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1.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1509234

ABSTRACT

Las vacunas SOBERANA®02 y SOBERANA® Plus contra el coronavirus tipo 2 causante del síndrome respiratorio agudo severo, recibieron autorización de uso en emergencia por la autoridad reguladora de Cuba, y de inmediato aconteció una campaña de vacunación masiva en población pediátrica, lo que devino en una inminente movilización de centros de vacunación y vigilancia de sus eventos adversos. El Centro de Inmunología Molecular realizó un estudio de farmacovigilancia intensiva que evalúo el cumplimiento del esquema heterólogo con ambas vacunas, su seguridad y la incidencia de casos positivos a COVID-19 en niños y adolescentes después de completar el esquema de inmunización. Desde el 15 de septiembre al 31 de diciembre del 2021, participaron 529 sujetos entre 2 y 18 años de edad, de ambos sexos, sin antecedentes de infección por coronavirus tipo 2 del síndrome respiratorio agudo severo, procedentes de 35 municipios y 12 provincias cubanas, quienes recibieron vacuna SOBERANA®02 (dos dosis) y SOBERANA®Plus (una dosis). Se realizó vigilancia de eventos adversos hasta 30 días después de la última dosis recibida. Se consultó la plataforma informática nacional Higia Andariego para identificar los casos positivos al virus del síndrome respiratorio agudo severo coronavirus 2, hasta 3 meses de haber completado la vacunación. El 98,5 por ciento de los participantes completó el esquema de vacunación y en el 6,6 por ciento se notificó algún evento adverso con relación consistente a la vacunación. Predominaron las reacciones locales (dolor, eritema, inflamación), sobre las reacciones sistémicas (fatiga y febrícula), de intensidad ligera o moderada. Se logró un elevado cumplimiento del esquema de inmunización, con un perfil de seguridad favorable, los sujetos con esquema completo de inmunización no enfermaron de COVID-19(AU)


The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 vaccines, SOBERANA®02 and SOBERANA®Plus, received authorization for emergency use by the Cuban regulatory authority; a massive vaccination campaign was immediately launched in the pediatric population, which led to an imminent mobilization of vaccination centers and surveillance of adverse events. The Molecular Immunology Center conducted an intensive pharmacovigilance study to evaluate compliance of the heterologous scheme with both vaccines, their safety, and the incidence of COVID-19 positive cases in children and adolescents after completing the immunization schedule. From September 15 to December 31, 2021, a total of 529 subjects between 2 and 18 years of age, of both sexes, without a history of infection by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2, from 35 municipalities and 12 Cuban provinces, who received SOBERANA®02 (two doses) and SOBERANA®Plus (one dose) vaccines, were included in the study. Surveillance for adverse events was performed up to 30 days after the last dose received. The national computer platform Higia Andariego was consulted to identify positive cases for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 up to 3 months after completing vaccination. According to the report, 98.5percent of the participants completed the vaccination schedule and 6.6percent of them reported some adverse event consistently related to vaccination. Local reactions (pain, erythema, inflammation) prevailed over systemic reactions (fatigue and fever), of light or moderate intensity. High compliance with the immunization schedule was achieved, with a favorable safety profile; subjects with a complete immunization schedule did not become ill with COVID-19(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Preventive Health Services/methods , Mass Vaccination , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Cuba , Observational Study
2.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e241608, 2023. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1448958

ABSTRACT

O distanciamento social ocasionado pela pandemia de Covid-19 levou a profundas mudanças na rotina das famílias com crianças pequenas, aumentando o estresse no ambiente doméstico. Este estudo analisou a experiência de planejamento e implementação de um projeto de extensão universitária que ofereceu orientação a pais com filhos de 0 a 11 anos por meio de chamadas de áudio durante a pandemia. O protocolo de atendimento foi desenvolvido para atender às necessidades de famílias de baixa renda e listava problemas específicos relacionados ao confinamento em casa e ao fechamento das escolas seguidos por uma variedade de estratégias de enfrentamento. A análise de 223 queixas relatadas pelos usuários em 130 ligações revelou que 94% dos problemas referidos pelos pais foram contemplados pelo protocolo de atendimento e estavam relacionados aos problemas externalizantes (39%) ou internalizantes (26%) das crianças ou ao declínio do bem-estar subjetivo dos pais (29%). Serviços de apoio devem orientar os pais quanto ao uso de práticas responsivas e assertivas que promovam o bem-estar emocional da criança e estabeleçam expectativas comportamentais em contextos estressantes. A diminuição dos conflitos entre pais e filhos resultante do uso dessas estratégias tende a reduzir o sofrimento dos pais, aumentando sua sensação de bem-estar subjetivo. Recomenda-se ampla divulgação dessas iniciativas e seguimento dos casos.(AU)


The social distancing the COVID-19 pandemic entailed has led to profound changes in the routine of families with young children, increasing stress in the home environment. This study analyzed the experience of planning and implementing a university extension program that offered support to parents with children from 0 to 11 years old via audio calls during the COVID-19 pandemic. The service protocol was developed to meet the needs of low-income families and listed specific problems related to home confinement and school closure followed by a variety of coping strategies. The analysis of 223 complaints reported by users in 130 calls revealed that 94% of the problems reported by parents were addressed by the protocol and were related to children's externalizing (39%) or internalizing (26%) problems or to the decline in parents' subjective well-being (29%). Support services should guide parents on the use of responsive and assertive practices that promote the child's emotional well-being and set behavioral expectations in stressful contexts. The reduction in conflicts between parents and children resulting from the use of these strategies tends to reduce parents' suffering, increasing their sense of subjective well-being. Wide dissemination of these initiatives and case follow-up are recommended.(AU)


La distancia social causada por la pandemia de COVID-19 condujo a cambios profundos en la rutina de las familias con niños pequeños, aumentando el estrés en el entorno del hogar. Este estudio analizó la experiencia de planificar e implementar un proyecto de extensión universitaria que ofreció orientación a los padres con niños de cero a 11 años a través de llamadas de audio durante la pandemia COVID-19. El protocolo de atención se desarrolló para satisfacer las necesidades de las familias de bajos ingresos y enumeró problemas específicos relacionados con el confinamiento en el hogar y el cierre de la escuela, seguido de una variedad de estrategias de afrontamiento. El análisis de 223 quejas informadas por los usuarios en 130 llamadas reveló que el 94% de los problemas informados por los padres fueron abordados por el protocolo de atención y estaban relacionados con los problemas de externalización (39%) o internalización (26%) de los niños o la disminución del bienestar subjetivo de los padres (29%). Los servicios de apoyo deberían aconsejar a los padres sobre el uso de prácticas receptivas y asertivas que promuevan el bienestar emocional del niño y establezcan expectativas de comportamiento en contextos estresantes. La reducción de los conflictos entre padres e hijos como resultado del uso de estas estrategias tiende a reducir el sufrimiento de los padres, aumentando su sensación de bienestar subjetivo. Se recomienda una amplia difusión de estas iniciativas y seguimiento de casos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Orientation , Parents , Personal Satisfaction , Child , Problem Behavior , COVID-19 , Anxiety , Parent-Child Relations , Appetite , Play and Playthings , Problem Solving , Psychology , Psychomotor Agitation , Quality of Life , Reading , Recreation , Remedial Teaching , Respiratory Tract Infections , Safety , Salaries and Fringe Benefits , School Health Services , Self Concept , Autistic Disorder , Sleep , Social Adjustment , Social Conditions , Social Conformity , Social Environment , Social Isolation , Social Problems , Socialization , Socioeconomic Factors , Task Performance and Analysis , Telephone , Temperament , Therapeutics , Time , Unemployment , Violence , Behavior Therapy , Work Hours , Health Policy, Planning and Management , Child Abuse, Sexual , Boredom , Neurosciences , Virus Diseases , Activities of Daily Living , Bereavement , Exercise , Divorce , Child Abuse , Child Development , Mental Health , Mass Vaccination , Relaxation Therapy , Immunization , Self-Injurious Behavior , Civil Rights , Parenting , Panic Disorder , Interview , Cognition , Domestic Violence , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Lecture , Disabled Children , Wit and Humor , Internet , Creativity , Crisis Intervention , Crying , Disaster Vulnerability , Psychosocial Impact , Personal Autonomy , Death , Friends , Aggression , Depression , Drive , Economics , Education, Special , Educational Status , Emotions , Empathy , Faculty , Family Conflict , Family Relations , Fear , Binge Drinking , Meals , Return to Work , Hope , Optimism , Pessimism , Self-Control , Phobia, Social , Psychosocial Support Systems , Work-Life Balance , Adverse Childhood Experiences , Screen Time , Disgust , Sadness , Solidarity , Psychological Distress , Psychosocial Intervention , Teleworking , Financial Stress , Food Insecurity , Sentiment Analysis , Sociodemographic Factors , Social Vulnerability , Family Support , Government , Guilt , Holistic Health , Homeostasis , Hospitalization , Household Work , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Anger , Learning , Learning Disabilities , Leisure Activities , Loneliness , Mental Disorders
3.
Medisan ; 26(6)dic. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1440554

ABSTRACT

Introducción: En Cuba se desarrollan sus propias vacunas, a pesar de que el país atraviesa una gran crisis económica y los recursos materiales son limitados. Objetivo: Describir la campaña de vacunación anti-COVID-19 con Abdala en una población adulta. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de series de casos en 616 pacientes mayores de 19 años de edad correspondientes al Consultorio Médico de la Familia No. 5 del Policlínico Docente Ramón López Peña en Santiago de Cuba, quienes recibieron el inmunógeno Abdala de junio a agosto del 2021. Resultados: En los 616 adultos que fueron inmunizados en el vacunatorio de su consultorio médico, predominó el sexo masculino (53,4 %), sobre todo en las edades de 40 a 59 años (20,2 %). Entre los efectos secundarios más usuales figuraron el dolor en el sitio de la inyección (23,1 %), seguido de la cefalea (12,2 %); no obstante, todos completaron el esquema de vacunación de 3 dosis. En general, fue vacunado 93,6 % de la población adulta de dicho consultorio y 6,4 % no recibió la inmunización, debido principalmente al antecedente de infección por el SARS-CoV-2 (1,6 %), entre otras causas. Conclusiones: La campaña resultó exitosa, pues se alcanzó un elevado porcentaje de personas inmunizadas, lo cual se atribuye a la activa participación de la población y del equipo básico de salud.


Introduction: In Cuba our own vaccines are developed, although the country has a great economic crisis and the material resources are limited. Objective: To describe the vaccination anti-COVID-19 campaign with Abdala in an adult population. Methods: A descriptive serial cases study was carried out in 616 patients over 19 years corresponding to the Family Doctor Office No. 5 of Ramón López Peña Teaching Polyclinic in Santiago de Cuba, who received the immunogen Abdala from June to August, 2021. Results: In the 616 adults that were immunized in the vaccine office of their family doctor office, there was a prevalence of the male sex (53.4 %), mainly 40 to 59 years (20.2 %). Among the most usual secondary effects we can mention pain in the place of the injection (23.1 %), followed by headache (12.2 %); nevertheless, all completed the vaccination scheme of 3 doses. In general, the 93.6 % of the adult population was vaccinated and 6.4 % didn't receive the immunization, mainly due to the history of infection by the SARS-CoV-2 (1.6 %), among other causes. Conclusions: The campaign was successful, because a high percentage of immunized people was reached, which is attributed to the active participation of the population and the health basic team.


Subject(s)
Immunization Programs , Coronavirus Infections , Mass Vaccination
4.
RECIIS (Online) ; 16(2): 221-226, abr.-jun. 2022. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378340

ABSTRACT

A dinâmica da pandemia de covid-19 vem evoluindo segundo fases marcadas por uma maior ou menor taxa de infecção, e diferentes impactos sobre o sistema de saúde e a mortalidade. Essas fases foram estudadas segundo quatro indicadores disponibilizados no sistema MonitoraCovid-19: positividade de testes de diagnóstico, número de casos, número de óbitos e o número de pessoas com ao menos duas doses de vacinas ­ padronizados numa série histórica para permitir sua comparação. São distinguidas cinco fases, marcadas pela circulação de diferentes variantes do vírus, estratégias de implementação ­ ou mesmo boicote ­ de medidas de controle e a vacinação gradativa da população. Esses indicadores podem ser usados no futuro para monitorar tendências e apontar políticas públicas adequadas.


The dynamics of the covid-19 pandemic has evolved according to phases marked by a higher or lower rate of infection, the different impacts on the health system and mortality. These phases were studied according to four indicators made available by the MonitoraCovid-19 system: positivity rates of diagnostic tests, number of cases, number of deaths and number of people who received at least two vaccine doses, standardized in a historical series to allow their comparison. Five phases are discerned, evidenced by the circulation of different virus variants, strategies employed to implement -or even undermine ­ disease control measures and the gradual vaccination of the population. These indicators can be used in the future to monitor trends and point out appropriate public policies.


La dinámica de la pandemia de covid-19 ha evolucionado según fases marcadas por una mayor o menor tasa de contagios, sus diferentes impactos en el sistema de salud y mortalidad. Estas fases se estudiaron según cuatro indicadores disponibles en el sistema MonitoraCovid-19: positividad de las pruebas diagnósticas, número de casos, número de defunciones y el número de personas vacunadas con al menos dos dosis, estandarizados en una serie histórica para permitir su comparación. Se distinguen cuatro fases, marcadas por la circulación de diferentes variantes del virus, las estrategias de implementación - o mismo el boicoteode medidas de control y la paulatina vacunación de la población. Estos indicadores pueden utilizarse en el futuro para monitorear tendencias y señalar políticas públicas apropiadas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19 , Health Policy , Indicators and Reagents , Brazil , Mass Vaccination , Mortality , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures
5.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud. Instituto Nacional de Salud. Centro Nacional de Salud Pública; 1 ed; Jul. 2022. 15 p. ilus.(Serie Nota Técnica, 032).
Monography in Spanish | MINSAPERU, LILACS, INS-PERU, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1402624

ABSTRACT

La publicación describe las recomendaciones emitidas por las autoridades nacionales de los países de España, Estados Unidos, Canadá, Alemania, Francia, Reino Unido, OMS/OPS, CDCUSA, y la información de las vacunas autorizadas por la FDA (Food and Drug Administration), Agencia Europea de Medicamentos (EMA) y la agencia reguladora de medicamentos de Reino Unido. Ninguno de los organismos internacionales revisados recomienda una vacunación masiva contra la viruela símica en población general. La OMS, Reino Unido, España y Estados Unidos recomiendan la vacunación pre-exposición a personas con riesgo ocupacional alto para la exposición al virus de la viruela símica, que incluye a trabajadores de salud específicos. Únicamente España, Alemania y Reino Unido añaden la recomendación de vacunación pre-exposición a grupos que tienen prácticas sexuales de alto riesgo, incluyendo a hombres que tienen sexo con hombres, población gay y bisexual y el caso de España también a personas que viven con VIH


Subject(s)
Variola virus , International Agencies , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Smallpox Vaccine , Mass Vaccination , Monkeypox , Sexual and Gender Minorities
6.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1362835

ABSTRACT

Background: Since its discovery in late 2019, COVID-19 has claimed approximately three million lives worldwide, causing a significant economic burden and strain on health care delivery and services. Therefore, the COVID-19 vaccine may offer the potential to promote global recovery. Objective: To determine the acceptability of the COVID-19 vaccine among Nigerian doctors and the factors influencing the acceptance. Methods: Using a cross-sectional design, an anonymous online survey was administered to medical doctors across the six geopolitical zones in Nigeria between 13 January and 31 January 2021, using the health belief model (HBM). Results: Out of 830 respondents, 38.8% were willing to take the COVID-19 vaccine, 36.0% were unsure, while the remaining 26.5% refused to take the vaccine. Following adjustments, males were more likely to take the vaccine (OR = 3.357; 95% CI 2.009-5.610; p = 0.0001), whereas increasing age, higher perceived viral virulence and perceived viral infectivity were observed to be significantly associated with less likelihood of accepting the vaccine. Respondents who believed in the efficacy of ivermectin were much less likely to receive the vaccine (OR = 0.217; 95% CI 0.108-0.436; p=0.001). Concerns on vaccination safety were the main barriers to vaccine acceptability. Hypothetically addressing these concerns increased vaccine acceptance rates by approximately a third (34.6%) (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The proposed nationwide distribution of the COVID-19 vaccine may be met with poor vaccine acceptability among Nigerian medical practitioners. Measures specifically addressing vaccine safety concerns should be provided to allay fears and enhance the acceptability of the vaccine.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Physicians , Medication Adherence , COVID-19 Vaccines , Mass Vaccination
7.
Pan Afr. med. j ; 41(2): NA-NA, 2022.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1368679

ABSTRACT

Introduction: a year after the start of COVID-19 vaccination, coverage remains very low in the African Region. Different challenges and operational barriers have been documented, but countries will need to supplement the available information with operational research in order to adequately respond to practical questions regarding how best to scale up COVID-19 vaccination. We conducted a survey among immunisation program staff working in the African Region, in order to identify the high priority operational research questions relevant to COVID-19 vaccination. Methods: proposed operational research questions categorized into six topic areas were sent to resource persons, asking them to rate according to the relevance, urgency, feasibility, and potential impact of the research questions on the progress of COVID vaccination. Results: a total of 25 research questions have been given an average weighted rating of 75% or more by the respondents. Nine of these top priority research questions were in the area of demand generation, risk communication and community engagement while 8 questions covered the area of service delivery. Conclusion: countries should plan for and coordinate stakeholders to ensure that relevant operational research is done to respond to the top priority research questions, with a view to influence policies and implementation of strategies.


Subject(s)
Immunization , COVID-19 Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Mass Vaccination
8.
Nursing (Ed. bras., Impr.) ; 24(283): 6632-6641, dez. 2021.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1371064

ABSTRACT

Analisar através de evidências cientificas, o nível de conhecimento da população acerca dos benefícios da imunização infantil. Método: Trata-se de uma revisão integrativa da literatura acerca dos benefícios da imunização infantil, publicada nos últimos 7 anos, dentro das seguintes bases de dados: SciELO, Science direct, biblioteca virtual em Saúde e PubMed. Resultados: Foram analisados 495 artigos, dos quais 7 artigos foram selecionados para esta revisão integrativa, a qual foi realizada de maio a junho de 2020. Foi possível perceber que há uma porcentagem ainda grande da população mundial que opta pela não imunização de suas crianças, onde a grande maioria se dá em países subdesenvolvidos, por falta de visibilidade da mídia e baixa escolaridade, principalmente. Conclusão: Campanhas de vacinação e esclarecimento sobre vacinas devem ser realizadas de forma sistemática.(AU)


Objective: To analyze through scientific evidence, the population's level of knowledge about the benefits of childhood immunization. Method: This is an integrative literature review on the benefits of childhood immunization, published inM the last 7 years, in the following databases: SciELO, Science direct, Virtual Health Library and PubMed. Results: 495 articles were analyzed, of which 7 articles were selected for this integrative review. It was possible to notice that there is a still large percentage of the world population that chooses not to immunize their children, where the vast majority takes place in underdeveloped countries, mainly due to lack of media visibility and low education level. Conclusion: Vaccination campaigns and information about vaccines must be carried out systematically.(AU)


Objetivo: Analizar através de evidencia cientifica, el nível de conocimento de la población sobre los benefícios de la inmunización infantil. Método: Se trata de una revisión bibliográfica sobre los benefícios de la imunización infantil, publicada en los últimos 7 años, dentro de las seguientes bases de datos: SciELO, Science direct, Virtual Health Library e PubMed. Resultados: Se analizaron 495 artículos, de los cuales se seleccionaron 7 artículos para esta revisión integradora. Se pudo notar que todavia hay um gran porcentaje de la población mundial que opta por no vacunar a sus hijos, donde la gran mayoría se da em países subdesarrollados, debido a la falta de visibilidad en los medios y la baja educación, especialmente. Conclusión: Las campañas de vacunación y la información sobre vacunas deben realizarse de forma sistemática.(AU)


Subject(s)
Parents , Child , Mass Vaccination , Immunization
9.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 38(4): 601-607, oct.-dic. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365923

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar las variaciones espaciotemporales de la mortalidad por COVID-19 en adultos mayores y de la vacunación contra la COVID-19 en esta población. Se utilizaron datos de defunciones por COVID-19 y de personas de 70 a más años inmunizadas con la primera dosis de vacunas contra esta enfermedad, en partidos de la provincia de Buenos Aires, desde el 29 de diciembre del 2020 al 30 de junio de 2021. Se emplearon técnicas de escaneo espaciotemporal para detectar conglomerados. Los partidos del Gran Buenos Aires que tuvieron mayor vacunación con la primera dosis de la vacuna Sputnik V en población de 70 a más años, entre mediados de marzo y principios de abril de 2021, coincidieron mayormente en registrar una disminución de la mortalidad en esta población, entre finales de abril y finales de junio de 2021. Este estudio mostró algunos indicios del impacto positivo de la aplicación de la primera dosis de la vacuna Sputnik V en el Gran Buenos Aires.


ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to analyze the spatiotemporal variations of COVID-19 mortality and vaccination against COVID-19 in older adults. We used data from deaths due to COVID-19 and persons aged 70 years and older immunized with the first dose of vaccines against this disease, from districts of the province of Buenos Aires, between December 29, 2020, and June 30, 2021. Spatiotemporal scanning techniques were used to detect clusters. The parties of Greater Buenos Aires that had the highest vaccination rate with the first dose of the Sputnik V vaccine in population aged 70 years and older, between mid-March and early April 2021, also registered a decrease in mortality in this population, between the end of April and the end of June 2021. This study showed some signs of the positive impact associated with the application of the first dose of Sputnik V vaccine in Greater Buenos Aires.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Mass Vaccination , Mortality , Space-Time Clustering , COVID-19 , Argentina , Immunization Programs , Coronavirus Infections , Adult , Agglomeration, Urban , Geography, Medical , Age Groups
11.
Invest. educ. enferm ; 39(3): 7-10, 15 octubre del 2021.
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1343232

ABSTRACT

To the date of publication of this editorial, we have gone through over 20 months of facing the complex and challenging SARS-CoV-2 pandemic since the first case was reported in late 2019. The consequences globally have been significant not only due to the unprecedented morbidity and mortality throughout the world, but also as effect of the drastic changes taking place in the usual dynamics in the individual, family, and collective settings, given the overall interruption of habitual functions and operations in the distinct contexts of daily life, sustaining only those activities considered essential.


A la fecha de publicación de este editorial ya hemos transitado más de 20 meses enfrentando la compleja y desafiante pandemia por SARS-CoV-2 desde que se reportara el primer caso a finales de 2019. Las consecuencias en el mundo han sido significativas no solo por la morbilidad y mortalidad sin precedentes sino, además, como efecto de los drásticos cambios ocurridos en las dinámicas usuales en lo individual, familiar y colectivo dada la interrupción generalizada de las funciones y operaciones habituales en los distintos contextos de la vida cotidiana, por lo cual se mantuvieron solamente aquellas actividades consideradas esenciales.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mass Vaccination , Nursing , Nurse's Role , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Pandemics
13.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(4): e298-e302, agosto 2021.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1280998

ABSTRACT

Con la llegada de las vacunas contra el SARS-CoV-2, un nuevo aspecto a tener en cuenta en la pandemia es el rechazo a la vacunación. Como la recepción de la vacuna, es voluntaria, se plantea cómo abordar la situación de los miembros del equipo de salud que la rechazan. Se exponen argumentos bioéticos de diversas corrientes: el deontologismo kantiano y lo conceptos de universalidad, humanidad y autonomía; el utilitarismo de Mill, con la autoprotección como único fin por el cual la humanidad está habilitada para interferir con la libertad de acción de sus miembros; el principismo de Beauchamp y Childress y los conceptos de beneficencia y autonomía; el principio de oportunidad de Varo Baena; y el principio de solidaridad, derivado de la ética de los derechos humanos. Se incluyen aportes de filósofos contemporáneos como Roberto Espósito, Jean-Luc Nancy y Alberto Giubilini. Se exponen dos contrargumentos: el de no maleficencia y el de contraproducencia. Por último, se plantea que, dado que el bien común (la salud pública, en este caso) es el determinante íntimo y último de la libertad individual e igual para todos, está por encima del beneficio individual


With the development of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, a new aspect to be taken into consideration in the midst of the pandemic is vaccine refusal. Since vaccination is voluntary, it is necessary to deal with the fact that some health care team members refuse to receive it. Here I put forward different bioethical arguments: Kantian deontology and the principles of universalizability, humanity, and autonomy; Mill's utilitarianism, with self-protection as the sole end for which humankind is authorized to interfere with its members' freedom of action; Beauchamp and Childress' principlism and the concepts of beneficence and autonomy; Varo Baena's principle of opportunity; and the principle of solidarity resulting from the ethics of human rights. The contributions of contemporary philosophers like Roberto Espósito, Jean-Luc Nancy, and Alberto Giubilini are also included. Two counter-arguments are presented: nonmaleficence and counter-production. Lastly, I suggest that, since common good (in this case, public health) is the intimate and final determining factor of individual freedom and is the same for all, it is above any individual benefit.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mass Vaccination/ethics , Health Personnel , Principle-Based Ethics , Mandatory Programs/ethics , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Philosophy, Medical , Treatment Refusal/ethics , Freedom , Solidarity
16.
Bol. micol. (Valparaiso En linea) ; 36(1): 12-16, jun. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1380384

ABSTRACT

Se describe hasta la fecha de hoy, 4 de julio del 2021, la evidencia existente sobre la variante Delta del SARS-CoV-2, su impacto en la trasmisión, en la severidad de la infección y su probable evasión a la respuesta inmune. (AU)


As of today, July 4, 2021, the existing evidence on the Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2, its impact on transmission, on the severity of the infection and its probable evasion of the immune response is described. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , RNA/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Mutation/genetics , Chile/epidemiology , Mass Vaccination , Immune Evasion , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/epidemiology
18.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 38(2): 178-184, abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388231

ABSTRACT

Resumen Desde 1982, cada año el Departamento de Inmunizaciones del Ministerio de Salud de Chile lleva a cabo la campaña de vacunación contra influenza junto con las Secretarías Regionales Ministeriales-SEREMI, Servicios de Salud y centros de atención primaria de salud. Con los objetivos de prevenir mortalidad y morbilidad grave en grupos de mayor riesgo y de preservar la integridad de los servicios de salud, hasta el 2020 las campañas de vacunación contra influenza serían las más grandes implementadas en Chile, para dar paso, el 2021, a la vacunación contra SARS-CoV-2. Obedeciendo a cambios demográficos y epidemiológicos locales y acogiendo los avances científicos sobre seguridad e inmunogenicidad de la vacuna, el incremento de las vacunas influenza disponibles en Chile forma parte de la planificación anual de la campaña. El 2020, sin embargo, la Campaña Influenza tuvo que ser re-planificada en curso como consecuencia de la incorporación de nuevos grupos a vacunar según dispuso la modificación de la alerta sanitaria por brote de SARS-CoV-2 del 6 de marzo de 2020. Así, de 6.799.800 de dosis, el Departamento de Inmunizaciones logró en menos de dos meses aumentar la disponibilidad a 8.480.325, y cumplir con el compromiso de garantizar el acceso de los grupos de riesgo al beneficio de la vacunación estatal gratuita.


Abstract In Chile, the Immunization Department of the Ministry of Health has carried out the seasonal influenza vaccination campaign annually since 1982 in collaboration with the national health services, regional health offices, and primary health care centres. With the aim of preventing deaths and serious morbidity in high-risk groups and preserving the integrity of health services, the seasonal influenza campaign had been the largest implemented in Chile until 2020, since in 2021 the vaccination campaign against SARS-CoV-2 is expected to become the largest ever implemented. In response to local demographic and epidemiological changes, and taking into account the new scientific evidence on the safety and immunogenicity of vaccines, the influenza vaccines available in Chile would increase annually as a result of campaign planning. In 2020, the influenza campaign had to be re-planned while in progress due to the addition of new high-risk groups to be vaccinated in accordance with the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic health alert modification of March 6th, 2020. Over the course of three weeks, the Immunization Department managed to increase the doses of available influenza vaccines from 6,799,800 previously agreed upon to 8,480,325 and thus serve high-risk groups, guaranteeing their access to state funded influenza vaccination.


Subject(s)
Humans , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Seasons , Chile/epidemiology , Public Health , Mass Vaccination , Immunization Programs , Vaccination Coverage , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 38(2): 185-188, abr. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388234

ABSTRACT

Resumen El COVID-19 es un problema de salud pública mundial por su carácter epidémico que, a la fecha, carece de tratamiento farmacológico. Sin embargo, ya se cuenta con algunas vacunas autorizadas para uso en emergencia, aunque la duración de su protección, su capacidad para interrumpir la transmisión viral y su eficacia frente a variantes emergentes de SARS-CoV-2 se encuentran en estudio. La campaña de vacunación contra SARS-CoV-2 de Chile requirió de diseño y planificación, como toda campaña. Parte de estos fue la priorización de grupos objetivo de vacunar, necesaria debido a que el mundo se vería enfrentado a un suministro limitado de vacunas COVID-19. En distintos momentos del año 2020, el CAVEI emitió recomendaciones sobre priorización de grupos de población a vacunar contra SARS-CoV-2, respondiendo a diferentes necesidades y según la evidencia disponible en cada instancia. Éstas se consolidan en la Tabla 1 de este informe. Resumidamente, en fase 1 se recomendó vacunar al personal de salud, residencias de larga estadía y personal crítico del Estado. En fase 2, a personas mayores de 65 años y población con comorbilidades. En fase 3, a personas que cumplen labores esenciales y, finalmente, a la población general.


Abstract COVID-19 is a global public health issue due to its epidemic nature that, to date, lacks pharmacological treatment. However, some COVID-19 vaccines have been authorized for emergency use, although the duration of their protection, their ability to interrupt viral transmission, and their efficacy against emerging variants of SARS-CoV-2 are being studied. Chile's SARS-CoV-2 vaccination campaign required design and planning, like any other campaign. This process included the prioritization of risk groups for vaccination given the limited supply of COVID-19 vaccines globally. Throughout 2020, CAVEI issued recommendations on the prioritization of population groups to be vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2 in response to different needs and in accordance with available evidence. These recommendations are consolidated in Table 1 in this report. In summary, it was recommended that healthcare workers, people in long-term residences and essential State personnel be vaccinated in phase 1. In phase 2, persons over 65 years of age and people with comorbidities. In phase 3, essential tasks workers and, lastly, the general population.


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Mass Vaccination , Advisory Committees , SARS-CoV-2
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