilizadas por los hombres internados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Illicit Drugs , Mass Screening , Risk , Substance-Related Disorders , Alcoholism
8.
Rev. bras. cancerol ; 66(3): 1-8, 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1120100

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O câncer do colo do útero é o quarto tipo de câncer mais frequente na população feminina mundial, tendo sua incidência e mortalidade mais acentuadas nos países de baixa renda que possuem serviços de saúde menos estruturados e alcançam menor cobertura no rastreamento da doença. Objetivo: Analisar a adequação dos conhecimentos e práticas das usuárias de uma unidade básica de saúde (UBS) de Juiz de Fora - MG, sobre o rastreamento do câncer do colo do útero, tendo como referência as recomendações do Instituto Nacional de Câncer José Alencar Gomes da Silva (INCA). Método: Estudo transversal descritivo, utilizando questionário estruturado aplicado às usuárias de uma UBS na faixa etária de 25 a 69 anos durante duas semanas. Foram estimadas prevalências de práticas adequadas e suas associações com fatores sociodemográficos. Resultados: Todas as mulheres já tinham ouvido falar do exame citopatológico e a maioria (77,9%) tinha conhecimento de sua finalidade. Entretanto, nenhuma apresentou conhecimento inteiramente adequado sobre o rastreamento dessas neoplasias, no que concerne à faixa etária e à periodicidade recomendadas. A prevalência de prática adequada foi de 17,4% (IC95%: 11,8-23,1%) com maior proporção para a faixa etária de maiores de 50 anos. Conclusão: O conhecimento das usuárias da atenção primária à saúde sobre as recomendações do INCA para o rastreamento do câncer do colo do útero é ainda muito precário.


Introduction: Cervical cancer is the fourth most common type of cancer in the female population worldwide, with its incidence and mortality more accentuated in low-income countries, which have less structured health services and less coverage for disease screening. Objective: To analyze the appropriateness of the knowledge and practices that users of a basic health unit (BHU) in Juiz de Fora ­ MG have on cervical cancer screening, considering as reference the recommendations of the National Cancer Institute José Alencar Gomes da Silva (INCA). Method: Descriptive cross-sectional study using a structured questionnaire applied to users of a BHU in the age group from 25 to 69 years old for two weeks. Prevalence of adequate practices and their associations with sociodemographic factors were estimated. Results: All the women were already cognizant of the cytopathological examination and the majority (77.9%) was aware of its purpose. However, none demonstrated complete adequate knowledge about the recommended age range and frequency to screen these neoplasms. The prevalence of appropriate practice was of 17.4% (CI95%: 11.8-23.1%), with a higher proportion for the age group over 50 years. Conclusion: The users' knowledge about INCA's recommendations on primary health care for cervical cancer screening is very precarious.


Introducción: El cáncer de cuello uterino es el cuarto tipo de cáncer más común en la población femenina en todo el mundo, con su incidencia y mortalidad más pronunciada en los países de bajos ingresos, que tienen servicios de salud menos estructurados y logran menos cobertura en la detección de la enfermedad. Objetivo: Analizar la idoneidad del conocimiento y las prácticas de los usuarios de una unidad básica de salud (UBS) de Juiz de Fora - MG, en la detección del cáncer de cuello uterino, tomando como referencia las recomendaciones del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer José Alencar Gomes da Silva (INCA). Método: Estudio descriptivo transversal que utiliza un cuestionario estructurado aplicado a usuarios de una UBS en el grupo de edad de 25 a 69 años durante dos semanas. Se estimó la prevalencia de prácticas adecuadas y sus asociaciones con factores sociodemográficos. Resultados: Todas las mujeres habían oído hablar de la prueba de Papanicolaou y la mayoría (77,9%) era consciente de su propósito. Sin embargo, ninguno presentó un conocimiento completamente adecuado sobre el cribado de estas neoplasias, con respecto al rango de edad y frecuencia recomendados. La prevalencia de la práctica adecuada fue del 17.4% (IC95%: 11,8-23,1%), con una mayor proporción para el grupo de edad de más de 50 años. Conclusión: El conocimiento de las usuarias de la atención primaria de salud sobre las recomendaciones del INCA para detección del cáncer cervical es muy precario.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Mass Screening , Papanicolaou Test , Brazil , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Cross-Sectional Studies
9.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 12: 1125-1131, jan.-dez. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS (Americas), BDENF | ID: biblio-1117824

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Analisar o comportamento dos coeficientes de exames citopatológicos realizados e alterados em mulheres Paranaenses no período de 2006 a 2014. Método: Estudo transversal do tipo ecológico, utilizou dados do Sistema de Informação do Câncer do Colo do Útero, segundo faixa etária de 15 a 59 anos. Foi calculada a razão entre o número de casos de câncer de colo uterino, segundo a faixa etária, e mulheres paranaenses da mesma faixa etária, divididos por 100.000. Resultados: Apresentaram-se segundo estatística descritiva, utilizando gráficos e tabelas. Mostraram um aumento de exames realizados nas faixas etárias 15-19 e 50-59 anos, e quedas nas centrais, 20-49 anos. Os exames alterados aumentaram no período estudado nas faixas de 15-19 e 30-49 anos, e caíram nas demais. Conclusão: O estudo evidencia uma mudança no perfil daquelas que procuram o exame citopatológico, com aumento da busca pelas jovens, assim como de exames alterados nas mesmas


Objective: Analyze the behavior of the coefficients of cytological examination performed and altered in women from Paraná between 2006 and 2014. Methods: Cross-sectional study of the ecological type used data from the Cervical Cancer Information System, according to the age range of 15 to 59 years old. The ratio between the number of cervical cancer cases according to age group and women of the same age group, divided by 100,000, was calculated. Results: Were presented according to descriptive statistics, using graphs and tables. Conclusion: There was an increase in the number of examples performed in the 15-19 and 50-59 age groups, and in the age group 20-49. The altered exams increased in the studied period in the groups 15-19 and 30-49 and fell in the others. The study evidences a change in the profile of those who seek the cytological examination, with an increase in the demand by the younger, as well as altered exams in the same ones


Objetivo: Analizar el comportamiento de los coeficientes del examen citológico realizado y alterado en mujeres de Paraná entre 2006 y 2014. Método: Estudio transversal del tipo ecológico utilizó datos del Sistema de Información del Cáncer Cervical, de acuerdo con el rango de edad de 15 a 59 años de edad. Se calculó la relación entre el número de casos de cáncer cervical según el grupo de edad y las mujeres del mismo grupo de edad, dividido por 100.000. Resultados: Se presentaron de acuerdo con estadísticas descriptivas, usando gráficos y tablas. Hubo un aumento en el número de exámenes realizados en los grupos de 15-19 y 50-59 años, y en los grupos de edad de 20-49. Los exámenes alterados aumentaron en el período estudiado en los grupos 15-19 y 30-49 años y disminuyeron en los otros. Conclusión: El estudio evidencia un cambio en el perfil de quienes buscan el examen citológico, con un aumento en la demanda por parte de los más jóvenes, así como también exámenes alterados en los mismos


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Uterine Cervical Dysplasia/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Mass Screening/statistics & numerical data , Papanicolaou Test/statistics & numerical data , Primary Health Care , Information Systems , Cross-Sectional Studies
10.
MedUNAB ; 23(2): 261-269, 22-07-2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1118170

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La colonoscopia es una exploración visual de la mucosa del colon, la cual consiste en la introducción de una sonda óptica flexible por el ano. Dentro de sus objetivos está la localización de lesiones de una manera muy precisa, obtener biopsias para su análisis al microscopio, realizar diversos procedimientos terapéuticos o diagnosticar lesiones pequeñas no detectables por métodos imagenológicos tradicionales. El objetivo del presente artículo es describir los hallazgos colonoscópicos en pacientes adultos de una institución prestadora de servicios de salud. Metodología. Estudio observacional, transversal con componente analítico, la información se recolectó de manera retrospectiva, en pacientes mayores de 18 años en ambos sexos, a los cuales se les realizó colonoscopia en una institución prestadora de servicios de salud de segundo nivel. Resultados. Se practicaron 521 procedimientos colonoscópicos en 291 mujeres y 230 hombres con mediana de edad de 63 años (rango 18-99), la proporción fue bastante superior en las personas mayores de 50 años, la frecuencia del procedimiento en mujeres fue superior con un 57.0% vs. el 43% de los hombres. El número de colonoscopias con resultado normal, fue más frecuente en las personas menores de 50 años (54.8%) contra 45.2% del total de los de 50 años en adelante. Conclusiones. La colonoscopia es un instrumento de gran utilidad al momento de diagnóstico, seguimiento y tratamiento de una gran variedad de patologías gastrointestinales, ya que, a través de esta importante herramienta diagnóstica es posible determinar y descartar otro tipo de patologías que afectan el sistema gastrointestinal. Cómo citar: Rodriguez NH, Logreira JD, Sanabria DF, Uribe JC. Hallazgos colonoscópicos en pacientes atendidos en una institución de salud del municipio de Barrancabermeja, Santander. MedUNAB. 2020;23(2): 261-269. doi: 10.29375/01237047.3834


Introduction. Colonoscopy is a visual exploration of the colonic mucosa, which consists of the insertion of a flexible optic catheter through the anus. Its objectives include to locate lesions very precisely, to obtain biopsies for their microscopic analysis, to carry out different therapeutic procedures and to diagnose small lesions that cannot be detected by traditional imaging techniques. The aim of this article is to describe the colonoscopy findings in adult patients of a health care institution. Methodology. Observational, cross-sectional study with an analytical component. The information was collected retrospectively from patients aged over 18 years, of both sexes, on which a colonoscopy was performed in a secondary health care institution. Results. A total of 521 colonoscopy procedures were conducted on 291 women and 230 men with an average age of 63 years (age range: 18-99 years). The proportion was greater among people aged over 50 years. The frequency of the procedure in women was higher with 57.0%, compared to 43% in men. The number of colonoscopies with a normal result was more frequent in people aged under 50 years (54.8%) compared to 45.2% of the total of those aged 50 years and over. Conclusion. Colonoscopy is a very useful instrument when diagnosing, monitoring and treating a great variety of gastrointestinal pathologies, because through this important diagnostic tool, it is possible to determine the existence of or rule out other kinds of pathologies that affect the gastrointestinal system. Cómo citar: Rodriguez NH, Logreira JD, Sanabria DF, Uribe JC. Hallazgos colonoscópicos en pacientes atendidos en una institución de salud del municipio de Barrancabermeja, Santander. MedUNAB. 2020;23(2): 261-269. doi: 10.29375/01237047.3834


Introdução. A colonoscopia é uma exploração visual da mucosa do cólon, que consiste na introdução de uma sonda óptica flexível através do ânus. Entre seus objetivos está a localização de lesões de maneira muito precisa, a obtenção de biópsias para análise ao microscópio, a realização de vários procedimentos terapêuticos ou o diagnóstico de pequenas lesões não detectáveis pelos métodos tradicionais de imagem. O objetivo deste artigo é descrever os achados de colonoscopia em pacientes adultos de uma instituição prestadora de serviços de saúde. Metodologia. Em estudo observacional, transversal, com componente analítico, as informações foram coletadas retrospectivamente em pacientes acima de 18 anos de ambos os sexos, submetidos à colonoscopia em instituição prestadora de serviços de saúde de segundo nível. Resultados. Foram realizados 521 procedimentos de colonoscopia em 291 mulheres e 230 homens com mediana de idade de 63 anos (variação de 18 a 99), a proporção foi muito maior em pessoas acima de 50 anos, a frequência do procedimento em mulheres foi maior em 57% vs. 43% nos homens. O número de colonoscopias com resultado normal foi mais frequente em pessoas com menos de 50 anos (54.8%) versus 45.2% do total das pessoas com 50 anos ou mais. Conclusão. A colonoscopia é um instrumento muito útil no diagnóstico, monitoramento e tratamento de uma ampla variedade de patologias gastrointestinais, pois, por meio desta importante ferramenta de diagnóstico, é possível determinar e descartar outros tipos de patologias que afetam o sistema gastrointestinal. Cómo citar: Rodriguez NH, Logreira JD, Sanabria DF, Uribe JC. Hallazgos colonoscópicos en pacientes atendidos en una institución de salud del municipio de Barrancabermeja, Santander. MedUNAB. 2020;23(2): 261-269. doi: 10.29375/01237047.3834


Subject(s)
Colonoscopy , Mass Screening , Gastroenterology , Intestinal Neoplasms , Intestine, Large , Intestine, Small
11.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-762472

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOC) is caused by pathogenic variants in BRCA and other cancer-related genes. We analyzed variants in BRCA gene and other cancer-related genes in HBOC patients to evaluate the clinical validity of next-generation sequencing (NGS) multi-gene panel testing. METHODS: The BRCA1/2 NGS testing was conducted for 262 HBOC patients. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and direct Sanger sequencing were performed for confirmation. Multi-gene panel testing was conducted for 120 patients who did not possess BRCA1/2 pathogenic variants but met the National Comprehensive Cancer Network criteria. RESULTS: Pathogenic variants in BRCA1/2 were detected in 30 HBOC patients (11.5%). Additionally, four out of the 120 patients possessed pathogenic variants by multi-gene panel testing (3.3%): MSH2 (c.256G>T, p.Glu86*), PMS2 (c.1687C>T, p.Arg563*), CHEK2 (c.546C>A, p.Tyr182*), and PALB2 (c.3351-1G>C). All the four patients had a family history of cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Multi-gene panel testing could be a significant screening tool for HBOC patients, especially for those with a family history of cancer.


Subject(s)
Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Syndrome , Humans , Mass Screening , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction
12.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-762470

ABSTRACT

Active surveillance culture (ASC) can help detect hidden reservoirs, but the routine use of ASC for extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae is controversial in an endemic situation. We aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (EBSL-Kpn) colonization among intensive care unit (ICU)-admitted patients. Prospective screening of ESBL-Kpn colonization was performed for ICU-admitted patients within 48 hours for two months. A perirectal swab sample was inoculated on MacConkey agar supplemented with 2 µg/mL ceftazidime. ESBL genotype was determined by PCR-sequencing, and clonal relatedness was evaluated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The risk factors of ESBL-Kpn colonization were evaluated. The ESBL-Kpn colonization rate among the 281 patients at ICU admission was 6.4% (18/281), and bla(CTX-M-15) was detected in all isolates. ESBL producers also showed resistance to fluoroquinolone (38.9%, 7/18). All isolates had the same ESBL genotype (bla(CTX-M-15)) and a highly clustered PFGE pattern, suggesting cross-transmission without a documented outbreak. In univariate analysis, the risk factor for ESBL-Kpn colonization over the control was the length of hospital stay (odds ratio=1.062; P=0.019). Routine use of ASC could help control endemic ESBL–Kpn for ICU patients.


Subject(s)
Agar , Ceftazidime , Colon , Critical Care , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Enterobacteriaceae , Genotype , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Klebsiella , Length of Stay , Mass Screening , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
13.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-762459

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The existing modified carbapenem inactivation methods (mCIMs) recommended by the CLSI for detecting carbapenemase production have not been applicable for Acinetobacter baumannii. We evaluated the influence of matrices used in mCIMs and CIMTris on the stability of the disks for detecting carbapenemase producers and suggested optimal mCIM conditions for detecting carbapenemase-producing A. baumannii. METHODS: Seventy-three A. baumannii isolates characterized for antimicrobial susceptibility and carbapenemase encoding genes were tested for carbapenemase production using mCIM and CIMTris. The influence of the matrices (Tryptic soy broth [TSB] and Tris-HCl) used in these methods on the stability of the meropenem (MEM) disk was also evaluated. The mCIM conditions were adjusted to enhance screening sensitivity and specificity for detecting carbapenemase-producing A. baumannii. RESULTS: The matrices had an impact on the stability of the MEM disk after the incubation period (two or four hrs). TSB nutrient broth is an appropriate matrix for mCIM compared with Tris-HCl pH 7.6, which leads to the loss of MEM activity in CIMTris. The sensitivity and the specificity of the optimal mCIM were both 100%. CONCLUSIONS: We established optimal mCIM conditions for simple, accurate, and reproducible detection of carbapenemase-producing A. baumannii.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter baumannii , Acinetobacter , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Mass Screening , Methods , Sensitivity and Specificity
14.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-820815

ABSTRACT

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is pathologically characterized by a long progressive phase of neuronal changes, including accumulation of extracellular amyloid-β (Aβ) and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, before the onset of observable symptoms. Many efforts have been made to develop a blood-based diagnostic method for AD by incorporating Aβ and tau as plasma biomarkers. As blood tests have the advantages of being highly accessible and low cost, clinical implementation of AD blood tests would provide preventative screening to presymptomatic individuals, facilitating early identification of AD patients and, thus, treatment development in clinical research. However, the low concentration of AD biomarkers in the plasma has posed difficulties for accurate detection, hindering the development of a reliable blood test. In this review, we introduce three AD blood test technologies emerging in South Korea, which have distinctive methods of heightening detection sensitivity of specific plasma biomarkers. We discuss in detail the multimer detection system, the self-standard analysis of Aβ biomarkers quantified by interdigitated microelectrodes, and a biomarker ratio analysis comprising Aβ and tau.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Biomarkers , Diagnosis , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Hematologic Tests , Humans , Korea , Mass Screening , Methods , Microelectrodes , Neurofibrillary Tangles , Neurons , Plasma , tau Proteins
15.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-820814

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To adequately evaluate the extent of neurocognitive impairment in patient living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV), a battery of neuropsychological tests is typically administered which are neither cost effective nor time efficient in the outpatient clinical setting. The aim of the study was to assess neurocognitive status and functional ability of people living with HIV and find a brief screening tool to identify those who would benefit from a full diagnostic evaluation.METHODS: The study enrolled 160 PLHIV (80 pre-antiretroviral therapy [ART] and 80 on ART) fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Neurocognitive assessment and an assessment of Functional ability was done by using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Lawton and Brody Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale scale, respectively.RESULTS: The study population consisted of 75.6% males and 24.4% females with mean age of 44±10 years. The overall prevalence of HIV associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) in the study subjects was 52.5%. Of these, 47.5% had asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment and 5% had minor neurocognitive disorder. In MoCA, the most frequently affected domains were Language (97.6%), visuospatial ability (92.9%) and memory (71.4%).CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of HAND in both groups were similar suggesting that neurocognitive impairment starts early in HIV infection. Memory and Visuospatial function impairment had the most predictive potential for detecting the presence of HAND. HAND screening is recommended in all PLHIV at enrolment into care. Simple tools like MoCA can be used in busy outpatient settings by healthcare workers to screen for HAND.


Subject(s)
Activities of Daily Living , Delivery of Health Care , Female , Hand , HIV , HIV Infections , Humans , Male , Mass Screening , Memory , Methylenebis(chloroaniline) , Neurocognitive Disorders , Neuropsychological Tests , Outpatients , Prevalence
16.
Blood Research ; : 67-68, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-820799

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mass Screening , Stroke
18.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-782510

ABSTRACT

Cancer is a major cause of death in dogs worldwide, and the incidence of cancer in dogs is increasing. The attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (ATR-FTIR) technique is a powerful tool for the diagnosis of several diseases. This method enables samples to be examined directly without pre-preparation. In this study, we evaluated the diagnostic value of ATR-FTIR for the detection of cancer in dogs. Cancer-bearing dogs (n = 30) diagnosed by pathologists and clinically healthy dogs (n = 40) were enrolled in this study. Peripheral blood was collected for clinicopathological diagnosis. ATR-FTIR spectra were acquired, and principal component analysis was performed on the full wave number spectra (4,000–650 cm−1). The leave-one-out cross validation technique and partial least squares regression analysis were used to predict normal and cancer spectra. Red blood cell counts, hemoglobin levels and white blood cell counts were significantly lower in cancer-bearing dogs than in clinically healthy dogs (p < 0.01, p < 0.01 and p = 0.03, respectively). ATR-FTIR spectra showed significant differences between the clinically healthy and cancer-bearing groups. This finding demonstrates that ATR-FTIR can be applied as a screening technique to distinguish between cancer-bearing dogs and healthy dogs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cause of Death , Diagnosis , Dogs , Erythrocyte Count , Fourier Analysis , Incidence , Least-Squares Analysis , Leukocyte Count , Mass Screening , Methods , Principal Component Analysis
19.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-782506

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the macular pigment optical density (MPOD) with age in the Korean population using the Macular Pigment Screener II (MPSII®).METHODS: One hundred and twenty-six eyes were retrospectively reviewed. MPOD was measured using MPSII®, which uses a heterochromatic flicker photometry method, and the estimated values were analyzed. Spearman's correlation test was used to evaluate correlations between MPOD and age. The association between MPOD and age was determined using a simple linear regression analysis. MPODs among the four groups were compared via the post hoc analysis with Bonferroni correction, MPODs between the age-related macular degeneration (AMD) group and aged-matched healthy subjects were compared via the Mann-Whitney U test. Other risk factors for AMD were identified via a logistic regression analysis.RESULTS: Estimated MPOD decreased significantly with increasing age in the general population. In the simple regression analysis, a statistically significant linear regression model was observed, and the estimated values of MPOD decreased by −0.005 as age increased by 1 year. Aged (> 50 years) showed lower MPOD than younger (30–49 years) subjects. But, in the healthy population, the estimated MPOD values exhibited a decreasing trend with age, but there were no significant differences according to age, after excluding patients with AMD. MPOD was significantly lower in patients with AMD than in aged healthy controls. Furthermore, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and smoking were identified as risk factors for AMD.CONCLUSION: MPOD measured with MPSII® reflects the MP density in healthy individuals and patients with dry AMD. Aging was not significantly associated with low MPOD in healthy population, but the presence of dry AMD was significantly associated with low MPOD. Then, low MPOD may be a risk factor for development of dry AMD. Furthermore, routine screening with MPS II® for ages 50 and older is thought to help detect early low MPOD and identify individuals who should take supplements.


Subject(s)
Aging , Dyslipidemias , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Hypertension , Linear Models , Logistic Models , Macular Degeneration , Macular Pigment , Mass Screening , Methods , Photometry , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Smoke , Smoking
20.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-782492

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the association between baseline results of the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test and subsequent functional dependency occurrence.METHODS: From the National Health Insurance Service-Senior Cohort database, we identified 39,519 people who participated in the National Screening Program for Transitional Ages at the age of 66 during 2007–2008. Impaired mobility was defined as taking 10 seconds or longer to perform the TUG test. Functional dependency occurrence was defined as the initiation of receiving national Long-Term Care Insurance services—home care or admission to long-term care facilities. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to assess the hazard ratios (HRs) for dependency occurrence according to baseline TUG test results.RESULTS: The mean follow-up period was 5.7 years. Occurrence rates of dependency were 2.0 and 3.4 cases per 1,000 person-years in the normal and impaired TUG groups, respectively. Impaired mobility was associated with a higher risk of functional dependency occurrence (adjusted HR [aHR], 1.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.40–1.95; P < 0.001). Additionally, in the subgroup analysis for the participants with intact baseline activities of daily living, impaired mobility was associated with a higher risk of dependency occurrence (aHR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.33–2.04; P < 0.001).CONCLUSION: The TUG test might be a useful predictive marker of subsequent functional dependency occurrence. Intervention to prevent functional dependency may be helpful for older adults with impairment on the TUG test.


Subject(s)
Activities of Daily Living , Adult , Cohort Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Gait , Geriatric Assessment , Humans , Insurance, Long-Term Care , Long-Term Care , Mass Screening , National Health Programs
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